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The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland lies at the top-left edge of the Europe, separated from mainland by the
North Sea and the English Channel
It consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

England-is the largest and most populous unit in the country. There are large areas of flat plains on the east. They use
to be marshes and were drained to produce a rich agricultural landscape similar to Netherlands. Uplands are more
common in northern and western England.
Wales-it became part of England in 1282 but keeps separate language and national identity. Wales and Scotland are
dominated more by mountains and uplands; the highest mountain in the Wales is Snowdon.

Scotland-Scotland and England were governed by the same rulers after 1603 and united in 1707 to form the GB. The
most of Scotland surface are the mountains and uplands. North and west of the Central Lowlands are the Highlands
which include Ben Nevis, at nearly 1400 metres, the highest point in Britain.

Northern Ireland-also has a more rolling scenery (E-Antrim, N-Giant’s Causeway).

Climate-The climate is said to be very rainy. But it’s not true. The climate of Britain is more or less the same as that of
the north-western part of the European mainland. It is famous for being changeable and unpredictable. There is a saying,
that Britain don’t have a climate, it only has a weather (the same is that Agatha Christie says that the Britain don’t have a
cuisine but they only have a food). The mild winters in GB mean that snow is typical for the higher areas only. The winters
are in general a bit colder in the east of the country than they are in the west. The summer is known to be warmer and
sunnier in the south that in the north.
         In Britain, there is lack of extreme conditions, that's why when it gets genuinely hot or freezing cold, the country
seems to be totally unprepared for it.

Waterways-The Severn and the Thames are the longest rivers. Other famous rivers are the Avon, Clydem Mersey,
Trent and Tyne. Many rivers are canalised and are linked with other rivers in complex system dating from the Industrial

Vegetation and resources-Forests cover only 7% of the land-the rest of green are the hedgerows and pastures.
Britain has large deposits of oil, natural gas-and Britain now exports much oil.

People and history-In Britain live about 57 Millions inhabitants. About 83of the population live in the England, 9in
Scotland, 5 in Wales and 3in the Northern Ireland. The original inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celtic people. In
43 AD the Romans started occupy the country, they left in 410 AD.
During 5th -8th centuries a lot of Germanic tribes from Europe started to the British Isles. They settled nearly the whole
England. A lot of Celtic people escaped to the mountainous regions (Wales, Cournwalls and Scotland).
At time old English language started to develop. It was a mixture of Celtic, Latin and Germany languages. By the 11th
century when William of Conqueror came to the country the language was highly developed with its own word stock,
structures and pronunciation, as well as grammar. In today’s time is the official language of Great Britain English. There
are minority languages which are spoken by some people in Western Wales, West - Highlands, and in the Irish Republic.

Languages-the main language is English. The others are Welsh (500,000 people) and Scottish 60,000 people).

Transport-Nearly 2,500 kilometres of motorways add to Britain’s highway system based on over 13,000 kilometres of
main roads radiating out from London. Railways was nationalised in 1947 and service was modernised by British railways
which operated about an 18k kilometres of track.

Trade-about half of all export consists of machinery and transport equipment, non-metallic minerals and professional and
scientific instruments or oil and chemical products. The country’s major import include machinery and transport
equipment, oil and other raw materials, paper, food and live animals and textiles. Main trading partners are the European
Union and United States.

Government-Britain is a constitution monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. The ruling sovereign is Queen
Elizabeth II.; the heir apparent is Prince Charles, who by tradition as the oldest son of the monarch is Prince of Wales.
The Prime minister is appointed by the sovereign as the leader of the majority party or coalition of parties in the house of
Commons. The main political parties include are the Labour Party (Tony Blair) and the Conservative Party (William
        General Election must be held every 5 years and may be held at more frequent intervals. 18 is minimum voting
age, candidates must be 21 or over. Most important parties are the Conservatives, Labour, Liberal and Social
The party which wins sufficient seats at a general election to command a majority of supporters in the House of Commons
forms the Government.
The party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the official opposition.
The British Constitution, unlike that of most other countries, is not written as a single document. It is formed partly by
statute, partly by common and partly by convention. It can be altered by an Act of Parliament, or by general agreement to
change a convention.

Demography-Britain is highly urbanised, only the Netherlands and Belgium are more densely populated in Europe. The
most sparsely populated areas are the Highlands of Scotland, uplands areas of Wales and the Pennines.
The Midlands: has always been a centre of industry in Britain. During the industrial revolution this area, which is
sometimes called The Black Country, developed into the engineering centre of the state.
         Nowadays there are modern heavy industry factories for converting iron and steel. The biggest and most
important cities are Birmingham being the second largest city in Great Britain, Manchester, Leads, Sheffield and Liverpool
being the other industrial towns.
         But there is not only heavy industry, between The Black Country and Manchester, there are cities, which are
known as The Potteries famous for China Industry. It is for example Wengewood, Spode and Minton, and several cities in
East Midlands, like Derby, Leicester or Nottingham. Fishing is also important in this area. Grimsby is one of the Britain’s
most important fishing port.
         The Midlands are mostly industrial area, but you can also found a beautiful place here, like Shakespeare’s
country around his birthplace, Stratford upon Avon. Or Nottingham is famous for the legend of Robin Hood.
Southern England: This is the most densely populated area in the UK which does not include large cities and million of
its inhabitants travel into London to work every day.
         The county of Kent is known as “The Garden of England“, because of the many kinds of fruit and vegetables
grown there. The Downs, a series of hills to the south of England, are used for sheep farming. Employment in the south-
east of England is mainly in trade and manufacturing. There is little heavy industry. The region known as “The West
Country” is important for some industry and one large city – Bristol (once, it was Britain’s most important port).
         Some parts of the west country are well known for their dairy produce such as Devonshire cream and fruit.
         East England, to the north-east of London, is the only region in Britain where there are large expanses of
uniformly flat land. It is the main area in the country for the growing of wheat and other arable crops.
         There are no towns here in Norfolk Broads, so this is popular area for boating holidays. It’s criss-crossed by
hundred of waterways.

Geographical Identity-A sense of identity based on a place of birth is, like family identity not very common in most
parts of Great Britain. People are just too mobile and very fewly live in the same place for all their lives. There is quite a
lot of local pride, desprite arises because people are happy to live in what they consider to be a nice place and often
when they’re fighting to preserve it.
          English people see themselves as “northerners” or “southerners”. The south is, on the whole, richer than the
north, and the domination of the media by the affairs of London is obvious. This leads to resentments in the north. This
reinforces the pride of northerners in their roots. The northerners see themselves as tougjhest, more honeyst and
warmer-hearted than the hpocrytical and unfriendly southerners.
          To people in the south the south the stereotypical northerner (usually a male) is rather ignorant uncultured and
interested only in sport and beer-drinking.
       People in different parts of England speak different dialogues. The northern and southern dialect,
Cornish dialect, Cockney dialect in London sspoken mostly in the east-end part of city, eastern suburbs of
London and the area of the south of the Thames.
       Cockney dialect: Is associated with the working class origins of people living in London in the east-end,
nearby St. Marry-be-Bow around the sound of Bow Bells (the church).
       ‘loaf of bread’ = head
       ‘trouble and strife’ = wife

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