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ANALYSIS CONTRASTIVE CONDITIONAL

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ANALYSIS CONTRASTIVE CONDITIONAL Powered By Docstoc
					  ANALYSIS CONTRASTIVE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES INDONESIAN
                TO ENGLISH IN WRITING SKILL


Background

Language is multifaceted to the extent that human activity is various. There is an enormous variety of
walks of life, each of which has its own language and cultural setting. We may divide these walks of life
into two categories: those that are common to everybody and those that are concerned with specialized
topics familiar only to a few.
In English writing skills a teacher is demand to able to encourage the students who get difficulties.
Besides a teacher should be able to use suitable teaching method in accordance with the students need,
material, situations, etc.
Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that
the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if)
is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.
The writer is interested to conduct the research with proposing an alternative of technique in the
teaching structure. Learning basically conditional sentences is very easy if we look carefully. Then in our
teaching will be successful. In this analysis, I compare between conditional sentences in English and
conditional sentences in Indonesia. Students in Indonesia is very difficult to compare the conditional
sentences in Indonesia and English. Therefore a teacher must teach in earnest so that students and
understand of no errors in its use. The conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of
English.



THEORETICAL

Contrastive analysis is the analysis used in the search for a difference that often makes a second
language learners have difficulty in understanding a language material. With this contrastive analysis is
expected to understand the second language or foreign language more easily.
Basically contrastive analysis can be divided into several parts. In grammatical or structural, and
syntactic. For the analysis of grammatical analysis is based on the grammar of each of the first and
second language, syntactic analysis is based on the analysis of the origin of the word or how to interpret
the states language and pragmatic analysis is based on the analysis of language use is both formally and
informally.
With the above analysis is expected any teacher or learner language can be more easily in language
learning and have no difficulty in understanding and using language to learn.

Basic Principles of contrastive analysis

According to Halliday, there are two principles in contrastive analysis, which describe before comparing
and comparing specific patterns and not the language as a whole.
In the first principle we can not compare the workings of the language before we describe how each
language. If we want to use the mother tongue as a comparison of learning a foreign language, we are
not enough mother spoke only but we also have to master the language we will compare it.
In the second principle, we can not compare Indonesian with English language as a whole. Which can be
compared is one or several elements or patterns contained in each language are compared supposition.
And we can not draw conclusions from the comparison because each pattern is discussed separately.
This is in accordance with this study, which compares the assumptions sentences in Indonesian and
English.

Conditional Sentences In Indonesia

According to Gorys Keraf, the assumption in the Indonesian language marked by a conjunction that is if.
There are two assumptions on the meaning of the Indonesian language, namely as requirements and
assumptions. Modal condition for meaningful implementation of what is at the core clause. This
relationship is clearly marked by the conjunction when and if.
For examples :
1. The will to live will be there if a person inside there is a feeling that he was required by its
environment.
Sentence above consists of three clauses, namely
1) The will to live will be there as a clause nucleus,
2) A person in a sense,
3) He was required by the environment. Clauses two and three is a subordinate
clause that states 'requirement' for the implementation of what is at the core
clause.
2. If that happens too, I would condemn it in front of anyone regardless of language propriety.
3. If I can graduate from high school, I will continue my studies to the Faculty of Literature.
Reservations meaning relations as a supposition occurs when a subordinate clause states a conditional if
, a condition which can not be done for the core clauses so that what is stated by the clause core is also
not conceivable. This supposition is marked with the words like if.
Some of the sentences below are examples of sentences which is a presupposition Reservations in the
Indonesian language.
(1) Suppose that the girl does not like you, you should ensure him except when he objected.
(2) If the lady went to court, surely this case will be heard and certainly the press and public attention
had subsided it will warm again
(3) If you did not attend that night, we will not get the money so much.
(4) I can not think of what will happen is like he's not there.
Abdul Chaer, conjunctions if (andaikata) a function to combine the requirements to declare in front of
the clause is assumed to be a subordinate clause of a compound sentence story.
1. If you do not come, I will replace you lead this meeting.
2. I'll buy you a new car if I win the lottery 100 million.
3. Future generations will not know if Comodo rare animals that are not
protected.
Conditional Sentences In English
In English, according to Azar Conditional Sentence has three kinds are :
1. Assumptions used for the event right on the present or future.
Requirements for using this type of conditional sentences are :
a. Conditional sentences of this type is used for routine activities or routine
situations.
b. Used to estimate the facts that will happen in the present or the future.
c. Using the present simple form:
If + subject + verb 1 object, subject + will + verb 1
Example:
 If I do not eat breakfast, I will always get hungry during class.
(If I do not eat breakfast, I'm going hungry while on the class).
 If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.
(If the weather clears tomorrow, we'll go banc).
2. The assumption is not true in the present or future.
Conditional sentences are used for events that did not happen at present and the future.
Conditional sentences are used to express that something happened with the opposite or contrary to
fact and is used in the present and future.
Using form :
If + subject + verb 2, subject + would + verb 1



For examples :
 If I taught this class, I would not give tests.
(If I teach this class, I'm not going to give the test, in fact I do not teach this class).
 If I were you, I would accept their invitation.
(If I was you, I will accept the invitation, the fact is I am not you so I do not accept the invitation).
3. The assumption is not true in the past. Use of this supposition and the use of
certain terms.
This phrase is used to express something that never happened in the past.
The formula of this sentence is:
If + subject + had + verb 3, subject + would have + verb 3
Examples of sentences are:
 If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
(if you say it, I will help you, the fact that you did not say that and I'm not going to help you).
 If they had studied, they would have passed the exam.
(if they learn, they will pass the exam, the fact that they do not learn and they do not pass the exam).



ANALYSIS
Contrastive analysis of conditional sentences Indonesian and English in Structural Perspective

Structurally, conditional sentences have similarities and differences. Similarity lies in the particular
words used in sentences, while the difference is the assumption in the Indonesian language there is only
one type of conditional sentences in English and there are three types of conditional sentences which
relies heavily on pronunciation time.
Conditional sentences in Indonesian has only one requirement in the manufacture of the sentence. In
Indonesian grammar only uses the words if ( jika, seandainya, andaikata, jikalau, sekiranya, asalkan,
apabila, dan manakala ).
In English the words of the above is only marked with the word 'if' which has the same meaning with the
word 'if''. So there are similarities conditional sentences in Indonesian and English is by the special
words used in sentences of this assumption, in Indonesian to use if ( jika, seandainya, andaikata, jikalau,
sekiranya, asalkan, apabila, dan manakala ) in English using word 'if ' in making this conditional sentence.
The difference is in Indonesian did not know the difference in pronunciation time. As the following
examples:
 I would buy a new car if I can lottery 100 million.
Conditional sentences are pronounced the same above, although this sentence uttered now (present),
future (future), or the past (past).
In English sentences must be viewed over time in saying it.
 I will buy a new car for you, if I get 100 millions lottery (present and future, but this is real events
occurred).
 I would have bought a new car for you, if I had got a lottery, 100 millions. (Past, this event is not really
happening in the past).
Nevertheless there are differences in the use of modal sentences in Indonesian and English. Is related to
a matter of time. In Indonesian, no use the time. all the same whether used in the present, future or
past. there is no change in the verb. If you change the time the sentence will be added assumption of
time adverbs.
For examples :

In Indonesia
Jikalau aku dapat lulus dari SMA tahun depan, aku akan melanjutkan pelajaranku ke Fakultas Sastra.
In English
If I graduate from senior high school next year, I will continue my study to literature faculty.
If time pronunciation changed in the past, then there is a change in the sentence, becomes:
Jikalau aku dapat lulus dari SMA tahun lalu, aku akan melanjutkan pelajaranku ke Fakultas Sastra.
In english
If I graduated from senior high school last year, I would continue my study to literature Change is
happening is that the verb changes:
Graduating next year : graduate
Graduated last year : graduated
Change the second is the change of will (future) would be (past).
SUGGESTING

This supposition sentence used to express an event that does not happen in reality.
Having analyzed and found equivalent and the comparison of Conditional Sentences in Indonesian and
English. Both similarities and differences can be seen as structural and pragmatically.
Structurally there are similarities Conditional Sentences in Indonesian and English is by the special words
used in this Conditional Sentences, in Indonesian to use if, and while (jika, seandainya, seumpama, dan
apabila) in English using word 'if ' in a sentence assumptions it. While the difference is in Indonesian did
not know the difference in pronunciation time. Conditional Sentences are pronounced the same above,
although the sentence was uttered present, future, or past. Due to the time difference is a verb used in
each of the different tenses, whereas in the Indonesian language there is no difference in the verb.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Jakarta,
Binarupa Aksara, 1993
Chaer, Abdul, Penggunaan Preposisi dan Konjungsi dalam Bahasa Indonesia.
Jakarta, IKIP. 1984
James, Carl. Errors in Language Learning and Use. England: Longman, 1998
Keraf , Gorys. Tata Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Nusa Indah, 1991
KTSP 2006 bahasa Inggris, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional 2006.
Lado, Robert .Linguistic Across Culture. Michigan : University of Michigan Press,

				
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