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Agricultural Revolution to the Industrial Revolution

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					Agricultural Revolution to
the Industrial Revolution
Overview
Peasant   goal – survival

Colombian   Exchange –
introduction of crops to Old
World

Leads   to a stable food supply

More   food = more people

More   people = greater demand
for food

Greater  demand = incentive for
agricultural improvements
The Dutch Lead
the Way
Low countries – Very
swampy

Land reclamation
(Cornelius Vermuyden)

By  mid-17th century,
the Dutch enclosed
fields, rotated crops,
employed heavy use of
manure for fertilizer and
planted a wide variety of
crops
         Features of the Agricultural
                Revolution
   1. Increased production of food
       Increased crop and animal yields could feed
        more people
   2. New methods of cultivation
       Crops were grown on wastelands and
        uncultivated common lands
   3. Selective breeding of livestock
       Led to better cultivation as a result of healthier
        animals
English Follow
Dutch Lead
Robert Bakewell
(1725-1795) –
Selective breeding

Jethro Tull (1674-
1741) – Iron Plow

Charles Townsend
– Turnips

Arthur Young –
Annals in Agriculture
Enclosure
Movement in
England
Medievalopen field system
was predominant

Failed harvests occurred
once or twice a decade, on
average resulting in famines

People were malnourished,
making them more
susceptible to disease

Science  was essentially a
branch of theology and had
no real application in
agriculture
 Enclosure
Enclosures - process of fencing
common lands, reclamation of
untilled waste, and
transformation of strips into block
fields that was intended to use
land more rationally and achieve
greater commercial profits

o Impact- Brought turmoil to
Econ/social life of countryside,
riots ensued, permitted extension
of farming/innovation and
increased food production, but
disrupted small traditional
communities
               Eastern Europe
   Prussia, Austria, Poland, and Russia-agricultural
    improvements was limited
   Relationships of serfs to lords didn’t encourage
    innovation
   Chief method of increasing production was to
    bring untilled lands under the plow
   Landlords sought to squeeze more labor not more
    productivity from the soil
   Only significant nutritional gain was the
    introduction of maize and potato
   Livestock production did not increase significantly
Population Explosion
Limits on population growth
   prior1700 - Famine, disease
   and warfare

Causes
1. Agricultural revolution
2. New foods - potato/corn
3. Improved transportation
    better roads and canals
4. Better diet = stronger
    immune systems to fight
    disease
5. Disappearance of the plague
6 18th century wars were less
    destructive on civilian
    populations
7. Advances in medicine were
    NOT a significant cause
          Industrial Revolution
   Industrial Revolution - period of
    sustained economic growth through
    industrialization

   Impact: raised standard of living,
    overcame the poverty most Europeans
    had taken for granted, gave humans
    greater control over the forces of nature,
    lead to environmental problems as well
G.B. was the Home
of the I.R. – Why?
London = Center of
Culture


British Economy


British Government


Mobility of population


Agriculture
         Proto-Industrialization: The
             “Cottage System”
   Rural industry became a major pillar of Europe’s
    growing economy in the 18th century

   Merchant-capitalist would provide raw materials
    (e.g. raw wool) to a rural family who produced a
    finishedor semi-finished product and sent it back
    to themerchant for payment
       Cottage workers were usually paid by the number of
        pieces they produced
   Wool/cloth was most important item in cottage system
   Family enterprise
       Spinning thread
       Weaving thread
       “spinster”
   Advantages:
   1) Cheap labor
   2) No regulations
   Problems:
   1) merchant-family relations were poor
   2) rural labor was disorganized
   3) Search for efficiency led to rise of factory system
Spinning Jenny and
Flying Shuttle
Spinning Jenny (James
Hargreaves) in 1765, allowed
multiple spindles of thread to
be spun,

o Spinners didn’t have
equipment to produce as
much thread as cotton
weavers needed-cotton
textile weavers had the
capacity to produce the
quantity of fabric demanded

 Flying shuttle (John Kay)
increased the productivity of
the weavers; enabled weaver
to throw shuttle back and
forth between threads with 1
hand.
Richard Arkwright -
Water Frame -
improved thread
spinning.

 1780s, Arkwright
used steam engine to
power
looms which required
factory production of
textiles.


James  Watt – Steam
Engine – 1769 - Radical
transformations
occurred in

				
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posted:10/8/2012
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