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					Politics

• Now out of favor

• Still matters

• Aristotle’s “master science”
Nation or State?
• A nation is a population with a certain
 sense of itself, a cohesiveness, a
 commonality of attitudes and ideals, and
 often a common language.

• A state is a government structure, usually
 sovereign and powerful enough to enforce
 its writ.
The Elements of Nationhood

• Territory

• Population

• Independence

• Government
The Crises of Nation Building


•   Identity
•   Legitimacy
•   Penetration
•   Participation
•   Distribution
Classifying Governments

• Laissez-faire

• Welfare state

• Statism

• Socialism
Aristotle’s
Six Types of Government
• Legitimate forms: Rule in interest of all
    - Monarchy
    - Aristocracy
    - Polity
•   Corrupt forms: Rule in interest of selves
    - Tyranny
    - Oligarchy
    - Democracy
State Power

• The state as agent of modernization

• Subsystem autonomy or pluralism

• Centralization of political power
  - Unitary systems
  - Federalism
Dahl’s “Influence Terms”

•   Rational persuasion
•   Manipulative persuasion
•   Inducement
•   Power
•   Coercion
•   Physical Force
Making Public Policy


• Symbolic policy

• Tangible policy
An Interdisciplinary Study

•   History
•   Human Geography
•   Economics
•   Sociology
•   Anthropology
•   Psychology
Power

• Distinguishing feature of political science

• Ability of one person to get another to do
  something
Explanations of Political Power
•   Biological
•   Psychological
•   Cultural
•   Rational
•   Irrational
•   Power as a composite
Key Power Concepts


• Legitimacy

• Sovereignty

• Authority
An Empirical Science


• Hypothesis

• Quantified data

• Qualitative data
Scholarly Work


• Reasoned

• Balanced

• Supported by evidence
Politicians
•   Love power
•   Seek popularity
•   Practical thinking
•   Hold firm views
•   Offer single causes
•   See short-term payoff
•   Plan for next election
•   Respond to groups
•   Seek name recognition
Political Scientists
•   Skeptical of power
•   Seek accuracy
•   Abstract thinking
•   Reach tentative conclusions
•   Offer many causes
•   See long-term consequences
•   Plan for next publication
•   Seek good of whole
•   Seek professional prestige
Politics and Society


• Percolating up

• Dripping down
Classic Theories

•   Plato
•   Aristotle
•   Machiavelli
•   The contractualists
•   Hegel
•   Marxism
•   Institutionalism
Not Just Europeans


• Confucius

• Kautilya

• Ibn Khaldun
The Contractualists

• Hobbes

• Locke

• Rousseau
Marxist Theories

• Economics

• Social Class

• History
Contemporary Theories

• Behavioralism
    -Postbehavioralism
•   Systems theory
•   Modernization theory
•   Rational-choice theory
    - Game theory
•   New institutionalism
Easton’s Systems Model
• Key parts
    - Inputs
    - “Black box” conversion process
    - Outputs
    - Feedback link
•   May be too static
•   Unable to handle upheaval
•   Should it be modified?
Modified Systems Model

• “Conversion process” first

• Black box contains “withinputs”

• Better reflects complexity of reality
Model

• Simplified picture of reality

• Used to order data, theorize and predict

• Risk of oversimplifying
Constitutions
• Are written documents stating the fundamental
  rules by which a political system is governed.

• Should not be changed too often.

• Are the highest law of the land.

• Limit the power of government.
Constitutional Law

• Subject to interpretation

• Judicial review
  - Judicial activism
  - Judicial restraint
Purposes of a Constitution


• States national ideals

• Formalizes structure of government

• Establishes legitimacy of government
U.S. Constitution


• Separation of powers

• Checks and balances
Adaptability of U.S. Constitution


• The right to bear arms

• The growth of big government
What is a Right?


• Human rights

• Civil rights

• Economic rights
Ensuring Rights


• Civil liberties

• Civil rights

• Minority rights
Freedom of Expression


• First Amendment right

• Highly context-dependent

• Some limits
Sedition

• Incitement to public disorder or to
  overthrow the state

• Twentieth-century Sedition Acts
  - Espionage Act
  - Smith Act
  - McCarran Act (Internal Security Act)
Spectrum of Government Power
• Perfect democracy
    - Power in hands of the people
•   Democracy
•   Limited democracy
•   Authoritarianism
•   Totalitarianism
•   Perfect totalitarianism
    - All power held by government
Democracy

• From the Greek demokratía
 - demos = “people”
 - kratía = “government”

• “True” democracy

• Representative democracy
Elements of Democracy
•   Popular accountability of government
•   Political competition
•   Alternation in power
•   Popular representation
•   Majority decision
•   Right of dissent and disobedience
•   Political equality
•   Popular consultation
•   Free press
Democracy in Practice


• Elitism

• Pluralism
Totalitarianism

•   All-encompassing ideology
•   A single party
•   Organized terror
•   Monopoly of communications
•   Monopoly of weapons
•   Controlled economy
Right-Wing Totalitarianism


• Italian Fascism

• German National Socialism
Authoritarianism

•   Dilutes totalitarianism
•   Governed by small group
•   Does not attempt to control everything
•   Rarely has firm ideology to sell
•   Institutes command, obedience, order
•   Has strict, hierarchical chain-of-command
•   Allows little to no voice for citizens
•   Has some trappings of democracy, with little
    function
Latest Wave of Democracy


• Authoritarian regimes that enjoyed strong
 economic growth

• Collapsed Communist regimes whose
 economic growth lagged
Theory of Democratic Peace


• No two democracies have ever fought
 each other.

• If true, a more democratic world means a
 more peaceful world.
Ideology

• Belief system that society can be improved
  by following certain doctrines

• Usually ends in ism

• Typically gives rise to other ideologies
Classifying Ideologies
• Left
    - favors equality, welfare programs, and
    sometimes government intervention in the
    economy
•   Right
    - stresses individual initiative and private
    economic activity
•   Center
    - tries to synthesize and moderate the views of
    both the left and the right
The Major Ideologies
•   Classic liberalism
•   Classic conservatism
•   Modern liberalism
•   Modern conservatism
•   Marxist socialism
•   Social democracy
•   Communism
•   Nationalism
•   Fascism
Modern
Liberalism and Conservatism
• Modern liberalism is an ideology favoring
 government intervention to correct
 economic and social ills.

• Modern conservatism is an ideology
 founded in the classic liberalism of Adam
 Smith to keep government out of the
 economy.
Karl Marx
• Leading socialist thinker

• Wrote The Communist Manifesto and Capital

• Focused on ills and malfunctions of capitalism

• Variously interpreted by others
Offshoots of Marxism
• Social democracy
• Anarcho-syndicalism
    - Unions running everything
•   Lenin/Stalin hypercentralized tyranny
•   Trotsky’s denunciation of Leninism/Stalinism
•   Mao’s self-destructive permanent revolution
•   Tito’s experimental decentralized system
Communism

• Imperialism

• Organization

• Maoism

• Titoism
Nationalism
• Exaggerated belief in greatness and unity of
    one’s country
•   Still dominant today
•   Often born out of occupation and repression by
    foreigners
•   Perceives an enemy to struggle against
•   Most intense in third-world nations
•   Tends to economic isolation
•   Depends on emotional appeals
•   May be regional
Ideology in Our Day

•   The collapse of communism
•   Neoconservatism
•   Libertarianism
•   Feminism
•   Environmentalism
•   Islamism
Is Ideology Finished?
• Daniel Bell: The failure of tyrannical
  communism and the rise of the welfare
  state produced “the end of ideology.”

• Francis Fukuyama: Not only has the great
  ideological debate ended with the victory
  of capitalist democracy, but history itself
  could be ending.
Political Culture
• The psychology of a nation in regard to
    politics
•   Varies considerably from one nation to
    another
•   Determined by history, economy, religion and
    folkways
•   A collective political memory
•   Determines how a people interprets the
    proper role of government and how that
    government operates
Political Culture
and
Public Opinion
• Political culture looks for basic, general
  values on politics and government.

• Public opinion looks for views about
  specific leaders and policies.
Participation in America


• Rule of anticipated reactions

• Low voter turnout

• Strong faith in democracy
The Civic Culture


• Participant

• Subject

• Parochial
Decay of Political Culture


• More cynicism

• Declining voter turnout

• Growth of distrust in government
Different Cultures


• Elite culture

• Mass culture

• Subcultures
Political Socialization

• The learning of culture

• May be formally taught or absorbed by
 imitating others

• Crucial to stable government
Agents of Socialization


•   Family
•   School
•   Peer groups
•   Mass media
•   Government
Public Opinion
• Citizens’ reaction to current, specific issues
    and events
•   Plays a major role in modern democracy
•   Different from political culture
•   An array of diverse attitudes that can change
    quickly
•   Sometimes shows widespread ignorance
•   Often led or manipulated by interest groups
•   Any government vulnerable to it
Salience

• Literally, that which jumps out

• The importance of given issues in public opinion
  or the characteristics of publics holding various
  opinions

• The degree to which categories and issues
  affect public opinion
Shaping Public Opinion

•   Social class
•   Education
•   Region
•   Religion
•   Age
•   Gender
•   Ethnic group
Classic Opinion Curves


• Skewed

• Unimodal or Bell-Shaped

• Bimodal
Polling Techniques


• Selecting a sample

• Reaching the sample

• Asking the questions
Sample

• Those persons to be interviewed in a
 survey

• A small fraction of a population

• Should be as representative, rather than
 as large, as possible
Presidential Ratings


• Honeymoon

• Rally events

• The economy
Three Publics

• General public

• Attentive public

• Policy and opinion elite
Public Opinion Polls

•   Are they fair?
•   Help make public opinion
•   May distort an election
•   Not neutral in their impact
•   Not a substitute for careful analysis of
    issues
Interest Group

• Any collection of people tying to
  influence government
• Nonpublicly accountable organizations
  that attempt to promote shared private
  interests by influencing public-policy
  outcomes
Interest Groups Differ
from Political Parties

• Goals

• Nature of memberships

• Numbers
Who Belongs?
• Pluralist view
    - Multiplicity of groups
    - Varied interests
    - Optimistic view
•   Elite view
    - Majority from middle- and upper-classes
    - Domination by business-related interests
    - No organization by lower classes
Interest Groups
and Government
• Interest groups presuppose an existing
  government worth trying to influence.

• As government grows, so do interest groups.

• Some interest groups take on government
  functions.

• The bureaucracy has become one of the biggest
  and most powerful interest groups of all.
Effective Interest Groups

•   Political culture
•   Big money
•   Political action committees (PACs)
•   Single-issue groups
•   Size and membership
•   Access
Political Action Committees
(PACs)
• Set up specifically to contribute money to
  election campaigns

• Originally an idea of labor unions

• Biggest spending from business

• Bulk of contributions to incumbents
Interest Group Strategies

•   Approaching lawmakers
•   Approaching the administration
•   Approaching the judiciary
•   Appeals to the public
•   Demonstrations
•   Violent protest
Questions to Consider
• How well do interest groups serve the needs of
    citizens?
•   What happens to individuals who are not
    organized into groups?
•   Who considers the interests of the whole
    country?
•   Do interest groups only represent the views of a
    small but vocal minority?
•   Do interest groups stalemate government
    action?
Finding a Balance


• Good of all

• Good of particular groups
Political Party
• Group seeking to elect office-holders
  under a given label

• Exist in almost all present-day societies,
  democratic or not

• Weak in U.S.
Functions of Parties

•   Bridge between people and government
•   Aggregation of interests
•   Integration into the political system
•   Political socialization
•   Mobilization of voters
•   Organization of government
Parties in Democracies

• Centralization

• Setting government policy

• Party participation in government

• Financing the party
Types of Parties
• Duverger’s three types
    - mass
    - cadre
    - devotee
•   Coalition
•   Neo-institutional
•   Catchall
•   Relevant
Classifying Parties


•   Left (liberal)
•   Center-left
•   Centrist
•   Center-right
•   Right (conservative)
Party in Communist States


• Politburo

• Opportunists

• Apparatchiks
Party Systems


•   One-party
•   Dominant-party
•   Two-party
•   Multiparty
•   Two-plus party
•   Fluid (or inchoate) party
Parties and Electoral Systems


• Single-member election districts

• Proportional representation
Types of Party Competition


• Moderate pluralism
 - Center-seeking (centripetal)

• Polarized pluralism
 - Center-fleeing (centrifugal)
Are Parties Fading?

• Not what they used to be

• Membership down

• Voters less loyal

• Should anything be done?
Electoral Systems

• Single-member districts
 - Advantages
 - Disadvantages

• Proportional representation
 - Advantages
 - Disadvantages
Voter Turnout

• Percent of those eligible who vote

• U.S. turnout low historically

• Lower in U.S. than in other democracies
U.S. Nonvoting:
The Debate

• Low electoral participation means that
 many Americans are turning away from
 the political system.

• Or, the decline may mean that Americans
 are basically satisfied with the system.
Who Votes?


•   Income and education
•   Race
•   Age
•   Gender
•   Area of residence
How Do People Vote?


• Long-term variables

• Short-term variables
Party Identification (ID)
• Long-term voter attachment to a given
    party
•   When strong, habitual voting for same
    party without question results
•   Heavily influenced by family and instilled
    early in life
•   Important element in electoral stability
•   Fading in Europe
Who Votes How?
•   Class voting
•   Regional voting
•   Religious blocs
•   Age groups
•   Gender gap
•   Marriage gap
•   Racial minorities
•   Urban voting
Electoral Alignment


• Realignment

• Dealignment
What Wins Elections?


•   Charisma
•   Retrospective voting
•   Candidate strategies
•   Voter groups
Political Institutions


• Established and durable relationships of
    power and authority
•   Working structures of government
•   Evolve into importance
•   Bigger than individual leaders
•   Largely artificial creations
The Form of State


• Monarchy

• Republic
Territorial Structuring


• Unitary systems

• Federal systems

• Confederation
Unitary Systems:
Center-Periphery Tensions

• Devolution in Britain

• Decentralization in France

• Autonomy in Spain
Federalism:
Some Problems

• Ex-Soviet federalism

• Ex-Yugoslav federalism

• Canadian federalism
U.S. Balkanization

• More than 80,000 local governments

• Often in each other’s way

• Jurisdictional conflicts

• Burden shifting
U.S. Burden Shifting


• Growth of federal power

• New federalism

• Unfunded mandate
Federal Grants


• Categorical grants

• Block grants

• Revenue sharing
Executive Roles


• Head of state

• Head of government
Presidential Democracy


• Separation of power between executive
  and legislative branches
• President combines head of state with
  chief of government roles
• Executive not easily ousted by legislature
Parliamentary System


• Fusion of power between executive and
  legislative branches
• Head of state distinct from chief of
  government
• Chief political official (usually prime
  minister) easily ousted
Separation and Fusion
of Power


• Executive-legislative deadlock
• Vote of confidence
• Immobilism
Coalition


• Multiparty alliance to form a government

• When no one party has majority of seats in
 parliament
Legislative Chambers



• Bicameral

• Unicameral
The Committee System

•   Real power of modern legislatures
•   Screen much proposed legislation
•   Can make or break a proposal
•   Includes
    - Standing (permanent) committees
    - Special ad hoc committees
    - Subcommittees
A Closer Look at Legislatures


•   Lawmaking
•   Constituency work
•   Supervision and criticism of government
•   Education
•   Representation
Decline of Legislatures

•   Structural disadvantages
•   Lack of expertise
•   Psychological disadvantages
•   The absentee problem
•   Lack of turnover
•   Dilemma of parliaments
Executives


• Presidents

• Prime Ministers
European Parliaments


• “Forming a government” in Britain

• “Constructive no confidence” in Germany

• “Cohabitation” in France
The Clinton Impeachment
•   Moralistic
•   Divided
•   Partisan
•   Personality-driven
•   Public
•   Legalistic
•   Expensive
•   Institutionalized
•   Distasteful
Roles of the Executive

•   Head of state
•   Chief of government
•   Party chief
•   Commander in chief
•   Chief diplomat
•   Dispenser of appointments
•   Chief legislator
Executive Leadership


• Hands-on

• Hands-off

• Middle ground
Barber’s
Presidential Character
• Based on how much
    - presidents like political office
    - energy they put into it
•   Types
    - Active-positive
    - Active-negative
    - Passive-positive
    - Passive-negative
Ill Presidents


•   Woodrow Wilson
•   Franklin D. Roosevelt
•   John F. Kennedy
•   Ronald Reagan
Cabinets

• Major executive divisions called
 department in U.S., ministry in most of the
 rest of the world.

• Who serves in a cabinet?

• Rise of noncabinet advisers
Bureaucracy

• Career civil service that staffs government
  executive agencies
• Rules, procedures, chain-of-command,
  hierarchy
• Brings some rationality, uniformity,
  predictability and supervision
• Often carries negative connotation
U.S. Federal Bureaucracy


• Cabinet departments

• Federal agencies

• Independent regulatory agencies
Bureaucracies
in Other Nations

•   Communist countries
•   France
•   Germany
•   Great Britain
•   Japan
Weber’s Characteristics
of Bureaucracy
• Administrative offices are organized
    hierarchically.
•   Each office has its own area of competence.
•   Civil servants are appointed on the basis of
    technical qualifications.
•   Civil servants receive fixed salaries according to
    rank.
•   The job is a career and the sole employment of
    the civil servant.
•   The official does not own his/her office.
•   The official is subject to control and discipline.
Bureaucracy
in Modern Government

•   Administration
•   Services
•   Regulation
•   Licensing
•   Information gathering
Trouble with Bureaucracy


• Productivity

• Corruption
Roles of Bureaucracy

•   Administration
•   Policymaking
•   Adjudication
•   Discretionary implementation
•   Rule making
•   Advisory roles
What to Do with Bureaucracy?


•   Ombudsmen
•   Legislative checks
•   Cutting
•   Decentralization
•   Politicizing
Types of Law
•   Positive law
•   Criminal law
•   Civil law
•   Constitutional law
•   Administrative law
•   International law
•   Common law
•   Code law
•   Canon law
The Roots of Law


• Higher law

• Natural law
U.S. Court System

• National court structure
 - U.S. Supreme Court
 - Circuit courts
 - District courts

• State court system
Judges


• Federal

• State
Comparing Courts


• British court system

• European court system

• Law in Russia
Role of the Courts


• Judicial review
  - Marbury v. Madison

• Political role
Influences on Judges

•   Outlook and background
•   Geography
•   Occupational background
•   Party affiliation
•   Conception of judicial role
•   Colleagues’ opinions
•   Public opinion
Warren Court


• Civil rights

• Criminal justice

• Legislative reapportionment
Post-Warren Courts



• Burger Court (1969 –1986)

• Rehnquist Court (1986-present)
Government and the Economy

• Classic Adam Smith

• Keynesian economics

• Congress

• Federal Reserve Board
Leading Economic Problems
•   Inflation
•   Tax hike
•   Balance of payments
•   Gold standard
•   Wage-price freeze
•   Oil shocks
•   Stagflation
•   Interest rates
•   Tax cut
•   Budget deficits
•   Trade deficits
•   Budget balancing
U.S. Boom
•   Balanced federal budgets
•   Low inflation and interest rates
•   Modest taxes
•   Slowly growing wages
•   Modest regulation
•   Plentiful imports
•   Consumer-driven prosperity
•   Low oil prices
U.S. Federal Budget


• Discretionary spending

• Mandatory spending
Budget Balancing


• Deficits

• Debt
Entitlement

•   U.S. federal expenditure mandated by law
•   Social Security, Medicare are examples
•   Often called uncontrollable spending
•   Extremely difficult to cut
Defining Poverty

• Ideological differences
  - Liberal view
  - Conservative view

• “Poverty line”
  - U.S. Department of Labor
  - Three times a minimal food budget
Welfare


• Food Stamps
• Welfare reform
  - AFDC ends
  - Workfare developed
• Medicaid
How Big
Should Government Be?
• American answer
  - Keep government small
  - Suspect and criticize expansion of government
  power

• Welfare state already small

• Bulk of federal spending in entitlements
    System Breakdown

• Political malfunctioning/instability
• Erosion of legitimacy
• Regime’s loss of effectiveness
Terrorism


• September 11
• Grows mostly in countries struggling to
  modernize
• Group activity
• Some state-sponsored
• Works rarely and seldom alone
Types of Violence


•   Primordial
•   Separatist
•   Revolutionary
•   Coups
•   Issues
Change


•   A cause of violence
•   Rising expectations
•   Rising frustrations
•   Relative deprivation
Revolutions


•   Quick, dramatic system change
•   Throw out old system and its elites
•   Require organization
•   Need intellectuals
Stages of Revolution

• Old regime decays
• Committees, networks, cells or
  conspiracies form
• Moderates take over at first
• Extremists take over
• Thermidor ends reign of terror
After the Revolution


• One tyranny replaced with another

• Generally end badly

• Revolutionary promise is golden;
 revolutionary results are mud
Waning of Revolution

• Countries where revolution is still being
 fought are still idealistic and convinced
 they will bring a better social system.

• Countries where revolution has triumphed
 are characterized by disillusionment and
 bitterness.
Heading Off Revolutions
• Answer simple but difficult to carry out
• End injustices that revolutions feed on
• Reforms hard to apply due to strong
  resistance
• Institute reforms before revolutionary
  feeling is implanted
• Head off problem before it becomes
  dangerous.
International Relations


• Wilder and more complex than domestic
  politics
• Lack of sovereignty
• Dependent on power, not force
• Different countries, different national
  interests
Types of National Interest

• Vital versus secondary

• Temporary versus permanent

• Specific versus general

• Complementary versus conflicting
Why War?


• Micro theories
• Macro theories
  - Balance of power
  - Hierarchy of power
• Misperception
Keeping Peace


•   World government
•   Collective security
•   Functionalism
•   Third-party assistance
•   Diplomacy
•   Peacekeeping
The Cold War


• Truman Doctrine

• Marshall Plan

• Containment
Beyond Sovereignty

• The United Nations (UN)

• The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 (NATO)

• Organization on Security and Cooperation
 in Europe (OSCE)
International System


• The pattern in which countries interact
• Observers do not agree on what kind of
  system is emerging
• Devising rational, coherent U.S. foreign
  policy difficult
• Most Americans do not care
Historical Systems


• 19th century balance of power system

• Interwar system

• Bipolar Cold War system
What System is Emerging?
•   Unipolar
•   Hub-and-spokes
•   Multipolar
•   Stratified
•   Zones-of-chaos
•   Repolarized
•   Globalized
•   Resource-wars
•   Clash-of-civilizations
•   Proliferation
Economics


• Common thread among most models

• Takes place of military might and alliances

• Biggest single factor structuring globe
U.S. Foreign Policy Cycles


• Interventionism

• Isolationism
Interventions Without Risk?


•   Gulf War, 1991
•   Somalia, 1992-1993
•   Haiti, 1994
•   Bosnia, 1995
•   Kosovo, 1999
•   Colombia, ongoing
Klingberg’s Alternation Theory


• Introversion: Averaging 21 years

• Extroversion: Averaging 27 years
Current American Isolationism
• May connote rigidity and ignorance
• May be unilateralism
  - Doing things our way against wishes of
  allies
• May be noninterventionism
  - Reluctance to use U.S. forces overseas
• Are there duties beyond borders?
Politics

• Now out of favor

• Still matters

• Aristotle’s “master science”
Nation or State?
• A nation is a population with a certain
 sense of itself, a cohesiveness, a
 commonality of attitudes and ideals, and
 often a common language.

• A state is a government structure, usually
 sovereign and powerful enough to enforce
 its writ.
The Elements of Nationhood

• Territory

• Population

• Independence

• Government
The Crises of Nation Building


•   Identity
•   Legitimacy
•   Penetration
•   Participation
•   Distribution
Classifying Governments

• Laissez-faire

• Welfare state

• Statism

• Socialism
Aristotle’s
Six Types of Government
• Legitimate forms: Rule in interest of all
    - Monarchy
    - Aristocracy
    - Polity
•   Corrupt forms: Rule in interest of selves
    - Tyranny
    - Oligarchy
    - Democracy
State Power

• The state as agent of modernization

• Subsystem autonomy or pluralism

• Centralization of political power
  - Unitary systems
  - Federalism
Dahl’s “Influence Terms”

•   Rational persuasion
•   Manipulative persuasion
•   Inducement
•   Power
•   Coercion
•   Physical Force
Making Public Policy


• Symbolic policy

• Tangible policy
An Interdisciplinary Study

•   History
•   Human Geography
•   Economics
•   Sociology
•   Anthropology
•   Psychology
Power

• Distinguishing feature of political science

• Ability of one person to get another to do
  something
Explanations of Political Power
•   Biological
•   Psychological
•   Cultural
•   Rational
•   Irrational
•   Power as a composite
Key Power Concepts


• Legitimacy

• Sovereignty

• Authority
An Empirical Science


• Hypothesis

• Quantified data

• Qualitative data
Scholarly Work


• Reasoned

• Balanced

• Supported by evidence
Politicians
•   Love power
•   Seek popularity
•   Practical thinking
•   Hold firm views
•   Offer single causes
•   See short-term payoff
•   Plan for next election
•   Respond to groups
•   Seek name recognition
Political Scientists
•   Skeptical of power
•   Seek accuracy
•   Abstract thinking
•   Reach tentative conclusions
•   Offer many causes
•   See long-term consequences
•   Plan for next publication
•   Seek good of whole
•   Seek professional prestige
Politics and Society


• Percolating up

• Dripping down
Classic Theories

•   Plato
•   Aristotle
•   Machiavelli
•   The contractualists
•   Hegel
•   Marxism
•   Institutionalism
Not Just Europeans


• Confucius

• Kautilya

• Ibn Khaldun
The Contractualists

• Hobbes

• Locke

• Rousseau
Marxist Theories

• Economics

• Social Class

• History
Contemporary Theories

• Behavioralism
    -Postbehavioralism
•   Systems theory
•   Modernization theory
•   Rational-choice theory
    - Game theory
•   New institutionalism
Easton’s Systems Model
• Key parts
    - Inputs
    - “Black box” conversion process
    - Outputs
    - Feedback link
•   May be too static
•   Unable to handle upheaval
•   Should it be modified?
Modified Systems Model

• “Conversion process” first

• Black box contains “withinputs”

• Better reflects complexity of reality
Model

• Simplified picture of reality

• Used to order data, theorize and predict

• Risk of oversimplifying

				
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