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					Poetry is rhythmical, imaginative
language expressing the invention,
taste, thought, passion, and insight
of the human soul.


--Edmund Clarence Stedman
Why a Formal Study of Poetry?
 It will allow us to truly appreciate the
  complexities of the rules great artists
  employed in creating their art.
 It will allow us to insightfully and accurately
  discuss the nuances often embodied in
  great poetry.
 It will sharpen both our ears and our minds
Prosody

The study of sounds and
rhythm
Rhythm
 Rhythm refers to a combination of vocal
  speeds, rises and falls, starts and stops,
  vigor and slackness, and relaxation and
  tension.
 Scanning or scansion is the process of
  discovering the prevailing metrical system
  in any poem.
Sonnet 130
    My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
 Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
 If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
 If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
 I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
 But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
 And in some perfumes is there more delight
 Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
 I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
 That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
 I grant I never saw a goddess go,
 My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
 And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
 As any she belied with false compare.
Units of Meter
   Syllable is the unit of rhythm in poetry and
    prose.
     My  mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; (10
      syllables)
   Foot refers to a specific pattern of stressed and
    unstressed syllables.
     Dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter,
      heptameter, etc.
     My mis | tress' eyes | are no | thing like | the sun; (5
      feet=pentameter)
Types of Feet
   Iamb is a two syllable foot with the light stress-heavy stress pattern.
        My mist | ress' eyes | are no | thing like | the sun;
        Shakespeare’s sonnets are mostly iambs and therefore are called
         iambic ( also 5 feet = pentameter)
   Trochee is (a two syllable foot with the heavy stress-light stress
    pattern.
        Coral | is far | more red, | than her | lips red:
   Pyrrhic is a two syllable foot with the unstressed-unstressed
    pattern.
        Extremely rare an interspersed in lines of poetry
   Spondee is a two syllable foot with the heavy stress-heavy stress
    pattern.
        Coral | is far | more red, | than her | lips red:
Three Syllable Feet
 anapestic foot - unstressed, unstressed,
  stressed (EX: in-ter-twine)
 dactylic foot - stressed, unstressed,
  unstressed (EX: mur-mur-ing)
          Poetic Devices
 Alliteration
 Assonance
 Consonance
 Onomatopoeia
Alliteration
   Repeating a consonant sound in close proximity to
    others. For instance, the phrase "buckets of big blue
    berries" alliterates with the consonant b
   Coleridge describes the sacred river Alph in “Kubla
    Khan” as "Five miles meandering with a mazy motion,"
    which alliterates with the consonant m.
   Most frequently, the alliteration involves the sounds at
    the beginning of words in close proximity to each other.
Assonance
   The repetition of internal vowel sounds in nearby
    words that do not end the same, for example, "asleep
    under a tree," or "each evening."
   Similar endings result in rhyme, as in "asleep in the
    deep."
   Assonance is a strong means of emphasizing important
    words in a line.
   “Thou still unravished bride of quietness,/Thou foster
    child of silence and slow time” (“Ode to a Grecian Urn,”
    John Keats).
Consonance
   The repetition of similar consonant sounds,
    especially at the ends of words, as in lost and past or
    confess and dismiss.
   Listen for the "t" sounds here: "clean of soot, and cut
    open to the pit"
   Consonance most often occurs within a line.
   When used at line ends in place of rhyme, as in the
    words, cool and soul, in the third stanza of Emily
    Dickinson's "He Fumbles at your Spirit," it is sometimes
    referred to as consonantal rhyme to differentiate it from
    perfect rhyme and other types of near rhyme.
Onomatopoeia
   Strictly speaking, the formation or use of words
    which imitate sounds, like whispering, clang and
    sizzle, but the term is generally expanded to refer to any
    word whose sound is suggestive of its meaning.
   Because sound is an important part of poetry, the use of
    onomatopoeia is another subtle weapon in the poet's
    arsenal for the transfer of sense impressions through
    imagery, as in Keats' "The murmurous haunt of flies on
    summer eves," in "Ode to a Nightingale."
Scanning of Sonnet 130
My mis | tress' eyes | are no | thing like | the sun;|
Coral | is far | more red |, than her | lips red:|
If snow | be white |, why then | her breasts | are dun;|
If hairs | be wires |, black wires | grow on | her head.|
I have | seen ro | ses da | masked, red | and white,|
But no | such ro | ses see | I in | her cheeks;|
And in | some per | fumes is | there more | delight |
Than in | the breath | that from | my mis | tress reeks.|
I love | to hear | her speak |, yet well | I know |
That mu | sic hath | a far | more pleas | ing sound:|
I grant | I ne | ver saw | a god | dess go,|
My mis | tress, when | she walks |, treads on | the ground:|
And yet | by heaven,| I think | my love | as rare,|
As a | ny she | belied | with false | compare.|
Alliteration in Sonnet 130
  My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
 Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
 If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
 If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
 I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
 But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
 And in some perfumes is there more delight
 Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
 I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
 That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
 I grant I never saw a goddess go,
 My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
 And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
 As any she belied with false compare.
Assonance in Sonnet 130
 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
 Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
 If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
 If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
 I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
 But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
 And in some perfumes is there more delight
 Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
 I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
 That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
 I grant I never saw a goddess go,
 My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
 And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
 As any she belied with false compare.

				
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posted:10/8/2012
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