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									             Colonial Brazil
• 1500 Portuguese arrived
  – Brazilwood (dye) the first industry
• 1526 sugar cultivation, using native slaves
• 1549 arrival of Jesuit friars

Their protests & native depopulation led
 Portuguese to import W. African slaves.
            Sugar & slavery
By 1800, 2.5 million slaves to Brazil

1 million to Spanish America
     • primarily Cuba
     • ~5.5 million to other Caribbean colonies

350,000 to N. American South
     Brazil’s population, 1800
2 million total
           38% slave
           28% free black & mulatto
           28% white
               increasingly creole, vs. peninsular

          6% Indian
      Brazilian colonial society
     racial hierarchy
     wealth allowed for “passing:”
          ‘money whitens’

Rural society revolved around plantations
•     included tenant farmers, skilled workers

Urban slavery relatively humane
•    opportunities for wage labor
      Brazilian administration
• Crown granted padroado over Church

• Hereditary captaincies extending from
  – 1549 governor est’d at Salvador, Bahia

• tax collection delegated to individuals
• capitão mor: estate owner & militia officer
Colonial Era Review
         Legacies of colonialism
• Landholding arrangements
• Labor relations—debt peonage, tenant farming, slavery
• Administrative structure reinforcing oligarchy

• Largely conservative role of secular Catholic clergy
   • yet other clergy as outspoken social critics
• Extractive economies rather than national industry
   •   association of manual labor with low social status

• Social class closely linked to racial heritage
The Reconquista
           From reconquista to
• Indian souls as compensation for loss of souls in

• Victorious noblemen given jurisdiction over
  territory with Muslim populations

• Victories viewed by Christians as sign that God
  was with them

• Missionary friars concerned about genuine vs
  false conversions
Early Spanish Voyages in the Caribbean
     Missionaries & Conquest
• Franciscans & Dominicans from 1510s
    one party to altering native cultures
• Often sympathetic to native peoples
    first ethnographers in Americas
• Often in tension with “secular” priests,
  landed elites, & conquistadors
    Crown had to balance these interests
           New Laws, 1540s
To improve conditions for Indians
  – prohibited enslavement of Indians
  – returned encomiendas to Crown after death of

Following encomendero resistance, King Philip of
  Spain weakened friars’ position in 1550s
  • re-established inheritance of encomienda
         Crown needed colonial revenue for war
Trade and
in the Making
of Latin
         Colonial labor force
  right to labor and revenue from a specified
  allotment of land & its population
  required indigenous adult males to work
  specified time annually for Spanish mines,
  estates or public works, in return for a
  modest wage
Colonial Brazil vs. Spanish America
• sparser administrative structure
• more powerful landowners

• heavier reliance on slave labor (sugar and gold)

• master/slave sexual relations (by force) common
     wealth allowed mixed race offspring to “pass”
           myth of Brazilian racial democracy
     Religious syncretism

fusion of differing systems of belief,
especially when success is partial or
     the result is heterogeneous.

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