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Fixed Bed Gasification of Steam Treated Food Waste (FW) and Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Abdullah Malik University of Northumbria at Newcastle UK Simon Carves Ltd UK What is Discussed Today? Development of R&D Gasification Set- up at UET Lahore STRAP Schematics Hybrid Gasification Process Key Test Results Future Work Objectives of Gasification Project at UET, Lahore To construct a gasification research and development pilot plant facility – 100 kg/h To demonstrate the utility of various fuels and their performance for energy conversion To demonstrate power generation using synthesis gas Major Stages of Project 1. Process Design 2. Fabrication & Procurement of Pilot Plant Accessories 3. Testing & Operation 4. Experimentation to Establishing performance 5. Demonstration of Electrical Power Generation 6. Development of Fuel Testing Facilities 7. Design & Fabrication of Desktop Gasifier to Study the Effect of Design Innovations and Various Fuels Simplified Process Flow Scheme Synthesis gas generation and clean up Gasifier Scrubber Flare Wood Water Clean Syngas Air Water Filtration Ash Facility Developed at Chemical Engineering Downdraft Gasifier Wet Blower Scrubber Water Recycle Recirculation Pump Tank Gasifier Reactor Manual Ash Agitating Device Intensified Spray Scrubber Water Re-circulation Tank Induced Draft Fan 3. Testing & Operation Cold testing Hot testing Instrument Calibration Test runs 4. Experimentation to establish performance Wood. Coal (Charcoal). Shredded Tires. Poultry Waste + Rubber crumbs. Palletized Agriculture Residue. Rice Husk Lignite Steam Treated FW and MSW Steam Treatment Recycling and Power (STRAP) Process Steam Boiler Operates Heat Recovery Using Heat Recoverd and Exhaust 8 Power Generation Gasification System System Waste Fed Directly 1 Air to Autoclave Power to export Steam 4 Autoclave 2 3 Clean Water Bio Effluent recovered Recyclable Materials Treatment Recovered Air Via Separation 6 Trommel 7 Ash Sent to Form Part of Aggregate Post Conditioning Hybrid Gasification Process HGL Gasifier Key Features • Offers uniform airflow through the fuel bed when fuel is allowed to flow under gravity without any constriction. • Hybrid gasification design has accommodated all the features required for a perfect gasification unit to treat difficult residues with variable ash composition. • This makes it suitable for a wide variety of solid biomass feed stocks. Gasifier Zones The gasification process can be divided into three main zones Fuel feeding zone – Top one third Fuel gasification zone – Middle one third Ash discharge zone – Bottom one third Syngas using FW Square Briquettes Density Measurements Absolute density Bulk density (kg/m3) (kg/m3) MSW* 816 452 FW* 822 535 Wood chips 836 250 Proximate Analysis As received* Dry basis* Dry ash free basis* MSW FW Wood MSW FW Wood MSW FW Wood Moisture (%) 50.9 29.3 16.66 - - - - - - Volatile matter (%) 18.8 68.33 51.1 38.2 72.4 82 71 77.8 83.67 Fixed carbon (%) 7.6 13.33 14.6 15.5 20.7 16 29 22.2 16.33 Ash (%) 22.7 1.66 - - - 4.9 46.3 6.9 2 Ultimate Analysis MSW FW* Wood Anthracite Carbon (%) 36.35 56.65 43.43 88.9 Hydrogen 4.96 8.76 6.08 3.4 (%) Oxygen (%) 10.13 23.54 46.29 2.3 Nitrogen 1.43 3.95 0.67 1.55 (%) Sulfur (%) 0.83 0.19 0.43 0.81 Ash 46.3 6.9 3.11 3.04 CV (MJ/kg) 9.35 26.33 15.15 34.37 Heavy Metal Concentration Elements Concentration in FW Concentration in MSW (µg/g)* (µg//g)* Mercury <2 2.3 Cadmium < 0.7 1.2 Arsenic <1 <1 Chromium < 15 < 15 Titanium 344.1 2874 Lead 15.4 755.7 Ash Softening Temperature Food Waste – 1357 oC MSW – 1297 oC Typical Syn-gas Composition from Air Gasifiers Component Vol% CO 12 to 16 H2 10 to 12 CH4 1 to 3 CO2 10 to 12 N2 40 to 50 O2 <1 H/C ~1 to 2 Average Gas Composition FW MSW CO2, vol % 7.50 8.95 H2O, vol % 1.72 2.05 CO, vol % 12.11 4.49 CH4, vol % 3.27 2.24 C2H2, vol % 1.63 1.12 C2H4, vol % 3.27 2.24 H2, vol % 13.9 6.21 N2, vol % 56.6 72.7 CV, MJ/m3 7.61 4.31 Temperature Monitoring Gasification zone Ash Zone Syngas Demonstration of Electrical Power Generation Conclusions & Way Ahead A R&D facility is developed and being used for various MSc and PhD studies STRAP concept is expected to be a successful way forward – further work is continuing A novel gasifier to treat difficult solid residue is developed and patent application is in progress. Development of commercial scale STRAP facility is currently being pursued in UK
"Fixed Bed Gasification of Steam Treated Food Waste"