Steam Machines by ert554898


									Paloma Gonzalez
Memo Gutiérrez
Erika Soltero
   Imagine living off
    nothing but coal and
    water and still having
    enough energy to run
    at over 100 mph! That's
    exactly what a steam
    locomotive can do
A steam engine is a heat
 engine that performs
 mechanical work using
 steam as its working fluid.
   Here's a brief history of steam power:
   1st century CE: Hero of Alexandria demonstrates a steam-powered
    spinning sphere called an aeolipile.
   16th century CE: Italian architect Giovanni Branca uses a steam jet to
    rotate the blades of a small wheel, anticipating the steam turbine
    developed by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.
   1680: Dutch physicist Christian Huygens makes the first piston engine
    using a simple cylinder and piston powered by exploding gunpowder.
    They realizes steam is a better way to drive a cylinder and piston.
   1698: Thomas Savery develops a steam-powered water pump called the
    Miner's Friend. It's a simple reciprocating steam engine (or beam engine)
    for pumping water from mines.
 Then they changed to many times like
 in 1712,1770,1797,1803,
 And finally in 1884: English engineer
 Sir Charles Parsons develops the
 steam turbine for his high-speed
 steam boat Turbine.
   Steam engines were
    the first engine type to
    see widespread use.
    Steam engines
    -powered all early
    locomotives, steam
    boats and factories,
    and therefore acted as
    the foundation of
    the Industrial
   The Rankine cycle is the fundamental
    thermodynamic underpinning of the steam
    engine. This cycle is a cycle that converts heat
    into work. The heat is supplied externally to a
    closed loop, which in steam engines contains
    water and steam. It generates about 80% of
    all electric power used throughout the world,
    including virtually all solar thermal, biomass,
    coal and nuclear power plants.
Crudely speaking, there are four different parts in a steam
 1.A fire where the coal burns.
 2.A boiler full of water that the fire heats up to make
 3.A cylinder and piston
 4.A machine attached to the piston.
That's a very simplified description, of course. In reality, there are hundreds or
   perhaps even thousands of parts in even the smallest locomotive.

   It's easiest to see how everything works on our little
    side-on diagram of a steam locomotive, below.
   First, Inside the
    locomotive cab, you
    load coal into the
    firebox (1), which is
    quite literally a metal
    box containing a
    roaring coal fire.
   The boiler (2) in a
    steam locomotive
    doesn't look much like
    a kettle you'd use to
    make a cup of tea, but
    it works the same way,
    producing steam under
    high pressure.
   The steam generated
    in the boiler flows
    down into a cylinder (3)
    just ahead of the
    wheels, pushing a
    tight-fitting plunger,
    the piston (4), back
    and forth.
   Then the piston is
    connected to one or
    more of the
    locomotive's wheels
    through a kind of arm-
    elbow-shoulder joint
    called a crank and
    connecting rod(5).
   As the piston pushes,
    the crank and
    connecting rod turn
    the locomotive's
    wheels and power the
    train along (6).
   An finally the outlet
    valve opens and the
    piston pushes the
    steam back through
    the cylinder and out up
    the locomotive's
    chimney (7).
Steam engines have
been used to power a
wide array of transport
                    .
 Steam rocket
   Steamboat   steamship

steam yacht
   Steam locomotive   fireless locomotive
   Traction engine   steam tractor
   Steam wagon   steam bus

steam tricycle

   steam car
   In these applications internal
    combustion engines are now used
    due to their higher power-to-weight
    ratio , lower maintenance and space


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