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					Water Supply
         1. How much of the
          planets water is
          available for human
         Less than 1%
Describe and explain the unique properties of
Cohesion: surface tension

Polar: 1 side positive 1 side negative

High heat: Changes temperature slowly

Water expands when it freezes: less dense
    What are the differences between
    surface water and ground water?
•    Surface water: Surface water refers to water
     occurring in lakes, rivers, streams, or other
     fresh water sources used for drinking water
•    Ground water: Groundwater is generally
     stored in aqueducts, underground layers of
     porous rocks that are saturated with water
    What is an aquifer? What is a
          recharge zone?
•   Aquifer: a body of saturated rock through
    which water can easily move.
•   Recharge Zone: The area of land, including
    caves, sinkholes, faults, fractures and other
    permeable features, that allows water to
    replenish an aquifer . This process occurs
    naturally when rainfall filters down through the
    soil or rock into an aquifer
    Name the Aquifer under the panhandle of Texas.
          What is happening to this aquifer?

•     The Ogallala Aquifer: occupies the High Plains of the United
      States, extending northward from western Texas to South
      Dakota. The Ogallala is the leading geologic formation in
      what is known as the High Plains Aquifer System. The entire
      system underlies about 450,000 square kilometers of eight
•     It is being over drafted, and that means that the Great Plains
      could soon turn into the Great American Desert
  Surface water and Ground water
                        Obj. # 4

• Refers to water             • Refers to any
  occurring in lakes,           subsurface water that
  rivers, streams, or           occurs beneath the
  other fresh water             water table in soil.
  sources used for
  drinking water.             • It’s fresh water and
• It also remains a             more natural.
  significant water
          What is an Aquifer?
                    Obj. # 5

• Aquifer is a wet underground layer of
  water-bearing permeable rock or
  unconsolidated material (Gravel, sand, or
  silt) from which groundwater can be
  usefully extracted using a water well.
• What is a Recharged Zone?
Is the area of the earth’s surface where
  water seeps down into the aquifer.
  Aquifer under the pan handle of
The aquifer under the pan handle of Texas
   is the Ogallala Aquifer.

What is a happening to the Aquifer?
The water in the aquifer is being pumped
   from the aquifer faster than what is being
Draw and label a watershed OBJ #7
                                                                   OBJ #8

• Watershed- An area of land where all of the water that is under it or
  drains off of it goes into the same place (River Mouth)
• Tributaries- Are branches of a river that, start from a watershed slowly
  working their way down to join other tributaries and eventually the
  mainstream, which drains to the sea.
• Floodplain- A natural area of land that’s next to a stream or river.
• River Source- This is where the river or stream originates. It is usually on
  high ground and can be a place where runoff collects or where a spring
• River Mouth- A body of water that empties into the ocean.
• Upstream- Is the opposite way of which the river is flowing.
• Downstream- Is the direction the river is flowing.
   Describe 5 ways to increase the supply of water
     available for human consumption OBJ #9

• Desalinate – boiling it, freezing and thawing
  it and reverse osmosis.
• Build more dams
• Use more groundwater
• Transfer water from other areas
• Conserve it
  Where does
 Houston get it’s

 Lake Livingston,
Lake Conroe, Lake
 Houston and The
Evangeline aquifer.
    What are subsidence and overdraft OBJ# 11

• Overdraft-when you use more than what you
• Subsidence-the motion of a surface as it shifts
                      Obj. # 12
• Desalination is the removal of salts and other pollutants

  found in salt water in order to make it drinkable.

• The reason why desalination is not used more often is

  because it is a very expensive process and also it is very

  inefficient, you don’t get a lot of freshwater out of it.
               Obj. # 13
             Water Pollutants
 Water Pollutant          Source              Effect
        Common water pollutants unsafe
                         Makes water
    fertilizers       Run-off from soil
     plastics            Human use        for consumption
                    Obj. # 14
            Artificial Eutrophication
• Eutrophication is a condition of bodies of water in which this

  an algae bloom as the result of a high nutrient concentration.

• It is caused by the natural run-off of nutrients from soil and the

  weathering of rocks. It is also caused by the run-off from

  erosion and untreated sewage that contains nitrates and

                     Obj. # 15
• Pathogens are microbes that causes diseases. Some

  pathogens are often found in water, frequently as a

  result of fecal matter from sewage discharges, leaking

  septic tanks, and runoff from animal feedlots into

  bodies of water.
                       Obj. # 16
                     Storm drains
      • Street drains                        • Sinks

                               • Also referred to as the
• Go through an
                                   wastewater system, which is

  underground pipe system          any drain that is in your house

  that leads straight to the   •   This water goes to a facility

                                   where it is cleaned and treated
  nearest body of water
Recycling and Waste
1. Renewable resource: an resource
  that can be reuse such as paper.
    Non renewable resource: an
 resource that can not be use. Such
           as plastic, coal.
   2.Surface mining: soil and rocks over laying
   mineral deposit (over burden) are removed.
   Basically huge machines and explosives strip
   away large pieces of earth. The overburden
 which is material covering the a useful mineral
deposit. The tailings which are the large piles of
  crushed rock, left over after the metal save of
 interest been extracted from the mineral rock.
The refining removes Impurities and isolate the
                 desired material.
3. Disadvantages: leave behind large
areas of infertile waste rock as 70% is

          Advantages :none
                  Objective 4
•   Paper 28%
•   Yard trimmings 13.7%
•   Food scraps 14.1%
•   Plastics 12.3%
•   Metals 8.6%
•   Rubber 8.3%
•   Wood 6.5%
•   Glass 4.8%
•   Other 3.5%
                  Objective 5

• 54% is stored in landfills
• 12% is incinerated
• 34% is recycled
Objective 6
• It naturally breaks down by itself. They help
  break it down through chemical processes.
• Burns trash and uses It to generate electricity.
  Pros: decreasing the amount of garbage and
  generates electricity.
• Cons: There is still some toxic waste left over .
• Collection, Reprocessing, and Repurchasing .
  When the recycled materials are repurchased .
                               Obj. # 10

What is an MRF?
   MRF stands for
    Material Recovery
   It is a specialized
    facility that receives,
    separates and prepares
    recyclable materials for
    sale to manufacturers
                             Obj. # 11

Benefits of Recycling
   Recycling allows us to
    reuse resources to
    create new products
   For example:
     Recycled  aluminum
      saves 95% of energy
      compared to virgin
                                                   Obj. # 12

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
   Reduce- to make less         Reducing waste is the
    waste                         best of the three,
   Reuse- to use                 because it decreases
    something again before        the need for natural
    disposal                      resources to be
   Recycle- to turn waste        consumed
    materials into valuable
                            Obj. # 13

Texas Recycles Day
   Texas Recycles Day
    takes place on
    November 15th
   It is a statewide
    campaign that
    educates people
    about the importance
    and benefits of waste
    reduction and
                                Obj. # 14

The 4 Categories of Hazardous Waste

   Flammable
   Reactive
   Corrosive
   Toxic
                                Obj. # 15

Love Canal
   The Love Canal was sold
    to Hooker Chemical
    Company, who used this
    land to store hazardous
   The land was then sold
    to the city and a small
    neighborhood was built
   After heavy rainfall, the
    Love Canal exploded
What is superfund?How many
 sites are in Texas?(Obj.16)
– Superfund is a program used to adress
  abandoned hazardous wastes sites.
 What is the difference between
  climate and weather?(Obj.1)
• Climate is the weather change over a long
  period of time.
• Weather is what the atmosphere is like;
  such as temperature, moisture, wind
  velocity, and barometric pressure.
        List the gases responsible for the
      greenhouse effect and their sources?
                    (Obj. #2)
•   C02(carbon monoxide)
•   CFC's
•   Nitrate
•   Methane
•   GHG comes from a lot of sources such as
    cars, the burning of fossil fuels,when we
    breathe, when cows produce gas,major
    pollutants, and plenty of other sources.
                        Obj.3 (Global Climate)

     The greenhouse effect is created by
greenhouse gases. The light, UV’s and heat
 from the sun pass through the atmosphere.
While some of the rays are absorbed by the
   earth, others are reflected off the earth’s
surface and go back into the atmosphere. Of
these reflected rays, some bounce off of the
   atmosphere back at the earth and others
  pass through and go back into space. The
  increase in greenhouse gases makes the
 atmosphere trap more of the rays that have
     bounced off the earth. This raises the
  temperature of the earth, hence the name
              “Global Warming.”
                               Obj.4 (Global Climate)

• Climate has changed over Earth’s
  History… The rising temperatures which
  been higher than the last decades. The
  levels of CO2 have an icreasing trend, the
  main cause of Global Warming. Which is
  why the glaciers and icebergs are melting.
                                   Obj.5 (Global Climate)

• The rapid rise in global concentrations of carbon
  dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, all
  greenhouse gases, is so different from the
  patterns for thousands of years previous, "there
  is no doubt that increase is dominated by human
• Most of the observed increase in temperatures is
  due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas
• Example of main contaminants: Oil Refineries,
  Cars, Factories.
        Global Climate Change do climatologist study the ancient
It uses a variety of methods from the Earth and
      life sciences to obtain data previously
preserved within rocks, sediments, ice sheets,
   tree rings, corals, shells and microfossils; it
 then uses these records to determine the past
   states of the Earth's various climate regions
            and its atmospheric system.
        Global Climate Change
●   7. how are we changing the earths
    carbon cycle?
Were putting more in than the earth is
 able to digest .It moves into the
 atmosphere when fossil fuels, like coal
 and oil, are burned. It moves into the
 atmosphere when forests burn.
           Global Climate Change
8. describe the evidence that human-
  caused global climate change is
  already happening.
●   Increased CO2
●   Increased Temp
●   Ice caps & glaciers disappearing
●   Hurricane intensity
                                                                                  Global Climate Change
                                                                                  Obj #9
             Effects of Global warming
•   Green house gases stay can stay in the atmosphere for an amount of years ranging from decades to
    hundreds and thousands of years. No matter what we do, global warming is going to have some effect on
    Earth. Here are the 5 deadliest effects global warming
•   Spread of disease As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing plague
    and disease with them. Indeed some scientists believe that in some countries thanks to global warming,
    malaria has not been fully eradicated
•   Warmer waters and more hurricanes As the temperature of oceans rises, so will the probability of more
    frequent and stronger hurricanes. We saw in this in 2004 and 2005.
•   Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves Although some areas of Earth will
    become wetter due to global warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts and heat waves. Africa will
    receive the worst of it, with more severe droughts also expected in Europe. Water is already a
    dangerously rare commodity in Africa, and according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
    global warming will exacerbate the conditions and could lead to conflicts and war.
•   Economic consequences Most of the effects of anthropogenic global warming won’t be good. And these
    effects spell one thing for the countries of the world: economic consequences. Hurricanes cause do
    billions of dollars in damage, diseases cost money to treat and control and conflicts exacerbate all of
•   Polar ice caps melting The ice caps melting is a four-pronged danger. First, it will raise sea levels. Second,
    melting ice caps will throw the global ecosystem out of balance. Third, temperature rises and changing
    landscapes in the artic circle will endanger several species of animals. Fourth, global warming could
    snowball with the ice caps gone. Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is relected back
    into space, further cooling Earth.
Global Climate Change
Obj #9
                                                                    Objective 10
                                                                    Global climate change

A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the
environment, and in particular climate change. It relates to the amount of
greenhouse gases produced in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels
for electricity, heating and transportation etc

1.Turn down your thermostat by 10fahrenheit each night in winter
2.Buy a car that average 10 miles more per gallon
3.Recycle half of your potentially recyclable materials
                                 Objective 1
                                 Texas ecology

    Ecoregion 1 – East Texas Pineywoods
Ecoregion 2 – Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes
      Ecoregion 3 – Post Oak Savannah
       Ecoregion 4 – Blackland Prairies
  Ecoregion 5 – Cross Timbers and Prairies
      Ecoregion 6 – South Texas Plains
       Ecoregion 7 – Edwards Plateau
         Ecoregion 8 – Rolling Plains
          Ecoregion 9 – High Plains
Ecoregion 10 – West of the Pecos ("Trans-Pec
Piney woods:                                                         Texas Ecology
Highest annual rainfall in the state                                 Obj 1
Caddo lake- only natural lake in Texas
Organism to know: alligator snapping turtle- strong mouth to capture food.
Gulf coast prairies and marshes:
This Is where you live
barrier islands protect main lands from storms.
Organisms to know- Bobcat- can move very quickly to sneak up on prey.
Big bend- national park is the only national park in Texas.
Organisms to know mountain lion- stalks prey to increase human success
Edward’s plateau:
“hill country” is the remains of a huge mountain range
South Texas brush country:
vegetation- short brushy bushes. Reddish colored soil
High plains:
Area formed from shallow oceans, creating a flat landscape and soil deposits.
Organisms to know prairie dog- barks a warning to other prairie dogs when predators
are presentEdward’s plateau:
“hill country” is the remains of a huge mountain range
South Texas brush country:
vegetation- short brushy bushes. Reddish colored soil
High plains:
Area formed from shallow oceans, creating a flat landscape and soil deposits.
Organisms to know prairie dog- barks a warning to other prairie dogs when predators
are present
                                                                 Obj #2

Adaptations are features on an species that help them
survive in their environment in which they live in.
Adaptations are apart of a species DNA they are
developed over time due to evolution and mutations.
Luckily these mutations are essential to a species
 Examples of adaptations:
Frogs: Have adapted to freezing temperatures by evolving a
glycol like substance in their bloodstreams - like antifreeze.
Bats: Have adapted their hearing to hunt at night via sonic
Snakes . have evolved fangs to deliver poison vs. simply
grinding it into wounds like Ghila Monsters or large
Texas Ecology Objectives
Describe the theory of natural selection:
process by which biologic traits
become more or less common in a
population due to consistent effects
upon the survival or reproduction of
their bearers.
Who developed the natural selection?
Charles Darwin.
• How is Natural selection related to adaptation?
• Natural selection means that only the fittest
  survive. The fittest are usually defined as those
  with the characteristics, or adaptations, that
  allow them to survive longer in a certain
  environment. In this way, they are selected by
  nature to reproduce and pass those adaptations
  on to their offspring, while animals who are not
  able to adapt or lack the necessary qualities to
  survive will die without reproducing
6. Define all the trophic levels found in a food

    The trophic level of an organism is the position it
    occupies on the food web.
    Producers are typically plants and algae.
    Consumers are animals which cannot manufacture
    their own food and need to consume other organisms.
    Decomposers break down dead plant and animal
    material and wastes and release it again as energy and
    nutrients into the ecosystem for recycling.
7. Which ways
do the arrows
point in a food
The item getting
the energy.
8. What is the difference between biotic and abiotic?
Give 2 Texas examples of each and how they relate to
                      each other.
    Abiotic                         Biotic
 • Are non-living chemical and      • A biotic factor is any living
  physical factors in                 component that affects
    the environment.                  another organism.

       Rain & Plants: allows many plants to grow
       Pond & Organisms: gives organisms proper habitat
 #9. Define and give examples of the symbiotic
         relationships in an ecosystem.
• Mutualism – Interaction between two species in which both
   species are benefiting from each other.
Example: Bees collecting nectar and pollen from flowers and flowers
   being reproduced.
• Commensalism – Interaction between two species in which one
   benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefited.
Example: Vermiliads (plants living on trees in rainforests) and frogs.
   The frogs get shelter and water from the vermiliad but the
   vermiliad is unaffected.
• Parasitism – Interaction between two species in which one benefits
   by living off of other and the other is harmed because it is the role
   of the host.
Example: Tapeworm living in someone’s body. The tapeworm lives off
   the person while the person becomes very ill and sick.
       #10. What ecoregion do we live in?
    What flora and fauna are typical of our area?
       What threats exist to our ecoregion?
•   Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes
•   Flora: Perennials, Shrubs , & Trees.
•   Fauna: ??
•   Industrial and population pressures are less, overfishing,
    development pressures, and water quality and quantity are
    the most imminent threats. Throughout the ecoregion, the
    quality of remaining habitat faces drastic declines, with
    habitat loss and fragmentation posing some of most serious
    threats to biological health.
      #11. How is fire part of prairies ecology?
How are grasses better adapted to withstand fire than

• What is left from the fires help enrich the soil.
• Grasses can withstand fire because it grows from its roots and
  the only part of a tree that is actually alive is a very thin layer
  directly under the bark. If a tree’s inner bark is destroyed all
  the way around its trunk, the tree will die.
               Texas Ecology
• 12. less than 1 % of our native costal prairie is
• 13. Rainfall and Soil type contribute to the
  establishment and maintenance of a prairie.
• 14. an endangered species is a species that is
  close to extinction where as a exotic species is
  just a plant or animal not native to a certain
  area and an endemic species is a plant or
  animal that is native to the area.
             Texas Ecology ctn.
• 15. the Japanese climbing fern, not only does it
  impact native vegetation directly, but is a
  significant fire hazard. The dead fern fronds serve
  as a fire ladder to carry fire to the crown of trees,
  Giant salvinia because it damages aquatic
  ecosystems by outgrowing and replacing native
  plants that provide food and habitat for native
  animals and waterfowl, and The zebra mussel
  because it multiplies rapidly and can cause
  tremendous environmental and economic
            Texas Ecology ctn.
• 16. Exotic species thrive in new environments by
  feeding off the species that are already there and
  taking over. To prevent the spread of an invasive
  species, be sure you are aware of the invasive
  species in your area, do not transport species
  from one body of water to another and don’t
  release your pets into the wild.
• 17. Taxonomy is the classification of plants and
# 18 Hierarchy of Classification
#19 Common and Scientific Names
             Common                                    Scientific
Bobcat                                 Lynx rufus
Raccoon                                Procyon lotor

Common name is what the everyday       Scientists use scientific names
  person calls something; the             because the common name
  scientific name is what scientists      sometimes get confused as other
  sometimes call something to             names, but with the scientific
  differentiate it from other things      names each animal has its own
  in the same group/family/section.       specific name to identify with its
                                          family, class, etc.

What is the difference between energy and a

 - Fuel is made from fossil fuels and emits carbon dioxide. Carbon
dioxide is a raw fuel that can be turned into energy.. Power plants
 produce energy by changing electrons and harvesting the energy
produced from a reaction. Energy is used as a power source and is
 measured in watts, while fuel(when used in car engines) is simply
               used as a starting and stability device.
●Why are hydrocarbons and fossil fuels
such good energy sources?

●- Both hydrocarbons and fossil fuels are
good energy sources because they have
low mass but can produce much more

●Six different forms of energy
                            ●What happens to
                            energy as it changes
                                        ●Energy is neither created
                                        nor destroyed. When we use
●Kinetic                                energy, it doesn’t disappear.
●Potential                              We change it from one form
                                        of energy into another.

Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy
consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved by increasing
energy efficiency and decreasing energy use
   Natural gas-is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is
    created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments.
    Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created
    from buried organic material.
   Oil-plants using solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and
    carbohydrates through a process known as photosynthesis. When the plants die, the
    sediments containing them become buried and, as the depth of burial increases, heat
    and pressure transform the carbohydrates into hydrocarbons. This takes place in
    source rocks, usually very fine-grained rocks known as black shales.
   Coal-is formed when peat is altered physically and chemically
           Obj 7 Energy
 Non Renewable resources can be used
 faster, they can not be replaced in your
   Renewable is what can be produced
naturally in our lifetime such as sunlight,
         wind, tides & geothermal
                    Obj 8
• Advantages of coal: affordable and abundant
• Disadvantages of coal: pollution such as CO2,
  NOx, Sox particulate matter and Hg (mercury)
                   Obj 9
• Greenhouse Gas CO2
• Limited supply – non-renewable
• Harm to the environment
             ENERGY OBJECTIVE 10

   Experts believe that day is 200 years away
           ENERGY OBJECTIVE 11

 Birds become easy prey, as their feathers being
  matted by oil make them less able to fly away,
  hypothermia is also a problem.
 Damage to the airways and lungs of marine
  mammals and turtles, congestion, pneumonia,
  emphysema and even death by breathing in
  droplets of oil, or oil fumes or gas
 Irritation or ulceration of skin, mouth or nasal
           The Exxon Valdez.             Obj. #12

                Oil Spill.
• Took place in Prince William Sound,
• March 24, 1989.
• About 260,000 to 750,000 barrels were
• One of the biggest oil spills in History.
                                           Obj. # 13
            Nuclear Fission.
1. Uranium is mined, enriched and
   manufacture into nuclear fuel.
2. Usage in the power plant, the fuel that is
   spent is delivered to a reprocessing plant.
3. Finally repository for geological deposition.
4. Reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be
   recycled to be returned to usage in a power
Production of electricity in a nuclear
           power plant.          Obj. # 14

•   Uranium is the fuel
•   Fission is created
•   Producing heat
•   Generates steam
•   That turns a turbine.
•   That generates electricity
                                Obj. #15

Nuclear Power Plants in Texas.
• 4 Power Plants in Texas
• Central and South in Texas.
                                            Obj. # 16

    Chernobyl and Three Island.
       Chernobyl                     Three Island
           Russia         •   Pennsylvania
•   April 26, 1986        •   1979
•   Human error.          •   Mechanical and
•   Meltdown.                 Human failure.
•   116,000 people were   •   Partial Meltdown.
           Nuclear energy #17
• advantages- produces electricity without pollution to the
  atmosphere, a lot of energy from a single power plant,
• disadvantages- more expensive to build a plant, it cost a
  lot to clean spill, radioactive, dangerous
        Nuclear energy #18
• Yucca Mountain, Nevada
• Must be stored in man made vaults
• Transportation issues - safety
        Nuclear energy #19
• Can cause cancer, death, birth defects.
• 1000 or more REM
       alternative energy #20
• Advantages- inexhaustible fuel source,
  minimal environmental impact, useful
  levels of energy production
• Disadvantages- smaller models depend on
  availability of fast flowing streams or
  rivers, collapse, lack of nutrient flow, inhibit
  spawning, evacuate homes and loss of
      Alternative energy #21
• The sun heats the earths surface creating
  convection currents.
        Alternative Energy Sources
• Explain how a wind turbine generates electricity?
• The terms wind energy or wind power describe
  the process by which the wind is used to generate
  mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines
  convert the kinetic energy in the wind into
  mechanical power. This mechanical power can be
  used for specific tasks or a generator can convert
  this mechanical power into electricity.
       Alternative Energy Sources
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
  wind power?
• Advantages- The wind is free and with modern
  technology it can be captured efficiently.
• Does not cause green house gases or other
• Many people find wind farms an interesting
  feature of the landscape.
• Renewable
       Alternative Energy Sources
• Disadvantages- The wind turbines do not
  produce the same amount of electricity all the
• Wind turbines are noisy
• When wind turbines are being manufactured
  some pollution is produced.
• Expensive, unreliable,eyesore
       Alternative Energy Sources
• How do solar cells work?
Photovoltaic- Convert solar radiation to direct
  electric current protons of light are absorbed
  by silicon.
Semi- Conductor
Photons knock out electrons from their atoms
  Electron move to fill the space = electric
            #25 Solar energy
• Advantages:
• The power source of the sun is absolutely free
• The production of solar energy produces no
• The technological advancements in solar
  energy systems have made them extremely
  cost effective
             #25 Solar energy
• Disadvantages:
• Only areas of the world with lots of sunlight
  are suitable for solar power generation
• Very diffuse source means low energy
            #26 Conservation
• Def: preservation or restoration from loss,
  damage, or neglect
• 5%.
• The United States uses about 20% of the
  world's oil energy
           Alternative Energy Sources:
                      Obj: 27
•   Explain 10 actions you can take in your daily
    life to reduce the amount of energy you use.

•   Turn-off everything that you’re not using
•   Unplug things that you’re not using then plug them back in when you need to
    use them
•   Have timers or sensors to have it on for a certain amount of time
•   Energy efficient items
•   Better insulation
•   Fluorescent light bulbs
•   Passive energy( windows or sunlight)
•   Turn thermostat up or down depending on season
•   Get solar panels on our roofs
•   Put wind power in areas that have the greatest wind power

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