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Who Says You Can 't Fight City Hall - National Environmental

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Who Says You Can 't Fight City Hall - National Environmental Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                         C A T EM G O R Y
                                                                         F R O       T H E     E D I T O R                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         J U R I E D       A R T I C L E
                                                                                                                                                Helping America’s Small Communities Meet Their Wastewater Needs

                                                                                                                                                Small Flows Quarterly is sponsored by:                                                                                                                                                                            Evaluation of High-Porosity
                                                                                                                                                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                                                                                                                                                                              Medium in Intermittently
                                                                            Letter from the Editor                                              Steve Hogye | Project Officer                                                                                                                                                                                     Dosed, Multi-Pass Packed
                                                                                                                                                Municipal Support Division, Office of Wastewater Management, Washington, D.C.
                                                                                                                                                National Small Flows Clearinghouse at West Virginia University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bed Filters for the
                                                                                                                                                John L. Mori, Ph.D. | Manager                                                                                                                                                                                     Treatment of Wastewater
                                                                                  Welcome to another spring issue of the Small Flows Quar-      WVU National Environmental Services Center
                                                                             terly. Like the rest of the staff here, I am overjoyed at seeing
                                                                             the end of winter. The experience, however, of having the
                                                                             water line to my house freeze solid for a week each winter
                                                                                                                                                Peter Casey, P. Eng. | Program Coordinator
                                                                                                                                                Timothy Suhrer | Editor                                                                                                                                                                                            28 Three configurations of non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      woven textile fabric (NWTF)
                                                                                                                                                Cathleen Falvey | Associate Editor                                                                                                                                                                                        in a multi-pass, packed bed
                                                                             when an unexpected temperature plunge into the single dig-         John Fekete | Graphic Designer                                                                                                                                                                                    filter were evaluated for the treat-
                                                         Tim Suhrer,        its catches me without my faucets trickling overnight, has left     Colleen Mackne | Promotions Writer/Editor
                                                         Small Flows                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ment of primary effluent. The config-
                                                                            an indelible impression on my psyche.                               Caigan C. McKenzie | Staff Writer
                                                         Quarterly Edi-                                                                         Marilyn Noah | Staff Writer                                                                                                                                                                                       urations included hanging sheets, a
                                                                                 That is why I am presenting you with a look into the per-
                                                         tor
                                                                            formance of various types of onsite wastewater treatment sys-
                                                                                                                                                Natalie Eddy | Staff Writer                                                                                                                                                                                       packed bed of chips, and a layered,
                                                                                                                                                Jennifer Hause | Engineering Scientist
                                                                            tems in cold weather (p. 12). It’s comforting to know that as       Tricia Angoli | Engineering Scientist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  packed bed of chips. Performance
                                                                   long as you can keep your water running, your treatment system will
                                                                                                                                                Andrew Lake | Engineering Scientist                                                                                                                                                                               comparisons were made between
                                                                   not let you down (at least not because of the weather).
                                                                                                                                                Article Submissions                                                                                                                                                                                               similarly loaded NWTF and sand fil-
                                                                                                                                                Small Flows Quarterly welcomes letters to the editor, articles, news
                                                                        What I am looking forward to is warm weather recreation, fishing        items, photographs, or other materials for publication. Please address                                                                                                                                            ters that indicated that medium size
                                                                                                                                                correspondence to:
                                                                   in particular, and that’s an activity that requires a healthy body of                                                                                                                                                                                                                          sand beds clogged and coarse size
                                                                                                                                                   Editor, Small Flows Quarterly
                                                                   water. Lakes are particularly at risk from pollution from failed onsite         National Small Flows Clearinghouse                                                                                                                                                                             sand beds deteriorated in effluent
                                                                                                                                                   West Virginia University                                                                                                           I N   T H I S             I S S U E . . .
                                                                   treatment systems, and one of this issue’s management case studies              P.O. Box 6064
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  quality compared to the NWTF filters.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4 News & Notes
                                                                   (our cover story, p. 16) is a look at a lakeside community in Colorado          Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
                                                                                                                                                   (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191
                                                                   that has brought that issue under control.                                      http://www.nsfc.wvu.edu                                                           5 Calendar of Events
                                                                        Sharon Nelson has been fondly called, “the homeowner from               Juried Article Review Board                                                          7 Web Watch
                                                                                                                                                James A. Bell, P.E., Smith & Loveless, Inc., Lenexa, KS
                                                                   hell.” Anyone who has attended the national and regional environ-
                                                                                                                                                Steven Berkowitz, P.E., North Carolina Department of Environment                     8 Small Flows Forum
                                                                   mental conferences at which she has presented will be familiar with              and Natural Resources
                                                                   how she was instrumental in bringing about legislation in Washing-           Terry Bounds, P.E., Roseberg, OR                                                    10 NODP Update
                                                                   ton State that regulates the licensing and certification of onsite waste-
                                                                                                                                                Craig Cogger, Ph.D., Washington State University, Puyallup                                                                                                                                           Onsite Systems Management
                                                                                                                                                James Converse, Ph.D., P.E., University of Wisconsin                                38 Question/Answer                                                                                                in the
                                                                   water treatment system designers. For those of you who aren’t famil-
                                                                   iar with it, we are presenting her story in this issue (p. 18), along with
                                                                   a heads up on a proposed national plan to provide homeowners with
                                                                                                                                                Brian Cooper, C.E.T., Simcoe Engineering Group, Ltd., Pickering, Ontario
                                                                                                                                                Ron Crites, P.E., Brown and Caldwell, Sacramento, CA
                                                                                                                                                Donald Gray, Ph.D., West Virginia University
                                                                                                                                                Mark Gross, Ph.D., P.E., University of Arkansas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    43 Products List
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rockies
                                                                   septic system insurance (p. 21).                                             David Gustafson, P.E., University of Minnesota
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50 Closing Thoughts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Caigan McKenzie
                                                                                                                                                Michael Hines, M.S., P.E., Southeast Environmental Engineering, Knoxville, TN
                                                                        Sometimes duplication of services is a bad thing, causing an or-        Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., Virginia Department of Health



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16
                                                                   ganization to spend money and resources unnecessarily. That is not           Craig Jowett, Ph.D., P. Eng., University of Waterloo, Ontario                                                                                                                                                      Crystal Lakes, Colorado, is a popular
                                                                                                                                                Jim Kreissl, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                                                                                                                                                                  recreational community in the Rocky
                                                                   the case in the onsite wastewater treatment industry, particularly
                                                                                                                                                George Loomis, University of Rhode Island
                                                                   when it comes to demonstration projects. As you will see in the story        Ted L. Loudon, Ph.D., P.E., Michigan State University                                                                                                                                                              Mountains. In 1972, the Colorado
                                                                   about the NODP II demonstration project in Centerville, Pennsylva-           Roger E. Machmeier, Ph.D., P.E., University of Minnesota                                                                                                                                                           legislature passed a water augmenta-
                                                                                                                                                Karen M. Mancl, Ph.D., The Ohio State University
                                                                   nia (p. 10), the technology-testing there will be duplicated under sim-                                                                                                                                                                                                           tion law that regulated water use. Crystal Lakes
                                                                                                                                                Don P. Manthe, P.E., Entranco, Phoenix, AZ                                          Baby, It’s COLD Outside!
                                                                   ilar conditions in Central Europe. Sharing technology could open new         Stewart Oakley, Ph.D., P.E., California State University, Chico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Techniques for Onsite                                                                                            had to come up with a management plan that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Photo courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                                                                   markets for U.S. onsite professionals, but it will certainly result in a     Michael H. Ogden, P.E., Santa Fe, NM
                                                                                                                                                Richard J. Otis, Ph.D., P.E., Madison, WI                                           Success in Cold Climates                                                                                         could ensure the community’s compliance with the
                                                                   broader database for the benefit of all.                                     Mike A. Parker, i.e. Engineering Inc., Roseburg, OR                                                                                                                                                  state regulation as well as control development
                                                                                                                                                Frank Pearson, Ph.D., P.E., Hercules, CA                                            Marilyn Noah
                                                                                                                                                Sherwood Reed, P.E., Norwich, VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     around the three lakes. The use of onsite systems
                                                                                                                                                R. B. Reneau Jr., Ph.D., Virginia Tech                                                                                                                                                               is extensive in Crystal Lakes.
                                                                                                                                                Will Robertson, Ph.D., University of Waterloo, Ontario
                                                                                                                                                A. R. Rubin, Ph.D., North Carolina State University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12      The latest research reveals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            that alternative onsite sys-
                                                                                                                                                William A. Sack, Ph.D., P.E., West Virginia University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tems, such as constructed                 10    Centerville, PA—World-Class Demonstration
                                                                                                                                                C. M. Sawyer, Ph.D., P.E., Virginia Department of Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    wetlands, sand filters, and peat                        Caigan McKenzie
                                                                                                                                                Robert L. Siegrist, Ph.D., P.E., Colorado School of Mines
                                                                                                                                                Dennis Sievers, Ph.D., University of Missouri                                       filters, seem to function effec-
                                                                                                                                                Steve Steinbeck, P.G., North Carolina Department of Environment                     tively in cold weather, although                  18    Who Says You Can’t Fight City Hall?
                                                                                                                                                    and Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                                Jerry Stonebridge, Stonebridge Construction, Inc., Langley, WA                      at a reduced level, as long as                          How One Homeowner Made a Difference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Natalie Eddy
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                      Got an Opinion?                                                           William L. Stuth Sr., Stuth Company Inc., Maple Valley, WA                          they were designed carefully and
                                                                                                                                                George Tchobanoglous, Ph.D., P.E., University of California, Davis                  afforded adequate maintenance.
                                                                      Who wants your opinion? The editor of the Small Flows Quar-
                                                                                                                                                Jerry Tyler, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                Ted Walker, R.E.H.S., Sonoma County Health Department, Sonoma, CA                                                                     22    DuPage County Illinois Health Department:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An Unconventional Approach to Onsite
                                                                      terly does, and not just as a “letter to the editor,” either. Our         A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., P.E., Professor, University of Idaho

                                                                      “Forum” column is a place where readers can share informed,
                                                                                                                                                Robert C. Ward, Ph.D., P.E., Colorado State University                                                                                      Systems Management
                                                                                                                                                The National Small Flows Clearinghouse, established by the U.S. Environmental                                                               Caigan McKenzie
                                                                      well-thought-out ideas that they feel will be of value to peo-            Protection Agency under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1977 and located
                                                                      ple involved in the treatment of wastewater, both onsite and              at West Virginia University, gathers and distributes information about small com-
                                                                                                                                                munity wastewater systems. Small Flows Quarterly is funded through a grant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24    Small-Diameter Gravity Sewers
                                                                      small centralized systems.                                                from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Can Mean Big Savings for Communities
                                                                                                                                                Reprints
                                                                                                                                                For permission to reprint information appearing in Small Flows Quarterly,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cathleen Falvey
                                                                      We are open to all aspects of small-flow wastewater treatment,            please send a letter of request to the editor.
                                                                      such as technology, management, regulation, operation, and                International Standard Serial Number
                                                                      maintenance. Please send your opinions (for the Forum col-                1528-6827
                                                                      umn, 750 to 1000 words) to the Small Flows Quarterly editor               The contents of this newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views and policies
                                                                                                                                                of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or
                                                                      at the address on the staff box on this page.                             commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                                                                                                                                Printed on recycled paper




                                                                                                                                                                                                              ®                      On the cover: Recreational lakes, such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     this one in the Colorado Rockies, are particu-
        2                                                                                                                                       An Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     larly at risk from failed onsite systems.
                                                         N E W S    &    N O T E S                                                                                                                                                                                                          N E W S     &   N O T E S




                                                          EPA Proposes New Controls To Reduce Water
                                                            Pollution from Large Livestock Operations                                                                                                                   Calendar of Events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TNRCC Environmental Trade          Onsite Wastewater Disposal
                                                                                                                                                                                            APRIL                            Fair and Conference                Systems: Regulation, Design,                    JUNE
                                                              The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency            facilities with more than 500 cattle or other animal                                                                                          Inspection, Operation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Texas Natural Resource
                                                         (EPA) is proposing strict new controls to protect        units. The other proposal would require operations          Third Annual Onsite                            Conservation Commission            Maintenance                         1st International Congress on
                                                         public health and the environment from one of the                                                                                                                                                      Cook College-Rutgers University     Ultraviolet Technologies
                                                                                                                  with 300–1,000 cattle to have permits if they meet          Wastewater System Regulators’                  April 30–May 2
                                                                                                                                                                              Conference*                                                                       Office of Continuing Professional   International Ultraviolet
                                                         nation’s leading causes of water pollution—animal        certain risk-based conditions.                                                                             Austin, Texas                                                          Association
                                                                                                                                                                              National Small Flows                           (512) 239-3150                     Education
                                                         wastes from large, industrial feedlot operations.            In addition to stricter permitting requirements,                                                                                                                              June 14–16
                                                                                                                                                                              Clearinghouse                                  www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/exec/sbea/   May 16 and 23
                                                              On December 15, 2000, EPA Assistant Admin-          the proposal includes several new controls:                                                                                                   Cook College-Rutgers University     Hyatt Regency on Capital Hill
                                                                                                                                                                              April 17–21                                    etf/etf.html
                                                         istrator for Water, J. Charles Fox, said, “Wastes from       • poultry, veal, and swine operations would be                                                                                            New Brunswick, New Jersey           Washington, D.C.
                                                                                                                                                                              Washington, D.C.
                                                         large factory farms are among the greatest threats               required to prevent all discharges from their                                                                                         Carol Broccoli (732) 932-9271,      Kathy Harvey (519) 632-8190
                                                                                                                                                                              Contact Sandy Miller or Peter                              MAY                                                        kharvey@iuva.org
                                                         to our nation’s waters and drinking water supplies.              waste storage pits and lagoons where wastes         Casey                                                                             ext. 618
                                                         Today, EPA is taking action to protect public health                                                                 (800) 624-8301                                                                    Fax: (732) 932-1187
                                                                                                                          are collected;                                                                                     Management of Operation            www.cook.rutgers.edu/~ocpe          AWWA Annual Conference &
                                                         and the environment by significantly controlling             • the proposal eliminates potential exemptions          smiller2@wvu.edu                               and Maintenance Programs                                               Exposition
                                                                                                                                                                              pcasey@wvu.edu                                 for Pump Stations and Force                                            American Water Works
                                                         pollution from animal feeding operations.”                       from permits presently used in some states—         www.nsfc.wvu.edu                               Mains                              National Environmental Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Forum and 31st AMSA Annual          Association
                                                              The livestock industry has undergone dramat-                as a result, EPA expects that all large livestock                                                  University of Nevada Las Vegas,                                        June 17–21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Meeting
                                                         ic changes in the past 20 years, consolidating scat-             operations will now have to acquire permits;        Third NSF International Sym-                   Division of Continuing Education   The Association of Metropolitan     Washington, D.C.
                                                                                                                                                                              posium and Technology Expo                     May 2–4
                                                         tered, smaller facilities into fewer but vastly larger       • under this proposal, EPA and the states will          on Small Drinking Water and                                                       Sewerage Agencies                   (303) 347-6195
                                                         feeding operations that result in greater and more               issue co-permits for corporations and con-          Wastewater Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Stardust Hotel                     May 19–23                           www.awwa.org
                                                                                                                                                                              April 22–25                                    Las Vegas, Nevada                  Washington, D.C.
                                                         concentrated generation of wastes. An estimated                  tract growers to ensure financial resources                                                        (702) 895-3394                                                         Decision Support Systems
                                                         376,000 large and small livestock operations that                                                                    Crystal Gateway Marriott                                                          (202) 833-2672
                                                                                                                          exist to meet environmental requirements;                                                          Fax: (702) 895-4195MAY             www.amsa-cleanwater.org
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for Water Resources
                                                                                                                                                                              Washington, D.C.                                                                                                      Management
                                                         confine animals generate approximately 128 bil-              • the spreading of manure on the land owned             (734) 913-5789                                 Technology: Making Public                                              American Water Resources
                                                         lion pounds of manure each year. Typically, these                by livestock facilities would be limited to pro-    Fax: (734) 827-6840/6831                                                          Idaho Operators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Works Better                       Water/Wastewater
                                                         facilities confine beef and dairy cattle, hogs, and              tect waterways.                                     farmer@nsf.org                                 Urban and Regional Information                                         June 27–30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Conference
                                                         chickens.                                                    In March 1999, EPA and the U.S. Department                                                             Systems Association                Southeast Idaho Operators Sec-      Snowbird Conference Center and
                                                                                                                                                                              Class II Designer/Installer                                                                                           Resort
                                                              Nationwide, nearly 40 percent of surveyed wa-       of Agriculture issued a Unified National Strategy           Course
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             May 6–8                            tion of the Pacific Northwest
                                                         ters are too polluted for fishing or swimming.           for Animal Feeding Operations in response to pub-                                                          Rosemont, Illinois                 Pollution Control Association       Snowbird, Utah
                                                                                                                                                                              West Virginia Onsite Wastewater                                                                                       (540) 687-8390
                                                         Some 60 percent of river pollution comes from all                                                                    Association                                    (847) 824-6300                     May 20–23
                                                                                                                  lic concern about contamination of rivers, lakes,                                                                                                                                 www.awra.org/meetings/
                                                                                                                                                                              April 24–25                                    www.urisa.org                      Idaho Falls, Idaho
                                                         kinds of agricultural runoff, including livestock op-    streams, coastal waters, and groundwater from
                                                                                                                                                                              West Virginia On-Site Training                                                    David Smith
                                                         erations. Pollution from livestock is associated with    livestock manure. This latest proposal is seen as                                                          Soils 101—Field Description        (208) 529-1108
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    National Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                              Center                                         of Soils                                                               Health Association (NEHA)*
                                                         many types of waterborne disease, as well as prob-       an important step in that strategy.                         Westvaco Natural Resources                                                        ifsewer@ci.idaho-falls.id.us        65th Annual Educational Confer-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             North Carolina Soils and On-Site
                                                         lems like pfiesteria outbreaks that have plagued             EPA will take public comment for 120 days               Conference Center                                                                                                     ence and Exhibition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Training Academy                   Designing Best Management
                                                         the Chesapeake Bay, red tides, algae blooms, and         (from December 15) and will hold public meet-               Morgantown, West Virginia                      May 9–10                                                               June 30–July 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Practices for Stormwater
                                                         the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.                     ings around the country on the proposal. Addi-              Sandra Markovic or Randy Levelle               Raleigh, North Carolina            Quality Improvement                 Hyatt Regency Atlanta,
                                                              The new requirements would apply to as many         tional information is available on EPA’s Office of          (800) 624-8301                                 (919) 513-1678                     University of Wisconsin-Madison     Atlanta, Georgia
                                                                                                                                                                              Fax: (304) 293-3161                            www.soil.ncsu.edu/training/        May 22–24                           (303) 756-9090, ext. 0
                                                         as 39,000 concentrated animal feeding operations         Water Web site at www.epa.gov/owm/afo.htm.                  rlevelle@wvu.edu                                                                                                      www.neha.orgJULY
                                                         (CAFOs) across the country. Today, only an estimat-                                                                                                                                                    Madison, Wisconsin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Second National Conference         (800) 462-0876
                                                         ed 2,500 large and small livestock operations have                                                                   National Tribal Environmental                  on Nonpoint Source Pollution       epd.engr.wisc.edu                               JULY
                                                                                                                                                                              Council (NTEC) 8th National                    Information and Education
                                                         enforceable permits under the Clean Water Act. A                                                                     Conference                                     Programs                           2001 Design-Build Odyssey:          2001 A Collection Systems
                                                         CAFO is currently defined as having 1,000 or more                                                                    April 24–26                                    Illinois Environmental Protec-                                         Odyssey: Integrating O&M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Water and Wastewater
                                                         cattle or comparable “animal units” of other                                                                         Miami, Florida                                 tion Agency, U.S. Environmental    Projects                            and Wet Weather Solutions




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         livestock. Smaller operations may also be                                                                            (505) 242-2175                                 Protection Agency, and Chicago     Water Environment Federation        Water Environment Federation
                                                         CAFOs if they are a threat to water                                                                                  ntec@ntec.org                                  Botanic Garden                     May 31–June 1                       July 8–11
                                                                                                                                                                              www.ntec.org                                   May 14–17                          Portland, Maine                     Bellevue, Washington
                                                         quality. EPA is co-proposing two op-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Congress Plaza Hotel               Susan Merther (703) 684-2417        Susan Merther (703) 684-2417
                                                            tions for a new CAFO definition.                                                                                  Water Quality Monitoring and                   Chicago, Illinois                  www.wef.org/Conferences/            www.wef.org/Conferences/
                                                               One proposed definition could                                                                                  Modeling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Bob Kirschner (847) 835-6837
                                                                        include livestock                                                                                     American Water Resources                       Fax: (837) 835-1635                                                    Coastal Zone 2001
                                                                                                                                                                              Association                                    Bkirschn@chicagobotanic.org                                            National Oceanic and Atmos-
                                                                                                                                                                              April 30–May 2                                                                                                        pheric Administration Coastal
                                                                                                                                                                              Menger Hotel                                                                                                          Services Center
                                                                                                                                                                              San Antonio, Texas                                                                                                    July 15–19
                                                                                                                                                                              www.awra.org/meetings/                                                                                                The Cleveland Convention Center
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cleveland, Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    www.csc.noaa.gov/cz2001/index.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    html
                                                                                                                                                                              If your organization is sponsoring an event that you would like to have promoted in this calendar, please send information to the Small Flows Quarterly,
                                                                                                                                                                              Attn. Cathleen Falvey, National Small Flows Clearinghouse, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6064, Morgantown, WV 26506-6064. Or you may contact Ms.
                                                                                                                                                                              Falvey at (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191, ext. 5526, or via e-mail at cfalvey@wvu.edu.
                                                                                                                                                                              * Denotes that NSFC staff will be attending.


        4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5
                                                                     N E W S    &    N O T E S                                                                                                                                                                                        W E B   W A T C H




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Web
                                                         USDA Offers Loan and
                                                         Grant Funding for Small
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wastewater on the
                                                         Community Wastewater
                                                         Projects
                                                             The U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                         (USDA) offers loan and grant money
                                                         geared for small community wastewater
                                                         treatment projects through the Rural Utili-
                                                         ties Service. The U.S. Environmental Pro-
                                                         tection Agency provides general informa-
                                                         tion about this program on its Web site at                                                                                 The Biosolids Lifecycle                      Idaho, and Alaska in the U.S., and in       Groundwater Remediation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 British Columbia, Canada. The organi-       Technology Analysis Center
                                                         www.epa.gov/owm/sc/usda/index.htm.                                                                                         www.deh.enr.state.nc.us/oww/index.htm                                                    (GWRTAC)
                                                                                                                                                                                        This is the site of the onsite waste-    zation focuses on finding safe, eco-        www.gwrtac.org/
                                                                                                                                                                                    water section of the North Carolina          nomical ways to manage biosolids,

                                                         Model Ordinances for Water
                                                                                                              Many Earth Day Resources                                              Department of Environment and Nat-           and its Web site provides information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 about biosolids use, proposed regula-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GWRTAC is a specialized national
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             environmental technology transfer
                                                         Quality Protection Available                           Available on Internet                                               ural Resources. It provides information
                                                                                                                                                                                    about onsite wastewater treatment,           tions, and related links. In the “What’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             center that provides current informa-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tion concerning innovative groundwa-
                                                                                                                                                                                    land application, and regulations. The       New” section, readers can access arti-      ter remediation technologies. Its Web
                                                              Model ordinances for water quality                                                                                    site’s menu grid leads to documents          cles from issues of the NBMA’s month-       site contains a search engine, vendor
                                                                                                           On April 22, millions of people worldwide will be participating in the
                                                         protection are available on the U.S. En-                                                                                   about such topics as basic septic sys-       ly publication, Biosolids Bulletin, view    information database, and links to
                                                                                                       31st anniversary celebration of Earth Day!                                                                                a calendar of events, and read news
                                                         vironmental Protection Agency’s Web                                                                                        tem maintenance and abandonment,                                                         technical documents. Conference pre-
                                                                                                           Earth Day activities provide opportunities to address global environ-                                                 postings about biosolids-related issues.
                                                         site. The site offers both model and real-                                                                                 experimental and innovative systems,                                                     sentations can be downloaded, and a
                                                                                                       mental concerns, as well as a chance for individuals and communities to      onsite wastewater rules and regula-
                                                         life examples of ordinances that address                                                                                                                                                                            page provides descriptions of upcom-
                                                                                                       focus on their local environmental problems. Groups can organize                                                          National Biosolids Partnership
                                                         the following topics: aquatic buffers, ero-                                                                                tions, and environmental impacts of          (NBP)                                       ing events related to groundwater re-
                                                                                                       cleanups, parades, fairs, conferences, and even art and essay contests.      nutrients and pathogens.
                                                         sion and sediment control, open space                                                                                                                                   www.biosolids.org                           mediation. Links to related Web sites
                                                                                                       Other ways to get involved include encouraging the use of recycled prod-         Other menu items include guide-
                                                         development, stormwater control oper-                                                                                                                                       The goal of the NBP, a not-for-profit   are available, and a page provides con-
                                                                                                       ucts, restoring or improving local parks and beaches, supporting preserva-   lines for application approvals, such as
                                                         ation and maintenance, illicit discharges,                                                                                                                              alliance formed in 1997 by the Associ-      tact information for EPA and state ad-
                                                                                                       tion efforts for endangered species, conserving water, composting food       subsurface discharge approvals for in-
                                                         post-construction runoff control, and                                                                                                                                   ation of Metropolitan Sewerage Agen-        ministrators.
                                                                                                       and yard debris, and using only biodegradable soaps and detergents.          dustrial-process wastewater; filters, ris-
                                                         more. The site also includes supporting                                                                                                                                 cies (AMSA), Water Environment Fed-
                                                                                                           Information about Earth Day activities can be found on the World Wide    ers, and seals approvals; and aerobic                                                    National Groundwater
                                                         materials such as examples of meeting                                                                                                                                   eration (WEF), and U.S. Environmental       Association (NGWA)
                                                                                                       Web. Listed below are Internet sites that suggest Earth Day projects and     treatment unit approval. There are           Protection Agency (EPA), is to advance
                                                         notices, inspection checklists, and links                                                                                                                                                                           www.ngwa.org/
                                                                                                       ideas for how you can celebrate Earth Day in your community:                 also training manuals and links.             environmentally sound and accepted
                                                         to other related Web sites. To view the                                                                                                                                                                                 NGWA’s membership is made up of
                                                                                                           • Earth Day by John McConnel, Founder of Earth Day:                                                                   biosolids management practices. The
                                                         ordinances on the Web, go to                                                                                               New England Biosolids and                                                                contractors, scientists and engineers,
                                                                                                             www.earthsite.org/                                                     Residuals Association (NEBRA)                Web site’s “Newsroom” page offers
                                                         www.epa.gov/owow/nps/ordinance.                                                                                                                                                                                     manufacturers, and wholesale distribu-
                                                                                                           • EPA Earth Day: www.epa.gov/earthday/                                   www.nebiosolids.org/                         weekly updated news items concerning        tors. The site provides industry and as-
                                                                                                           • Earthday.Org: www.earthday.net/                                            NEBRA is a nonprofit organization        biosolids use, regulation, and research.    sociation news; a vendor database; a
                                                                                                           • Heartland All Species Project Earth Day Block Event Planning:          made up of public utilities, individu-       A calendar page tracks industry-related     calendar of events; downloads of the
                                                         New Compliance Assistance                           www.allspecies.org/neigh/blocka.htm                                    als, and companies throughout the            events, and a “Toolbox” page contains       association’s bimonthly publication,
                                                         Clearinghouse                                     • San Diego EarthTimes and Earth Day:                                    Northeastern U.S. solely dedicated to        links to reports, fact sheets,                       Ground Water; a bookstore;
                                                                                                             www.earthdayweb.org/                                                   understanding and facilitating the re-       and other                                                      search engine; and
                                                             A new compliance assistance clear-            • New York Earth Day Links: home.dti.net/earthday/links.html             cycling of biosolids and other residu-       technical                                                          links to related
                                                         inghouse is available on the Internet.            • Earth Day 2000 Network: www.earthday.net/                              als. A “Question and Answer” page            documents                                                             sites.
                                                         The National Compliance Assistance                • The Wilderness Society’s Earth Day ‘01 Site:                           describes biosolids, wastewater treat-       a b o u t
                                                         Clearinghouse was developed by the                  earthday.wilderness.org                                                ment, and biosolids management.              biosolids.
                                                         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency              • Earth Day Coalition: www.earthdaycoalition.org/                        Other pages contain information              The site
                                                                                                                                                                                    about biosolids use in New England,          also of-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         (EPA), states, and other key stakehold-           • Earth Day Online: home.dti.net/earthday/index.html
                                                         ers. It provides quick access to compli-          • Contra Costa County Earth Day Festival:                                the history of biosolids use, and            fers con-
                                                         ance tools, contacts, and planned activ-            www.ccearthday.org/                                                    biosolids research. A “News” section         tact in-
                                                         ities from across EPA, as well as from            • Earth Day Online Education:                                            provides press releases concerning           formation for
                                                         other compliance assistance providers,              home.dti.net/earthday/edwebres.html                                    biosolids, and other pages list              regional and
                                                                                                           • San Diego EarthWorks: www.earthdayweb.org/                             biosolids products available in New          n a t i o n a l
                                                         such as the Local Government Environ-
                                                                                                           • Cleveland Earth Day Coalition:                                         England and give advice on their use.        biosolids and
                                                         mental Assistance Network (LGEAN).
                                                                                                             www.edf.org/pubs/EDF-Letter/1998/Nov/u_scp.html                        There is a calendar of events and a          pretreatment
                                                         This clearinghouse also provides a dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                    links page to biosolids-related sites.       coordinators in
                                                         cussion forum to promote collaboration            • YouthCaN: Youth Communications and Networking:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EPA and state
                                                         and information exchange. For more in-              www.nyu.edu/projects/youthcan/                                         Northwest Biosolid Management                offices.
                                                         formation about this clearinghouse, call          • Arbor Heights Elementary School in Seattle:                            Association (NBMA)
                                                         Emily Chow of EPA at (202) 564-7071                 www.halcyon.com/arborhts/                                              www.nwbiosolids.org/
                                                         or e-mail her at chow.emily@epa.gov.              • Earth Day Canada:                                                         NBMA membership is comprised
                                                         The clearinghouse is located on the In-             www.earthday.ca/EDy2k/Home/homefrm1.html                               of more than 205 sewerage agencies
                                                         ternet at www.epa.gov/clearinghouse.              • Earth Day in Alexandria, Virginia: alexearthday.org/                   and private companies that manage
                                                                                                                                                                                    biosolids in Washington, Oregon,


        6
                                                                                                                                                                                    www.nsfc.wvu.edu                                                                                                                                         7
                                                         F O R U M                                                                                                                                                                                                          F O R U M




                                                                       Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Performance
                                                                                                                                                                           the myths that restrict the use of aerobic treat-
                                                           A Multifaceted Relationship Between Design,                                                                     ment units. Four issues arise: the selection of units   Letters to the Editor
                                                             Installation, Operation, and Maintenance                                                                      for evaluation, the establishment and measure of
                                                                                                                                                                           a baseline, sampling practices, and sampling tech-      Dear Editor,
                                                                                                                                                                           niques. All of these issues contribute to the mis-
                                                                                                                                                                           information that often results.                         I want to comment on the article, “A Survey of Home
                                                                                                                                                                               Consider the issue of sample selection. Statis-     Aerobic Treatment Systems Operating in Six West Vir-
                                                                                                                                                                           ticians say random sampling provides the most           ginia Counties,” which appeared in the Fall 2000
                                                                                                   CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
                                                                                                                                                                           accurate results. Despite their best intentions for     issue of the Small Flows Quarterly.
                                                                                                  Bennette D. Burks, P.E.                                                  impartiality, bias is almost surely the result when
                                                                                                   Michael S. Price, R.S.                                                  the people conducting the study decide which in-        The authors make a very valid point in observing that
                                                                                                                                                                           formation to include, rather than having it deter-      mandatory lifetime maintenance should be required
                                                                                                                                                                           mined by the protocol. Such bias, which can exist       for these systems. Over a two-year period, I conduct-
                                                                                                                                                                           at an unconscious level, limits the applicability of    ed a small study of intermittent sand filters. I found
                                                             Much has been written recently about the per-      installer or regulator, and he or she will relate the      the data as surely as fraudulent data and/or mis-       that homeowners failed to conduct even the simple
                                                         formance of both new and not-so-new onsite             urban legends of how in the 1960’s aerobic treat-          takes.                                                  preventive maintenance of flushing the distribution
                                                         wastewater treatment technologies. The slant of        ment units were foist upon unsuspecting jurisdic-              Likewise, baselines (which are essential) may       pipes and checking pressure by measuring “squirt”
                                                         these articles is that “new” technology includes       tions. The manufacturers were promising com-               be lacking. The West Virginia study (Winter 2001        height. With one exception, this remained the case
                                                         aerobic treatment units while “not-so-new” in-         plete treatment, suitability for any soil or site con-     Small Flows Quarterly) concluded that aerobic           even when a reminder was mailed and accompanied
                                                         cludes a variety of technologies generally de-         dition, and no need for maintenance. The reality           treatment units performed poorly. Perhaps that’s        by an offer for free onsite instruction by the sanitar-
                                                         scribed as “passive,” including sand filters and the   was actually one of widespread pollution and eco-          true, in an absolute sense, for the units the sur-      ian at the homeowner’s convenience.
                                                         like. Generally, the performance of aerobic treat-     nomic disaster, as both fraudulent claims and a            vey party inspected, but corresponding data for
                                                         ment units has been explicitly or implicitly de-       gullible public increased. Ultimately, some juris-         other technologies are missing. It may be that          The county sanitary code now requires that a service
                                                         clared substandard. These declarations are due to      dictions banned the technology outright when               aerobic treatment units were performing as well         agreement be in place for properties served by alter-
                                                         lack of information about the technology, a lack       widespread “failures” became too numerous to               as, or better than, other technologies. Implied in      native wastewater treatment systems. Service
                                                         of understanding about how the technology              manage. Much has changed in the past 30 years.             their conclusion is that other technologies per-        providers are to be trained to meet the manufactur-
                                                         should be applied in specific situations, and a bias       The bias persists in some jurisdictions because        form better, but there are no corresponding data        er’s standards so that they are knowledgeable and
                                                         that seems to persist in some corners of the on-       aerobic treatment units seem to collide with               to support the implication. It might be the case        capable of trouble-shooting as well as performing the
                                                         site industry.                                         human nature. By design, aerobic treatment units           that all technologies in the study area perform         routine maintenance. This code change made the
                                                             It is the contention of aerobic treatment unit     are supposed to call attention to themselves               equally poorly for reasons that have nothing to         service agreement a part of the permitting process
                                                                                                                whenever there is a problem. For many people,                                                                      for alternative systems. (Septic systems and waste
                                                         manufacturers that many assessments of the per-                                                                   do with the inherent strengths or weaknesses of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   stabilization ponds are currently not subject to the
                                                         formance of onsite wastewater treatment tech-          particularly overtaxed regulators, eliminating the         any allowed technology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mandatory service agreement.)
                                                         nologies are made without adequate considera-          sources of complaints is a major time consumer.                Furthermore, valid conclusions must be based
                                                         tion of the factors involved in the theory, design,    The fact that aerobic treatment units call attention       on valid sampling and sample analysis. Sampling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   No matter how well-designed a treatment system is,
                                                         installation, operation, and maintenance of sys-       to themselves is essential. It is much easier and          techniques can dramatically effect the result. By
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   if routine maintenance is not conducted, the system
                                                         tems using the technology. In this essay, we will      less expensive to service an aerobic treatment unit        “technique,” we refer to the procedure for col-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cannot perform to meet standards. The permitting
                                                         focus on the performance of aerobic treatment          than to replace a drainfield clogged with solids or        lecting wastewater for analysis. We distinguish this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agency must require ongoing service/maintenance
                                                         units used to treat wastewater from residences.        grease. If regulators are inclined to view every           from sampling protocol, which is discussed next.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agreements as a condition of installation. Otherwise,
                                                         However, the issues raised are applicable to all       alarm as indicative of a technology failure (or sim-       If sampling ports are absent, it will be nearly im-     no permit is issued, the system (and building) is not
                                                         technologies used in onsite wastewater treatment       ply tire of responding to the phone calls), they           possible to collect samples that accurately reflect     built, and there is no problem.
                                                         and disposal.                                          have taken one of the strengths of the design (ac-         the quality of the effluent. Written, standardized
                                                                                                                tive warning upon evidence of trouble) and con-            procedures, proper sampling equipment, and ad-          There is still an enforcement issue related to the
                                                         Aerobic Performance                                    sidered it to be a weakness.                               equate training are essential to ensure that sam-       homeowner who refuses to renew the service agree-
                                                             Aerobic treatment units operating in conjunc-          Certainly there are examples of poor aerobic           ples reflect the performance of the technology          ment. Administrative citations or fines must be part
                                                                                                                treatment unit design, application, operation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                                           and not the absence of procedures or skills on
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         tion with a variety of effluent disposal systems                                                                                                                          of the permit or sanitary code. People are
                                                         perform well when properly designed, installed,        and/or maintenance, resulting in inadequate per-           the part of the surveyors.                              ticketed/fined for parking violations or for letting
                                                         operated, and maintained. Numerous technical           formance. Regardless of the technology, omitting               Sampling protocol is related to sampling tech-      their dog run loose. The penalty for not having a
                                                         papers and articles have addressed the positive        any one of these elements will lead to poor per-           nique. Often, the performance of aerobic treat-         service agreement in place should be just as simply
                                                         impact aerobic treatment units have had on             formance. However, the same is true for peat fil-          ment units is judged by a single effluent grab sam-     levied, without court orders or attorneys.
                                                         wastewater management in suburban and rural            ters, sand filters, and the standard septic tank sys-      ple. Composite sampling, not a single grab sam-
                                                         areas: Young (1974); Locker and Vansickle              tem. When evaluating performance, any technol-             ple, is the only scientifically accepted practice       Sincerely,
                                                         (1980); Stockton (1984); Monnett Reneau and            ogy will fail if it is not properly designed, installed,   when evaluating the performance of biological           Judy M. Willingham, R.S.
                                                         Hagedorn (1996); Otis (1994); National Small           operated, and maintained.                                  treatment devices. The data from the analysis of        Manhattan, Kansas
                                                                                                                                                                           the composite samples is then computed into
                                                         Flows Clearinghouse (1996); and Sahr, Lynch, Sar-
                                                                                                                The Need for Scientific Evaluation                         7-day and 30-day averages in order to evaluate
                                                         rocco-Smith (1996). Most recently, Bohrer and
                                                                                                                                                                           performance. Sample averaging is how the per-
                                                         Converse (2001) note that the performance of               Particularly troubling is the poor method by
                                                                                                                                                                           formance of municipal and semi-public waste-
                                                         aerobic treatment units exceeds the performance        which aerobic treatment units seem to be evalu-
                                                                                                                                                                           water treatment systems are evaluated. (See
                                                         of sand filters, the standard by which onsite tech-    ated. Aerobic treatment units are often evaluated
                                                                                                                                                                           USEPA, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Sep-
                                                         nologies are often judged.                             in a manner that results in a biased conclusion,
                                                                                                                                                                           tember 20, 1987, Protection of Environment.)
                                                             Some bias against aerobic treatment units may      particularly when the evaluation is conducted by
                                                         have been justifiable at one time. Ask any experi-     persons not generally trained to conduct in-depth           CONTINUED ON PAGE 38
                                                         enced practitioner in the industry, whether            testing. There are issues that unfairly perpetuate
        8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9
                                                                                  N O D P       U P D A T E


                                                                                                                                                                                                        Program (NODP). Centerville will use        Centerville Chooses Recirculating           gies. This is an action that other NODP
                                                                                                                                                                                                        the grant to set up a management dis-
                                                                                                              Centerville, PA                                                                           trict for onsite wastewater systems.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Other communities can then use Cen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sand Filter Treatment System
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The alternative wastewater treat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                II projects have successfully brought
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                about in other states,” said NODP II
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Program        Coordinator       Clement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ment chosen for Centerville is a recir-


                                                                              World-Class
                                                                                                                                                                                                        terville as a technological and manage-                                                 Solomon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    culating sand filter system with dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        rial model for onsite wastewater treat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    charge to a constructed wetland. This
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ment systems.                                                                           NODP Grant Becomes Leverage for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    type of system provides a high-quality
                                                                                                                                                                                                             The primary reason Centerville was


                                                                             Demonstration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    effluent. “Wildcat” sewers will be          Securing Grants and Low-Interest
                                                                                                                                                                                                        chosen for Phase II was because its en-                                                 Loans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    abandoned.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        tire drainage area is directed toward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The treatment system will serve 58         Without outside funding, a public
                                                                                                                                                                                                        the Gordon and Koon Lakes. These
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    residences, one restaurant, one church,     treatment system would financially
                                                                                                                                                                                                        reservoirs are the only source of water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    three commercial buildings, one former      strap Centerville’s residents, who can
                                                                                                                                                                                                        for 60,000 residents in parts of Mary-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    public school facility that has been con-   be characterized as low to moderate
                                                                                                                                                                                                        land, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    verted to offices, and the township         income. Fortunately, a variety of grants
                                                                                                                                                           NSFC STAFF WRITER                            and a contaminated watershed would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    building. The type of wastewater dis-       have been awarded to the community
                                                                                                                                                           Caigan McKenzie                              cause major public and environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    charged in Centerville is domestic. The     that will significantly lessen the burden.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        health hazards. A sewage treatment fa-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Township does not plan to provide pub-          “What began as a small project
                                                                                                                                                                                                        cility in Centerville would protect these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    lic sewer service to any area other than    seemed to mushroom into a communi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        water supplies and eliminate surface
                                                                                                                                                               Who would have thought that a                                                        Centerville for a period of at least five   tywide effort as other agencies part-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        septic discharge that can harm fish and
                                                                                                                                                           small, modest, rural, sparsely populat-                                                  years. The Centerville treatment system     nered with the NODP activity at Cen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        wildlife in the area.
                                                                                                                                                           ed village in Appalachia would be of in-                                                 is planned to meet an existing sewage       terville,” said Solomon. For example,
                                                                                                                                                           terest to Central Europe? Centerville,                                                   problem and will accommodate mod-           the NSFC is directing wetland con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pennsylvania Law Holds Township             est growth within the service area.
                                                                                                                                                           located in the Southern Alleghenies re-                                                                                              struction for discharging wastewater.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supervisors Responsible for                      Contour trench systems will be used
                                                                                                                                                           gion of Pennsylvania, is not only a                                                                                                  Subsequently, the EPA, Penn Vest,
                                                                                                                                                           model for onsite wastewater manage-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wastewater                                  for lots that have high levels of           Farmer’s Home Administration, and the
                                                                                                                                                           ment systems in the U.S., but also               In Pennsylvania, the township is re-    bedrock. This soil condition causes         Community Block Grant Program
                                                                                                                                                           serves as a classroom for Central Euro-      sponsible for wastewater planning and       wastewater to flow laterally instead of     awarded additional grants and low-in-
                                                                                                                                                           pean engineers.                              implementation, and the Pennsylvania        vertically into the ground. Installing      terest loans, such as a federal construc-
                                                                                                                                                               Centerville is part of the Central Eu-   DEP is the regulatory agency. Waste-        contour systems to treat the waste-         tion grant. Tap fees will also be used to
                                                                                                                                                           ropean Linkage Program (CELP), a tech-       water planning and implementation is        water will prevent untreated waste-         help finance the project.
                                                                                                                                                           nical and cultural exchange initiative       mandated under Pennsylvania Act 537         water from discharging to surface water
                                                                                                                                                           funded by the Pittsburgh-based Heinz         (passed in 1966), which ensures mu-         sources.                                    Centerville Project Has Many
                                                                                                                                                           Endowment.                                   nicipalities comply with the Clean               “The Pennsylvania DEP will monitor     Positive Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                               Conditions in Centerville so closely     Streams Law and the Pennsylvania            the contour system for two years. If the       Not only did the Centerville project
                                                                                                                                                           parallel conditions in Central Europe’s      Sewage Facilities Act. The law requires     data show good effluent quality, then       spearhead new technology in Slovakia,
                                                                                                                                                           rural communities that engineers can         that township supervisors meet these        the contour system will be added to
                                                                                                                                                           transfer information they learn here         requirements by preventing discharge        the state’s approved list of technolo-       CONTINUED ON PAGE 39
                                                                                                                                                           about low-cost alternative wastewater        of untreated or inadequately treated
                                                                                                                                                           treatment technologies back to their         sewage, by inspecting, pumping, main-
                                                                                                                                                           homelands of Slovakia, Poland, Hun-          taining, and rehabilitating private and
                                                                                                                                                           gary, and the Czech Republic.                public onsite sewage disposal systems,
                                                                                                                                                                                                        and by providing environmentally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Update on the Central European Linkage Program
                                                                                                                                                               Edward Corriveau, P.E., of the Penn-
                                                                                                                                                           sylvania Department of Environmental         sound disposal sites.                          Centerville’s international link has reached a successful turning point. Ac-
                                                                                                                                                           Protection (DEP) and David Pask,                 For the village of Centerville, this       cording to Edward Corriveau, P.E., of the Pennsylvania Department of Envi-
                                                                                                                                                           P.Eng., of the National Small Flows          was no easy task. Most of the onsite           ronmental Protection, “The onsite demonstration project begun three years
                                                                                                                                                           Clearinghouse (NSFC) at West Virginia        septic systems here were constructed           ago in Nizne Repas, Slovakia was constructed in December 2000 with the
                                                                                                                                                           University, Morgantown, West Virginia,       before 1972 under relaxed standards.
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       partnership of the Heinz Endowment’s Central European Linkage Program,




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                           provided training for the European en-       The shallow soils, seasonally high             Southern Allegheny Conservancy, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
                                                                                                                                                           gineers.                                     groundwater tables, small lots, and            Protection, and the local Slovakian organization Ludia a Voda (translated
                                                                                                                                                               In April 1998, the U.S. Environmen-      close proximity of homes prohibited            ‘People and Water’).”
                                                                                                                                                           tal Protection Agency (EPA) awarded          repairing or replacing those systems to
                                                                                                                                                           Centerville a grant through Phase II of      bring them into compliance with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The processes include a septic tank with a BioClere treatment unit dispers-
                                                                                                                                                           the National Onsite Demonstration            today’s standards.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ing into a subsurface sand mound or flowing through a wetland system. It
                                                         Photos courtesy of Edward Corriveau.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Systems permitted since 1972 are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       is one of the first systems in Slovakia to use soil or land treatment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        either conventional or sand mounds.
                                                         (Top)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        And although there is no documented
                                                         In Nizne Repas, Slovakia, this typical rural doma (house), of typical log and caulk construc-                                                                                                 The site is a cluster system serving six home residences and will be devel-
                                                         tion, stands along a service lateral being constructed by the village administration (self-help                                                evidence of public health pollution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       oped into an environmental education center. Village staff worked to help
                                                         example) as part of a six-doma cluster system.                                                                                                 problems within the village, 70 percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       install the sewer system while the contractor installed the tanks in a signif-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        of the onsite systems were malfunc-
                                                         (Right)                                                                                                                                                                                       icant self-help style project. People and Water and the local village of Nizne
                                                                                                                                                                                                        tioning, and 13 homes were linked to
                                                         Construction (now completed) of an onsite treatment system in Nizne Repas, Slovakia, show-                                                                                                    Repas provide management and maintenance of the system.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        two “wildcat” sewers (abandoned coal
                                                         ing septic tank and Bioclere treament unit excavation leading to a constructed wetland and
                                                         subsurface sand mound.                                                                                                                         mine pipes) that outlet directly into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       “This is the kind of effort that can be duplicated elsewhere in Slovakia and
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ditches or streams.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       central Europe and encourage our decentralized efforts in the U.S.,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Corriveau said.
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11
                                                         T   E   C   H   N   O   L   O   G   Y

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  isms and plants break down pollutants; the gravel      They also can be a good choice for homes, busi-



                                                                     Baby, It’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  substrate filters particulates. Wetlands for waste-    nesses, institutions, and small residential develop-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  water treatment are designed with a slope of be-       ments and communities in areas where central-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tween zero and 1 percent so gravity can pull the       ized treatment is unavailable or too expensive.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  water through the system.                                  Sand filters are constructed beds of sand or




                                                             COLD          Outside!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Typically, quantities of heat are stored in the   other suitable granular material usually 2 to 3 feet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  underlying soil during the warm season and inhib-      deep. The filter materials (called media) are con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  it ice formation in the winter. The advantage sub-     tained in a liner made of concrete, plastic, or other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  surface-flow wetlands have over surface-flow wet-      impermeable material. Depending on the design,
                                                                                                                            Techniques for Onsite Success                                                         lands is that water is not exposed to the atmos-       the filter may be situated above ground, partially
                                                                                                                            in Cold Climates                                                                      phere during the treatment process, minimizing         above ground, or below ground.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  energy loss through evaporation and convection.            Partially treated wastewater is applied to the fil-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       “If properly designed at the time of installation ter surface in intermittent doses and receives treat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and given an adequate layer of mulch for insula-       ment as it slowly trickles through the media, where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tion, the subsurface-flow constructed wetland bed      natural physical, biological, and chemical process-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  remains effective during cold periods,” said Sher-     es combine to provide treatment. Most treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  wood Reed, P.E., a long-time proponent and de-         occurs in the first 6 to 12 inches of the filter sur-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  signer of these systems. “We have found that it is     face. The wastewater is collected in an underdrain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  especially important to cover the system with a        and sent for further treatment and/or disposal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  layer of straw 6 to 8 inches deep for the first win-       Sand filters are most affected in the winter by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ter, because the plant materials have not had time     freezing water. “First and most critical, the system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to establish completely. This insulating layer al-     must be designed to drain out,” said Dave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  lows the system to continue its work. The mulch        Gustafson, extension specialist with the Universi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  layer also helps to keep temperatures down dur-        ty of Minnesota. His work involves troubleshoot-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ing hot summers.”                                      ing systems for homeowners, and from his experi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Snow cover forms an effective insulating layer,   ence, Gustafson has found that it is extremely im-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  but due to the unpredictability of the weather,        portant that no water be allowed to stand due to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reed recommends that the homeowner not rely            closed check valves or laterals installed without
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  on snow and ice cover for a reliable insulation. He    adequate slope. “Be sure that all lines run down,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  prefers using straw because it contains few weed       he added. He recommends that there should be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  seeds and adds very little nitrogen to the system.     no bare (uninsulated) connections to the surface
                                                                                                                                                                                        Photo by Michelle Moore        Research shows that the biochemical reactions     and that all inspection pipes and risers are ade-
                                                                                                                NSFC STAFF WRITER                                                                                 that remove pollutants from wastewater are re-         quately insulated.
                                                                                                                   Marilyn Noah                                                                                   duced at low temperatures, and so water temper-            Although he does advise insulating the septic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ature must be considered in the process design.        tank, Gustafson does not recommend the use of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The size of the wetland should be based on low-        deep systems. Another place for added insulation
                                                                 Forecast: Continued cold, temperatures dropping             Constructed Wetlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  temperature conditions, and the design should be       that many homeowners fail to consider are drain
                                                                 into the teens, winds 15–20 miles per hour. Little              Constructed wetlands are especially useful in                                    based on the average temperature from the cold-        lines that run under sidewalks or driveways where
                                                                 change expected over the next several weeks. As             areas with very slow permeable soils because                                         est winter recorded.                                   the natural snow cover is frequently removed.
                                                                 you stand at your kitchen window, cradling your             they are capable of absorbing pollutant loadings
                                                                 coffee mug to warm your hands, you probably                                                                                                                                                                  “One common design problem we see often
                                                                                                                             and provide a low-cost alternative to chemical and                                   Sand Filters                                           are inadequate pumps that allow water to pool
                                                                 don’t consider how this weather pattern will affect         biological treatment. Constructed wetlands oper-
                                                                 the operation of your wastewater treatment system.                                                                                                    The recirculating sand filter system is a me-     and then freeze. As one of our routine mainte-
                                                                                                                             ate on ambient solar energy, providing increased                                                                                            nance checks, we want to make sure that the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  chanically simple, low-maintenance method of
                                                                                                                             treatment capacity over time, creating wildlife                                                                                             pumps are of sufficient capacity to keep water
                                                                      When temperatures drop low enough for ice                                                                                                   wastewater treatment beyond the septic tank and
                                                                                                                             habitat, and achieving high levels of treatment                                                                                             moving and delivered,” Gustafson said. He tries
                                                                 to form, are these systems able to function effec-                                                                                               operates quite well in areas of the country that
                                                                                                                             with minimal maintenance. Currently, construct-                                                                                             to impress on homeowners the importance of
                                                                 tively? The latest research reveals that alternative                                                                                             encounter harsh winter temperatures.
                                                                                                                             ed wetlands are accepted as permitted systems in                                                                                            making these winterizing checks during the
                                                                 onsite systems, such as constructed wetlands, sand                                                                                                    Sand filters treat wastewater using naturally oc-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                             states including Alabama, Indiana, Kansas, Ken-                                                                                             warmer months. “It’s much easier to change out
                                                                 filters, drip irrigation systems, and peat filters, seem                                                                                         curring physical, biological, and chemical process-
                                                                                                                             tucky, Minnesota, Ohio, and Texas.                                                                                                          a pump in September than in February,” he noted.
                                                                 to function effectively in cold weather, although at                                                                                             es. They are one of the best options for additional
                                                                                                                                 There are two main types of constructed wet-                                                                                                                                     Ted Loudon,
                                                                 a reduced level, as long as they were designed                                                                                                   onsite treat-
                                                                                                                             lands: free water surface and subsurface flow. The                                                                                                                               associate profes-
                                                                 carefully and afforded adequate maintenance.                                                                                                     ment where
                                                                                                                             wastewater remains at a level above the soil and                                                                                                     Distribution Lines          sor and exten-
                                                                      By their very design, alternative onsite waste-                                                                                             septic tank/-
                                                                                                                             so is exposed to the atmosphere in the free water                                                                                                                                sion      service
                                                                 water treatment systems are at the mercy of the                                                                                                  soil absorp-
                                                                                                                             surface systems. The surface wastewater remains                                                                                                                                  agent at Michi-
                                                                 elements. Most rely on the free movement of                                                                                                      tion systems
                                                                                                                             below the substrate in subsurface flow systems,                                                                                                                                  gan State Uni-
                                                                 water and the biological activity of living creatures                                                                                            have failed
                                                                                                                             protected from the elements by the insulating                                                                                                                                    versity,     had
                                                                 to work effectively, and freezing temperatures af-                                                                                               or are re-           From Septic Tank
                                                                                                                             layer of plant litter. Because of this insulating layer,                                                                                                                         been studying
                                                                 fect the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of soils.                                                                                             stricted due
                                                                                                                             subsurface-flow wetlands are best suited for win-                                                                                                                                the     effective-
                                                                 Under freezing conditions, soil becomes less per-                                                                                                to         high
                                                                                                                             ter applications.                                                                                                                                                                ness of sand fil-
                                                                 meable to rainfall and snowmelt, water within the                                                                                                g r o u n d wa -
                                                                                                                                 Duplicating natural wetland processes, con-                                                                                     Sand                                         ters in winter
                                                                 frozen part of the soil profile becomes immobile                                                                                                 ter, shallow
                                                                                                                             structed wetlands are complex integrated systems                                                                                                                                 using a specially
                                                                 and unavailable for leaching, and microbiological                                                                                                bedrock,
                                                                                                                             involving the interaction of plants, microorgan-                                                                                                                                 designed sprin-
                                                                 activity is reduced.                                                                                                                             poor soils,             To Dispersal          Gravel                        Underdrain
                                                                                                                             isms, water, and the environment. Microorgan-                                                                                                                                    kler system to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  or other site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sand Filter                                    distribute the ef-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  conditions.                                        Sand Filter                              fluent on the
12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13
                                                                                                               surface. From some of his           fluent. They can be designed to accommodate                         low of 35 percent removal in the winter months to         second cell was added to provide additional nu-
                                                                                                               projects, Loudon determined         sites with complex terrain due to the flexible tub-                 a high of 61 percent. Total nitrogen removal varied       trient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal. The first
                                                                                                               that recirculating sand filters     ing used; drip dispersal is a possible option for lo-               considerably, but with average removal rates of           cell is filled with pea rock and the second cell with
                                                                                                               with surface application ap-        cations with high bedrock, high groundwater, or                     66–85 percent during the winter months.                   crushed limestone. Researchers allowed the
                                                                                                               peared to function quite well       slowly permeable soils.                                                  Single-pass sand filters are dosed six times a       frozen system to run, as a homeowner might, and
                                                                                                               during extremely frigid condi-          Professor Jim Converse, with the University of                  day and designed for a hydraulic loading rate of          it developed an ice layer 1.5 centimeters thick on
                                                                                                               tions without requiring any         Wisconsin, has also been studying the effective-                    3.1 cm/d. The sand filters performed well in the          the surface. The insulation from the ice, along with
                                                                                                               maintenance, even though            ness of drip irrigation systems for dispersal of sep-               removal of total suspended solids (TSS), biochemi-        the latent heat in the ground, thawed the cell and
                                                                                      Photo by Jim Converse.   heavy icing did occur on the        tic system effluent. After collecting data on E.Coli,               cal oxygen demand (BOD5), and fecal coliform              allowed the water to flow again through the sub-
                                                                                                               surface. The sprinklers were        median fecal coliform, organic nitrogen, ammoni-                    bacteria. Phosphorus removal rates during the sum-        surface. While the average removals decreased
                                                                                                               relatively immune to icing          um-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen from six differ-                  mers were similar to winter removal rates. And            during the cold season, data indicated a reason-
                                                                                                               and failure due to freezing.        ent systems from December 1998 through March                        while it appeared that the sand filters provided ex-      able removal efficiency year round.
                                                                                                               Ice cones built up around           1999, even when temperatures dropped below                          cellent removal of ammonium via nitrification to
                                                                                                               each sprinkler, but remained        freezing, Converse found that none of the systems                   nitrate, total nitrogen removal was a relatively low      Conclusions
                                                                                                               hollow, while the ice provid-       studied encountered operational problems, and                       8–33 percent since the sand is unlikely to nitrify           Clearly, the alternative systems should contin-
                                                                                                               ed a degree of protection           the remediation of the water continued at accept-                   large amounts of ammonium.                                ue to be considered as viable technologies in
                                                                                                               around each sprinkler head.         able levels. He concludes that with proper design                        The constructed wetlands were installed in Oc-       northern climates. With little or no extra mainte-
                                                                                                               Loudon observed that even           and installation, drip distribution systems give ad-                tober 1995 and were covered with straw to pre-            nance, these systems keep working right along,
                                                                                      Photo by Ted Loudon.
                                                                                                               when the temperatures               equate secondary treatment, even during the se-                     vent freezing. Overall, the wetlands performed            even in midst of winter’s fury.
                                                                                                               dropped to near freezing            vere Wisconsin winters.                                             reasonably well, with better performance during
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the summers than the winters.                             References
                                                                                                               down to the 18-inch depth in                                                                                                                                      Bohrer, R. M., and J. C. Converse. 2001. Soil treatment performance and
                                                                                                               the sand, there were suffi-         Minnesota Project with Multiple Systems                                  Modular recirculating peat filters were installed       cold weather operations of drip distribution systems. Onsite waste-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    water treatment: Proceedings of the 9th national symposium on indi-
                                                                                                               ciently open zones for the fil-         A multi-interest research site was established                  in June 1998 using both the standard Irish peat              vidual and small community sewage systems. ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich.
                                                                                                               ters to continue to function.       in northern Minnesota in the fall of 1995 to moni-                  and a Minnesota peat. Test data indicate the recir-       Davis, J. 2000. Constructed wetlands for residential wastewater treat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ment in Chippewa County, Mich. Proceedings of the 2000 NOWRA
                                                                                                                   As a result of recent work,     tor the performance of several different types of                   culating peat filters are performing well, using both        annual meeting. NOWRA. Laurel, Maryland.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hanneck, J., R. Axler, B. McCarthy, D. Nordman, and S. M. Geerts. 1999.
                                                                                                               however, Louden considers           pretreatment systems. This university/multi-indus-                  the Irish peat and the Minnesota peat. Because               Experiences with constructed wetlands in Minnesota. Proceedings of
                                                                                                               such sprinklers obsolete. “We       try/local, state, and federal agency project was in-                peat is such a good insulating material, there have          the 1999 NOWRA annual meeting. NOWRA. Laurel, Maryland.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Kadlec, R. H. 1996. Physical processes in constructed wetlands. Pro-
                                                                                      Photo by Ted Loudon.     no longer recommend sur-            stalled on the grounds of the Northeast Regional                    been no problems with freezing of the units.                 ceedings of the constructed wetlands in cold climates conference.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The intermittent sand filters were designed for         Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario.
                                                         (Top)                                                 face application of effluent        Correction Center (NERCC). Technologies investi-                                                                              Loudon, T. L., O. B. Thompson, L. E. Reese, and L. Fay. 1984. Cold cli-
                                                         At this Wisconsin drip irrigation test                on sand filters, especially not     gated included single-pass peat filters, single-pass                a hydraulic loading rate of 3.15 cm/d and were               mate performance of recirculating sand filters. Onsite wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    treatment: Proceedings of the 4th national symposium on individual
                                                         site, vegetation planted over the drip-               on individual home units,” he       sand filters, subsurface flow constructed wetlands,                 dosed every 4 hours at 159 liters per dose. The fil-         and small community sewage systems. ASAE. St. Joseph: Mich.
                                                         per lines between the trees minimized                 said. “Now, all up-to-date re-                                                                          ters were covered with straw during winter to pre-        Osteraas, T. 1983. Subsurface absorption systems—Frost problems and
                                                         freezing.                                                                                 and modular recirculating peat filters. The systems                                                                              prevention of frost. Proceedings of the International Conference on
                                                                                                               circulating sand filters have       were monitored every three weeks, including the                     vent the distribution network from freezing. The             New Technology of Wastewater Treatment and Sewerage in Rural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and Suburb Areas. Hanassari, Finland
                                                                                                               the distribution pipe network       temperatures of the systems.                                        filter showed excellent TSS, BOD5, and fecal col-         McCarthy, B., R. Axler, S. M. Geerts, J. Henneck, J. Crosby, and P. Weid-
                                                         (Middle)
                                                         In Michigan, hollow ice cones that                    embedded in a stone layer so            “This is a unique test situation that allows us                 iforms removal, in addition to providing excellent           man. 1999. Cold-Weather operation and performance of alternative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    treatment systems in Northern Minnesota. Proceedings of the 1999
                                                         formed around the sprinklers of this                  there is no water on the sur-       side-by-side comparisons of the performance of                      removal of ammonium via nitrification to nitrate.            NOWRA annual meeting. NOWRA. Laurel, Maryland.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The constructed wetlands consist of two cells        Reed, S., P.E., and D. Calkins, P.E. 1996. Thermal aspects of constructed
                                                         surface application, recirculating sand               face and no ice buildup.”           both alternative and a standard onsite system                                                                                    wetland system design. Proceedings of the constructed wetlands in
                                                         filter afforded protection from the                                                                                                                           in series, with the first cell designed to meet sec-         cold climates conference. Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Wallace, S.
                                                         elements, and there was very little                                                       using the same wastewater at similar daily flows,”                                                                               2000. Design and performance of cold climate wetland treatment
                                                                                                               Drip Irrigation Systems             said Barbara McCarthy, research fellow, at the Nat-                 ondary treatment standards for TSS, BOD5, and                systems. Proceedings of the 2000 NOWRA annual meeting.
                                                         frozen sand beneath them.                                                                                                                                                                                                  NOWRA. Laurel, Maryland.
                                                                                                                   Drip irrigation systems         ural Resources Research Institute, one of the op-                   fecal coliform bacteria at a flow of 1.5 cm/d. The
                                                         (Bottom)                                              (also known as “trickle” sys-       erating agencies of this project.
                                                         A typical surface application sand fil-               tems) apply pretreated and fil-         “We have had to make some redesign changes
                                                         ter in winter.                                        tered wastewater to soil slow-      during the life of the project, but we are pleased        NSFC Products
                                                                                                               ly and uniformly through a          to have a five-year history of data. And over-
                                                                                                               network of thin, flexible tub-      whelmingly, we can say that the performance of            Readers who wish to further investigate      Computer Search—Sand Filters (Item                    Computer Search—Drip Irrigation (Item
                                                                                                               ing placed at shallow depths        the systems at NERCC during the cold weather              the systems referred to in this article      #WWBKCM08)                                            #WWBLCM18)
                                                                                                               in the soil. Drip irrigation sys-   was good,” McCarthy said.                                 should consider the following education-     This NSFC computer search contains ab-                This 28-page NSFC computer search con-
                                                                                                               tems are for the dispersal of           The single-pass peat filters are designed to treat    al products offered by the National Small    stracts of articles about sand filters as             tains abstracts of articles discussing drip




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                            septic system ef-      septic tank effluent at a hydraulic loading rate of 3.3   Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC).                  an alternative wastewater treatment sys-              irrigation as an alternative to conven-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          tem. Topics discussed include design,                 tional methods of wastewater treatment
                                                                                                Dripper Line                                       centimeters per day (cm/d). The ability of the peat
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Books                                        sizing, site selection, operation and                 and disposal. These articles cover case
                                                                                                                                                   to remove total phosphorus is likely limited by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Computer Search—Constructed Wetlands         maintenance, cost comparison with                     studies and design and performance of
                                                                             Finished Grade                                                        low adsorptive mineral content of the media from a
                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Item #WWBKCM01)                             other conventional systems, system ef-                drip irrigation systems for residential and
                                                                                                                                                                                                             This 137-page book is a computer search      fectiveness, and failures. The cost for               community use.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the NSFC Bibliographic Database that      this 159-page book is $25.45.
                                                                               PVC Pipe                                                                                                                      contains nearly 300 abstracts of articles                                                          Recirculating Sand/Gravel Filters for On-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             detailing the use of constructed wet-        Booklets                                              site Treatment of Domestic Wastes (Item
                                                                                                                                                                                                             lands as a wastewater treatment process.     Single-Pass Sand Filters for Onsite Treat-            #WWBLDM87)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Topics discussed include design, site se-    ment of Domestic Wastes (Item                         This booklet by James C. Converse of the
                                                                                                                                                                                      h/                     lection and sizing, construction, opera-     #WWBLDM88)                                            University of Wisconsin-Madison pro-
                                                                                                                                                           Central                 us
                                                                                                                                                           Unit (CU)
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fl h
                                                                                                                                                                               d lus                         tion and maintenance, cost, and per-         This 28-page paper by James C. Converse               vides a basic knowledge of recirculating
                                                                                                                                                                             el F
                                                                                                                                        Zone 2                             Fi ck           Septic Tan        formance. The price of this book is          (Biological Systems Engineering College of            sand filter principles, design, construc-
                                                                                                                               Zone 1                                       Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                             $19.70.                                      Agricultural and Life Sciences, University            tion, and maintenance. The price of this
                                                                                                                                                       Supply to CU                                                                                       of Wisconsin-Madison) provides a basic                23-page booklet is $3.35.
                                                                                                                                  Drip Irrigation System                      Pump Tank                                                                   knowledge of single-pass sand filter prin-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ciples, design, construction, and mainte-
14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        nance. The cost of this booklet is $6.00                                                                                 15
                                                              N   O   D   P   U   P   D   A   T   E

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           by returning water to the stream system      bedrock areas. The developer exca-            benefits, including
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           through percolation from the soil ab-        vates weathered granite (a hard vol-             • free percolation tests;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sorption fields. In 1973, the Crystal        canic rock), drives over it with excava-         • free consultation for developing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Lakes Water and Sewer Association was        tion equipment to crush it, and then               water or sewage facilities;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           formed to administer the state-mandat-       places it back into the excavated site.          • free water fills for recreational ve-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ed water augmentation plan.                                                                     hicles, small water containers,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crystal Lakes Water and Sewer Asso-                and community showers;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Crystal Lakes’ Water Augmentation            ciation                                          • water and sewage hauling rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Plan                                             Landowners who use the Crystal                 25 percent lower than market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               In 1974, Crystal Lakes developed its     Lakes Water and Sewer Association’s                value;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           own water augmentation plan, the first       water or sewage facilities are associa-          • faster approval of well permits;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in the state to plan for parcels with        tion members. Members elect the as-              • annual testing of wells for con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           fewer than 35 acres. “Without a water        sociation’s board of directors with one            tamination; and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           augmentation plan,” Mancl said, “Crys-       vote for each lot. Directors voted into          • water rights protection against de-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tal Lakes would have no right to use         office do not need to be Colorado res-             velopers and other water users on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           water. And without a right to use water,     idents, users of the association’s facili-         the stream system.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Crystal Lakes could not develop.”            ties, or association shareholders.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Crystal Lakes’ water augmentation            The community’s developer was an          Homeowner Support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           plan limits beneficial use of water to in-   original member of the board but was              Crystal Lakes published its first com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           house domestic use. Yard irrigation is       voted out of office to ensure that the        munity newsletter in 1971. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           prohibited, but irrigation of up to 10       association would be autonomous               newsletter expressed the development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           acres of open space in the develop-          from its developer. This nonprofit            company’s commitment to preserving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ment is allowed.                             group is funded through revenues it re-       the ecology of the mountain area in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The plan is for 1,312 homes. By          ceives from membership dues and               which the development is located, to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1999 there were 112 full-time                from pumping fees.                            keep water pure and usable, and to




                                                                                                                                                                                                Photo by Curt Livingston
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           dwellings and 600 part-time dwellings            The association uses a variety of         meet state standards for sewage dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and properties, a community center,          methods to keep homeowners’ water             posal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           firehouse, road, recreation shop, store,     and wastewater systems in compliance.             A summary of Mancl’s interviews
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and restaurant.                              For example, property owners are re-          with homeowners indicates that the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        quired to join the association. The as-       majority agreed with Crystal Lakes’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sociation has the right to pre-approve
                                                         Onsite Systems Management                                                                                                                                         Types of Onsite Systems                                                                    wastewater management policies.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The use of onsite systems is exten-      sites before they are developed and to            “Crystal Lakes has a better capabili-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        design the systems to be installed. The       ty of controlling the sewage solution
                                                          in the                                                                                                                                                           sive in Crystal Lakes. One hundred and



                                                                                          Rockies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           twelve serve full-time dwellings, 500        association also inspects septic systems      up here than probably any of the big
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           serve part-time dwellings, and the re-       when property is sold, uses its own           cities do,” said one homeowner.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           mainder are holding tanks that serve         pumper truck to regularly pump septic             “I would hate to think of what we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           recreational vehicles.                       and holding tanks, and records water          would have if we didn’t have the sep-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Of these systems, one cluster soil       consumption and wastewater pumped.            tic and well regulations that we have. I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           absorption system serves 25 homes on                                                       would argue for a continuation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           small lots, and one large system serves      Benefits of Water and Sewer Associ-           perhaps a strengthening of standards
                                                                                                                 NSFC STAFF WRITER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the lodge, restaurant, and offices. Ap-      ation Membership                              that are developed—not at the federal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Members of the water and sewer             level, but at a more local level,” said
                                                                                                                  Caigan McKenzie                                                                                          proximately 400 systems are conven-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tional soil absorption systems, and the      association are entitled to a variety of       CONTINUED ON PAGE 39
                                                            Crystal Lakes, Colorado, is a popu-       variety of students—contractors, regula-     customizing these models to meet their                                  water and sewer association manages
                                                         lar recreational community in the            tors, developers, homeowners, govern-        specific needs.                                                         300 holding tanks, seven community
                                                         Rocky Mountains. Most people are             ment officials, and college students.                                                                                vault toilets, and recreational vehicle
                                                         drawn by the allure of the community’s           But after receiving a grant from         Crystal Lakes Begins Development                                        dump stations. The water augmenta-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         sparkling, freshwater lakes. For Karen       Phase IV of the National Onsite                  Crystal Lakes is a private, mountain-                               tion plan allows evapotranspiration sys-
                                                         Mancl, Ph.D., it’s the wastewater.           Demonstration Program (NODP),                ous, recreational community northwest                                   tems to be used for 72 properties.
                                                            Mancl has good reason to be curi-         Mancl set aside the technology to            of Red Feather Lakes, Colorado. It en-
                                                         ous about Crystal Lakes’ wastewater          focus on the public policies of waste-       compasses 10 square miles nestled                                       Special Programs
                                                         management practices. In June 1999,          water systems.                               within wooded lands owned by the                                            Recreational vehicle holding tanks
                                                         she was granted sabbatical leave from                                                     U.S. Forest Service. Its name reflects its                              caused a problem in 1993 when trail-
                                                         the Ohio State University School of          National Onsite Demonstration Pro-           four man-made lakes. Three of these                                     er owners dumped sewage on the
                                                         Food, Agricultural and Biological Engi-      gram (NODP)                                  lakes were constructed by damming                                       ground because they found it incon-
                                                         neering specifically to research and              The U.S. Environmental Protection       Panhandle Creek. Lone Pine Creek was                                    venient to move trailers to designated




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photo by Curt Livingston
                                                         identify public policies that shape suc-     Agency funds Phase IV of the NODP            dammed to create the fourth lake.                                       stations for dumping.
                                                         cessful wastewater management sys-           with a budget of $1.25 million. It is            The first cabin was completed in                                        The association solved this problem
                                                         tems. Crystal Lakes is one of the suc-       managed by the National Small Flows          Crystal Lakes in 1970, two years before                                 by purchasing a trailer with a small tank
                                                         cessful wastewater management com-           Clearinghouse (NSFC) to assist local of-     the Colorado legislature passed a water                                 that allowed for gravity flow from a
                                                         munities Mancl explored.                     ficials in implementing management           augmentation law that allowed commu-                                    recreational vehicle’s holding tank. A       The 2000 annual meeting of the Crystal Lakes Water and Sewer Association. The association
                                                            The work Mancl normally does is re-                                                    nities to borrow water as long as they re-                              $15 fee was assessed for this service.       works to keep the community in compliance with state wastewater and water use regulations
                                                                                                      districts around the country. It does this                                                                                                                        and manages its own wastewater treatment and water use plan.
                                                         searching wastewater technologies and        by providing them with successful man-       turned it before the owners of the water                                    The association also found a way to
                                                         teaching these technologies to a             agement models and information for           needed it. This would be accomplished                                   construct soil absorption systems in
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17
                                                                  R   E   G   U   L   A   T   I   O   N   S


                                                                                                                                                                                            In addition to the emotional cost, the financial

                                                                                                              Who Says                                                                 cost was high. Nelson’s initial gravity system cost
                                                                                                                                                                                       them $2,800. To remedy the failing system, they
                                                                                                                                                                                       added infiltrators and a pressurized dosing system

                                                                                                              You Can’t                                                                with monitoring ports in the drainfield. With engi-
                                                                                                                                                                                       neering fees, the remedy was in excess of $20,000.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Although she did file a lawsuit and settle out of

                                                                                                              Fight City Hall?                                                         court, Nelson decided she didn’t want any other
                                                                                                                                                                                       homeowners to have to go through what her fami-
                                                                                                                                                                                       ly had suffered. “We just decided it was too egre-
                                                                                                                                                                                       gious to let go. We’ve used the failure to the best
                                                                                                              How One Homeowner                                                        advantage by fighting for new legislation. For me,
                                                                                                                                                                                       it’s a healing process,” she said.
                                                                                                              Made a Difference
                                                                                                                                                                                       Getting the Ball Rolling
                                                                                                                                                                                           Nelson contacted legislators to put forth a bill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photo by Sharon Nelson
                                                                                                                                                                                       regulating septic designers. A work group was
                                                                                                              NSFC STAFF WRITER                                                                                                                 In the Nelson’s failed septic system, repair trenches dug in the drainfield
                                                                                                                                                                                       formed, consisting of Nelson, a few industry peo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                found the lines filled with effluent that could not leach into the surround-
                                                                                                              Natalie Eddy                                                             ple, and other interested participants already work-     ing impermeable soil.
                                                                                                                                                                                       ing on the problem. One of those people was
                                                                                                                                                                                       William L. Stuth, owner of Aqua Test of Maple Val-       Making a Law
                                                                                                     W h e n designers and inspectors. What happened in our case                       ley, Washington, whom Nelson said was a key play-             After Nelson contacted legislators, a committee
                                                                                                Sharon Nel- was that the system was placed in fill which has a con-                    er in getting the legislation passed.                    made up of professional engineers, designers,
                                                                                               son and her crete texture,” she said. “When things went bad,                                “At the time, I had no respect for this industry.    pumpers, health regulators, builders, consumers,
                                                                                               family moved everyone disclaimed liability, including the designer,                     Today, I have a great deal of respect for some of        and environmentalists, was formed to develop the
                                                                                             into their dream inspector, and installer.                                                the key people, and I’ve learned that there are ac-      legislation.
                                                                                          home in Vashon,             “In fact, after delving into it further, we found that           tually a lot of good industry people in this state,”          “Within three months, the work group came up
                                                                                       Washington, they had the designer and inspector were very involved. The                         she added.                                               with really solid suggestions for the state in solving
                                                                             no idea of the nightmare their soil had not perked. I became livid about their roles                          Stuth, a wastewater system designer, also has a      the problems. A higher standard had to be tested,”
                                                         onsite wastewater treatment system had in store in all of this, especially after the health department in-                    lot of respect for Nelson. “This whole thing started     Nelson said. “We all learned a lot about getting a
                                                         for them. Malfunctions and mishaps would turn spector cited us for using too much water as the rea-                           about 12 years before Sharon got involved,” he said.     bill passed. We worked to get both Democrat and
                                                         their septic system into a “money pit.”                 son for the failure.”                                                 “Without her help, the legislation would never have      Republican support. It was labeled a public safety
                                                             That was the beginning of a very long road for           Nelson said the inspector wasn’t assisting them,                 been approved. Sharon came along and said, ‘What         and health issue. That’s why we had bipartisan sup-
                                                         Nelson, who became a vocal proponent for home- but jeopardizing them. “Trenches were dug in the                               about the consumer?’                                     port.”
                                                         owners with failing onsite systems across the state. front yard for diagnostic purposes and left open. Then,                      “She really dug in, was diligent, and did her             The legislation was passed in 1999, but did not
                                                         Nelson, along with a handful of industry profes- one of our daughters became ill from the effluent.”                          homework. It sparked things because she was com-         begin the licensing/certification process until July
                                                         sionals, was instrumental in getting legislation             Although her gastrointestinal sickness was never of-             ing from a whole different perspective.”                 1, 2000. “It’s just now going to be implemented. I
                                                         passed requiring licensing for septic system design- ficially diagnosed as resulting from the effluent, Nelson                    The legislation process actually began in the late   think it will ultimately improve the quality of instal-
                                                         ers and certification for inspectors in that state.     is convinced that it was the culprit in the temporary ill-            1980s, when a group of engineers sued the state          lation of septic tanks,” said Stuth.
                                                              “We moved here and built a brand new home ness because if it had been viral, others in the family                        for allowing people who were not engineers to de-             “There were many people out there doing a
                                                         in 1995. It had a simple grav-                                                            likely would have gotten ill.       sign septic systems. “They were claiming that the        good job. Along with that, there were some peo-
                                                         ity system. Nine months                                                                       The inspector told Nelson       state didn’t have a right to allow anyone but a pro-     ple who were doing poor work who are now going
                                                         later, my husband was out-                                                                there was “no direct proof”         fessional engineer to design them,” Stuth said.          to have to step to the side. Under the old system,
                                                         side and noticed an odor.                                                                 that the illness was a result of        “We, the designers, formed a state association       it was almost impossible to take anyone’s right to
                                                         The system had failed,” ex-                                                               the system failure.                 to defend ourselves against that lawsuit. It just went   do business away. Under this new program, just by
                                                         plained Nelson.                                                                               Nelson said it is not uncom-    on and on. Defending ourselves only lined the at-        implementation, it will eliminate a lot of those prac-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                                                       torneys’ pockets. We were trying to protect our
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                              “It has been a learning                                                              mon for designers and inspec-                                                                ticing individuals the health department has been
                                                         experience,” said Nelson.                                                                 tors to blame the homeowner,        livelihood as designers, and the engineers were try-     trying to eliminate.”
                                                         “As we continue to build out                                                              adding that there is a tendency     ing to protect theirs. We had gone through many
                                                         and use more and more dif-                                         Photo by Sharon Nelson
                                                                                                                                                   for them to protect themselves.     court hearings when Sharon came along.”                  Key Points
                                                         ficult soils, we really need to The Nelson house, with multiple diagnostic                “We need to say that some-              Stuth said he realized then that the answer was
                                                                                                                                                                                       not going to come from the courts. “After she said           The legislation, titled “Onsite Wastewater Treat-
                                                         make sure that the people trenches in the foreground.                                     times this is what happens to                                                                ment Systems—Designer Licensing,” states that its
                                                         diagnosing those soils know                                                               homeowners, and it is not fair. I   that we needed to look at how to protect con-
                                                                                                                                                                                       sumers, we found that none of us were doing a            purpose is “to safeguard life, health, and property
                                                         what they are doing and use the best standards recognize that some homeowners may cause their sys-                                                                                     and to promote the public welfare.” It also states
                                                         possible, and that the homeowner knows who is tems to fail; but if you build a system that a homeown-                         good job protecting the consumer. The whole pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                       gram needed improving,” said Stuth.                      that, “The Legislature finds that it is in the public
                                                         responsible when there is a failure.”                   er can’t use, it’s of no value,” said Nelson.                                                                                  interest to permit the limited practice of engineer-
                                                                                                                      “A lot of homeowners I’ve talked to are so tired by                  One positive thing to come out of that time, ac-
                                                                                                                                                                                       cording to Stuth, was the development of the Wash-       ing by qualified individuals who are not registered
                                                         Nelson’s Story                                          the time they get through with the problem that they                                                                           as professional engineers . . . .”
                                                                                                                 just don’t want to discuss it. When systems fail, fami-               ington State Onsite Sewage Training Center, locat-
                                                             Nelson’s story began on January 13, 1996,                                                                                 ed in Puyallup, Washington. “We were on the right            The legislation recognizes the need for design
                                                                                                                 lies are stressed. Their houses have no value to them.                                                                         professionals. “The increased complexity of onsite
                                                         when she detected the failure. The Nelsons found                                                                              track. We knew the answer was to raise the skill
                                                                                                                 It’s a very personal thing when a system fails, very hum-                                                                      wastewater treatment systems, changes in treat-
                                                         out later that the designers and inspectors didn’t                                                                            level of the industry through an accreditation pro-
                                                                                                                 bling when they are questioning all of your habits. But                                                                        ment technology, and the need to protect ground-
                                                         have to have training at that time. “At that time                                                                             gram. That’s why the training center came about,”
                                                                                                                 you have to find a way to resolve it and deal with it.”                                                                        water and watershed areas make it essential that
                                                         there was no minimum standard of care for                                                                                     said Stuth.
18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                qualified professionals design the systems.”                                                                    19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  R   E   G   U   L   A   T   I   O   N   S

                                                                     The bill declares that “it is desirable to establish a        In addition to designer licensing, the legislation
                                                                 statewide licensing program to create uniform appli-          requires that employees of local health jurisdictions
                                                                 cation of design practices, standards for designs, indi-
                                                                 vidual qualifications, and consistent enforcement ef-
                                                                                                                               who review, inspect, or approve the design and con-
                                                                                                                               struction of onsite systems must obtain a certificate
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Do You Have Insurance on Your
                                                                 forts . . . .”
                                                                     The bill gave a practice permit to designers who
                                                                 had been authorized by a local health jurisdiction to
                                                                                                                               of competency by passing a written examination.
                                                                                                                                   The legislation states that inspectors must be
                                                                                                                               “competent in the engineering aspects of onsite
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Septic System?
                                                                 design onsite systems on or before July 1, 2000.              wastewater treatment system technology.” Nelson
                                                                     After July 1, 2000, any individual wishing to obtain      said that previously, each health jurisdiction had im-                                                         NSFC STAFF WRITER
                                                                 a practice permit must apply to the board of registra-        posed its own standard of knowledge necessary for
                                                                 tion for professional engineers and pay a fee. The prac-      inspectors.                                                                                                       Natalie Eddy
                                                                 tice permit allows its holder to practice onsite design           In addition, both designers and inspectors are
                                                                 services only within local health jurisdictions where the     required to obtain continuing professional develop-
                                                                 holder had authorization to practice as of July 1, 2000.      ment or continuing education “to demonstrate                            We insure our cars and homes, but until re-           Working with WOSSA, the idea is basically to
                                                                     The permit is renewable annually until June 30,           maintenance of knowledge and skills as a condition                 cently we haven’t been able to insure our onsite        provide a homeowner extended warranty plan for
                                                                 2003. After that, anyone who wants to design onsite           of license or certificate renewal, including peer re-              wastewater treatment systems.                           septic tank systems offered through designers.
                                                                 systems will need a license issued to perform design          view of work products and periodic reexamination.”                     A proposed plan originating within the Wash-        Stuth said the insurance program, which is com-
                                                                 in all counties in the state.                                     Stuth said the training center is one institution
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ington Onsite Sewage Association (WOSSA),               plete, is modeled after the automobile insurance
                                                                     To obtain the license, all applicants must pass a writ-   offering the continuing education to all segments
                                                                                                                                                                                                  backed by the National Onsite Wastewater Recy-          program.
                                                                 ten examination administered by the board of profes-          of the industry.
                                                                 sional engineers and must have a high school diploma              “We also tried to pass tag-along legislation that              cling Association (NOWRA), is on the way to do             “The better driver you are, the better rate you
                                                                 or equivalent and a minimum of four years of experi-          would protect the consumer,” said Stuth, adding                    just that. The insurance plan is what onsite system     get,” said Stuth. “With onsite insurance, it would
                                                                 ence in system design.                                        that he and Nelson worked to develop an insurance                  designer William L. Stuth and homeowner Sharon          be the same thing.”
                                                                     The law also contains provisions for punishment for       program for homeowners for their septic systems.                   K. Nelson hope will be the ultimate outcome of             Stuth said WOSSA was going to implement
                                                                 unprofessional conduct ranging from a reprimand and           (See related story on page 21.)                                    the recent legislation passed in Washington to cer-     the program within Washington in November
                                                                 suspension, to refusal for a new license. It also provides        Stuth said there are currently 36 health jurisdic-             tify practicing designers and inspectors there.                      2000 but was delayed when they were
                                                                 for a monetary penalty not to exceed $1,000 per vio-          tions in the state. “Before the legislation, we had                (See related story on page 18.)                                      approached by NOWRA to make it
                                                                 lation.                                                       one state guideline being interpreted 36 different                     “Sharon and I worked together                                  available nationally.
                                                                     Stuth explained that when the examination kicks           ways. Under the new state certification program,                   very closely for three or four years                                             “It has taken us 100 years
                                                                 in, designers will be licensed under the licensing board      we will have one designer program. It will bring har-              trying to get legislation                                                     to get where we’re at right
                                                                 that presently licenses engineers, architects, and sur-       mony into the state program and help to standard-                  passed for the licensing of                                                   now,” said Stuth. “A few more
                                                                 veyors.                                                       ize the industry.                                                  state designers. In that time,                                                months aren’t going to make
                                                                     He added that the law passed is strictly to license           “A lot of firsts came out of this program,” Stuth              products would come on                                                 that big a difference.”
                                                                 designers of onsite systems. He said that it does not         added. “I think we all grew up. It took a long time,               the market that were profes-                                                But Stuth added that the de-
                                                                 pertain to maintenance providers but will directly en-        but I believe we covered most of the bases. The big                sionally marketed as good, but                                            signer licensing inspector certifi-
                                                                 hance the systems being installed by raising the skill        winner is the homeowner.”                                          sometimes the technology                                                 cation legislation in Washington
                                                                 level of those designing them.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  failed,” Stuth said.                                                 will make a big difference. “And it will
                                                                                                                                                                                                      “In the end, the consumer was                               be an even bigger help if you have an in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  left holding the bag. We decided                                 surance program you can offer to con-
                                                         Septic System Warranty Program Available                                                                                                 the consumer needed added protec-                                 sumers through designers,” said Stuth.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  tion or insurance.”                                        “Everyone in the nation won’t be able to do
                                                         Residents in Pennsylvania and New Jersey currently have the           In addition, the warranty holder agrees to have the system             While serving on a work group to get the de-        what we did in Washington, demanding that de-
                                                         option of purchasing a warranty on their septic systems through       pumped out and inspected at three-year intervals.                  signer legislation passed, Stuth and Nelson             signers be licensed by the state. But everyone
                                                         an insurance agency.                                                                                                                     worked on the insurance idea. “Thirty years ago,        could offer this insurance.”
                                                                                                                               Specifically, for a three-year premium of $235, the plan pro-      the need was simply to dispose of the waste on-
                                                         The warranty program, originating in Brookfield, Connecticut,         vides a $25,000 limit per warranty with a $500 deductible per      site,” Stuth explained. “Disposal systems were          Maintenance Is Key
                                                         is marketed under the name Pro-Sept.                                  claim. The warranty may be renewed by having the tank              considered temporary, only intended to be uti-              Stuth said that even the best-designed system
                                                                                                                               pumped and visually inspected. Ownership of the warranty can       lized until sewers were available.
                                                         Pro-Sept President Gary Missigman said the plan came about            be transferred when the home is sold.                                                                                      will fail eventually if it is not properly maintained.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                      “The systems needed little maintenance, and         “I’ve been doing this since 1955, and I’ve seen a
                                                         because of a need he saw after he developed a similar program
                                                                                                                                                                                                  if a system did fail, you merely added onto the         lot of trends come and go. It doesn’t matter how
                                                         for leaking home heating oil tanks.                                   The Pro-Sept warranty is sold and distributed by septic com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  drainfield. The cost of such a repair would nor-        well the septic system is designed; if it’s not main-
                                                                                                                               panies, home inspection companies, and septic system inspec-
                                                         “The septage industry wanted a product that would require sep-                                                                           mally range between $100 and $500.”                     tained, at some point it will crash.”
                                                                                                                               tors and installers.
                                                         tic systems to be maintained properly, and in the event that a                                                                               Once the nation realized that sewering the en-          Stuth said the insurance program will act as
                                                         system malfunctioned, a product that would pay to repair or           This year Pro-Sept will expand to other states with the hopes      tire country was impossible, the onsite industry        an incentive to make homeowners aware that
                                                         replace the system,” said Missigman.                                  of going national in the near future.                              was called upon to develop ways of disposing of         they have to maintain their system to keep the in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and treating wastewater, according to Stuth. Tech-      surance plan in place.
                                                         The Powderhorn Agency worked with regulatory bodies and sep-          “The Pro-Sept warranty program is a win-win for everyone.          nology answered the call.                                   “Presently, we use threats to keep homeown-
                                                         tage companies and associations to develop the warranty pro-          Builders, installers, septic companies, and home inspectors are        Although the technology exists to treat the na-     ers in compliance with maintenance issues.
                                                         gram.                                                                 able to transfer the risk of a malfunction to a third party. The   tion’s wastewater onsite, Stuth said it has its down-   We’ve come up with a program that will reward
                                                                                                                               homeowner wins because he has additional protection for his        falls. “First, the cost of the system may range be-     homeowners rather than threaten them. I’m ex-
                                                         To qualify for the warranty, homeowners must first have their         largest asset, his home,” Missigman said.                          tween $3,000 and $20,000; second, the system            cited about it. In my lifetime, it’s the most excit-
                                                         septic tanks inspected by a certified inspector and pumped or,                                                                           requires routine maintenance; and third, if a sys-      ing thing I’ve seen that can protect the consumer
                                                         if it is a new dwelling, provide the appropriate inspection forms.    For additional information about Pro-Sept’s program, contact       tem fails, it may be very costly to repair, ranging     while holding the industry to a higher standard,”
                                                         In return, the warranty provides that if a problem occurs, the        Missigman at (888) 354-0677, fax (203) 775-1542, or e-mail         between $100 and $10,000.”                              Stuth said.
                                                         system will be repaired or replaced.                                  gjm54@gateway.net.

20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 21
                                                             M   A   N   A   G   E   M   E   N   T

                                                                                                                                                                                              “The reason for stating this is that the onsite wastewater    system owners that their systems were fine and that the
                                                                                                                                                                                          management system in DuPage County is by no means con-            health department did not know what it was doing.
                                                         DuPage County Illinois Health Department:                                                                                        ventional—that is, it does not fit neatly into the formalized     Nonetheless, system owners pressured the service compa-
                                                                                                                                                                                          model prepared for such management systems by NODP                nies to keep up with service calls.

                                                         An Unconventional Approach to                                                                                                    IV,” Chase said.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Sampling Program
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anticipating the Health Department’s Visit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                While sampling results in 1992 reflected those found in

                                                         Onsite Systems Management                                                                                                            The sampling program began in 1991. Since the county
                                                                                                                                                                                          health department’s environmental health services division
                                                                                                                                                                                          already had an established onsite wastewater program, it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1991, 1993 results showed some improvement. Believing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            that service companies were anticipating when sampling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            would be conducted, the health department halted the sam-
                                                                                                                                                                                          made sense to include the sampling program within their           pling program in 1994 but resumed it again in 1995.
                                                                                                                                                                                          existing range of responsibilities. These responsibilities in-        Sampling results from 1995 testing were worse than the
                                                                                                                                                                                          cluded reviewing and issuing onsite wastewater construc-          results from any of the previous years, indicating that once
                                                                                                               NSFC STAFF WRITER                                                          tion permits, registering onsite wastewater contractors, re-      again, the service companies were being lax in servicing sys-
                                                                                                                                                                                          searching property records for field staff, and witnessing per-   tems. These results also validated the need for continuing
                                                                                                             Caigan M. McKenzie                                                           colation tests.                                                   the sampling program.
                                                                                                                                                                                              To gain support for this program from the community,
                                                                                                                                                                                          the health department wrote a letter to system owners ex-         Enforcement Strategies, Resources, and Homeowner
                                                                                                                                                                                          plaining how the sampling program would work. System own-         Education
                                                                                                                                                                                          ers were told effluent would be tested for fecal coliform (the        In August of 1999, the health department proposed to
                                                                                                                                                                                          primary public health parameter for wastewater quality) and       eliminate the 1990 code requirement for lifetime servicing
                                                                                                                                                                                          that those systems that did not comply would be retested.         of surface discharge systems from the county’s private
                                                              Census statistics collected since1840                                                 Up to this time, the DuPage Coun-
                                                         rank DuPage County, Illinois, as one of       “From the beginning,                     ty Zoning Department had relied on
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effluent Not Up to Code
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            sewage disposal ordinance. Instead, service would be re-
                                                         the fastest growing counties in the U.S.                                               the county’s reserve area requirement                                                                       quired for the first two years of operation based on Ameri-
                                                         This growth drastically changed the           there was minimal in-                    to limit density and development.             Samples from the 1991 tests showed dismal results. The        can National Standards Institute/NSF standards and state
                                                                                                                                                Alarmed at the increasing use of small    DuPage County private sewage ordinance requires chlorine          code. After that, service would be optional.
                                                         character of the community.                   volvement by the                         lots, the zoning department revised its   residual to test between 0.2 and 1.5 parts per million. But           This change would place the burden of complying with
                                                              Once a rural area, DuPage County
                                                         is now suburban, and in some areas,           community. . . . Rather, regulations to increase the frontage of                   most samples did not show any chlorine residual, and the          effluent quality standards and having systems serviced on
                                                         urban; once home to numerous natural                                                   new development to a minimum of 75        rate of noncompliance for fecal coliform was nearly 40 per-       the homeowner rather than having a technician from the
                                                         wetlands, it now has tight clay soils,        the DuPage County                        feet.                                     cent. It took seven rounds of sampling before all systems         county’s onsite wastewater program track service contracts.
                                                         shallow, seasonal high-water tables, and                                                   But a major problem still remained.   were brought into compliance.                                         The local onsite system installers and designers balked at
                                                         occasional flooding. Over the years, as
                                                                                                       Health Department                        No one knew how well the systems              The sampling program also found that system owners            the proposed code changes and asked the health department
                                                                                                                                                                                          were not receiving the full level of service they needed to
                                                         the county developed, it accumulated          took on these tasks                      would perform or what the county
                                                                                                                                                                                          keep their systems operating properly. For example, al-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            to reconsider, which the health department agreed to do.
                                                         many onsite wastewater systems, which                                                  would do about systems that produced                                                                            Although the sampling program began without special
                                                         today number more than 23,000.                with some input from                     substandard effluent quality. It was      though discharging units were serviced, disinfection systems      funding, additional personnel, or special regulatory changes,
                                                              “Currently, there are more than 500                                               clear the county needed to develop        were not. In addition, service contracts did not cover pump-      the health department was concerned the program would
                                                         onsite wastewater systems that use ei-
                                                                                                       local onsite system in-                  some sort of monitoring program.          ing the system. These limitations in service caused many of       be disrupted if it did not have dedicated resources. To pre-
                                                                                                                                                                                          the systems to fail to comply with the code.
                                                         ther aerobic treatment plants or sand         stallers and designers.”                                                                                                                             vent this from occurring, the health department plans to al-
                                                         filters and discharge to a receiving                                                   Informal Management of Onsite                                                                               locate funds to this program in next year’s budget.
                                                         body of water or to the ground sur-                               - Paul Chase         Wastewater Systems                                    Finger Pointing                                           And finally, the health department is striving to decrease
                                                         face,” said Paul Chase, president of                                                       DuPage County approached devel-                         System owners accused service compa-            the rate of system failure through increased community ed-
                                                         Chase Environmental Services, Inc., in                                                 opment of its onsite wastewater man-                        nies of not properly caring for their sys-      ucation. The current method is to educate homeowners con-
                                                         Rochelle, Illinois. “It was this proliferation of surface dis-   agement system much differently than many of the other                               tems, and service companies respond-         current to sampling their surface discharge units. In this sce-
                                                         charge systems that drove the onsite wastewater manage-          communities that had participated in Phase IV of the Na-                                ed with accusations about the             nario, the sanitarian gives the homeowner a brochure, ex-
                                                         ment activities in DuPage County.”                               tional Onsite Demonstration Program (NODP). (NODP IV                                             health department, telling       plains the method for sampling, and describes how the unit
                                                                                                                          promotes, develops, and demonstrates management strate-                                                                           should function.
                                                         Zoning Ordinance Limits Discharging Systems                      gies for onsite wastewater treatment in small communities




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                              From 1963 to 1988, surface discharging systems in Du-       in the U.S.)                                                                                                                      Sampling Program Spurs State Action
                                                         Page County were not permitted. Only subsurface systems              “From the beginning, there was minimal in-                                                                                        “The greatest success of this program is that light was
                                                         were allowed. The county operated under a 1963 waste-            volvement by the community, the target pop-                                                                                       shed on a serious problem,” Chase said. “DuPage County is
                                                         water code that required a reserve area equal in size to the     ulation, which is comprised of the own-                                                                                           one of only three counties in the state that set up a program
                                                         subsurface seepage system for future expansion. This had         ers of onsite wastewater systems,” said                                                                                           for sampling effluent quality. The results of these programs
                                                         the effect of making it difficult to develop small single lots.  Chase. “The community had no di-                                                                                                  have led to efforts by the Illinois Department of Public
                                                              “In 1988,” said Chase, “the State Attorney challenged       rect involvement in the vision, the                                                                                               Health to deal with the problem statewide.”
                                                         the 1963 zoning ordinance, and the health department             planning, the operation and im-                                                                                                       For more information on this project, contact Paul Chase,
                                                         began to issue permits for aerobic treatment plants and sur-     plementation, or review and                                                                                                       president of Chase Environmental Services in Rochelle, Illi-
                                                         face discharge disposal systems on small lots.”                  revision. Rather, the Du-                                                                                                         nois at (815) 562-6783 or e-mail him at ces9198@aol.com.
                                                                                                                          Page County Health De-
                                                         Surface Discharge Systems Increase in Number                     partment took on
                                                              Once installing surface discharge systems was no longer     these tasks with
                                                         prohibited, it was possible to build on small, single lots. Con- some input from
                                                         sequently, development mushroomed and so did the num-            local onsite system
                                                         ber of surface discharge systems.                                installers and designers.

22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 23
                                                         T   E   C   H   N   O   L   O   G   Y


                                                                                                                                                      or years, a sign at the edge   1960s in Australia where much of the


                                                                                                                                        F             of the tiny town of Miranda,
                                                                                                                                                      California, welcomed visi-
                                                                                                                                                      tors to “The Land of En-
                                                                                                                                                      chantment.” Located on the
                                                                                                                                        famous “Avenue of the Giants,” Miran-
                                                                                                                                                                                     terrain is extremely flat. SDGS systems
                                                                                                                                                                                     can work well in very flat terrain, be-
                                                                                                                                                                                     cause settleable solids are not con-
                                                                                                                                                                                     veyed through the collection lines.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Therefore, SDGS systems require less
                                                                                                                                        da’s residents live among one of Earth’s     hydraulic gradient and velocity to trans-
                                                                                                                                        true wonders—the giant redwoods.             port the wastewater through the lines
                                                                                                                                             However, by the 1970s, failing sep-     than is necessary with conventional
                                                                                                                                        tic systems were leaving many in the         sewers. The lines also can be laid at
                                                                                                                                        town feeling less than enchanted. A          shallower depths, which saves on sys-
                                                                                                                                        former logging community, Miranda            tem installation costs. In addition,
                                                                                                                                        has only 350 permanent residents,            SDGS systems do not employ man-
                                                                                                                                        many of whom are retired; yet more           holes and require fewer lift stations, re-
                                                                                                                                        than 500 students from surrounding           ducing system maintenance costs.
                                                                                                                                        areas attend the local schools. The              In a SDGS system, grease and solid
                                                                                                                                        town needed an economical solution           materials in the wastewater are separat-
                                                                                                                                        to its wastewater treatment problems,        ed out at each connection in a septic
                                                                                                                                        so residents obtained a grant from the       tank, which system designers some-             Photo courtesy of the Humboldt County Convention & Vistors Bureau

                                                                                                                                        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency         times refer to as the interceptor tank.
                                                                                                                                        and the state of California to study the     The septic tank is connected to the          in others (hence the name variable
                                                                                                                                        problem and investigate wastewater           house or business by a standard 4-inch       grade sewers). These up and down
                                                                                                                                        collection and treatment alternatives        building sewer. A small-diameter (ap-        flow patterns are possible as long as
                                                                                                                                        (Campos, 1984).                              proximately 2-inch) service lateral on       the beginning of the SDGS system is
                                                                                                                                             After evaluating different technolo-    the homeowner’s property conveys the         higher overall than its final destina-
                                                                                                                                        gies, Miranda chose to install a small-      septic tank effluent to the SDGS main.       tion—the outlet to the treatment facili-
                                                                                                                                        diameter gravity sewer system to col-            The size of SDGS mains are calculat-     ty. Also, the system should be low
                                                                                                                                        lect effluent from individual septic         ed based on the peak hydraulic flow rate     enough to receive flows from the ma-
                                                                                                                                        tanks. The system serves 125 residen-        and the hydraulic velocity needed to         jority of service connections by gravity.
                                                                                                                                        tial, commercial, and institutional con-     transport the wastewater through the             Ideally, the SDGS system outlet
                                                                                                                                        nections in the town, including the          entire system. The mains typically range     should be lower than any individual
                                                                                                                                        high school, a junior high, two rest         from 2 to 8 inches in diameter. Design       building connected to the sewer. How-
                                                                                                                                        homes, and three churches. Septic            professionals calculate the pipe diame-      ever, if homes or businesses are locat-
                                                                                                                                        tank effluent is transported by gravity      ter necessary by using the Hazen-            ed below the system, they often can
                                                                                                                                        to two lagoons, which precede an in-         Williams formula, Manning’s equation,        connect by installing a septic tank ef-
                                                                                                                                        termittently-dosed recirculating sand        or the Darcy-Weisbach equation (EPA,         fluent pump (STEP) system. Most
                                                                                                                                        filter for final treatment.                  1986; Crites and Tchobanoglous, 1998).       SDGS systems are actually combina-
                                                                                                                                             Miranda completed its system in             Unlike conventional gravity sewers       tion STEP/SDGS systems. Such hybrid
                                                                                                                                        1982, and according to volunteer op-         lines, which often are constructed of        designs can minimize or eliminate the
                                                                                                                                        erator Bert Stevens, it has been oper-       concrete or clay, SDGS pipes are similar     need for costly lift stations. (STEP sys-
                                                                                                                                        ating successfully ever since. “We’ve        to pressure sewer lines and are made of      tems are described in detail in the arti-
                                                                                                                                        had people from all over the world           polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or high-density     cles “Pressure Sewers Overcome
                                                                                                                                        come to visit our little system, “ said      polyethyhlene. The joints are solvent        Tough Terrain and Reduce Installation
                                                                                                                                        Stevens. “It has worked so well over         weld or rubber gasket, and the system        Costs” on page 24, and “STEP System
                                                                                                                                        the years.”                                  usually employs cleanouts or pigging         Clears the Air in Illinois Village” on
                                                                                                                                             At the time it was installed, Miran-    ports instead of manholes, reducing the      page 28 of the Winter 2001 Small
                                                                                                                                        da’s system was one of the first small-      possibility of inflow and infiltration of    Flows Quarterly. The issue can be ac-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                        diameter gravity collection systems          stormwater and groundwater.                  cessed online at www.nsfc.wvu.edu.)
                                                                                                                                        built in the U.S. Since then, many more          Air release or combination air re-           System design engineers typically
                                                                                                                                        communities around the country have          lease/vacuum valves may be installed         make use of spreadsheets and design


                                                         Small-Diameter                                                                 chosen this alternative to conventional
                                                                                                                                        gravity sewers because of its low in-
                                                                                                                                        stallation and operation costs, and be-
                                                                                                                                        cause it is well-suited to their particu-
                                                                                                                                                                                     for air venting at high points in the sys-
                                                                                                                                                                                     tem layout. Check valves may be pres-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ent at each connection with the main
                                                                                                                                                                                     to prevent backflow during periods of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  software to plan the overall layout and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  design of SDGS systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Which Communities Should Consider


                                                         Gravity Sewers                                                                 lar site characteristics.                    high flow (EPA, 1991).                       SDGS Systems?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Dick Otis, P.E., Ph.D., of Ayres Asso-
                                                                                                                                        How Small-Diameter Gravity Sewers            SDGS Systems Can Be Adapted to a             ciates in Madison, Wisconsin, has been
                                                                                                                                        Work                                         Variety of Terrains                          involved in the design of several SDGS
                                                         Can Mean Big Savings for Communities                                                                                            Similar to pressure and vacuum sew-
                                                                                                 Photo courtesy National Park Service




                                                                                                                                           Small-diameter gravity sewer                                                           systems, including some of the first in
                                                                                                                                        (SDGS) systems are known by a vari-          ers, SDGS lines are laid at a relatively     the U.S. He states that although they
                                                                                                                                        ety of names, including variable grade       constant, shallow depth, following the       have many advantages, SDGSs are not
                                                         SFQ ASSOCIATE EDITOR
                                                                                                                                        sewers, septic tank effluent gravity         natural contour of the land. So in com-      necessarily the best option for every
                                                         Cathleen Falvey                                                                (STEG) systems, and effluent drains.         munities with hills, the wastewater will     community.
                                                                                                                                        The technology was pioneered in the          flow downhill in some areas and uphill
24                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           25
                                                                                                                          can help communities save on final           management entity may need to go             well as cleanouts, so occasionally             tanks are pumped every three years.            dysmith, Wisconsin, designed the sys-
                                                                                                                          wastewater treatment costs, because          through the time-consuming and some-         groundwater and stormwater get into            “We pump one-third of the septic tanks         tem for Conrath and confirms that the
                                                                                                                          the solids and grease in wastewater are      times difficult process of obtaining         the system.”                                   every fall to pace ourselves,” he says.        SDGS/sand filter system has served the
                                                                                                                          separated and treated in septic tanks.       easements and the cooperation of in-             Miranda residents pay a $25 per                The town hires a local contractor to       community well.
                                                                                                                          Therefore, the need for headworks is         dividual property owners to successful-      month base fee for water and sewer,            do the septic tank pumping. The sep-                “Effluent from Conrath’s system av-
                                                                                                                          reduced in the final treatment facility,     ly complete the project.                     plus additional fees for individual water      tage is mixed with lime and is land ap-        erages only 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
                                                                                                                          because screening and grit removal is            Odors from hydrogen sulfide in the       use. The fee includes any service calls        plied and buried nearby on fields vol-         biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),
                                                                                                                          not necessary. As a result, inexpensive      wastewater can sometimes be a nui-           for septic tanks and all costs for peri-       unteered by two local farmers. The             and total suspended solids from the sys-
                                                                                                                          systems, such as sand filters or lagoons,    sance with SDGS systems. Engineers           odic pumping.                                  town alternates the use of the fields.         tem is in the single digits when the de-
                                                                                                                          can be used to provide final treatment.      often can prevent odor problems, for                                                            About six homes in Conrath are lo-         sign requirement is 30,” says Bob Parm-
                                                                                                                              Also with SDGS, systems communi-         example, by carefully designing how          Conrath, Wisconsin                             cated below the system and are con-            ley, president of Morgan & Parmley. “To
                                                                                                                          ties do not have the burden of remov-        ventilation is provided in the system            Although they live on opposite sides       nected via STEP systems. Konieczny             my knowledge, the collection system
                                                                                                                          ing, treating, and disposing of sludge       and by avoiding turbulence in the            of the country, Bert Stevens and Louie         also helps maintain the STEP system            hasn’t had any problems and hasn’t
                                                                                                                          after final treatment. Instead septage       mains. Other odor control measures in-       Konieczny have been living parallel            pumps and the pumps at a lift station,         needed to be flushed out or unclogged
                                                                                                                          can be removed less expensively from         clude the use of carbon filters with air     lives. Konieczny is the wastewater treat-      which precedes the sand filter. Two            in the past 11 years.”
                                                                                                                          septic tanks at regularly scheduled in-      release valves, aerating the lines, chlo-    ment plant operator for the village of         1,000-gallon holding tanks also pre-                Parmley says that he first began
                                                                                                                          tervals. Before deciding on convention-      rinating the final effluent, or adding hy-   Conrath, Wisconsin. Like Stevens, a re-        cede the sand filter and act as addi-          working with Conrath in the 1980s dur-
                                                                                                                          al gravity sewers, communities should        drogen peroxide to the system.               tired logging truck owner, Konieczny is                                                       ing the facility planning process, and
                                                                                                                          compare the life cycle costs of these                                                     a retired auto shop owner who was                                                             that his firm proposed several possible
                                                                                                                          low-tech wastewater treatment systems        Operation and Maintenance                    originally enlisted by his community to        Most SDGS systems are                          systems to residents.
                                                                                                                          with the costs of constructing a tradi-      Requirements                                 operate the local wastewater system be-                                                            “The soils in the community are
                                                                                                                          tional mechanical treatment facility             Steve McHaney, assistant region          cause “there was no one else to do it.”           actually combination                        very tight, so all the septic systems were
                                                                                                                          and staffing and maintaining it over         manager for Winzler & Kelly, the firm            Conrath also is a former logging                                                          failing,” says Parmley. “Conrath decid-
                                                                                                                          the years.                                   that designed Miranda’s system, be-          community like Miranda. It was incor-             STEP/SDGS systems.                          ed on the SDGS/sand filter system be-
                                                                                                                                                                       lieves that while SDGSs don’t have par-      porated more than 90 years ago. Ac-                                                           cause it was the least expensive and
                                                                                                                          More SDGS Pros and Cons                      ticularly rigorous operation and main-       cording to Konieczny, the town has al-            Such hybrid designs                         also the most environmentally sound
                                                                                                                                                                       tenance requirements, taking proper          ways had about 100 residents.                                                                 option. As it turned out, the system was
                                                                                                                              SDGS system mains usually are run
                                                                                                                                                                       care of them is of critical importance.          “I’ve been here for about 50 years,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    can minimize or elimi-                        classified as being innovative, which
                                                                                                                          down the side of streets rather than
                                                                                                                                                                           “We will consider SDGS systems only      he says. “We’re just a little town that                                                       qualified it for additional funding. But
                                                                                                                          down the middle and below the pave-
                                                                                                                                                                       in situations where we know we can get       never grew. We have about 38 homes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nate the need for costly                       that wasn’t at all part of the town’s orig-
                                                                                                                          ment like those of most conventional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a church, a school with only about 30                                                         inal motivation.”
                                                                                                                          sewers. In densely populated areas,          good quality maintenance for the septic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    students, three commercial establish-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              lift stations.                           According to Parmley, Conrath in-
                                                                                                                          collector mains may be located on            tanks—communities with a septic tank
                                                                                                                          both sides of the street to minimize         maintenance district, for example,” says     ments and farmland all around. One                                                            stalled all new septic tanks with their
                                                                                                                          pavement crossings, or, less common-         McHaney. “If you don’t have good clean       business is a convenience store, one is          tional septic tanks. These final tanks are   SDGS system. Konieczny says the sep-
                                                                                                                          ly, they may run along backlots to be        effluent going into the lines, then you’ll   a feedmill with a bathroom, and one is           pumped and cleaned every year.               tic tanks are all owned by the town, “so
                                                                                                                          closer to preexisting septic tanks.          have solids carryover that can clog the      a garage with two bathrooms. But all             Konieczny says that the sand filter re-      residents don’t have to worry about
                                                                                                                          Therefore, extensive pavement excava-        service lines and the mains.”                of our wastewater is septage—no                  quires little maintenance, but that he       maintenance; the town does all the
                                                                                                                          tion and restoration isn’t usually neces-        Miranda has a formal maintenance         chemicals. None of their commercial              sometimes must clean the bulbs of an         maintenance.” Sewage fees are $20
                                                                               Photos courtesy of Jan Adams Photography   sary with SDGS systems, which trans-         district. Bert Stevens performs or super-    waste goes into our system. ”                    ultraviolet (UV) disinfection unit that      per month per household.
                                                         Above, redwoods are logged near Miranda in                       late to additional savings on installation   vises all maintenance to Miranda’s sys-          Like Stevens, Konieczny oversees             follows the sand filter. He says that the
                                                         Humboldt County, California. Both Miranda                        costs and less disruption to the envi-       tem on a part-time, volunteer basis. He      the operation and maintenance of the             UV filter is only required seasonally,       For More Information
                                                         and Conrath, Wisconsin, are former logging
                                                                                                                          ronment and everyday life.                   estimates that he spends an average of       SDGS system; the subsurface, intermit-           and that the entire system has done an          If you would like to know more
                                                         towns. Both chose small-diameter gravity                                                                                                                   tently-dosed sand filter; and the septic         excellent job throughout its 11 years of
                                                                                                                              Communities also save when in-           about two hours per day, mostly in                                                                                                         about Miranda, California’s SDGS sys-
                                                         sewer systems in lieu of conventional sewers.
                                                                                                                          stalling SDGS systems because only           maintaining the final treatment system       tanks. The SDGS lines require little             operation.                                   tem, contact Neal Carnam or Steve
                                                                                                                          shallow, narrow trenches are required.       rather than the SDGS system.                 maintenance. Yet he performs all the pa-             “The wastewater system discharges        McHaney at (707) 443-8326, or by e-
                                                                                                                          SDGS mains also are simpler to install           “Mostly we check the meters at the       perwork and sees that all the septic             to Main Creek,” says Konieczny. “The         mail to nealcarnam@w-and-k.com.
                                                             “It’s never the case that one system                                                                                                                                                                    creek has been polluted over the years
                                                                                                                          than conventional gravity mains, which       sand filter to make sure that the system                                                                                                      Bob Parmley can answer questions




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                         fits all communities,” says Otis. “You
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                          must be strictly aligned vertically and      is running,” Stevens said. “We monitor                                                                  by farming, but the effluent       about Conrath, Wisconsin’s SDGS sys-
                                                         have to look at each situation individu-                                                                                                                                                                              we discharge is at least 50
                                                         ally. What we try to do with SDGS sys-                           horizontally. The plastic SDGS mains         water quality leaving the system, fill out                                                                                                 tem. He can be reached at (715) 532-
                                                                                                                          can be laid at varying grades and can        our monthly reports, and do things                                                                      times cleaner than the water       3721.
                                                         tems is to reduce excavation costs. If a                                                                                                                                                                              in the creek, even in the win-
                                                         community has simple slopes all going                            be easily routed around obstacles dis-       such as check and change valves and
                                                                                                                          covered during construction, such as         pull weeds out of the ponds. All septic                                                                 ter without UV disinfection.”      References
                                                         in the same direction, then SDGS sys-                                                                                                                                                                                     Konieczny says that fecal
                                                         tems may be the best option. But if the                          large boulders.                              tanks are pumped every five years, un-                                                                                                     Campos, Marilyn Miller. 1985. Innovative wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               coliform values usually range          collection and treatment—Miranda, California. Pro-
                                                         treatment plant is uphill, or if the town                            However, many communities that           less there is a problem with them soon-                                                                                                        ceedings 1985 International Symposium on Urban
                                                                                                                          choose SDGS systems must replace all         er. The septic tanks at the rest homes                                                                  from 0 to 9 or 10 most prob-           Hydrology, Hydraulic Infrastructures and Water Quali-
                                                         has undulating topography, then pres-                                                                                                                                                                                 able number (MPN)/100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ty Control. University of Kentucky, Lexington.
                                                         sure sewers may be a better option.”                             their old septic tanks with new ones to      and commercial establishments have                                                                                                         Crites, R., and G. Tchobanoglous. 1998. Small and de-

                                                                                                                          ensure system performance. Some-             different requirements and are pumped                                                                   millileters (mL) in the summer,        centralized wastewater management systems. New
                                                             Any small community that is consid-                                                                                                                                                                               when they are allowed 400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      York: WCB/McGraw Hill, Inc.
                                                         ering building a conventional sewer sys-                         times, new septic tanks are relocated        more often.”                                                                                                                               U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1986.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Small-diameter gravity sewers: an alternative for un-
                                                                                                                          to front yards to be closer to the SDGS          Stevens says that the small-diameter                                                                MPN/100 mL. Testing for                sewered communities. Cinncinati: Water Engineering
                                                         tem should give small-diameter sewers                                                                                                                                                                                 fecal coliforms is not required        Research Laboratory. EPA 600/S2-86/022.
                                                         a look. Systems such as SDGS, vacuum,                            mains. This additional excavation            collection system itself has required lit-   Above: Miranda High School, circa 1940. Today the                                             ————. 1991. Alternative wastewater collection systems.
                                                                                                                          should be factored into overall installa-    tle maintenance over the years. “We          school looks much the same and continues to be             in the winter.                         Washington D.C.: U.S. EPA Office of Research and
                                                         and pressure sewers can save commu-                                                                                                                                                                                       The firm of Morgan &               Development. Office of Water. EPA 625/1-91/024.
                                                         nities money in a variety of ways.                               tion costs.                                  have it on our agenda to flush the lines     fully enrolled by serving students from surrounding                                               NSFC Item #WWBKDM53.
                                                                                                                              Because SDGS systems include on-         every four years or so,” said Stevens.       communities.                                               Parmley Limited in nearby La-
                                                             For example, in addition to lower
                                                         excavation costs, SDGS systems also                              site components, the community or            “We have manholes with our system as
26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 27
                                                                                                                                                                           tion, adsorption, biological conversion,                                           Packed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bed filter
                                                                                                                                                                           and volatilization. Wastewater is dis-                                                                    distribution manifold




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    J
E




                                                                                                                                                                           tributed over the surface of the media                                                                                Wastewater collected




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    U
L




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in underdrain system
                                                                                                                                                                           through a distribution manifold and
                                                                                                                                                                           collected in an underdrain system after
                                                         Evaluation of High-Porosity Medium
C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R
                                                                                                                                                                           passing through the bed.
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                Single-pass packed bed filters           Untreated                                                               Flow splitting valve
T




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        wastewater

                                                         in Intermittently Dosed, Multi-Pass                                                                               (SPBFs) rely on the passage of waste-                                                                                 returns portion of flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to recirculation tank
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D
                                                                                                                                                                           water through the filter medium only
                                                                                                                                                                           once to accomplish treatment objec-
A




                                                         Packed Bed Filters for the Treatment                                                                              tives. Multi-pass packed bed filters




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Submerged      Filter effluent
                                                                                                                                                                           (MPBFs), commonly known as recircu-                      Septic tank
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pumps
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Recirculation tank
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to reuse application
D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R
                                                                                                                                                                           lating filters, operate in a similar man-
                                                         of Wastewater
E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    T
                                                                                                                                                                           ner as single-pass filters, but they in-      Figure 1
                                                                                                                                                                           clude an intermediate tank that serves
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                           to capture the effluent from the filter      Diagram of Multi-Pass Packed Bed Filter System
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C
                                                                                                                                                                           and dilute the incoming septic tank ef-
U




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    L
                                                                                                                                                                           fluent before the mixture is reapplied
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mass accumulate in the pore space of               ventional sand filters has prompted the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E
J




                                                                                                                                                                           to the surface of the packed bed filter.
                                                         CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
                                                                                                                                                                           A schematic diagram of an MPBF sys-          the upper layers, the porosity is further          development and testing of innovative
                                                         Harold Leverenz, P.E.                                                                                             tem is presented in figure 1.                reduced. Alternately, solid granular               media in packed bed filters. Among the
                                                         Loret Ruppe, P.E.                                                                                                      The advantages of MPBFs over            media with a large diameter (and pore              most promising of these new media
                                                         George Tchobanoglous, Ph.D., P.E.                                                                                 SPBFs are the potential for improved         size) will not restrict hydraulic loading          are nonwoven textile fabrics (NWTFs)
                                                         Jeannie Darby, Ph.D., P.E.                                                                                        transformation and removal of certain        but will have a significantly reduced              composed of plastic filaments config-
                                                                                                                                                                           constituents, the capacity to dilute pe-     surface area for biomass growth, limit-            ured in densely packed sheets. The re-
                                                                                                                                                                           riods of high organic loading, a reduc-      ing the allowable organic loading rate.            sulting NWTF is lightweight and has a
                                                                                                                                                                           tion in odors associated with open fil-          Two principal factors limit the appli-         high porosity and specific surface area.
                                                         Abstract: Three configurations of nonwoven textile fabric                Currently, more than 60 million
                                                                                                                                                                           ters, and a reduced footprint (Louden        cation of sand filters (Ball et al., 1999;             Currently, NWTFs are in use at sev-
                                                         (NWTF) in a multi-pass, packed bed filter were evaluated for        people in the U.S. live in homes that
                                                                                                                                                                           et al., 1985; Crites et al., 1997). Typi-    EPA, 1999b). First, a packed bed of                eral demonstration sites and house-
                                                         the treatment of primary effluent. The configurations includ-       use onsite systems for the collection
                                                                                                                                                                           cally, MPBFs use coarse sand or gravel       sand has a low porosity that limits the            holds in the U.S. However, only a lim-
                                                         ed hanging sheets, a packed bed of chips, and a layered             and treatment of wastewater (Crites
                                                                                                                                                                           media and support hydraulic loading          sustainable hydraulic and organic load-            ited amount of investigation into their
                                                         packed bed of chips. Hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) of 0.41         and Tchobanoglous, 1998). The most
                                                         and 1.22 m d-1 (10 and 30 gal ft-2 d-1) and organic loading                                                       rates (HLRs) three to five times higher      ing rates to avoid clogging and results            performance is available in the litera-
                                                                                                                             common type of onsite system is the
                                                         rates (OLRs) of 0.0538 and 0.161 kg biochemical oxygen                                                            than SPBFs (EPA, 1980). Hines and            in increased land area requirements.               ture (Roy et al., 1998; Ball et al., 1999).
                                                                                                                             septic tank followed by a soil absorp-
                                                         demand (BOD) m-2 d-1 (0.263 and 0.788 lb BOD ft-2 d-1)                                                            Favreau (1974) reported that multi-          Second, the sand required in packed                Roy et al. (1998) described the use of
                                                                                                                             tion field (ST-SAF). The ST-SAF system
                                                         were evaluated. The hydraulic application rate (HAR) and                                                          pass sand filters produced effluent bio-     bed filters must meet size and unifor-             NWTF chips in single-pass and multi-
                                                                                                                             relies on the soil ecosystem for purifi-
                                                         dosing frequency (DF) were held constant at 0.025 m dose-1                                                        chemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and            mity standards to ensure that the treat-           pass filters. In laboratory columns with
                                                                                                                             cation of septic tank effluent before
                                                         (0.082 ft dose-1) and 150 doses d-1, respectively. All orienta-                                                   total suspended solids (TSS) values typ-     ment system will function properly, al-            an NWTF medium depth of 0.9 m
                                                                                                                             that effluent reaches the groundwater.
                                                         tions provided excellent treatment of the wastewater in                  When ST-SAF systems are improp-          ically not exceeding 10 mg L-1 and           lowing capacity for hydraulic, solids,             (2.95 ft), the authors observed excep-
                                                         terms of organic and solids removal (97 and 95 percent re-          erly designed, poorly maintained, over-       often less than 5 mg L-1.                    and organic loading. The cost to obtain            tional removal of BOD and TSS at
                                                         duction, respectively) at the lower HLR. At the higher HLR,                                                            The potential for nitrogen reduction    and deliver the required volume of ap-             HLRs ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 m d-1 (5
                                                                                                                             loaded, or sited in an unsuitable loca-
                                                         the hanging sheet filter removal performance deteriorated                                                         in MPBFs has also been recognized,           propriately sized sand to remote sites             to 15 gal ft-2 d-1) in single-pass and
                                                                                                                             tion, inadequately treated wastewater
                                                         in contrast to the chip filters, which maintained treatment                                                       with total nitrogen (TN) removal rang-       can be prohibitive.                                multi-pass configurations. The authors
                                                                                                                             is released prematurely to the sur-
                                                         efficiency. The fraction of water retained against gravity as                                                     ing from 40 to 70 percent (Louden et             The commercial demand for com-                 hypothesized that increased water re-
                                                                                                                             rounding environment and/or ground-
                                                         a function of media volume was approximately 19 percent                                                           al., 1985; Piluk and Hao, 1989; Whit-        pact and efficient alternatives to con-            tention within the media was respon-
                                                                                                                             water raising both public health and
                                                         (90 L or 23.8 gal) for the chip orientation and 4 percent (20 L                                                   myer et al., 1991). Because of the high                                                         sible for higher organic removal. The
                                                                                                                             environmental concerns (EPA, 1999a).
                                                         or 5.3 gal) for the hanging sheets. The dose volume applied to      Thus in some situations, it is necessary      quality effluent produced by MPBFs,
                                                         the filters was approximately 23 L dose-1 (6 gal dose-1), or 0.26   to provide additional treatment to sep-       they are potentially well suited for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Table 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         and 1.15 times the measured water holding capacity for the                                                        water reuse applications (Crites et al.,
                                                                                                                             tic tank effluent before its release to the
                                                         chips and NWTF sheets, respectively. Performance in simi-                                                         1997; Jowett, 1999).
                                                                                                                             environment. The most common addi-                                                         Comparison of Wastewater Characteristics
                                                         larly loaded NWTF and sand filters indicated that medium-
                                                                                                                             tional treatment is the use of packed
                                                         size sand beds clogged and coarse-size sand beds deterio-                                                         Media Used in Packed Bed Filters
                                                                                                                             bed filters, as discussed next.                                                                                                                           Septic Tank Effluent a
                                                         rated in effluent quality compared to the NWTF filters. The                                                           Graded sand has traditionally been
                                                         packed bed porosity (void volume/total volume) for the                                                                                                                                                     This study     (with Effluent Filter Vault)
                                                                                                                             DESCRIPTION OF INTERMITTENTLY                 used as the medium in packed bed fil-         Parameter             Unit       Average   Range                Typical        Range
                                                         NWTF media was approximately 95 percent as compared                                                               ters. While past researchers have eluci-
                                                         to 30 percent for the sand. The high porosity combined with         DOSED PACKED BED FILTERS                                                                    BOD5                 mg L-1        125    80 – 200                130        100 – 140
                                                                                                                                                                           dated some of the critical factors that
                                                         the larger surface area of the NWTF can support a greater               Single-pass and multi-pass packed                                                       COD                  mg L-1        341   282 – 411                250        160 – 300
                                                                                                                             bed filters are established technologies      can be used to optimize sand filter per-
                                                         mass of biofilm growth and thus process a higher organic                                                          formance, sand and other solid granu-         TSS                  mg L-1         91    36 – 274                30          20 – 55
                                                         loading rate while not clogging.                                    for the additional treatment of septic                                                      Turbidity             NTU           39    25 – 48
                                                                                                                             tank effluent and have typically pro-         lar media have inherent limiting char-
                                                                                                                                                                           acteristics. A majority of the solid gran-    TKN as N             mg L-1         20    14 – 25                  68         50 – 90
                                                                                                                             duced high quality effluent. Intermittent-
                                                                                                                                                                           ular medium bed volume (60 to 70 per-         NH3 as N             mg L-1         16    11 – 20                  40         30 – 50
                                                                                                                             ly dosed packed bed filters consist of a
                                                                                                                                                                           cent) is occupied by the medium itself.       NO3- as N            mg L-1        0.7     0–2
                                                                                                                             bed of inert media onto which septic
                                                                                                                             tank effluent is periodically applied. As     Small-diameter granular media have a          Alkalinity       mg L-1 as CaCO3   338   310 – 373
                                                                                                                             the wastewater passes through the             high surface area, but the small pore         pH                                 7.6   7.5 – 7.7
                                                                                                                             bed, constituents are removed by filtra-      size limits the maximum hydraulic load-       a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Crites and Tchobanoglous (1998)
                                                                                                                                                                           ing rate. As particulate matter and bio-
28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              29
                                                                             Forward flow                                The specific research ob-      Facilities                                   Table 2                                                                                                      between 10 a.m. and noon; samples
                                                                             pumps submerged in
                                                                             screened vault
                                                                                                   Holding tank
                                                                                                                         jectives were (1) to charac-       A plan view of the research site is                                                                                                                   were refrigerated and analyses were per-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       J
E




                                                                                                                         terize NWTF media by           presented in figure 2, and photographs       Summary of Independent Variables for the Operation of the Textile Filters                                    formed the same day. Conventional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  water quality parameters were moni-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       U
                                                                                                              Primary
L




                                                                                                              effluent   measuring physical proper-     of the NWTF filter units (Orenco Sys-
                                                                                                                         ties of porosity and water     tems, Inc., Sutherlin, Oregon) are pro-                                                                                    Period of Operation            tored as per table 3.
C




                                                                        Anti-siphon




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       R
                                                                        valve
                                                                                                                         holding capacity in com-       vided in figure 3. Wastewater was si-                                                                                     9/2/99– 2/2/00 –
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I
                                                               Fan
                                                                              Flow
                                                                                                                         parison to sand, and (2) to    phoned from the primary clarifier into a      Parameter                                                   Unit of Measure 2/2/00      3/17/00             Characterization of NWTF
T




                                                                              meters




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E
                                                         Influent
                                                         sampling                                     Overflow           compare the performance        holding tank before being pumped to           Hydraulic loading rate (HLR)a                                     m d-1        0.41       1.22                   A laboratory investigation was con-
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D
                                                                                                      drain to
                                                         valves
                                                                                                      treatment          of three different NWTF        each recirculation tank. The concrete re-     Forward flow dosing frequency                                   doses d-1       48         48               ducted to evaluate the media character-
                                                                                                      plant
                                                                                                                         configurations (hanging        circulation tanks (Jensen Precast, Sacra-                                                                                                                 istics. The porosity of an individual
A




                                                                                                      headworks                                                                                       Forward flow dosing volume                                      L dose-1        7.9       23.8
                                                                                                                         sheets, packed bed, and        mento, California) had a water volume                                                                                                                     NWTF chip and a randomly packed bed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Filter surface area, A                                             m2          0.93       0.93
                                                                                                                         layered packed bed) under      of 0.65 m3 (265 gal). Wastewater was          Recycle ratiob, a                                                               9:1        3:1              of NWTF chips was determined. The
D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       R
                                                                                                  500 gallon concrete
                                                                                                  recirculation tank     two loading conditions         pumped from the recirculation tank to                                                                                                                     water holding capacity was determined
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Filter dosing frequency, DF                                     doses d-1      150         150
E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       T
                                                                        Three
                                                                                                                         (0.41 and 1.22 m d-1, 10       the filter surface through a convention-                                                                                                                  for a randomly packed bed of NWTF
                                                                        layer
                                                                                                                                                        al distribution system, consisting of lat-    Filter dosing volume                                            L dose-1       22.7       22.7
                                                                                                                         and 30 gal ft-2 d-1, respec-
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  chips and a hanging sheet of NWTF.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I
                                                                        textile
                                                                        filter
                                                                                                                                                        eral pipes, upward pointing orifices, and     Volume of water applied to filter bed                            m3 d-1         3.4        3.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The porosity, η, and water holding
R




                                                                                                                         tively).




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       C
                                                                        unit
                                                                                                                                                        orifice shields to direct the flow down       Hydraulic application rate (HAR)c                               m dose-1      0.025       0.025
                                                                                                  Flow splitting valve                                                                                                                                                                                            capacity, θ, were determined as follows:
U




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       L
                                                                                                                                                        into the bed. After passing through the       Organic loading rate to filter units                         kg BOD5 m-2 d-1 0.054        0.161
                                                                                                                         RESEARCH AND                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vv
                                                                                                                                                        NWTF medium, the effluent flowed                                                                                                                                          η=




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E
J




                                                                                                                                                                                                      a                                                                                                                                                 (3)
                                                                        Single
                                                                        layer
                                                                                                                         DESIGN METHODS                 through a splitting valve where a por-        b
                                                                                                                                                                                                        HLR is the forward flow to recirculation tank based on filter surface area
                                                                                                                                                                                                        As calculated with Equation (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vt
                                                                                                  Dosing pump                                                                                         c
                                                                        textile
                                                                                                  submerged in           Three NWTF filter units        tion of the flow was discharged from the        As calculated with Equation (2)
                                                                        filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  θ=
                                                                                                  recirculation tank
                                                                        unit                                        were operated in a multi-           system and the remainder was directed                                                                                                                                                           (4)
                                                                                                                                                        back into the recirculation tank.                                                                                                                                              Vt
                                                                                                                    pass mode, at hydraulic
                                                                                            Filter effluent and
                                                                                                                    loading rates of 0.41 and               A 20 W fan supplied air to the            Table 3                                                                                                     where
                                                                                            overflow returned
                                                              Effluent
                                                                                            to headworks of
                                                                                                                    1.22 m d-1 (10 and 30 gal           packed bed filters. In contrast to low-                                                                                                                   Vv = void volume, m3;
                                                                         Hanging            treatment plant                                                                                          Analysis of Dependent Variables Representing Filter Performance
                                                              sampling
                                                              location
                                                                         sheet
                                                                                                                    ft-2 d-1). Three packed bed         porosity granular medium filters where                                                                                                                    Vt = total volume, m3; and
                                                                         textile
                                                                         filter                                     configurations were test-           a fan would be of little value, the in-                                                                                                                   Vw = volume of water held against
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Parameter                               Analysis Technique
                                                                         unit
                                                                                                                    ed: (1) hanging sheets of           clusion of a fan with high-porosity                                                                                                                       gravity, m3.
                                                                                                                                                        media is standard practice. Air from         Chemical oxygen demand (COD)            Reactor digestion and colorimetric
                                                                                                                    NWTF, (2) a single layer of                                                                                                                                                                   Measurements of Vv, Vt and Vw were
                                                          Figure 2
                                                                                                                                                        the fan entered the units near the top                                               determination method 8000a
                                                                                                                    NWTF chips, and (3) three                                                                                                                                                                     made as described below.
                                                         Research Site Plan View                                                                        and traveled through a manifold for           Dissolved oxygen (DO)                  Membrane electrode method 4500-O Gb                                      To estimate the volume of material
                                                                                                        independent layers of NWTF chips
                                                                                                                                                        distribution in the bed. The fan was          5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) Method 5210 Bb                                                       (Vs) of an individual chip, a 100 mL
                                                                                                        supported on screens with a total
                                                                                                                                                        used to increase the amount of oxy-           Total suspended solids (TSS)           Method 2540 Db                                                       graduated cylinder was filled to 80 mL,
                                                         authors also hypothesized that sepa-           NWTF medium volume equivalent to
                                                                                                                                                        gen available to the biomass and to en-       Turbidity                              Turbidimeter (Model #2100A)a                                         a dry NWTF chip was submerged, and,
                                                         rating a bed into distinct layers would        that of configuration (2). A principal
                                                                                                                                                        sure aerobic conditions; however, the         Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)          Method 4500-Norg Cb                                                  after visually confirming that all pore
                                                         further improve treatment and allow            advantage of a hanging sheet config-
                                                                                                                                                        impact of the fan was not quantified.         Ammonia (NH3)                          Ammonia selective electrode 4500-NH3                                 space was filled with water, the increase
                                                         for increased loading rates but side-          uration is the ease of removal of the
                                                                                                                                                        The filter effluent was typically saturat-                                                                                                                in volume was recorded. The total vol-
                                                         by-side testing of layered and continu-        sheets for maintenance and cleaning                                                           Db Nitrate (NO3-)                      Nitrate selective electrode 4500-NO3- Db
                                                                                                                                                        ed with oxygen and without objec-
                                                         ous beds was not conducted.                    if necessary. Primary effluent from the                                                       Alkalinity (as CaCO3)                  Titration method 8203a                                               ume (Vt) of an individual chip was cal-
                                                                                                                                                        tionable odor.
                                                                                                        University of California, Davis (UCD)                                                                                                                                                                     culated from its dimensions. The void
                                                                                                                                                                                                      a
                                                                                                        wastewater treatment plant was used                                                             Hach Company, Loveland, CO                                                                                volume (Vv) was obtained by subtract-
                                                         RESEARCH OBJECTIVES                                                                            Operational Parameters                        b
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Standard Methods, 1998
                                                                                                        because of its similarity to septic tank                                                                                                                                                                  ing the volume of material (Vs) from the
                                                         The goal of the research presented                                                                 The recirculation ratio (a), an esti-
                                                                                                        effluent. The values for BOD5, chem-                                                                                                                                                                      measured total volume (Vt). The specif-
                                                         herein was to develop a better under-                                                          mate of how many times a volume of
                                                                                                        ical oxygen demand (COD), and TSS                                                            where                                                                                   α . HLR     (2)      ic porosity of an individual chip was
                                                         standing of how the configuration                                                              water has passed through the bed be-                                                                                         HAR =
                                                                                                        are within the range typical of septic                                                       Qr = flow from recirculation tank                                                         DF                 then calculated with equation 3.
                                                         and operation of NWTF media in                                                                 fore being discharged, is defined as
                                                                                                        tank effluent (table 1).                                                                            to the filter, and                                      where                                             To estimate the void volume (Vv) in
                                                         multi-pass filters affect performance.                                                                        Qr                            Q = flow of primary effluent to the re-                        HLR = hydraulic loading rate, m d-1; and      a randomly packed bed of chips, a 2-L
                                                                                                                                                                    α=                   (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                           circulation tank (forward flow).                         DF = dosing frequency, doses d-1.             beaker was packed with chips and
                                                                                                                                                                       Q
                                                                                                                                                                                                         At the HLR of 0.41 m d-1 (10 gal ft2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       To increase the HLR from 0.41 to 1.22      water was added to the beaker, satu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     d-1), the recirculation ratio was 9. After                     m d-1 (10 to 30 gal ft-2 d-1), the forward    rating the bed and filling all available
                                                                                                                                                                                                     five months, the loading was increased                         flow to each recirculation tank was in-       pore space. The volume of water
                                                                                                                                                                                                     to 1.22 m d-1 (30 gal ft-2 d-1), while the                     creased by 300 percent. Because the in-       added was assumed equal to the void
                                                                                                                                                                                                     dosing frequency (DF) was left constant,                       fluent wastewater was diluted when            volume. The total volume (Vt) of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     resulting in a recirculation ratio of 3. A                     mixed with filter effluent in the recircu-    packed bed was taken as 2 L. The bulk
                                                                                                                                                                                                     summary of independent variables is                            lation tank, water quality measurements       porosity of the packed bed of chips was
                                                                                                                                                                                                     presented in table 2.                                          were not made for several weeks after         then calculated according to equation 3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         A DF of 150 doses d-1 and hydraulic                        the HLR was increased, until the filters          To estimate the water holding ca-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     application rate (HAR) of 0.025 m dose-1                       returned to a steady state of operation.      pacity of a packed bed of chips, an
                                                                                                                                                                                                     (0.08 ft dose-1) were controlled with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  acrylic tube (inner diameter of 0.267
                                                                                                                                                                                                     programmable            timers    (Model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wastewater Sampling and Analysis              m) was packed with chips, saturated
                                                                                                                                                                                                     #MVP1251PT, Orenco Systems, Inc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       To evaluate the NWTF filter perform-       with water, and allowed to drain
                                                                                                                                                                                                     and held constant during the research.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ance, filter influent and effluent samples    against gravity for about 20 minutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                     The HAR, a measure of the depth of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    were obtained periodically. Filter effluent   (time at which drainage had essential-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     water applied to the filter surface with
                                                          Figure 3                                                                                                                                   each dose, is defined as                                       was collected for a duration equal to one     ly stopped). The change in mass was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    dosing period (24 hours/150 doses = 9.6       assumed to be the mass of water held
                                                         RNWTF filter units                                                                                                                                                                                         minutes). Sampling generally occurred         in the NWTF pore spaces. The total
30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Comparison of continuous and                 itrification by encouraging mixing septic




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5-day biochemical oxygen demand, mg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         L
                                                         Table 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               400                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           layered chip configuration—Effluent               effluent with nitrified filter effluent.




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                                                         Summary of Influent and Effluent Wastewater Characteristics for Three Textile Filter Units Operated at HLRs of 0.41and 1.22 md-1                                                                                                                                                  quality did not appear to be a function                 Comparison of NWTF and sand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of media configuration for the chip fil-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 U
L




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             performance—The NWTF showed no
                                                                                                                                                      Concentrationa, mg L-1                                                                                   300                                                75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ters. In the bed of randomly stacked,             signs of the surface clogging character-
C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 R
                                                                                                                                             -1                                                    -1
                                                                                                                          HLR = 0.41 m d                                         HLR = 1.22 m d




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Percent removal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           uncompressed NWTF chips, each                     istic of sand beds. For comparison, six
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               200                                                50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           piece of NWTF holds water independ-               single-pass sand filters were in operation
T




                                                          Parameter                 Influent              Three-Layer       Single-Layer          Hanging Sheet Three-Layer Single-Layer Hanging Sheet




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ently from the rest of the bed or its po-         at the same time as the NWTF filters uti-
                                                                                  Textile Filter         Textile Filter     Textile Filter         Textile Filter Textile Filter Textile Filter Textile Filter
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sition in the bed. Therefore, the water




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             lizing wastewater from the same source.
                                                          BOD5                    125 (80–200)b            1c (0.5–5)        1 (0.6–1.7)            2.5 (1.3–5)    4.4 (5–5.2)    2.6 (2–3.6)    16 (11–21)                                                                                                                                holding capacity of the NWTF chip fil-            Three of the sand filters used a medium
A




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               100                                                25
                                                                                     [n=10]b                 [n=8]              [n=8]                  [n=8]          [n=2]          [n=2]          [n=2]                                                                                                                                  ter was not increased when the bed                sand (effective size [ES] = 0.44 mm; uni-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           was divided into three layers.                    formity coefficient [UC] = 2.4) and were
D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 R
                                                          COD                     341 (282–411)           17 (15–19)       16.5 (16–17)23            (22–24)          21 (N/A)       22 (N/A)             45 (N/A)                                               0                                             0                                Removal of nitrogen—Complete ni-             loaded at 0.12 m d-1 (3 gal ft-2 d-1), while
                                                                                      [n=3]                 [n=2]               [n=2]                 [n=2]            [n=1]          [n=1]                [n=1]                                                  0             50        100       150      200
E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           trification and some denitrification (ap-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the other three sand filters had a coarse-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Time of filter operation,d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           proximately 30 percent total nitrogen             sand medium (ES = 3.8 mm, UC = 1.3)
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (a)
                                                          TSS                      91 (36–274)           1.3 (0.2–2.8)      1.2 (0.2–4.3)         1.4 (0.7–4.9)   4 (2.6–5.5)      2.4 (2.3–2.5) 15.5 (9.7–21.2)                                                                                                                           removal) took place in the combined               and were loaded at 0.2 m d-1 (5 gal ft-2
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5-day biochemical oxygen demand, mg
                                                                                      [n=9]                  [n=7]              [n=7]                 [n=7]          [n=2]             [n=2]          [n=2]                                                    400                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           filter unit and recirculation tank system.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             d-1). Each of the three medium sand fil-
U




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Alkalinity was measured and found to              ters had different distribution system
                                                          Turbidity                 39 (25–48)            1.6 (0.9–3)       1.6 (1.1–2.3)         2.1 (1.6–2.7)   2.7 (2.3–3)        2 (1.9–2)          6.4 (4.7–8)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 E
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           be in sufficient concentrations to sup-           configurations (conventional, drip, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               300                                                75
                                                                                      [n=7]                  [n=5]              [n=5]                 [n=5]          [n=2]             [n=2]               [n=2]                                                                                                                           port nitrification processes. Because of          spray), and all produced a high quality




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Percent removal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the limited data obtained for the vari-           effluent equivalent to the NWTF filters.
                                                          TKN as N               20 (13.6–24.6)            3.4 (N/A)          2.2 (N/A)              1 (N/A)      6.3 (4.6–8.4)     4.7 (4.4–5)         8.1 (6.9–9)                                                                                                                        ous forms of nitrogen, any discussion                   Surface clogging occurred in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               200                                                50
                                                                                      [n=4]                  [n=1]              [n=1]                 [n=1]           [n=3]            [n=3]               [n=3]                                                                                                                           of transformation and removal of nitro-           medium sand filter units 108, 91, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           gen is speculative. The high concen-              153 days after system startup for the
                                                          NH3 an N               16 (11.3–19.6)           0.05 (0–0.1)       0.03 (0–0.1)         0.5 (0.1–0.8)   0.4 (0.2–0.6) 0.2 (0.2–0.3)           4.7 (4.2–5.1)                                          100                                                25                       tration of nitrate in the effluents, how-         conventional, drip, and spray systems,
                                                                                      [n=7]                  [n=4]              [n=4]                 [n=4]           [n=3]         [n=3]                   [n=3]                                                                                                                          ever, may be a concern in environ-                respectively. The coarse sand filters did
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ments sensitive to nitrogen.                      not clog during the study, but, it was ob-
                                                          NO3- as N                 0.7 (0–1.7)          13.7 (12.2–15) 12 (10.8–12.9) 15 (13.3–16.5) 10.2 (8.4–12.0) 10.5 (8.5–11.9)5.7 (4.3–6.6)                                                               0                                             0                                Total nitrogen removal was lower             served that filter effluent quality deteri-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0          50        100       150      200
                                                                                       [n=6]                 [n=3]           [n=3]          [n=3]           [n=3]         [n=3]          [n=3]                                                                                                                                             than the 40 to 70 percent reported in             orated in the winter months, with efflu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Time of filter operation,d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (b)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the literature. Modification of the sys-          ent BOD5 ranging from 5 to 20 mg L-1.
                                                          Alkalinity as           338 (310–373)          212 (200–230) 223 (218–232) 218 (212–228) 250 (238–270) 246 (234–268) 286 (268–309)                                                                                            Percent   Effluent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tem configuration and loading charac-                   It is believed that a combination of
                                                          CaCO3                       [n=6]                  [n=3]         [n=3]         [n=3]         [n=3]         [n=3]         [n=3]                                                                                                removal   concentration                            teristics may increase the removal of             NWTF characteristics contributed to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Holding tank (raw)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           total nitrogen. It is possible that denitri-      filter beds excellent hydraulic conduc-
                                                          a
                                                            Except turbidity, which is reported as NTU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     fication was restricted by the presence
                                                          b
                                                            Average (range) [number of data points]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tivity and resistance to clogging, prima-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Hanging sheets
                                                          c
                                                            Outlier removed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of aerobic or facultative conditions in           rily the material porosity and the large
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Single layer                                                      the recirculation tank, limited carbon in         pores created by the random stacking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Three layer                                                       the raw wastewater, or short-circuiting           configuration of the chips and the gaps
                                                             volume (Vt) of the packed bed of chips                    to efficient constituent removal, making         and 4 percent (20 L or 5.3 gal) for the                                                                                                                            of the return filter effluent in the recir-       between the hanging sheets. The NWTF
                                                             was taken as the volume of the tube.                      it difficult to discern the effects of media     hanging sheets. A high DF allowed for                                                  Figure 4                                                                    culation tank. Measures that may in-              media were examined to identify the
                                                             The water holding capacity was calcu-                     configuration; however, some signifi-            a low HAR, resulting in the wastewater                                                                                                                            crease denitrification include (1) de-             characteristics that make it efficient for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Effluent Concentrations and Percent Re-
                                                             lated with equation 4.                                    cant differences were observed as de-            being applied in small doses. The                                                                                                                                 creasing the recirculation ratio to reduce         wastewater treatment. The packed bed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               moval of (a) Five-Day Biochemical Oxygen
                                                                 The water holding capacity of the                     scribed below.                                   dose volume applied to the filters was                                                                                                                            the concentration of dissolved oxygen              porosity (void volume/total volume) for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Demand and (b) Total Suspended Solids
                                                             NWTF sheet was estimated by saturating                         Comparison of chip and hanging              about 23 L dose-1 (6 gal dose-1), or 0.26                                              in Hanging Sheets, Single-Layer, and                                       in the recirculation tank and (2) modify-          the NWTF media, as determined with
                                                             a single sheet with water, allowing the                   sheet configuration—The influent and             and 1.15 times the measured water                                                      Three-Layer Textile Filter Units. Note: on                                 ing the hydraulics in the recirculation            equation 3, was approximately 95 per-
                                                             material to drain in a vertical orientation,              effluent BOD5 and TSS and the percent            holding capacity for the chips and                                                     day 153 of operation the HLR was in-                                       tank to provide a carbon source for den-           cent. Thus, in a bed of NWTF media,
                                                             and measuring the mass of water held                      removal are plotted as a function of day         NWTF sheets, respectively. The addi-                                                   creased from 0.41 to 1.22 m d-1(10 to 30
                                                             against gravity. The total volume (Vt) of                 of operation for each filter on figure 4.        tional water holding capacity of the                                                   gal ft-2 d-1)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                             the sheet was calculated from its meas-                   All filters provided excellent treatment         NWTF chips may increase the contact
                                                             ured dimensions and the water holding                     of the wastewater in terms of organic            time between the biomass and waste-                                                    sheet and chip filters, and that such a
                                                             capacity was calculated with equation 4.                  and solids removal (97 and 95 percent            water constituents, contributing to the                                                difference impacted performance.
                                                                                                                       reduction, respectively) at the HLR of           higher performance of the chips rela-                                                  Such effects can not be separated from                                          Particles accumulate Number of                                   Number of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Particles removed
                                                             RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                    0.41 m d-1 (10 gal ft-2 d-1). However, after     tive to the hanging sheets.                                                            the impacts of water holding capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            in the pore space, forming                                           particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              by straining, clogging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                a clogging layer on
                                                                                                                       the loading was increased to 1.22 m d-1              Given the maintenance and clean-                                                   in this research; however, given the                                                the surface                Sand grains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Non-woven textile                  layer does not form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             because of high porosity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fabric chips
                                                             Performance of NWTF filters                               (30 gal ft-2 d-1) on day 153, the hanging        ing advantages of a hanging sheet                                                      continuous air supply, the extremely
                                                                 A summary of all influent and efflu-                  sheet filter removal performance deteri-         compared to a chip configuration, ef-                                                  high porosity of the material, and the
                                                             ent measurements is presented in table                    orated in contrast to the chip filters,          forts to reduce the short-circuiting of                                                reduced water holding capacity in the
                                                             4. The filters were in operation from Sep-                which maintained treatment efficiency.           flow through the hanging sheet filters                                                 sheets compared to the chips, it is like-
                                                             tember 1999 to March 2000, the peri-                           A possible explanation for the de-          are warranted. Such efforts might in-                                                  ly that any oxygen transfer limitations
                                                             od coinciding with the fall and winter                    cline in performance of the hanging              clude modification of the surface prop-                                                in the hanging sheets were of second-
                                                             seasons. Most data taken for this study                   sheet filter is related to the water hold-       erties of the material to promote water                                                ary importance compared to the ef-                                                                      (a)                                        (b)
                                                             were collected during winter. The aver-                   ing capacity. The fraction of water re-          absorption and reduce surface flow                                                     fects of the reduced water holding ca-
                                                             age air temperature for that period was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 5
                                                                                                                       tained against gravity as a function of          across the sheets as well as reducing the                                              pacity. If the water holding capacity is
                                                             10oC (50oF). The effluent from the filter                 media volume, as calculated with                 gaps between the vertical sheets.                                                      improved, gas transfer limitations                                         Conceptual Model Illustrating Particle Removal in a Sand Bed Compared
                                                             units was typically clear with no odor.                   equation 4, was approximately 19 per-                It also is possible that there was a dif-                                          should be investigated.                                                    to the NWTF Chips
                                                             The high dosing frequency contributed                     cent (90 L or 23.8 gal) for the chips            ference in oxygen transfer in the hanging
32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           33
                                                                                                                                                              ly high hydraulic conductivity of the          tons) of sand would be required. The 30-               cent as compared to 30 to 40 per-                            water for household and irrigation purposes. Pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ceedings of the 10th Northwest On-Site Waste-
                                                                                                                                                              NWTFs compared to conventional gran-           fold difference in required land area and              cent for the sand. The high porosi-                          water Treatment Short Course and Equipment Exhi-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   J
E




                                                                                                                                                                                                             850-fold difference in weight of media                 ty combined with the larger sur-                             bition. Seattle, Washington.
                                                                                                                                                              ular media such as sand, the distribution                                                                                                                      Louden, T. L., D. B. Thompson, and L. E. Reese. 1985.
                                                                                                                                                              of wastewater to the surface of the filters    required is significant.                               face area of the NWTF can support




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   U
L




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cold climate performance of recirculating sand fil-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ters. Proceedings of the 4th National Symposium of
                                                                                                                                                              was not optimal. When the convention-              Reliable high quality effluent—The                 a greater mass of biofilm growth
C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Individual and Small Community Sewage Systems.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   R
                                                                                                                                                              al orifice type distribution system (devel-    potential stability of NWTF filter units               and thus process a higher organic                            ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Piluk, R. J. and O. J. Hao. 1989. Evaluation of onsite
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                                              oped for sand filters) was used for the ap-    given variable loading and the resulting               loading rate while not clogging.                             waste disposal systems for nitrogen removal. Jour-
T




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E
                                                                                                                                                              plication of wastewater onto the NWTF,         high quality effluent, suggests that the ef-         3. There was no discernable differ-                            nal of Environmental Engineering. vol. 115. no. 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Roy, C., R. Auger, and R. Chenier. 1998. Use of non-
                                                                                                                                                              the flow was concentrated directly below       fluent could be used directly for onsite               ence in performance between a
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 woven fabric in intermittent filters. On-site waste-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 water treatment: Proceedings of the 8th National
                                                                                                                                                              the orifice as shown in figure 6. Increas-     subsurface irrigation or, alternatively,               single continuous layer and an
A




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Symposium on Individual and Small Community
                                                                                                                                                              ing the horizontal distribution of waste-      would be a high quality feed for an ad-                equivalent depth three layer NWTF                            Sewage Systems. ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Tchobanoglous, G., L. Ruppe, H. Leverenz, and J.
                                                                                                                                                              water would make more efficient use of         vanced water treatment system that pro-                chip filter under the conditions                             Darby. 1999. Decentralized wastewater manage-
D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   R
                                                                                                                                                              the material and likely allow for even high-   duced water for multiple purposes.                     evaluated. Both NWTF chip filters                            ment challenges and opportunities for the twenty-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 first century. Proceedings of the 10th Northwest
                                                                                                                                                              er hydraulic loading rates. Alternative dis-   Complete reuse would even eliminate                    typically achieved BOD5 and TSS
E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 On-Site Wastewater Treatment Short Course and
                                                                                                                                                              tribution systems should be developed                                                                                                                              Equipment Exhibition. Seattle, Washington.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             the need for a soil absorption field. Fig-             removal of 97 to 100 percent re-
I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999a.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                                              and tested to determine the effects of dis-    ure 7 (Tchobanoglous et al., 1999) de-                 moval and nearly complete nitrifi-                           Decentralized systems technology fact sheet: Septic
R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tank – Soil Adsorption Systems. EPA 932-F-99-075.
                                                                                                                                                              tribution on filter performance.               picts a total reuse scenario utilizing a               cation of the ammonia nitrogen. In                           U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washing-
U




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   L
                                                          Figure 6                                                                                                                                           compact NWTF filter unit.                              future research, the hydraulic load-                         ton, D.C.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ———. 1999b. Wastewater technology fact sheet: Inter-
                                                                                                                                                              Ramifications                                                                                         ing rate should be increased to de-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E
J




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mittent sand filters. Washington, D.C. EPA 932-F-99-
                                                         Conventional Orifice-Type Distribution System (developed for sand filters)                                The high loading rate of, and excel-      CONCLUSIONS                                            termine the assimilative capacity of                         067.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ———. 1980. Design manual: Onsite wastewater treat-
                                                                                                                                                              lent effluent quality from, the NWTF fil-                                                             NWTF in multi-pass packed bed fil-                           ment and disposal systems. Washington, D.C. EPA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Three configurations of NWTF filter                                                                             625-1-80-012.
                                                         five percent of the volume is occupied          other fraction of the applied water may              ters make them a compelling alternative                                                               ters. In addition, the impact of                         Whitmyer, R. W., R. A. Apfel, R. J. Otis, and R. L.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             units were investigated at HLRs of 0.41
                                                         by a solid, leaving 95 percent of the bed       preferentially flow around a chip                    for onsite wastewater treatment. More-                                                                packing density of the NWTF                                  Meyer. 1991. Overview of individual onsite nitro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             and 1.22 m d-1 with a DF of 150 doses                                                                               gen removal systems. On-site wastewater treat-
                                                         volume for biomass growth, gas ex-              through the large pore spaces and into               over, NWTF filters have the potential to                                                              should be investigated.                                      ment: Proceedings of the 6th National Symposium
                                                                                                                                                                                                             d-1 for a period of 7 months. Observa-                                                                              on Individual and Small Community Systems. St.
                                                         change, and liquid infiltration. For com-       a different fabric chip, where similar re-           be an integral part of compact, cost-effi-                                                          4. The distribution of wastewater to
                                                                                                                                                                                                             tions of the NWTF filter performance                                                                                ASAE. Joseph, Mich.
                                                         parison, granular media such as sand            moval processes occur. Because the fil-              cient onsite wastewater treatment and                                                                 the surface of the filters was not op-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             and media characteristics led to the fol-
                                                         typically has a porosity of approximate-        ter bed is composed of many NWTF                     water reuse systems.                                                                                  timal. The NWTF has a much high-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             lowing conclusions:
                                                         ly 30 to 40 percent, with a majority of         chips, the surface area available for large               High loading rate—The increased                                                                  er hydraulic conductivity than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. All orientations provided excellent
                                                         the filter bed occupied by an inert ma-         particle filtration is much greater than             loading rate allows for a decrease in the                                                             granular media. When the con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    treatment of the wastewater in                                                                                            Harold Leverenz, P.E.
                                                         terial. NWTFs have a high surface area          that of a sand bed. The increased sur-               footprint required by the filter units (com-                                                          ventional orifice type distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    terms of organic and solids re-                                                                                           is a doctoral student in the Depart-
                                                         (~16,400 m2 m-3 or 5,000 ft2 ft-3; Ball et      face area available for filtration and par-          pared to sand and gravel filters) and a                                                               system is used for the application                                        ment of Civil and Environmental En-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    moval (97 and 95 percent reduc-
                                                         al., 1999) for biofilm growth. Sands have       ticle entrapment makes it possible to                concurrent reduction in the quantity of                                                               of wastewater onto the NWTF, the                                          gineering at the University of Cali-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tion, respectively) at the HLR of                                                                                         fornia, Davis and studies decentral-
                                                                                                                                                              filter media. The NWTF units were op-                                                                 flow is concentrated below the ori-
                                                         a significantly smaller surface area; the       treat an equivalent volume of waste-                                                                       0.41 m d-1 (10 gal ft-2 d-1). How-                                                                                        ized wastewater treatment systems.
                                                         medium and coarse sands used in this            water in a smaller area. Moreover, the               erated at loading rates up to 1.22 m d-1                                                              fice. Increasing the horizontal dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ever, after the loading was in-
                                                                                                                                                              (30 gal ft-2 d-1) and had a surface foot-                                                             tribution of wastewater would
                                                         study had a surface area of approxi-            recirculation of the filter influent pro-                                                                  creased to 1.22 m d-1 (30 gal ft-2                                                                                        Loret M. Ruppe, P.E.
                                                         mately 7,000 m2 m-3 (2,100 ft2 ft-3) and                                                             print of 0.93 m2 (10 ft2) with approxi-                                                               make more efficient use of the ma-
                                                                                                         vides multiple opportunities for particle                                                                  d-1), the hanging sheet filter re-                                                                                        is a doctoral student in the Depart-
                                                                                                                                                              mately 35 kg (77 lb) of NWTF media. To                                                                terial and likely allow for higher or-
                                                         1270 m2 m-3 (387 ft2 ft-3) , respectively.      entrapment and contaminant removal.                                                                        moval performance deteriorated                                                                                            ment of Civil and Environmental En-
                                                                                                                                                              treat the same volume per day with a                                                                  ganic loading rates. Alternative dis-                                     gineering at the University of Cali-
                                                              The following is a conceptual expla-       A diagram of the conceptual model il-                                                                      in contrast to the chip filters, which
                                                                                                                                                              single-pass sand filter, with a convention-                                                           tribution systems should be devel-                                        fornia, Davis and studies decentral-
                                                         nation of how the NWTF media facilitat-         lustrating particle removal in a sand bed                                                                  maintained treatment efficiency.
                                                                                                                                                              al depth of 0.6 m (2 ft) operated at a con-                                                           oped and tested to determine the                                          ized wastewater treatment systems.
                                                         ed an increased hydraulic loading rate          compared to the NWTF chips is pre-                                                                         The vertical orientation of the
                                                                                                                                                              ventional loading rate of 0.04 m d-1 (1 gal                                                           effects of distribution on filter per-
                                                         and maintained a high constituent re-           sented in figure 5.                                                                                        sheets reduced the effective water                                                                                        George Tchobanoglous, Ph.D.,
                                                                                                                                                              ft-2 d-1), a surface footprint of 28 m2 (300                                                          formance.
                                                         moval rate despite the high porosity of              Interestingly, because of the relative-                                                               holding capacity and it was also                                                                                          P.E.
                                                         the material. A dose of                                                                              ft2) with approximately 30,000 kg (33                 noted that water appeared to flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                 is a professor emeritis in the Depart-
                                                         wastewater,        containing                                                                                                                              over the surface of the sheets. The                                                                                       ment of Civil and Environmental En-
                                                         both dissolved species and                                                                                                                                 fraction of water retained against           The donation of equipment by Oren-                                           gineering at the University of Cali-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    gravity as a function of media vol-      co Systems, Inc. (Sutherlin, Oregon) for                                         fornia, Davis. He has a bachelor of
                                                         a distribution of various size                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       science degree in civil engineering
                                                         particles, is applied to the                                                                                                                               ume was approximately 19 per-            this research and a U.S. Department of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              from the University of the Pacific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Education Graduate Assistance in Areas




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cent (90 L or 23.8 gal) for the chip
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         NWTF media. A fraction of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Stockton, CA), a master of science
                                                         the water comes into con-                                                                                                                                  orientation and 4 percent (20 L or       of National Need Fellowship to H. Lev-                                           degree in sanitary engineering from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.3 gal) for the hanging sheets.         erenz is gratefully acknowledged.                                                University of California at Berkeley, and
                                                         tact with the biofilm that re-                                                                                Subsurface tree and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a Ph.D. in civil engineering from Stan-
                                                         sides on the surface of the
                                                                                                                                                                        landscape irrigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The dose volume applied to the fil-                                                                                       ford University. He is a registered
                                                         media fibers and is ab-                                     Bathroom sink                                                                                  ters was about 23 L dose-1 (6 gal        REFERENCES                                                                       professional engineer.
                                                         sorbed and transformed.                  Reverse osmosis    Shower/bath                                                                                    dose-1), or 0.26 and 1.15 times the      American Public Health Association, American Water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Works Association, and Water Environment Federa-
                                                         The NTWF has a large sur-                                   Kitchen sink                                                                                   measured water holding capacity               tion. 1998. Standard methods for the examination of                         Jeannie Darby, Ph.D., P.E.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Membrane   unit                                                             water and wastewater, 20th ed. Washington, D. C.
                                                         face area and, therefore,                          Toilet flushing                       Septic tank          Textile                                      for the chips and NWTF sheets, re-       Ball, E. S., H. L. Ball, and T. R. Bounds. 1999. A new gener-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              is a professor in the Department of
                                                                                                                              In-line
                                                                                                                                                                        filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    spectively.                                   ation of packed bed filters. Proceedings of the 10th                        Civil and Environmental Engineering
                                                         can support a large amount                         Clothes washing
                                                                                                                             lint filter                                                                                                                          Northwest On-site Wastewater Treatment Short Course                         at the University of California at
                                                         of attached biomass, allow-                                                                    Solids returned to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2. Performance in similarly loaded               and Equipment Exhibition. Seattle, Washington.                              Davis. She has a bachelor of science
                                                                                                                                                           septic tank                                              NWTF and sand filters indicated          Crites, R. and G. Tchobanoglous. 1998. Small and de-
                                                         ing for increased con-                                                                                                                                                                                   centralized wastewater management systems. New                              degree in civil engineering from Rice
                                                         stituent removal. Larger par-
                                                                                                             Outdoor activities:
                                                                                                                car washing,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    that medium-size sand beds                    York: The McGraw Hill Companies.                                            University, a master of science de-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Crites, R., C. Lekven, S. Wert, and G. Tchobanoglous.                            gree in civil engineering from Tufts
                                                         ticles are removed as they
                                                                                                                surface watering, etc.                                                                              clogged and coarse-size sand beds             1997. A decentralized wastewater system for a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              University, and a Ph.D. in civil engi-
                                                         are strained out with depth                                                        UV disinfection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    deteriorated in effluent quality              small residential development in California. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              neering from the University of Texas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Small Flows Journal. vol. 3. no.1.
                                                         in the media and are re-                                                                                                                                   compared to the NWTF filters.            Hines, M. and R. E. Favreau. 1974. Recirculating sand                            at Austin. She is a registered pro-
                                                         duced through biological               Figure 7                                                                                                            The packed bed porosity (void vol-            filter: An alternative to traditional sewage absorp-                        fessional engineer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tion systems. Proceedings of the National Home
                                                         conversion processes. The                                                                                                                                  ume/total volume) for the NWTF                Sewage Disposal Symposium. ASAE. St. Joseph,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mich.
                                                                                               A Total Reuse Scenario Utilizing a Compact NWTF Filter Unit                                                          media was approximately 95 per-          Jowett, E. C. 1999. Immediate re-use of treated waste-
34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Centerville, PA World-Class Demonstration                           quality of the Evitts Creek Watershed and the water quality
                                                         Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Performance                                                                                                                                                                                of Gordon and Koon Lakes.”
                                                         A Multifaceted Relationship Between Design, Installation, Operation,                                                                                                                                                              The City of Cumberland, Maryland, is donating land for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11
                                                         and Maintenance                                                                                                                                                                                                               the establishment of an environmental learning center that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   but it also has introduced new technology to Pennsylvania.          will showcase Centerville’s onsite wastewater management
                                                          CONTINUED FROM PAGE 9                       panies or collectively through a trade        evaluations, bad designs, or inadequate                        Contour trench technology, currently not approved for use
                                                                                                                                                    maintenance. Yes, there have been                                                                                                  system. The Centerville project will be used to train SAC
                                                                                                      association, you can accomplish more                                                                         in Pennsylvania, is being used experimentally in Centerville.
                                                              The industry’s reliance on compos-                                                    poorly installed, operated, and main-                                                                                              personnel in the planning, design, construction, and inspec-
                                                                                                      in a couple of years than you can in 20                                                                      The Pennsylvania DEP will carefully monitor and evaluate how
                                                         ite samples (see American Public Health                                                    tained aerobic treatment units. Our                                                                                                tion of alternative wastewater treatment systems. SAC can
                                                                                                      years relying entirely on the regulatory                                                                     well this system works. If the method is successful there, it
                                                         Associations, Standard Methods for the                                                     challenge is to strengthen the industry                                                                                            then use its knowledge to provide similar assistance to other
                                                                                                      process.” Their wisdom holds true. In-                                                                       might spur regulatory changes that would allow contour
                                                         Examinations of Water and Wastewater,                                                      using the many tools at our disposal, not                                                                                          small communities throughout the six-county region in the
                                                                                                      dependent, third-party evaluators are                                                                        trenches to be permitted in other appropriate sites in the state.
                                                         Eighteenth Edition) and the averaging of                                                   ban viable technology.                                                                                                             future once these communities see the long-term effects of
                                                                                                      essential to the unbiased documenta-                                                                             Throughout the process, public meetings were held to
                                                         data collected from the laboratory           tion of technology performance                                                                                                                                                   appropriate wastewater treatment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   keep residents informed. “A major outcome of this project is            For more information about the Centerville Project, con-
                                                         analysis of effluent samples are testimo-
                                                         ny to the importance of these evalua-                                                                                                                     the way the residents changed their attitude from denial of         tact Len Lichvar, executive director of Southern Alleghenies
                                                                                                      Needed: New Standard for Evaluation                                                                          sewage problems and contamination of the Evitts Creek Wa-
                                                         tion concepts. Any attempt to judge the                                                                         Bennette D. Burks, P.E., is                                                                                   Conservancy at 702 West Pitt Street, Suite 8, Bedford, PA,
                                                         performance of a wastewater treatment             Arguments have been made that ex-                                                                       tershed to strong participation in the project and the manage-
                                                                                                                                                                         director of engineering for                                                                                   15222. You can telephone Lichvar at (814) 623-7900, ex-
                                                         technology by relying on a single or lim-    isting standards and evaluation protocols                                                                    ment district,” said Dennis Beal, sewage enforcement officer.
                                                                                                                                                                         Consolidated Treatment Sys-                                                                                   tension 5 or e-mail him at sac@nb.net.
                                                         ited number of grab samples is a prac-       do not accurately reflect real-world op-                           tems, Inc., in Franklin, Ohio.                Len Lichvar, executive director of the Southern Alleghe-            Additional background information about the link be-
                                                         tice in bad science.                         erating conditions. These arguments are                                                                      ny Conservancy (SAC) said, “The Centerville project allowed         tween the Centerville demonstration project and CELP can
                                                              Consider what Dr. Nina I. McClel-       mostly academic. Operating conditions                                                                        the citizens of Cumberland Valley Township to effectively           be found in Small Flows, Winter, 1999 in the story titled
                                                         land wrote more than 20 years ago: “It       vary immensely among users, and cur-                                                                         deal with their wastewater and conform to Pennsylvania DEP
                                                                                                      rent engineering practices focus on flow                                                                                                                                         “NODP Phase II Site Serves International Role.”
                                                         is not uncommon for NSF to receive re-                                                                                                                    regulations. In addition, from a resource conservation stand-
                                                                                                      equalization as a management strategy.                            Michael S. Price, R.S., is
                                                         ports that field test data [collected from                                                                                                                point, the project will greatly enhance and protect the water
                                                                                                      ANSI/NSF Standard 40, which is used to                            vice president, Sales for Nor-
                                                         aerobic treatment units] are dissimilar                                                                        weco, Inc., Norwalk, Ohio.
                                                         from those obtained during the six           evaluate aerobic treatment units, pro-
                                                         months evaluation for listing. Invariably    vides some assurance regarding proper
                                                         the ‘dissimilar’ data were taken under       operation and maintenance. Some argue         REFERENCES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Onsite Systems Management in the Rockies                            function—the one serving the lodge. The low malfunction
                                                                                                      that ANSI/NSF Standard 40 addresses                                                                                                                                              rate is partially attributed to the seasonal use of the systems.
                                                         conditions totally different from those                                                    Bohrer, R. M., and J. C. Converse. 2001. Soil treatment per-
                                                                                                      only the first two years of operation and          formance and cold weather operations of drip distribu-    CONTINUED FROM PAGE 17
                                                         associated with the evaluation pro-                                                             tion systems. Onsite wastewater treatment: Proceedings                                                                        Plans for the Future
                                                         gram. Most often they are random grab        maintenance, but there are no compet-              of the 9th national symposium on individual and small     another homeowner.
                                                                                                      ing standards so far. As aerobic treat-            community sewage systems. ASAE. St. Joseph, Mich.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Twelve homeowners resisted membership in the water                   Mancl said that an abandoned airstrip is being consid-
                                                         samples, which should not be com-                                                          Felix, Charles W., and George A. Kupfer. 1988. Third-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ered for a second cluster system to serve a group of homes
                                                         pared with daily composite results.”         ment unit manufacturers, we challenge              Party certification. Journal of Environmental Health.     and sewer association. These homeowners argued that they
                                                                                                                                                         vol. 50. no. 6. (May/June).                                                                                                   now using holding tanks. The association also has set aside
                                                                                                      the onsite wastewater treatment indus-        Locker, Calvin, and Larry Vansickle. 1980. Experiences         should not be forced to join the association since their
                                                                                                      try and regulators to develop standards            with the use of aerobic plants and soil absorption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   homes were built before it was formed.                              sites for large soil absorption systems throughout the devel-
                                                         Third-Party Testing                                                                             systems. Presented at the Seventh National Confer-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       opment to serve new homes.
                                                                                                      and certification programs that provide            ence, sponsored by the National Sanitation Founda-           The association filed suit, but exception was granted to
                                                             Accredited, third-party testing of all   the consumer and regulatory communi-               tion (NSF) and the U.S. Environmental Protection                                                                                  Mancl plans to revisit Crystal Lakes in 20 years. “I want
                                                                                                                                                         Agency, Office of Water Program Operation. Illinois.      the original owners of lots who had wells drilled prior to July
                                                         onsite treatment technologies provides       ty with the level of design, installation,    McClelland, Nina M. 1977. New techniques relating to                                                                               to see how true Crystal Lakes stays to its original wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18, 1975.
                                                         one path to accurate and fair evalua-        and ongoing operation and maintenance
                                                                                                                                                         individual onsite wastewater disposal. Presented at                                                                           management goals and how its public policies impact its
                                                                                                                                                         the Edward J. Zimmer Memorial Refresher Course,
                                                         tions of onsite wastewater treatment         assurances provided by standards like              71st Annual Meeting, American Society of Sanitary                                                                             streams and communities.”
                                                                                                                                                         Engineering. Kissimmee, Florida. (October).               Collecting Delinquent Accounts
                                                         systems. Evaluations should include          ANSI/NSF Standard 40.                         Monnett, G. T., R. B. Reneau, Jr., and C. Hagedorn.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           For more information about Crystal Lakes as a case study
                                                         testing, certification, and listing by in-                                                      1996. Evaluation of spray irrigation for on-site waste-       The Crystal Lakes Water and Sewer Association has               for NODP Phase IV, write Karen Mancl, Ph.D., professor,
                                                                                                           In this regard, we welcome and will           water treatment and disposal on marginal soils.           found that most members pay dues promptly. Liens are
                                                         dependent, American National Stan-           participate in the development of a                Water Environment Research. vol. 68. no. 1. (Janu-                                                                            Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 590 Woody
                                                         dards Institute (ANSI) accredited third-                                                        ary/February).                                            placed against delinquent lots. In addition, a delinquency          Hayes Dr., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
                                                                                                      model code for onsite wastewater treat-       National Small Flows Clearinghouse. 1996. Pipeline. vol.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   fee that averages 18 percent is assessed against these prop-
                                                         party certifiers. Independent evaluators                                                        7. no. 1. (winter).                                                                                                           or telephone her at (614) 292-6007.
                                                                                                      ment. The current draft model code,           Otis, Richard J. 1994. Aerobic unit good wastewater            erties to cover costs. Liens are collected only after the sale
                                                         test products and designs and provide                                                                                                                                                                                             For information about the rate of malfunctions at Crystal
                                                                                                      which includes evaluation, certification,          treatment option. The Capital Time. February 17.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the property by warranty deed transfer.
                                                         data from which objective judgments                                                        Sahr, Tim, Jim Lynch, and Davene Sarrocco-Smith. 1996.                                                                             Lakes, contact Richard Rosecrans, general manager, Crystal
                                                                                                      design, installation, operation, and               Evapotranspiration absorption system: A creative al-
                                                         about technologies can be made. Third-                                                          ternative for on-lot wastewater disposal. Ohio Journal                                                                        Lakes Water and Sewer Association, 300 Tami Rd., Red
                                                                                                      maintenance, would do much to cor-                                                                           Malfunctions
                                                         party certification and product listing                                                         of Environmental Health. (May/June).                                                                                          Feather Lakes, CO 80545. Rosecrans’s telephone number is
                                                                                                      rect the current bias. Under this model       Stockton, Edward L. 1984. Disposal of treated sewage ef-
                                                         provide a means to make sure product                                                            fluent. Presented before the Home Sewage and                 Since 1973, Crystal Lakes has only had one system mal-           (970) 881-2250.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                      code, all technologies would be treat-
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                         Waste Disposal Conference at Michigan State Uni-
                                                         manufacturers and engineers are ac-          ed equally, based on their documented              versity.
                                                         countable for internationally accepted       performance. No longer would technol-
                                                                                                                                                    Young, Allan N., Jr. 1974. Soils infiltration and evapora-
                                                                                                                                                         tion of wastewater by aerobic processes. Presented
                                                         standards of design, application, opera-     ogy be limited to the particular favorites         at the National Environmental Health Association
                                                                                                                                                         Annual Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                                         tion, and maintenance.                       of a locality. The selection of a particu-
                                                             In 1988, Felix and Kupfer wrote,                                                                                                                                 NSFC Products
                                                                                                      lar technology would be based upon
                                                         “The value of the independent, third-        the requirements of an individual site,                                                                                 Readers who wish to learn more about the NODP and        Fact Sheet—The National Onsite Demonstration Pro-
                                                         party approach to standards develop-         limits of the in situ soils, and the third-                                                                             its projects should consider the following educa-        gram: Projects Database (Item #SFFSGN140)
                                                         ment is that the organizations special-      party-documented performance of the                                                                                     tional products offered by the NSFC.                     This NSFC fact sheet summarizes the NODP Data-
                                                         izing in this approach have the ability      listed technologies. The success of the
                                                         and experience to bring to the same                                                                                                                                  Fact Sheet—Overview of the National Onsite Demon-        base, which is designed to house a wide range of
                                                                                                      installation would be ensured by the                                                                                    stration Program (Item #SFFSGN137)                       information on various domestic wastewater demon-
                                                         table competing companies—and to a           system management, which would be
                                                         certain extent ‘competing’ agencies of                                                                                                                               Developed by the NSFC, this fact sheet briefly sum-      stration projects within the U.S. Details are provid-
                                                                                                      a condition of its use.                                                                                                                                                          ed about the information that will be included for
                                                         government . . . with some expectation                                                                                                                               marizes the NODP and its first four phases. The NODP
                                                                                                           The performance of aerobic treat-                                                                                                                                           each database entry, how the database can be used
                                                         of achieving general agreement among                                                                                                                                 assists communities in selecting, installing, fund-
                                                                                                      ment units—indeed all onsite wastewater                                                                                                                                          as a resource tool, and how everyone can partici-
                                                         them . . . . When you get an industry                                                                                                                                ing, monitoring, and using onsite treatment systems
                                                                                                      treatment technologies—is not perfect.
                                                         working hard on public health and                                                                                                                                    and management models that are cost-effective, vi-       pate and benefit from the database. This five-page
                                                                                                      Often, however, failures attributed to the
                                                         safety objectives, individually as com-                                                                                                                              able alternatives to full central sewage systems.        fact sheet is offered free of charge.
                                                                                                      technology are the result of poor soil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no cost for this four-page fact sheet.
36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37
                                                         Q   U   E   S   T   I   O   N   &    A   N   S   W   E   R

                                                                                                                                                                                               Soil characteristics play a major role in siting     inspector or soil evaluator. If the site meets the re-
                                                                                                                                                                                           an onsite wastewater system. It is important to          quirements and can be developed, it is also im-
                                                                                                                                                                                           know the site conditions before purchasing the           portant to contact a reputable OSDS installer or
                                                                                                                                                                                           land. If site conditions are unacceptable for an         designer. You may also check the local yellow
                                                             Septic Systems: What You Need To Know                                                                                         OSDS, chances are you will be stuck with prop-           pages or ask questions of others living in the area
                                                                When Building or Buying a House                                                                                            erty that you cannot build upon.
                                                                                                                                                                                               For example, imagine that you purchased a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to help determine who would be most appropri-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ate to perform your site evaluation and/or design
                                                                                                                                                                                           parcel of land with a great view or that seems ideal     and install your OSDS. The designer or installer,
                                                                                                                                                                                           for your particular needs, but the soil conditions       in cooperation with the local health department
                                                                                                  NSFC ENGINEERING SCIENTIST                                                               don’t meet specified requirements for wastewater         or permitting authority, can help you determine
                                                                                                                                                                                           dispersal. The physical site characteristics must be     which wastewater treatment and dispersal tech-
                                                                                                          Andrew Lake
                                                                                                                                                                                           evaluated to ensure that the soil can handle the         nology will be appropriate for your site.
                                                                                                                                                                                           amount and quality of effluent being discharged.              Once you become the proud new owner of an
                                                                                                                                                                                           These characteristics include soil classification or     onsite wastewater treatment and dispersal system,
                                                                                                                                                                                           percolation tests; vertical separation (subsurface)      you need to take care of your new investment.
                                                         What should I know about onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems when pur-                                               distances to restrictive horizons, such as bedrock;      Knowing the location of the system and under-
                                                         chasing a home or buying property?                                                                                                the natural groundwater table; and the seasonal          standing how the system and its components work
                                                                                                                                                                                           high water table. If these conditions are not ac-        are very important to you as the new homeown-
                                                                                                                                                                                           ceptable and do not meet the requirements estab-         er. Proper maintenance and care of your onsite
                                                         Editor’s Note: This column is based on calls re-             needs to locate the dispersal system and deter-                      lished by your local or state regulatory authority,      system will ensure that your wastewater is proper-
                                                         ceived over the National Small Flows Clearing-               mine the size of the dispersal area to ensure that                   you will want to know this prior to making any           ly treated and safely returned to the environment.
                                                         house (NSFC) technical assistance hotline. If you            it is adequate for the residence. Once it is locat-                  commitment to purchasing the property.                   It is also important for you, the purchaser, to be
                                                         have further questions concerning purchasing an              ed, the inspector will examine the site for signs of                     If any of these site characteristics cannot be       present when all of these inspections are conduct-
                                                         onsite treatment system, call (800) 624-8301 or              system failure. Some of these signs may include                      met, all may not be lost. There are alternative          ed. This will provide you the opportunity to ask
                                                         (304) 293-4191 and ask to speak with a technical             soggy ground over the drainfield; ponding/surfac-                    methods for onsite wastewater treatment and dis-         questions and have a full understanding of your
                                                         assistant.                                                   ing effluent; changes in grass color or thickness;                   posal. It is vital, however, to work closely with        wastewater treatment and dispersal system.
                                                                                                                      and cover, such as trees, bushes, and shrubs lo-                     local regulatory authorities because they will be             The NSFC has products and publications that
                                                             Whether you are purchasing a home with an                cated next to, or around, the system that can po-                    able to provide you with options that would be           can assist you in all phases of these inspections,
                                                         existing onsite wastewater treatment and dispos-             tentially clog or disrupt the distribution network.                  approved for your site’s conditions.                     site evaluations, and in choosing an appropriate
                                                         al system (OSDS), or building your own home                  The inspector will also probe the soil in the drain-                     Again, it is the purchaser’s responsibility to       onsite wastewater treatment and dispersal system.
                                                         that will need an OSDS, there are a few things               field or soil absorption area to determine if the soil               schedule a site evaluation. Your local health de-        Please feel free to contact the NSFC at (800) 624-
                                                         that you, the purchaser/builder, should be aware             is adequately handling the treated effluent being                    partment or state regulatory agency should be            8301 for more information.
                                                         of to protect yourself and the environment.                  dispersed.                                                           able to provide you with contacts for a licensed
                                                                                                                           In some cases, PTIs are required. Some entities
                                                         Buying a Home                                                that may require a PTI to include state and/or local
                                                             If there is an existing OSDS, it is important that       regulatory authorities, banking/lending institu-
                                                         you have the entire system inspected by a li-                tions, and real estate agencies. For your own pro-
                                                         censed inspector or the proper local permitting              tection as a prospective buyer, you should insist        Products
                                                         authority. Often, this procedure is termed a Prop-           on a complete inspection whether it is required                                                         Site Evaluations (Item #SFPLNL21)
                                                         erty Transfer Inspection (PTI). A PTI is necessary           or not. Contact the local regulatory authority or        Pipeline                                       The Spring 2000, Volume 11, Number 2         tional and alternative wastewater treat-
                                                         to determine whether the existing system is func-            ask the lending institution you’re working with if       A Homeowner’s Guide to Onsite System           issue of Pipeline explains the importance    ment and disposal technologies. These
                                                         tioning properly and meeting current local/state             they require an inspection.                              Regulations (Item #SFPLNL12)                   of a site evaluation prior to installing     technologies are applicable to individual
                                                         regulatory requirements. The PTI protects you, the                                                                    The Winter 1998, Volume 9, Number 1            an onsite wastewater system, and how         homes, schools, restaurants, and other
                                                         potential new owner of the OSDS, by relieving                Building A Home                                          issue of Pipeline examines some common         the testing determines the type of on-       small-flow situations. There is also a sec-
                                                         you of the financial responsibility of repairing or             If you are planning to build a home that will         onsite wastewater system regulations as        site system that is appropriate for a par-   tion about systems that can be installed
                                                         replacing a failing or substandard system. If there          not be located on or near a centralized waste-           they affect property transfers, professional   ticular site. Planning for an onsite sys-    in difficult site conditions. The cost for
                                                         are problems with the OSDS, the PTI will make                water collection system, a site evaluation should        qualifications, operation and maintenance,     tem, including the preliminary site eval-    this poster is $1.25.
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                         the current owner responsible for bringing the               be conducted prior to purchasing property. It will       system changes and repairs, and the steps      uation, soil surveys, field testing, land-
                                                         system up to code.                                           be up to you, the potential land purchaser, to have      for system approval. The price of this         scape contour and subsurface drainage,       Booklet
                                                             The system inspection consists of locating the           the land evaluated to be certain the property can        eight-page NSFC newsletter is 20 cents.        soil tests, texture, structure, and other    State Level Onsite Wastewater Regulatory
                                                         OSDS and identifying the system components                   be “developed” (i.e., it is conducive to onsite                                                         soil properties, as well as water move-      Contacts (Item #WWBLRG34)
                                                         (i.e., septic tank, aerobic treatment unit [ATU],            wastewater treatment and dispersal).                     Inspections Equal Preventative Care for        ment, are all discussed. Suggested site      Compiled by the NSFC, this list includes
                                                         sand filters, and dispersal methods). The primary               There are some very important aspects of the          Onsite Systems (Item #SFPLNL13)                evaluation procedures and tips are of-       regulatory contacts for states that have
                                                         treatment unit (septic tank or ATU) will be                  property that a site evaluation should consider.         The Spring 1998, Volume 9, Number 2            fered. This current issue of the eight-      onsite wastewater regulations. A contact
                                                         checked for structural integrity, proper size for            The size of the lot is important for determining the     issue of Pipeline focuses on the advan-        page NSFC newsletter is free of charge.      person’s name, department, address, and
                                                         the residence, and liquid volume in the tank. If             ideal location of the wastewater treatment and dis-      tages of having onsite wastewater sys-                                                      telephone number is provided. This eight-
                                                         the septic tank contains effluent filters, these will        persal system. The land area and location of the         tems regularly inspected, including dis-       Poster                                       page booklet is offered free of charge.
                                                         also be inspected. The inspection process will be            onsite system must meet the required horizontal          cussions about when the onsite system          Onsite Wastewater Treatment for Small
                                                         similar for an ATU; however, different compo-                separation distances (the regulated distance from        should be inspected, who should inspect        Communities and Rural Areas (Item
                                                         nents, such as the aerator and electrical devices,           adjacent properties, drinking water wells if there       it, the homeowner’s role in the process,       #WWPSPE02)
                                                         will need to be inspected.                                   are no public water services available, or surface       and what happens during an inspection.         Developed by the NSFC, this updated
                                                             The dispersal system, such as a drainfield or            water bodies). In addition to the size of the prop-      The price of this eight-page NSFC              poster provides descriptions and
                                                         soil absorption system, will also need to be in-             erty, another and quite possibly more important          newsletter is 20 cents.                        illustrations of various onsite conven-
                                                         spected. As mentioned earlier, the inspector                 component that needs to be evaluated is the soil.
38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39
                                                          N   S   F   C   R   E   S   O   U   R   C   E   S

                                                                                                                                                                           local, state, and public health officials; contrac-       Watershed Progress: Rouge River Watershed
                                                                                                                                                                           tors/developers; engineers; finance officers; man-        Michigan
                                                                                                                                                                           agers; operators; planners; state regulatory agency           Since 1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection
                                                                                                                                                                           personnel; researchers; and the general public.           Agency (EPA) has been promoting the watershed
                                                                                              New                                                                            The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     approach to achieve the next generation of water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     protection. This booklet by the EPA Office of Water
                                                                                                                                                                           #WWFSGN148.


                                                         NSFC Products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and the Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Water-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sheds details the Rouge River Watershed area south-
                                                                                                                                                                           On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems:                     east of Detroit, Michigan. Because of the polluted
                                                                                                                                                                           Evapotranspiration Bed                                    condition of the Rouge River, fish consumption ad-

                                                              Are Available                                                                                                     This fact sheet by the Texas Agricultural Ex-
                                                                                                                                                                           tension Service at Texas A&M University discuss-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     visories were posted, and the county health depart-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ment prohibited total body contact. This booklet dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cusses how the EPA, state of Michigan, local busi-
                                                                                                                                                                                           es treating wastewater by evapo-
                                                                                                                                                                                           transpiration (ET)—the loss of water      nesses, citizens, and grassroots organizations in the
                                                                                                                                                                                           from the soil by evaporation and by       area worked together to clean up the Rouge River
                                                                                                                                                                                           transpiration from plants growing         and protect their watershed. This four-page booklet
                                                                                  On-Site Wastewater Treat-         The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item                       there. This fact sheet explains why       may be helpful to local, state, and public health offi-
                                                                                  ment Systems: Septic            #WWFSGN146.                                                              ET beds are used, how they are de-        cials, as well as the general public.
                                                                                  Tank/Soil Absorption                                                                                     signed, and how they treat waste-
                                                                                  Field                           On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray                              water. Types of ET beds, color dia-         The cost for this booklet is 70 cents. Request Item
                                                                                      Produced by the Texas       Distribution System                                                      grams, and maintenance tips are           #WWBLGN159.
                                                                                  Agricultural Extension Ser-          This fact sheet, produced by the Texas Agri-                        also included. The four-page fact
                                                                                  vice at Texas A&M Univer-       cultural Extension Service at Texas A&M Universi-                        sheet is geared toward Texas resi-        Animal Feeding Operations:
                                                                                  sity, this fact sheet de-       ty, discusses spray distribution systems, which                          dents; however, it could be useful        The Role of Counties
                                                                                  scribes septic tank and soil    spray treated wastewater over the surface of a                           to local, state, and public health of-       Written by James Kundell of the University of
                                                                                  absorption systems for          yard. Spray distribution systems are the least ex-                       ficials; contractors/developers; en-      Georgia, this book was produced for the Conference
                                                                                  treating residential waste-     pensive to install of all wastewater distribution sys-                   gineers; finance officers; managers;      of Southern County Associations in cooperation
                                                                                  water. Using numeric tables     tems; however, they require the most wastewater          operators; planners; state regulatory agency per-         with the National Association of Counties. The book
                                                                                  and color diagrams to sup-      treatment, which increases the cost of a complete        sonnel; researchers; and the general public.              discusses animal feeding operations (AFOs), which
                                                                                  plement the text, it de-        system. The fact sheet describes four main system                                                                  are livestock-raising operations, such as hog, cattle,
                                                                                  scribes the components of       components: a wastewater treatment system, a               The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item        and poultry farms that confine and concentrate ani-
                                                          the system and how to maintain them. Soil ab-           disinfection system, a pump tank, and spray heads.       #WWFSGN150.                                               mal populations and their wastes. Concerns with
                                                          sorption field siting and design are discussed, in-     This fact sheet also explains how the distribution                                                                 AFOs appear to fall into three major categories: the
                                                          cluding tank size and construction, soil texture,       system is designed, including the amount of land         On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems:                     impact of expanding corporate farms on the econo-
                                                          hydraulic loading, and absorption field size. The       space, maximum wastewater application, and site          Aerobic Treatment Unit                                                            my of rural counties; the po-
                                                          four-page fact sheet is geared toward Texas resi-       selection. Color diagrams of the system are in-              Produced by the Texas Agricultural Extension                                  tential environmental and
                                                          dents; however, it could be useful to local, state,     cluded. The four-page fact sheet is geared toward        Service at Texas A&M University, this fact sheet                                  public health impacts of
                                                          and public health officials; contractors/develop-       Texas residents; however, it could be useful to          discusses how aerobic units treat wastewater for                                  AFOs; and siting concerns re-
                                                          ers; engineers; finance officers; managers; opera-      local, state, and public health officials; contrac-      homes and small businesses using the same                                         lated to nuisance odors. The
                                                          tors; planners; state regulatory agency personnel;      tors/developers; engineers; finance officers; man-       process (scaled down) as municipal wastewater                                     purpose of this book is to
                                                          researchers; and the general public.                    agers; planners; state regulatory agency person-         treatment systems. Aerobic treatment units re-                                    provide county officials with
                                                                                                                  nel; researchers; and the general public.                move 85–98 percent of the organic matter and                                      guidance on the issues relat-
                                                            The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item                                                               solids from wastewater, producing effluent as                                     ing to AFOs and the county’s
                                                          #WWFSGN147.                                               The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item       clean as that from municipal wastewater treat-                                    role in addressing the issues.
                                                                                                                  #WWFSGN149.                                              ment plants, and cleaner than that from conven-                                   The book includes a table of
                                                          On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand                                                                       tional septic tanks. The fact sheet details the aer-                              states that had counties with
                                                          Filter                                                  On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems:
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             home rule authority in 1990,




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                                           obic treatment process, including tank types,
                                                                  This Texas Agricultural Extension Service       Constructed Wetlands                                     treatment, design, and operation and mainte-              a glossary, and an appendix of cattle AFO-related
                                                          (Texas A&M University) fact sheet describes sand            This Texas Agricultural Extension Service (Texas     nance. Color diagrams and a numeric table of flow         activities in each state. This 78-page book may be
                                                          filtration—one of the oldest wastewater treatment       A&M University) fact sheet describes constructed         rates for single-family residences of various sizes       helpful to local, state, and public health officials;
                                                          technologies known. Color diagrams supplement           wetland systems for domestic wastewater treat-           supplement the text. The four-page fact sheet is          managers; planners; and the general public.
                                                          the text, which explains the types of sand filters      ment designed to mimic the natural wetland treat-        geared toward Texas residents; however, it could
                                                          (intermittent and recirculating). The fact sheet dis-   ment processes of Mother Nature. The fact sheet          be useful to local, state, and public health officials;     The cost for this book is $5. Request Item
                                                          cusses how the sand filter treats wastewater            discusses how the system uses plants and microbes                                                                  #WWBKGN161.
                                                                                                                                                                           contractors/developers; managers; operators; plan-
                                                          through filtration, chemical sorption, and assimi-      to purify wastewater. Natural wetlands generally         ners; state regulatory agency personnel; and the
                                                          lation; how it should be designed; and how to           have visible water in the system; however, for                                                                     Funding of Small Community Needs Through the
                                                                                                                                                                           general public.
                                                          keep it working. If properly designed, construct-       household use, the water flows beneath the soil                                                                    Clean Water State Revolving Fund
                                                          ed, operated, and maintained, a sand filter pro-        surface, which limits contact between residents
                                                          duces a very high-quality effluent. The four-page                                                                  The cost for this fact sheet is $1. Request Item           This fact sheet by the EPA Office of Water pro-
                                                                                                                  and wastewater. This fact sheet discusses how to         #WWFSGN160.                                               vides an overview of the Clean Water State Revolv-
                                                          fact sheet is geared toward Texas residents; how-
                                                                                                                  maintain constructed wetlands and includes de-                                                                     ing Fund (SRF) program, authorized by Title VI of
                                                          ever, it could be useful to local, state, and public
                                                                                                                  sign factors, along with color diagrams of the sys-                                                                the 1987 Clean Water Act (CWA) Amendments. The
                                                          health officials; contractors/developers; engi-
                                                                                                                  tem. The four-page fact sheet is geared toward                                                                     fact sheet discusses funding trends, including
                                                          neers; finance officers; managers; operators; plan-
                                                          ners; state regulatory agency personnel; re-            Texas residents; however, it could be useful to
                                                          searchers; and the general public.
40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41
                                                         distribution of SRF dollars to small communities                                    clude the following:
                                                         relative to total SRF funding during the past 11                                    • Alaskan Native Vil-
                                                         years. (It also presents this information graphical-
                                                         ly.) Graphics also illustrate the relationship be-
                                                         tween SRF agreements with small communities
                                                         and total SRF agreements, as well as the costs as-
                                                                                                                                                lages Sanitation
                                                                                                                                                Grant Program
                                                                                                                                             • Clean Water Tribal
                                                                                                                                                Grant Program
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Products List
                                                         sociated with specific categories of need. A table                                  • Colonias Program
                                                         contains Clean Water SRF assistance in dollars                                      • National Environ-
                                                         and the number of agreements by community                                              mental Training                     Item Number                               Case Studies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCS02               Vacuum Collection System (Cedar Rocks,
                                                         size for fiscal years 1988–1998 for each state with                                    Center for Small                    Breakdown                                                         West Virginia) ........................................................................$1.45
                                                         totals for all states. This four-page fact sheet could                                 Communities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCS03               Variable Grade Effluent Sewers (Maysville Area,
                                                         serve as a reference for local officials, managers,                                 • National Onsite                      First two characters of item
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Muskingum County, Ohio) ................................................$2.10
                                                         planners, public health officials, finance officers,                                Demonstration Pro-                     number: (Major Product Category)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCS04               Alternating Bed Soil Absorption Systems (Crystal Lakes,
                                                                                                                                                                                    WW Wastewater
                                                         state officials, and the general public.                                            gram                                   FM Finance and Mangement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Colorado) ..............................................................................$2.30
                                                                                                                     • National Small Flows Clearinghouse                           GN General Information                     WWBLCS05               Intermittent Sand Filter (Gardiner, New York)................$1.60
                                                            The cost of this fact sheet is 70 cents. Request         • Operator Onsite Technical Assistance Pro-                    SF Small Flows                             WWBLCS06               Overland Flow (Kenbridge, Virginia) ................................$2.70
                                                         Item #FMFSFN33.                                               gram—104(g)                                                                                             WWBLCS07               Wetlands/Marsh (Cannon Beach, Oregon) ....................$2.30
                                                                                                                     • Rural Community Assistance Program                           Second two characters of item              WWBLCS09               Slow Rate Land Treatment (Craigsville, Virginia) ..........$2.10
                                                                                                                                                                                    number: (Document Type)                    WWBLCS10               Year-Round Slow-Rate Land Treatment (Hershey’s Mills,
                                                         Wastewater Treatment Programs Serving Small                 • Small Communities Outreach and Educa-                        BK Book, greater than 50 pages                                    Pennsylvania) ........................................................................$2.10
                                                         Communities                                                   tion Network                                                 BL Booklet, less than 50 pages             WWBLCS11               Flat Grade Sewers (Ericson, Nebraska) ............................$1.20
                                                            Many small communities lack adequate waste-              Contact information and hotlines for waste-                    BR Brochure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCS12               Grinder Pump Pressure Sewers (Augusta, Maine) ........$1.30
                                                         water facilities, but must come into compliance          water treatment are provided.                                     CD Computer Disk/ROM
                                                                                                                                                                                    FS Fact Sheet                              WWBLCS13               Minimum Grade Effluent Sewers (Dexter, Oregon) ....$1.60
                                                         with the Clean Water Act requirements. This                                                                                JR Journal                                 WWBLCS14               Free Access Intermittent Sand Filter (New York) ..........$2.70
                                                         4-page, EPA Office of Water fact sheet highlights           The cost of this fact sheet is 70 cents. Request
                                                                                                                                                                                    NL Newsletter                              WWBLCS18               Septic Tank Effluent Collection and Sand Filter Treatment
                                                         EPA-funded programs that provide financial assis-        Item #WWFSGN157.                                                  PL Pipeline                                                       (New York) ............................................................................$2.55
                                                         tance, technical assistance, and training to small                                                                         PK Packet                                  WWBLCS21               Pollution Prevention at POTW’s ......................................$0.00
                                                         communities for the construction and operation                                                                             PS Poster                                  WWBKCS22               Combined Sewer Overflows and the Multimetric Evalua-
                                                                                                                                                                                    SW Software                                                       tion of Their Biological Effects: Case Studies in Ohio and
                                                         of wastewater treatment facilities. Programs in-                                                                           VT Video Tape                                                     New York................................................................................$0.00

                                                                                                                                                                                    Third two characters of item
                                                                                                                                                                                    number: (Content Type)                    Computer Searches
                                                                                                                                                                                    CM Computer Search                         WWBKCM01               Constructed Wetlands, February 2001 ........................$32.20
                                                                                                                                                                                    CS Case Study                              WWBLCM02               Composting Toilets, February 2001 ................................$6.90
                                                                                                                                                                                    DM Design                                  WWBKCM03               Failing Systems, February 2001 ......................................$19.55
                                                                                                             NSFC’s Updated Products Catalog                                        FN Finance                                 WWBKCM04               Greywater, February 2001 ..............................................$10.90
                                                                                                             Now Available                                                          NL Newsletter/Publication                  WWBKCM05               Onsite Management, February 2001 ............................$11.20
                                                                                                                                                                                    OM Operation and Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBKCM06               Mound Systems, February 2001 ....................................$13.00
                                                                                                                                                                                    PE Public Education
                                                                                                                 The National Small Flows Clearinghouse                             PP Public-Private Partnerships (P3)        WWBKCM07               Pressure Sewers, February 2001 ....................................$10.25
                                                                                                             (NSFC) 2000-2001 Wastewater Products Catalog                           RE Research                                WWBKCM08               Sand Filters, February 2001 ............................................$25.45
                                                                                                             provides a complete listing of the 434 products                        RG Regulations                             WWBKCM09               Septage, February 2001....................................................$10.25
                                                                                                             NSFC offers. The catalog profiles each product                         TR Training                                WWBKCM10               Wastewater Characteristics, February 2001 ................$19.20
                                                                                                             and includes case studies, computer searches,                                                                     WWBKCM11               Water Conservation, February 2001 ............................$17.00
                                                                                                                                                                                    Last two characters of
                                                                                                             computer software, design manuals, newsletters                                                                    WWPCCM12               Customized Bibliographic Database Search ..................Varies
                                                                                                                                                                                    item number:
                                                                                                             and magazines, technology packages, fact sheets,                       Uniquely identifies product                WWPCCM15               Facilities Database Search ..................................................Varies

                                                                                                             and videotapes. Materials range from educational                       within major category                      WWPCCM16               Manufacturers and Consultants Database Search........Varies




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBKCM17               Lagoons, February 2001 ..................................................$30.75
                                                                                                             products for the general public to technical man-
                                                                                                                                                                                      Highlighted products are new             WWBLCM18               Drip Irrigation, February 2001 ..........................................$4.50
                                                                                                             uals for wastewater professionals. Many NSFC
                                                                                                                                                                                    * Indicates changes in title, item         WWBKCM19               Spray Systems, February 2001 ..........................................$9.15
                                                                                                             products are free; others are priced on a cost-re-
                                                                                                                                                                                      number, and/or price                     WWBLCM20               Additives, February 2001....................................................$2.75
                                                                                                             covery basis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCM21               Low-Flush Toilets, February 2001......................................$3.55
                                                                                                                 The catalog offers a brief description of each         To place an order . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WWBLCM22               Operator Health and Safety, February 2001..................$2.10
                                                                                                             product, including intended audience (e.g., engi-
                                                                                                             neers, state officials, etc.), year produced, num-         To place an order, call the NSFC at (800) 624-         WWBKCM23               Disinfection, February 2001 ............................................$21.15

                                                                                                             ber of pages, item number, and price. In the back          8301 or (304) 293-4191, or use the order form          WWBKCM24               Site Evaluation, February 2001........................................$11.40
                                                                                                                                                                        on page 51 and fax your request to (304) 293-
                                                                                                             of the catalog, a keyword index allows readers to
                                                                                                                                                                        3161. You also may send e-mail to                     Computer Software
                                                                                                             search for a product by topic. Instructions for
                                                                                                                                                                        nsfc_orders@mail.nesc.wvu.edu. Be prepared to          WWSWDM39 Airvac Version 3.2 and User’s Guide ..............................$7.60
                                                                                                             placing orders are included.
                                                                                                                                                                        give the item number and title of the product          WWSWDM55 Station Version 3.0 and User’s Guide..............................$7.10
                                                                                                                 To order the 2000-2001 Wastewater Products
                                                                                                                                                                        you wish to order. Shipping charges apply to all       WWSWDM58 User Documentation: POTW Expert Version 1.0 ....$33.75
                                                                                                             Catalog, call the NSFC at (800) 624-8301 or
                                                                                                                                                                        orders.                                                WWSWDM77 Gravity Sewer Design Version 3.1M and User’s
                                                                                                             (304) 293-4191 and request Item #WWCAT. Or-                                                                                Guide ......................................................................................$6.70
                                                                                                             ders may also be placed via e-mail at nsfc_or-             Abstracts of many products are provided in the         WWSWDM79 Variable Grade Effluent Sewers Version 2.2M and
                                                                                                             ders@mail.estd.wvu.edu.                                    NSFC’s Products Catalog. The guide may be down-                 User’s Guide ......................................................................$10.15

                                                                                                                                                                        loaded via the NSFC’s Web site at
42                                                                                                                                                                      www.nsfc.wvu.edu.                                  (800) 624-8301 | (304) 293-4191 | nsfc_orders@mail.nesc.wvu.edu                                                                                 43
                                                         WWSWDM91 User’s Guide Spreadsheet Pregrav.xls Version 1.2E ....$6.50                                                    WWBKDM72              Guidelines for Water Reuse ..............................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWFSGN120 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                         FMBKFN12   Alternative Financing Mechanisms for Environmental
                                                         WWSWDM92 User’s Guide Spreadsheet Pregrav.WQ1,                                                                          WWBKDM74              Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater                                                          Concentrated Dairy Cattle Feeding Operations ..........$0.35                                                                 Programs ..............................................................................$19.25
                                                                  Version 1.3 ............................................................................$6.20                                        Treatment ............................................................................$13.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWFSGN121 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                         FMBLFN13   A Utility Manager’s Guide to Water and Wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKDM75              Combined Sewer Overflow Control ................................$0.00                                        Concentrated Horse Feeding Operations ......................$0.35                                                            Budgeting ..............................................................................$0.00
                                                         Design                                                                                                                  WWBLDM76              Mound Systems: Pressure Distribution of Wastewater                                                 WWFSGN122 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                         FMBLFN14   State and Local Government Guide to Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Design and Construction in Ohio ....................................$2.75                                    Concentrated Poultry Feeding Operations ....................$0.35                                                            Program Funding Alternatives............................................$4.15
                                                         WWBLDM01              Subsurface Soil Absorption of Wastewater: Artificially
                                                                               Drained Systems ..................................................................$2.70           WWBKDM78              Nitrogen Control ................................................................$50.75            WWFSGN123 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                         FMSWFN16   Determining Wastewater User Service Charge Rates
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKDM80              In-Vessel Composting of Municipal Wastewater                                                                 Concentrated Sheep Feeding Operations ......................$0.35                                                            A Step By Step Manual with Software ............................$5.50
                                                         WWBKDM02              Cost Effectiveness Analysis ................................................$8.60
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Sludge ....................................................................................$0.00   WWFSGN124 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                         FMBLFN17   The Road To Financing: Assessing and Improving Your
                                                         WWBLDM03              Onsite Wastewater Disposal: Distribution Networks
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKDM81              Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Domestic                                                               Concentrated Slaughter and Feeder Cattle Feeding                                                                             Community’s Credit Worthiness ......................................$0.00
                                                                               for Subsurface Soil Absorption Systems..........................$7.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Septage ................................................................................$47.25               Operations ............................................................................$0.35                      FMBKFN18   Financing Models for Environmental Protection: Helping
                                                         WWBLDM04              Onsite Wastewater Disposal: Evapotranspiration and
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKDM82              Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Domestic                                                     WWFSGN125 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                                    Communities Meet Their Environmental Goals ............$0.00
                                                                               Evapotranspiration/Absorption Systems ..........................$2.55
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Septage ................................................................................$48.55               Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations ......................$0.35                                                 FMBLFN19   Evaluating Municipal Wastewater User Charge
                                                         WWBLDM07              Low-Pressure Sewer Systems..............................................$7.45
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKDM83              Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 1, A Guide                                                WWFSGN131 On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Conventional                                                                           Systems ..................................................................................$6.05
                                                         WWBLDM08              Management Plans and Implementation Issues: Small                                                                       to Creating Wetlands for General Considerations the                                                          Septic Tank/Drain Field ......................................................$1.00                               FMBLFN20   Clean Water State Revolving Fund: Financing America’s
                                                                               Alternative Wastewater Systems Workshops ................$3.40                                                          Mid-Atlantic Region ..........................................................$11.15               WWFSGN132 On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface                                                                             Environmental Infrastructure–A Report of Progress ....$0.00
                                                         WWBKDM09              Design Modules: Wisconsin Mound Soil Absorption                                                   WWBLDM84              Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 2,                                                                  Drip Distribution ..................................................................$1.00                         FMBKFN22   Beyond SRF: A Workbook for Financing CCMP
                                                                               System Siting, Design, and Construction Manual and                                                                      Domestic Wastewater ........................................................$4.80                  WWFSGN133 On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure                                                                           Implementation ....................................................................$0.00
                                                                               Pressure Distribution Network ..........................................$6.70
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBLDM85              Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 3,                                                                  Dosing ....................................................................................$1.00                  FMBLFN25   Clean Water State Revolving Fund Funding
                                                         WWBLDM12              Site Evaluation for Onsite Treatment and Disposal                                                                       Agricultural Wastewater ......................................................$5.10                WWFSGN134 On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray                                                                                  Framework ............................................................................$0.00
                                                                               Systems ..................................................................................$6.25
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBLDM86              Handbook of Constructed Wetlands: Volume 5,                                                                  Distribution ............................................................................$1.00                    FMBKFN26   CSOs: Guidance for Financial Capability Assessment
                                                         WWBLDM13              Design Workbook for Small-Diameter, Variable-Grade,                                                                     Stormwater ............................................................................$6.05       SFFSGN136               The National Onsite Demonstration Program:                                                                     and Schedule Development ..............................................$0.00
                                                                               Gravity Sewers ......................................................................$7.35
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBLDM87              Recirculating Sand/Gravel Filters for On-Site                                                                              Phase III ..................................................................................$0.00   FMFSFN27   Hardship Grants Program for Rural Communities ........$0.00
                                                         WWBLDM14              Subsurface Soil Absorption of Wastewater: Trenches                                                                      Treatment of Domestic Wastes ........................................$3.70                         SFFSGN137               Overview of the National Onsite Demonstration                                                       FMBLFN28   State Match Options for the State Revolving Fund
                                                                               and Beds ................................................................................$4.15
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWPKDM89              Producing Watertight Concrete Septic Tanks (Video); and                                                                    Program ..................................................................................$0.00                Program ..................................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBLDM15              Vacuum Sewerage ................................................................$7.80                                   Septic Tank Manufacturing Best Practices Manual                                                    SFFSGN138               The National Onsite Demonstration Program:                                                          FMBLFN29   Federal Funding Sources for Small Community
                                                         WWBLDM16              Subsurface Soil Absorption System Design Work Session:                                                                  (Booklet) ..............................................................................$53.00                             Phase I ....................................................................................$0.00              Wastewater Systems ............................................................$0.00
                                                                               New Development—Stump Creek Subdivision..............$6.85                                        WWBLDM90              Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal Using Sand Filter                                             SFFSGN139               The National Onsite Demonstration Program:                                                          FMFSFN30   Cleaning Up Polluted Runoff with the Clean Water
                                                         WWBLDM18              Onsite Wastewater Treatment: Septic Tanks ..................$2.45                                                       Treatment Systems; Guidelines and Specifications ......$6.25                                                               Phase II ..................................................................................$0.00               State Revolving Fund ..........................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBLDM20              Technology Assessment of Intermittent Sand Filters ....$5.75                                                                                                                                                               SFFSGN140               The National Onsite Demonstration Program Projects                                                  FMFSFN31   Protecting Wetlands with the Clean Water State
                                                         WWBLDM22              Variable Grade Sewers: Special Evaluation Project ....$2.70                                                                                                                                                                                        Database ................................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fact Sheets                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Revolving Fund......................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBKDM31              Planning Wastewater Management Facilities for                                                                                                                                                                              SFPKGN141               Complete Package of the National Onsite                                                             FMFSFN32   Funding Estuary Projects Using the Clean Water
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN84              Constructed Wetlands/Natural Wetlands........................$0.35
                                                                               Small Communities............................................................$24.85                                                                                                                                                                Demonstration Program Fact Sheets ..............................$0.00                                          State Revolving Fund ..........................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN98              Ultraviolet Disinfection: A General Overview................$0.10
                                                         WWBKDM34              Land Application of Municipal Sludge ............................$0.00                                                                                                                                                     WWFSGN145 Landscaping Septic Systems ..............................................$0.75                                    WWFSFN32   Rural Community Assistance Program (RCAP) Help
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSOM20              Ultraviolet Disinfection: A Technical Overview ............$0.10
                                                         WWBKDM35              Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal                                                                                                                                                                                   WWFSGN146 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Sand Filter ..$1.00                                                                   for Small Community Wastewater Projects....................$0.00
                                                                               Systems ................................................................................$50.00    WWFSGN99              Chlorine Disinfection: A General Overview ..................$0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWFSGN147 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Septic                                                                     FMFSFN33   Funding of Small Community Needs Through the
                                                         WWBKDM36              Municipal Wastewater Stabilization Ponds ..................$53.25                                 WWFSOM21              Chlorine Disinfection: A Technical Overview ................$0.10                                            Tank/Soil Absorption Field ................................................$1.00                                             Clean Water State Revolving Fund ..................................$0.70
                                                         WWBKDM37              Septage Treatment and Disposal ......................................$0.00                        WWFSGN100 Ozone Disinfection: A General Overview......................$0.10                                              WWFSGN148 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Constructed                                                                FMBLFN34   USDA Loan and Grant Funding for Small Community
                                                         WWBKDM38              Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems                                                    WWFSOM22              Ozone Disinfection: A Technical Overview ..................$0.10                                             Wetlands ................................................................................$1.00                               Wastewater Projects ............................................................$1.30
                                                                               for Municipal Wastewater Treatment ............................$13.75                             WWFSGN101 Fine Bubble Aeration: A General Overview ..................$0.10                                               WWFSGN149 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Spray                                                                      FMFSFN35   Funding Water Conservation and Reuse with the
                                                         WWBLDM40              Sequencing Batch Reactors ................................................$3.80                   WWFSOM23              Fine Bubble Aeration: A Technical Overview ................$0.10                                             Distribution System ..............................................................$1.00                                      Clean Water State Revolving Fund ..................................$0.35

                                                         WWBKDM41              Phosphorus Removal ........................................................$19.65                 WWFSGN102 Trickling Filters Achieving Nitrification: A General                                                           WWFSGN150 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Evapotranspiration                                                         WWFSFN36   Baseline Information on Small Community Wastewater
                                                                                                                                                                                           Overview................................................................................$0.10                            Bed ..........................................................................................$1.00                          Needs and Financial Assistance ........................................$0.35
                                                         WWBKDM42              Dewatering Municipal Wastewater Sludges ..................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSOM24              Trickling Filters Achieving Nitrification: A Technical                                             WWFSGN151 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Conventional                                                               FMBKGN01   It’s Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials
                                                         WWBKDM43              Odor and Corrosion Control in Sanitary Sewage                                                                                                                                                                                        Septic Tank/Drain Field (Spanish Version) ......................$1.00                                                        on Small Community Wastewater Management
                                                                               Systems and Treatment Plants ..........................................$0.00                                            Overview................................................................................$0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWFSGN152 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Spray                                                                                 Options ..................................................................................$7.50
                                                         WWBKDM44              Composting of Municipal Wastewater Sludges ..........$11.40                                       WWFSGN103 Recirculating Sand Filters: A General Overview............$0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Distribution (Spanish Version) ..........................................$1.00                                    FMBLGN04   Looking at User Charges: A State Survey and
                                                         WWBKDM46              Retrofitting POTWs ..............................................................$0.00            WWFSOM25              Recirculating Sand Filters: A Technical Overview ........$0.10                                                                                                                                                                            Report ....................................................................................$5.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWFSGN153 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Subsurface
                                                         WWBKDM47              Fine Pore Aeration Systems ................................................$0.00                  WWFSGN104 Intermittent Sand Filters: A General Overview ..............$0.10                                                        Drip Distribution (Spanish Version)..................................$1.00                                        FMBKGN11   Andrew W Breidenback Environmental Research Center
                                                         WWBLDM48              EPA Environmental Regulations and Technology: The                                                 WWFSOM26              Intermittent Sand Filters: A Technical Overview............$0.10                                   WWFSGN154 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems – Low-Pressure                                                                          Small Systems Resource Directory ..................................$0.00
                                                                               National Pretreatment Program ........................................$4.65                       WWFSGN105 Mound Systems: A General Overview ............................$0.10                                                      Dosing (Spanish Version)....................................................$1.00                                 FMBLGN14   Watershed Approach Framework ....................................$0.00
                                                         WWBKDM49              Municipal Wastewater Disinfection................................$40.50                           WWFSOM27              Mound Systems: A Technical Overview..........................$0.10                                 WWFSGN157 Wastewater Treatment Programs Serving Small                                                                       FMBLGN15   Why Watersheds? ................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBKDM50              Identification and Correction of Typical Design Deficien-                                         WWFSGN106 Composting Toilet Systems: A General Overview ........$0.10                                                              Communities ........................................................................$0.70                         FMBKGN16   Selecting Your Engineer . . . How to Find the Best
                                                                               cies at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities ....$65.60                                      WWFSOM28              Composting Toilet Systems: A Technical Overview......$0.10                                         WWFSGN160 On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems - Aerobic Treatment                                                                     Consultant for Small Town Water and Wastewater
                                                         WWBKDM53              Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems....................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                   Unit ..........................................................................................$1.00                         Projects ................................................................................$18.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN107 Low-Pressure Pipe Systems: A General Overview ........$0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      FMBLPE32   Economic Benefits of Runoff Controls ............................$0.00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         WWBKDM57              Control of Slug Loadings to POTWs Guidance                                                        WWFSOM29              Low Pressure Pipe Systems: A Technical Overview......$0.10
                                                                               Manual..................................................................................$16.50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         FMBKPP03   Public-Private Partnerships for Environmental Facilities:
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN109 Septage Management: A General Overview ................$0.10                                                   Finance and Management
                                                         WWBKDM59              Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementa-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A Self-Help Guide for Local Governments ....................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSOM31              Septage Management: A Technical Overview ..............$0.10                                       FMBKCS21                Cost Savings Models for Environmental Protection: Helping
                                                                               tion of Local Discharge Limitations Under the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FMBLPP06   Developing Public/Private Partnerships: An Option
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Communities Meet Their Environmental Goals ..........$14.45
                                                                               Pretreatment Program ......................................................$56.45                 WWFSGN110 Evapotranspiration Systems: A General Overview........$0.10                                                                                                                                                                                           for Wastewater Financing ..................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWBLFN01                Clean Water State Revolving Fund: How to Fund
                                                         WWBKDM64              Assessment of Single-Stage Trickling Filter                                                       WWFSOM32              Evapotranspiration Systems: A Technical Overview ....$0.10                                                                                                                                                                     WWBKMG02   Biosolids Management Handbook for Small Publicly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nonpoint Source Estuary Enhancement Projects..........$0.00
                                                                               Nitrification ............................................................................$0.00   WWFSGN111 Water Efficiency: A General Overview............................$0.10                                                                                                                                                                                 Owned Treatment Works ................................................$40.80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WWBRFN02                EPA’s Clean Water Act Indian Set-Aside Grant
                                                         WWBLDM65              General Design, Construction, and Operation Guidelines:                                           WWFSOM33              Water Efficiency: A Technical Overview ........................$0.10                                                                                                                                                           WWBLMG03   Septage Management in Ohio ..........................................$1.40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Program ..................................................................................$0.00
                                                                               Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Treatment Systems                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WWBKMG04   A Manual for Managing Septic Systems ......................$28.35
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWPKGN112 Complete Package of ETI Fact Sheets: A General                                                                 FMBLFN03                A Water and Wastewater Manager’s Guide for Staying
                                                                               for Small Users Including Individual Residences
                                                                                                                                                                                           Overview................................................................................$1.30                                          Financially Healthy ..............................................................$0.00             FMBLMG05   Septic Systems and Ground Water Protection: An
                                                                               (Second Edition)....................................................................$5.50
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWPKOM34              Complete Package of ETI Fact Sheets: A Technical                                                   WWBLFN03                Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About the U.S.                                                           Executive’s Guide ................................................................$2.30
                                                         WWBKDM67              Sewer System Infrastructure Analysis and
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Overview................................................................................$1.30                              EPA Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Grant Program ......$0.00                                          WWBKMG05   Draft Framework for Watershed-Based Trading ............$0.00
                                                                               Rehabilitation ......................................................................$15.35
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSOM38              Land Application of Animal Manure ................................$1.30                            WWBLFN05                Rural Communities Hardship Grants Program                                                           WWBKMG07   Environmental Planning for Small Communities: A
                                                         WWBKDM68              Technical Support Document for Water Quality
                                                                               Based Toxics Control ..........................................................$0.00              WWFSOM39              Enforcement Alert: Clean Water Act Prohibits Sewage                                                                        Implementation Guidelines; Notice ................................$1.45                                        Guide for Local Decision Makers ..................................$16.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                       ‘Bypasses’ ..............................................................................$0.00     WWFSFN06                Clean Water State Revolving Fund Program ..................$0.00                                    GNBLMG08   Animal Agriculture: Waste Management Practices ......$1.65
                                                         WWBKDM69              Ultraviolet Disinfection Technology Assessment ..........$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN118 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO’s)                                                                FMBKFN06                Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for Funding                                                      WWBLMG09   Choices for Communities: Wastewater Management
                                                         WWBKDM70              Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems for
                                                                                                                                                                                           and Their Effect on Water Pollution ................................$0.35                                                              Options ................................................................................$10.00                 Options for Rural Areas ......................................................$0.55
                                                                               Small Communities ..............................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                 WWFSGN119 NPDES Regulations Governing Management of                                                                      WWFSFN07                Funding Decentralized Wastewater Systems Using                                                      WWBKMG10   Ohio Livestock Manure and Wastewater Management
                                                         WWBKDM71              Retrofitting POTWs for Phosphorus Removal in the
                                                                                                                                                                                           Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations ....................$0.35                                                                       the Clean Water State Revolving Fund............................$0.00                                          Guide ......................................................................................$2.20
                                                                               Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin ......................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GNBLMG11   Clean Water Action Plan: The First Year, the Future ..$0.00

44                                                                                                                                                                                   (800) 624-8301 | (304) 293-4191                                                                                                                                                 nsfc_orders@mail.nesc.wvu.edu                                                                                                                                                                        45
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN92               Commitment to Watershed Protection: A Review                                                         SFPLNL16   Spray and Drip Irrigation for Wastewater Reuse,                                                      WWBLPE38   Wastewater Treatment: The Student’s Resource
                                                         General Information                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Disposal ..................................................................................$0.25                Guide ......................................................................................$1.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                of the Clean Lakes Program ..............................................$0.00
                                                         GNBKGN02   Federal Agency Ground Water Technical Assistance
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN93               Response to Congress on Use of Decentralized                                                         SFPLNL17   Infiltration and Inflow Can Be Costly for                                                            WWBRPE39   Combined Sewer Overflows in Your Community ........$0.70
                                                                    Directory ..............................................................................$19.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                Wastewater Treatment Systems ......................................$14.45                                       Communities ........................................................................$0.25            WWPSPE41   Do More with SCORE: Small Community Outreach
                                                         GNBLGN03   Watershed Protection Approach: An Overview............$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN94               Waste Water Justice? Its Complexion in Small                                                         SFPLNL18   Mounds: A Septic System Alternative..............................$0.25                                          and Education Helps Solve Wastewater Problems ......$0.00
                                                         GNBLGN04   ENVEST: Engineers Volunteering Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                                Places ......................................................................................$0.00   SFPLNL19   Funding Sources Are Available for Wastewater                                                         WWBLPE44   Clean Water for Today: What is Wastewater
                                                                    Service Teams........................................................................$1.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN95               Small Community Wastewater Systems ..........................$1.95                                              Projects ..................................................................................$0.25                Treatment?..............................................................................$1.00
                                                         WWBKGN05   Small Town Task Force: Final Report of Key
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN96               Compendium of Tools for Watershed Assessment                                                         SFPLNL20   Evapotranspiration Systems ................................................$0.25                     WWBLPE46   Living on Karst: A Refrence Guide for Landowners
                                                                    Findings . . .............................................................................$5.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                and TMDL Development....................................................$0.00                        SFPLNL21   Site Evaluations......................................................................$0.25                     in Limestone Regions ..........................................................$0.00
                                                         GNBRGN06   Watershed Approach ..........................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN97               1996 Clean Water Needs Survey: Report to                                                             SFPLNL22   Alternative Toilets Options for Conservation and                                                     GNBRPE51   Polluted ..................................................................................$0.00
                                                         GNBLGN07   Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic
                                                                                                                                                                                                Congress ................................................................................$0.00                  Specific Site Conditions ......................................................$0.25                 GNPSPE52   National Estuary Program: Bringing our Esturaries
                                                                    Conditions..............................................................................$5.50
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBRGN113 Composting Biosolids ..........................................................$0.00                              SFPLNL23   Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems ..............$0.25                                                  New Life ................................................................................$0.00
                                                         GNBLGN09   Office of Compliance: An Introductory Guide..............$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBRGN114 Land Application of Biosolids ............................................$0.00                                   SFPLNL24   Water Softener Use Raises Questions for System                                                       WWBRPE53   How Wastewater Treatment Works…The Basics ..........$0.00
                                                         GNBKGN10   Top 10 Watershed Lessons Learned ................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBRGN115 Sewage Sludge Incineration ..............................................$0.00                                               Owners ..................................................................................$0.25       WWBKPE54   State of the Chesapeake Bay: A Report to the Citizens
                                                         GNBLGN11   Section 319 National Monitoring Program:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the Bay Region ................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBRGN116 Sludge or Biosolids ..............................................................$0.00                           SFPLNL25   Planning for Onsite System Management ......................$0.00
                                                                    An Overview ........................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SFQUNL01   Small Flows Quarterly, Winter 2000 ................................$1.00                             WWBRPE57   The Care and Feeding of Your Septic System
                                                         GNBKGN12   Community-Based Environmental Protection: A Resource                                                 WWBLGN126 Outreach and Technical Assistance Programs: 1997                                                                                                                                                                                             (Spanish Version) ..................................................................$0.00
                                                                    Book For Protecting Ecosystems and Communities ....$0.00                                                       Accomplishments Small Underserved Team..................$0.00                                                     SFQUNL02   Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2000 ................................$1.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBRPE58   So...Now You Own a Septic System
                                                         GNBLGN13   Environmental Indicators of Water Quality in the United                                              WWBKGN127 Clean Water Tribal Resource Directory For Wastewater                                                              SFQUNL04   Small Flows Quarterly, Fall 2000 ......................................$1.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Spanish Version) ..................................................................$0.00
                                                                    States ......................................................................................$0.00             Treatment Assistance ..........................................................$0.00                              SFQUNL06   Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001 ................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBRPE59   Groundwater Protection and Your Septic System
                                                         GNBKGN14   Watershed Protection: A Statewide Approach ..............$0.00                                       WWBKGN128 Wastewater Disposal Options for Small Communities                                                                                                                                                                                            (Spanish Version) ..................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                   in Mississippi..........................................................................$4.05
                                                         GNBLGN15   Water Pollution Control: Twenty-five Years of Progress                                                                                                                                                                           Operation and Maintenance
                                                                    and Challenges for the New Millenium ..........................$0.00                                 WWBKGN129 Wastewater Disposal Options for Small Communities
                                                         GNBKGN16   The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters—Nutrients and
                                                                                                                                                                                   in Alabama ............................................................................$4.05                      WWBLOM01   Reducing the Cost of Operating Municipal Wastewater                                                  Regulations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Facilities ..................................................................................$0.00
                                                                    Pesticides ................................................................................$0.00     WWBKGN130 Wastewater Disposal Options for Small Communities                                                                                                                                                                                 GNBLRG01   Introduction to Water Quality Standards........................$3.80
                                                                                                                                                                                   in Louisiana ............................................................................$4.05                    WWBKOM02   Cost Reduction and Self-Help Handbook ....................$17.15
                                                         WWBRGN15   Water Reuse via Dual Distribution Systems ..................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                WWBKRG01   A Guide to State-Level Onsite Regulations, (2000) ....$16.20
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN142 Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and Protecting                                                                 WWBLOM04   Contract Operation and Maintenance: The Answer
                                                         WWBLGN16   Report on the Use of Wetlands for Municipal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WWBKRG21   Wastewater Flow Rates from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                   America’s Waters..................................................................$0.00                                      for Your Town? ......................................................................$2.10
                                                                    Wastewater Treatment and Disposal ..............................$6.35                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       November 2000 ................................................................$21.80
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN143 Response to Congress on the AEES “Living Machine”                                                                 WWBLOM05   Analysis of Performance Limiting Factors (PLFs) at
                                                         WWBRGN19   Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment in Cold                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKRG22   Percolation Tests from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                   Wastewater Treatment Technology ..................................$6.70                                                      Small Sewage Treatment Plants ........................................$3.55
                                                                    Climates ..................................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            November 2000 ................................................................$27.55
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN144 Response to Congress On Privatization of Wastewater                                                               WWBLOM06   Onsite Operator Training Program: Success in Every
                                                         WWBRGN20   Innovations in Sludge Drying Beds: A Practical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WWBKRG23   Alternative Toilets from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                   Facilities ..................................................................................$6.25                           Region!....................................................................................$3.80
                                                                    Technology ............................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                November 2000 ................................................................$22.90
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN155 US Census Data on Small Community Housing and                                                                     WWBLOM07   Alternative Sewers Operation and Maintenance:
                                                         WWBLGN31   Inflow/Infiltration: A Guide for Decision Makers ..........$6.85                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKRG24   Greywater Systems from the State Regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                   Wastewater Disposal and Plumbing Practices ..............$1.30                                                               Special Evaluation Project ..................................................$2.90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                November 2000 ..................................................................$9.60
                                                         WWBKGN35   Municipal Wastewater Reuse: Selected Readings on                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKOM08   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for Nine
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN156 1996 Clean Water Needs Survey: Small Community                                                                                                                                                                                    WWBKRG26   Package Plants and Aerobic Treatment Systems
                                                                    Water Reuse ........................................................................$11.55                                                                                                                                                  Minimum Controls ..............................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                   Wastewater Needs ..............................................................$1.30                                                                                                                                                         from the State Regulations, November 2000 ..............$20.80
                                                         WWBKGN36   Waste Water Justice? Its Complexion in Small Places                                                                                                                                                                              WWBKOM09   POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN158 Introduction to the National Pretreatment                                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKRG30   Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in
                                                                    (Appendix) ............................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                Document............................................................................$15.85
                                                                                                                                                                                   Program................................................................................$17.40                                                                                                                                                Sewage Sludge ......................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBKGN39   Septic Tank Siting to Minimize the Contamination                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKOM16   Detection, Control, and Correction of Hydrogen Sulfide
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLGN159 Watershed Progress: Rouge River Wastershed                                                                                                                                                                                        WWBLRG31   NPDES Storm Water Program: Question and Answer
                                                                    of Ground Water by Microorganisms ..........................$15.35                                                                                                                                                                          Corrosion in Existing Wastewater Systems ....................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                   Michigan ................................................................................$0.70                                                                                                                                               Document, Volume 1 ..........................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBLGN40   EPA Journal Reprint: Protecting Ground Water,                                                                                                                                                                                    WWBKOM17   Chemical Aids Manual for Wastewater Treatment
                                                                                                                                                                         WWBKGN161 Animal Feeding Operations: The Role of Counties ....$5.00                                                                                                                                                                         WWBLRG34   State Onsite Wastewater Regulatory Contacts List,
                                                                    The Hidden Resource..........................................................$5.10                                                                                                                                                          Facilities ................................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                         WWCDGN162 Wastewater Resources for Small Communities ........$14.950                                                                                                                                                                                   November 2000 ..................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBLGN55   GAO Report: Water Pollution Information on the                                                                                                                                                                                   WWBLOM35   Onsite Assistance Program – Helping Small Wastewater
                                                                    Use of Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems ......$2.00                                          GNBKIN05               Designing a Water Conservation Program: An Annotated                                                                                                                                                                 WWBKRG35   Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Treatment Plants Achieve Permit Compliance ..............$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                Bibliography of Source Materials......................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                     40 CFR Part 503 ..................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBKGN58   Guide to Septage Treatment and Disposal ....................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                WWBLOM37   Constructed Wetlands for On-Site Septic Treatment: A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBKRG36   Domestic Septage Regulatory Guidance: A Guide to
                                                         WWBLGN59   Biosolids Recycling: Beneficial Technology for a                                                                                                                                                                                            Guide to Selecting Aquatic Plants for Low-Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the EPA 503 Rule..................................................................$0.00
                                                                    Better Environment ..............................................................$0.00               NSFC Publications                                                                                                                      Micro-Wetlands ....................................................................$0.70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBLRG37   NPDES Storm Water Program: Question and Answer
                                                         WWBLGN62   Office of Wastewater Management Primer....................$4.80                                      GNBKIN01               Publications Index 1999......................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                              Document, Volume 2 ..........................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBRGN63   Clean Water...A Better Environment: Wastewater                                                       SFPLNL01               Combined Sewer Overflows..............................................$0.25                          Public Education                                                                                                WWBKRG38   Plain English Guide to the EPA Part 503 Biosolids
                                                                    Management at EPA ............................................................$0.00                  SFPLNL02               Septic Systems A Practical Alternative for Small                                                     GNBRPE02   Everyone Shares a Watershed............................................$0.20                                    Rule..........................................................................................$0.00
                                                         WWBRGN64   Source Reduction: An Integral Part of the MWPP                                                                              Communities ........................................................................$0.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     GNBLPE03   DES Guide to Groundwater Protection: Answers to                                                      WWBLRG39   NPDES Self-Monitoring System User Guide ..................$4.50
                                                                    Program ..................................................................................$0.00      SFPLNL03               Maintaining Your Septic System A Guide for                                                                      Questions About Groundwater Protection in New                                                        WWBLRG41   Federal Register Part VII EPA CSO Control Policy ........$1.80
                                                         WWBLGN65   Marine and Estuarine Protection Programs and                                                                                Homeowners ........................................................................$0.25                        Hampshire..............................................................................$2.75
                                                                    Activities ................................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WWBLRG42   NPDES and Sewage Sludge Program Authority: A Hand-
                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL04               Home Aerobic Wastewater Treatment: An Alternative                                                    GNBRPE04   Test the Waters! Careers in Water Quality ....................$0.20                                             book for Federally Recognized Indian Tribes ................$0.00
                                                         WWBKGN67   Summary Report: Small Community Water and                                                                                   to Septic Systems..................................................................$0.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     GNBRPE05   Adopt Your Watershed........................................................$0.00                    WWBKRG43   Land Application of Sewage Sludge: A Guide for Land
                                                                    Wastewater Treatment ......................................................$13.60
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL05               Management Programs Can Help Small




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     GNBLPE06   Reflecting on Lakes: A Guide for Watershed                                                                      Appliers on the Requirements of the Federal Standards
                                                         WWBLGN71   Combined Sewer Overflows: Screening and Ranking                                                                             Communities ........................................................................$0.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Partnerships............................................................................$0.80                   for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR
                                                                    Guidance................................................................................$0.00        SFPLNL06               Wastewater Treatment Protects Small Community                                                                                                                                                                                   Part 503 ..................................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     GNFSPE07   Quality Development and Stormwater Runoff ..............$0.35
                                                         WWBKGN72   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for Long                                                                                 Life, Health ............................................................................$0.25                                                                                                                       WWBKRG44   Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or
                                                                    Term Control Plan ................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                          WWBLPE01   Is Your Proposed Wastewater Project Too Costly?
                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL07               Alternative Sewers: A Good Option for Many                                                                                                                                                                                      Surface Disposal ..................................................................$8.70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Options for Small Communities........................................$1.00
                                                         WWBKGN73   Combined Sewer Overflows: Guidance for Permit                                                                               Communities ........................................................................$0.25                                                                                                                            WWBLRG45   Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge ................................$7.45
                                                                    Writers ....................................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                WWPSPE02   Onsite Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities
                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL08               Choose the Right Consultant for Your Wastewater                                                                                                                                                                      WWBRRG48   Florida Clean Vessel Act: What it Means for Boaters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and Rural Areas ....................................................................$1.25
                                                         WWBLGN78   United States Census Data1980 and 1990 ....................$1.00                                                            Project ....................................................................................$0.25                                                                                                                               and Marinas ..........................................................................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBLPE07   Benefits of Water and Wastewater Infrastructure..........$0.00
                                                         WWBLGN79   Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy: A                                                            SFPLNL09               Lagoon Systems Can Provide Low-Cost Wastewater                                                                                                                                                                       WWBLRG49   Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control Policy ......$5.25
                                                                    Consensus Solution to Improve Water Quality ............$0.70                                                               Treatment ..............................................................................$0.25        WWBRPE17   Your Septic System: A Guide for Homeowners ............$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBKRG50   Part 503 Implementation Guidance ..............................$38.50
                                                         WWBKGN85   Guide to the Biosolids Risk Assessments for the EPA                                                  SFPLNL10               Sand Filters Provide Quality, Low-Maintenance                                                        WWBRPE18   The Care and Feeding of Your Septic System................$0.00
                                                                    Part 503 Rule ........................................................................$0.00                                 Treatment ..............................................................................$0.25                                                                                                                        WWBKRG51   U.S. EPA NPDES Permit Writers’ Manual ........................$0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBRPE20   So...Now You Own a Septic System ................................$0.00
                                                         WWBRGN88   Clean Vessel Act: Keep Our Water Clean—Use                                                           SFPLNL11               Basic Wastewater Characteristics ......................................$0.25                                                                                                                                         WWBKRG52   Septic Tanks—Southeast from the State Regulations:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWBRPE21   Groundwater Protection and Your Septic System ........$0.00
                                                                    Pumpouts ..............................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                November 2000 ................................................................$15.05
                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL12               A Homeowner’s Guide to Onsite System                                                                 WWBRPE26   Preventing Pollution Through Efficient Water Use ........$0.00
                                                         WWBKGN89   National Onsite Wastewater Treatment: A National                                                                            Regulations ............................................................................$0.25                                                                                                                        WWBKRG53   Septic Tanks—Southwest from the State Regulations :
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WWPKPE28   Homeowner’s Septic Tank Information Package ..........$2.25                                                     November 2000 ................................................................$11.20
                                                                    Small Flows Clearinghouse Summary of Onsite                                                          SFPLNL13               Inspections Equal Preventative Care for Onsite
                                                                    Systems in the United States, 1993..................................$0.00                                                                                                                                                        WWBLPE31   Sanitary Sewer Overflows: What Are They, and                                                         WWBKRG54   Septic Tanks—Northwest from the State Regulations:
                                                                                                                                                                                                Systems ..................................................................................$0.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                How Do We Reduce Them?..............................................$0.00                                       November 2000 ..................................................................$9.60
                                                         WWBKGN90   Seminar Publication: National Conference on Sanitary                                                 SFPLNL14               Constructed Wetlands: A Natural Treatment
                                                                    Sewer Overflows ..................................................................$0.00                                                                                                                                          WWPSPE35   Indicator Organisms in Wastewater Treatment..............$2.90                                       WWBKRG55   Septic Tanks—Northeast from the State Regulations:
                                                                                                                                                                                                Alternative ..............................................................................$0.25
                                                         WWBLGN91   Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) Use or Disposal                                                                                                                                                                                        WWBLPE37   Homeowner Onsite System Recordkeeping Folder                                                                    November 2000 ................................................................$10.40
                                                                                                                                                                         SFPLNL15               Managing Biosolids in Small Communities ....................$0.25
                                                                    Documents ............................................................................$0.70                                                                                                                                                 (NSFC) ....................................................................................$0.45

46                                                                                                                                                                             (800) 624-8301 | (304) 293-4191                                                                                                                                       nsfc_orders@mail.nesc.wvu.edu                                                                                                                                                                         47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ordering Information
                                                         WWBKRG56   Location, Separation and Sizing of Onsite Systems—South-
                                                                    east from the State Regulations: November 2000 ....$10.10
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBKGN77
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBKGN80
                                                                                                                                                                                       Biomat Technology Package............................................$13.60
                                                                                                                                                                                       Grinder Pump Pressure Sewer Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Phone:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (800) 624-8301 or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Products Order Form
                                                         WWBLRG57   Location, Separation and Sizing of Onsite Systems—South-                                                           Package ................................................................................$14.25      (304) 293-4191
                                                                    west from the State Regulations: November 2000 ......$7.20                                         WWBKGN81        Disinfection Technology Package ..................................$15.05                            Business hours are 8 a.m. to                 Item Number                                                           Title                                                 Cost      Qty.      Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5 p.m. Eastern Time
                                                         WWBKRG58   Location, Separation and Sizing of Onsite Systems—North-                                           WWBKGN82        Greywater Technology Package ........................................$7.95                                                                    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    west from the State Regulations: November 2000 ......$8.50                                                                                                                                                             E-mail:
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBKGN83        Site Evaluation Technology Package ..............................$14.25                                                                       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         WWBKRG59   Location, Separation and Sizing of Onsite Systems—North-                                                                                                                                                               nsfc_orders@mail.nesc.wvu.edu
                                                                    east from the State Regulations: November 2000........$9.80                                        WWPKGN86        Nonpoint Pointers: Understanding and Managing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                       Nonpoint Source Pollution in Your Community ..........$0.00                                         Fax:
                                                         WWBKRG60   Site Evaluations and Inspections—Southeast from                                                                                                                                                                        (304) 293-3161                            ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    the State Regulations: November 2000........................$12.35                                 WWPKGN87        Alternative Onsite Systems Technology Package ..........$5.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Mail:                                     ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         WWBLRG61   Site Evaluations and Inspections—Southwest from
                                                                    the State Regulations: November 2000 ..........................$5.15                                                                                                                                                   National Small Flows Clearinghouse
                                                                                                                                                                       Training Materials                                                                                                  West Virginia University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         WWBLRG62   Site Evaluations and Inspections—Northwest from                                                    WWBKTR01        NPDES Compliance Inspection Training Program                                                        P.O. Box 6064                             ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    the State Regulations: November 2000 ..........................$4.80                                               Student’s Guide..................................................................$18.65             Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
                                                         WWBKRG63   Site Evaluations and Inspections—Northeast from                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBLTR02        NPDES Compliance Inspection Video Workbook:
                                                                    the State Regulations: November 2000........................$14.10                                                                                                                                                     Please indicate the product item
                                                                                                                                                                                       Inspecting a Parshall Flume................................................$4.55                                                              ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           number, title, cost, quantity, and
                                                         WWBKRG64   Proceedings of the First National Onsite Wastewater                                                WWBKTR03        NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—                                                     total for each item ordered. Make         ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    State Regulators Conference..............................................$9.20                                     Sampling ..............................................................................$15.70       sure you include your name, affilia-
                                                         WWFSRG65   Fact Sheet: Class V Injection Wells ................................$0.70                          WWBKTR04        NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—                                                     tion, address, and phone number
                                                                                                                                                                                       Biomonitoring ....................................................................$11.90            with each order.                                                                                                                                                                 Subtotal
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBKTR05        NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Name ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         Research                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Free items are limited to one of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Shipping
                                                                                                                                                                                       Overview ............................................................................$13.60         each per order.
                                                         WWBKRE13   Technical Evaluation of the Vertical Loop Reactor                                                                                                                                                                                                                Affiliation    __________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                       WWBKTR06        NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training –                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total Cost
                                                                    Process Technology ..........................................................$12.05                                                                                                                                    Shipping and handling charges are
                                                                                                                                                                                       Legal Issues..........................................................................$18.40                                                  Address      ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         WWBLRE14   Methodology to Predict Nitrogen Loading from                                                                                                                                                                           actual shipping and handling costs
                                                                    Conventional Gravity On-Site Wastewater Treatment                                                  WWBKTR07        NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training—                                                     for all orders. All orders from out-
                                                                                                                                                                                       Laboratory Analysis............................................................$22.00               side the U.S. (excluding Canada)          City __________________________________________________________ State ________ Zip Code __________________
                                                                    Systems ..................................................................................$3.20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           must be prepaid.
                                                         WWBKRE16   Preliminary Risk Assessment for Viruses in Municipal                                                                                                                                                                                                             Phone (     _____   )   ____________________________________       Fax (    _____   )   ______________________________________
                                                                    Sewage Sludge Applied to Land ......................................$0.00                          Videotapes                                                                                                          All payments must be in U.S.
                                                         WWBKRE17   Evaluation of Oxidation Ditches for Nutrient                                                                                                                                                                           dollars using VISA, MasterCard, Dis-      E-mail Address          __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                       FMVTMG01        Wastewater Management in Unsewered Areas ..........$10.00
                                                                    Removal................................................................................$17.40                                                                                                                          cover, check, or money order.
                                                                                                                                                                       FMVTPE01        Building Support for Increasing User Fees (Videotape
                                                         WWBLRE18   Rock-Plant Filter: An Alternative for Onsite Sewage                                                                and Workbook ) ................................................................$12.90               To place your order using VISA,           Please check form of payment:
                                                                    Treatment ..............................................................................$1.45                                                                                                                          MasterCard, or Discover, include
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTGN10        Morrilton, Arkansas, Land Application of
                                                         WWBLRE19   NPCA Septic Tank Project 1990-1995 ............................$5.60                                               Wastewater ..........................................................................$10.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           your credit card number, expiration           Check/Money Order                         MasterCard                  VISA             Discover
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           date, and signature on the order
                                                         WWBLRE20   Field Performance of the Waterloo Biofilter with                                                   WWVTGN13        Alternative is Conservation ..............................................$10.00                    form.                                     Card Number________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                    Different Wastewaters ........................................................$4.15
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTGN117 Proper Treatment and Uses of Septage ........................$15.00
                                                         WWBKRE21   Potential Effects of Water Softener Use on Septic                                                                                                                                                                      Make checks payable to                    Expiration Date ________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTGN135 Septic Systems: Making the Best Use of Nature ........$10.00                                              WVU Research Corporation.
                                                                    Tank Soil Absorption On-Site Waste Water Systems....$7.60
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTOM36        Sampling Wastewater at a Wastewater Treatment
                                                         WWBLRE22   Project Summary: Treatment of Municipal Wastewaters                                                                                                                                                                    Please allow two to four weeks for
                                                                                                                                                                                       Facility ..................................................................................$10.00
                                                                    by the Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process ........................$1.30                                                                                                                                                  delivery.
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE03        Sand Filter Technology ......................................................$10.00                                                           _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                         WWBKRE23   Treatment Capability of Three Filters for Septic Tank                                                                                                                                                                                                            Signature   (Required for credit card orders.)
                                                                    Effluent..................................................................................$17.30   WWVTPE04        Small Diameter Effluent Sewers ......................................$10.00
                                                         WWBKRE24   Evaluation of the Performance of Five Aerated                                                      WWVTPE05        Planning Wastewater Treatment for Small                                                                CUT OR COPY FORM FOR ORDERING

                                                                    Package Treatment Systems ..............................................$5.00                                      Communities ......................................................................$10.00
                                                         WWBKRE25   The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water                                               WWVTPE06        Upgrading Small Community Wastewater
                                                                    Quality and Quantity with Emphasis on Waste Manage-                                                                Treatment ............................................................................$10.00
                                                                    ment System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies ............$11.70                                     WWVTPE13        Municipal Wastewater: America’s Forgotten
                                                         WWBKRE26   Assessment of On-Site Graywater and Combined                                                                       Resources ............................................................................$15.00
                                                                    Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Systems ..........$25.00                                        WWVTPE16        Your Septic System: A Guide for Homeowners ..........$10.00
                                                         WWBKRE27   ULF Water Closets Study: Final Report ........................$25.00
                                                         WWBLRE28   Household Water Reduction and Design Flow Allowance for
                                                                    On-Site Wastewater Management and Supplement ......$2.55
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE22
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE23
                                                                                                                                                                                       Surface Water Video ............................................................Loan
                                                                                                                                                                                       Ground Water Video Adventure ........................................Loan                                                                  Subscribe to the NSFC News Listserv
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE24        Saving Water—The Conservation Video............................Loan
                                                         WWBKRE29   Evaluation of Spray Irrigation As A Methodology For
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE25        Careers in Water Quality......................................................Loan
                                                                    On-Site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal ..............$13.35
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE29        Artificial Marshland Treatment Systems ........................$10.00
                                                         WWBLRE30   Linear Regression for Nonpoint Source Pollution
                                                                    Analyses..................................................................................$0.00    WWVTPE33        Water Conservation: Managing Our Precious                                                                                   In an effort to send out wastewater-related news more quickly, the Na-
                                                                                                                                                                                       Liquid Asset ........................................................................$13.50                             tional Small Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC) established a listserver to an-
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE34        Keeping Our Shores/Protecting Minnesota Waters:                                                                         nounce NSFC publications, new products, and other information.
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2
                                                         Technology Packages                                                                                                           Shoreland Best Management Practices ........................$25.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The listserver is an e-mail based mechanism that simply sends messages
                                                         WWBKGN09   Alternative Toilets Technology Package ..........................$7.15                             WWVTPE40        Care and Feeding of Your Septic System ....................$10.00
                                                         WWBKGN29   Sand Filter Technology Package......................................$12.40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to e-mail addresses. New information is automatically transmitted to all sub-
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE42        Dollars Down the Drain: Caring for Your Septic
                                                         WWBKGN41   STEP Pressure Sewer Technology Package ..................$13.00                                                    Tank ......................................................................................$10.00                       scribers via e-mail on a regular basis. This listserv is for notification only,
                                                         WWBKGN53   Spray and Drip Irrigation Technology Package ..........$16.95                                      WWVTPE43        Septic Systems Revealed: Guide to Operation, Care                                                                       and cannot be used for posting messages.
                                                         WWBKGN54   Constructed Wetlands General Information
                                                                                                                                                                                       and Maintenance ..............................................................$15.00                                        To subscribe to the NSFC News Listserv:
                                                                    Technology Package..........................................................$10.80                 WWVTPE45        Maintaining Your Home Aeration Sewage Treatment                                                                             • Send an e-mail to:
                                                                                                                                                                                       System ..................................................................................$10.00
                                                         WWBLGN57   Watershed Management Technology Package..............$6.50                                                                                                                                                                                       macjordomo@mail.nesc.wvu.edu
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE47        Small Community Wastewater Treatment: Management and
                                                         WWBKGN61   Vertical Separation Distance Technology Package ....$10.45
                                                                                                                                                                                       Myths ....................................................................................$10.00                            • Leave the subject line blank.
                                                         WWBKGN66   Septic Tank Additives Technology Package..................$13.00                                                                                                                                                                               • In the message area, type: subscribe nsfcnews Firstname Last-
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE48        Intermittent Sand Filter - State of the Art Onsite
                                                         WWBKGN68   Water Conservation Effects on Onsite Wastewater                                                                    Wastewater Treatment ......................................................$10.00                                             name
                                                                    Treatment Technology Package ......................................$11.90
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE49        PSMA Protocol: Inspecting On-lot Wastewater                                                                                 • Place one space between each word as
                                                         WWBKGN69   Design of Constructed Wetlands Technology                                                                          Treatment Systems ............................................................$25.00
                                                                    Package ................................................................................$10.80                                                                                                                                                   indicated.
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE50        Problem with Shallow Disposal Systems ........................$0.00
                                                         WWBKGN70   Management Districts Technology Package ................$13.35                                                                                                                                                                                 • Example: subscribe nsfcnews John Smith
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE55        Choosing an Alternative Septic System ........................$13.00
                                                         WWBKGN74   Gravelless Drainfields Technology Package ................$10.80                                                                                                                                                                               • Do not add any extra text to the message.
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE60        Recirculating Filter On-Site Sewage Disposal
                                                         WWBKGN75   Operator Protection Information Package (Aids                                                                      System ..................................................................................$10.00                             • Send your message.
                                                                    Virus in Wastewater Treatment Plants)..........................$13.60
                                                                                                                                                                       WWVTPE61        Conventional On-Site Sewage Disposal System..........$10.00
                                                         WWBKGN76   Sand Mound Technology Package ..................................$9.35

48                                                                                                                                                                         (800) 624-8301 | (304) 293-4191                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           49
                                                         C L O S I N G    T H O U G H T S



                                                                                                                                                                                                    New NSFC CD-ROM Offers
                                                                                                                                                                                                    the Best of Small Flows
                                                         Are Onsite Systems a Viable Option?                                                                                                             The National Small Flows           about 13 innovative and alternative technologies for treat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Clearinghouse (NSFC) is pleased        ing and disposing of wastewater. They were developed by
                                                                                                     NESC SENIOR EDITOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                     to announce its first-ever CD-         the NSFC as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection
                                                                                                      Harriet Emerson                                                                                ROM of NSFC resources. Titled          Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmental Technology Initiative.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wastewater Resources for Small              In this CD-ROM, you’ll also get a copy of the 2000-2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Communities, this CD-ROM in-           Wastewater Products Catalog, which provides a complete
                                                                                                                                                                                                     cludes the best of NSFC’s prod-        listing of the 434 free and low-cost products NSFC offers.
                                                             According to the U.S. Environmental Protection      When is onsite a better alternative?                                                ucts distributed in the last 10        The catalog profiles each product and includes case stud-
                                                         Agency (EPA) 1997 Response to Congress on the               The 1997 Response to Congress on Use of De-                                     years. The CD is easily accessi-       ies, computer searches, computer software, design manu-
                                                         Use of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Sys-          centralized Wastewater Treatment Systems found                                      ble in a Web-based format and          als, newsletters and magazines, technology packages, fact
                                                         tems, onsite wastewater systems have been used          that the decentralized approach to wastewater                                       puts a wealth of helpful informa-      sheets, and videotapes. Materials range from educational
                                                         since the mid-1800s, with technological advances        management favors rural communities and is fre-                                     tion at the user’s fingertips.         products for the general public to technical manuals for the
                                                         improving the systems from simple outhouses to                                                                                                  This diverse collection of         wastewater professional.
                                                                                                                 quently more cost-effective than centralized sew-
                                                         cesspools, to septic tanks, to some of the more ad-                                                                                         wastewater-related information              In addition, you’ll have access to reference materials, such
                                                                                                                 ering. EPA analyzed costs of a hypothetical rural
                                                         vanced treatment units available today.                                                                                                     can be useful to local, state, and     as the “Septic Stats” developed through Phase IV of the Na-
                                                                                                                 community with 450 people living in 135 homes.          public health officials; engineers; operators; contractors/de-
                                                             The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of                                                                                                                                     tional Onsite Demonstration Program. These statistics sum-
                                                                                                                 They assumed homes were located on lots at least        velopers; planners; managers; state regulatory agency per-         marize the use of onsite systems across the U.S. and provide
                                                         1972, later called the Clean Water Act (CWA), re-       one acre in size and that the homes had conven-         sonnel; and homeowners.                                            such data as the number of reported failures. Bar charts and
                                                         stricted what can be dumped into rivers and             tional septic systems. They assumed also that 50             For example, health departments will have a handy ref-        data sheets are included for each state.
                                                         streams, and since its inception, centralized sew-      percent of the systems were failing.                    erence to look up statistics about onsite system failures or            The CD also includes
                                                         erage systems have been the standard approach               EPA considered three wastewater management          find the number of septic systems being used per county.           the complete text of EPA’s
                                                         to wastewater collection and treatment. From            options: a centralized system, cluster systems, and     Homeowners can use this information to find out what               Response To Congress On
                                                         1972 to 1993, the CWA provided significant              managed onsite systems. They spread capital costs       home sewage treatment alternatives are out there to help           Decentralized Wastewater
                                                         funds for planning, designing, and constructing         over 30 years (the life of the system) for each tech-   them choose the most suitable option for their situation. Sep-     Treatment Systems, which
                                                         public wastewater infrastructure through the Con-       nology. The analysis found that the decentralized       tic system owners can access maintenance tips. Teachers            analyzes the costs and ben-
                                                         struction Grants program. Between 1972 and              approach, with either managed onsite systems or         and professors can use the materials to educate students           efits of decentralized waste-
                                                         1990, the federal government spent more than            cluster systems, is frequently a more cost-effective    about environmental issues. Engineers can find out where           water treatment alternatives
                                                         $62 billion dollars on the program—constructing         wastewater management option—especially for             to locate design specifications for a particular system.           and EPA’s plans for imple-
                                                         or upgrading treatment facilities.                      sparsely populated areas.                                    Peter Casey P.E., NSFC program coordinator, is excited        menting the alternatives.
                                                             According to Mike Hoover, Ph.D, North Car-              The response states that decentralized systems      about the advantages of CD technology in distributing this              The CD-ROM is PC-
                                                         olina State University soil science professor, in his                                                           information. “Using CD-ROMs to disseminate large quanti-           compatible and requires a
                                                                                                                 protect public health and the environment and
                                                         booklet, Choices for Communities: Wastewater                                                                    ties of information will make the NSFC’s services available        486 or Pentium® processor
                                                                                                                 are appropriate for low density communities, as
                                                         Management Options for Rural Areas, construc-                                                                   to more people. Our customers will have the information            and Microsoft Windows®
                                                                                                                 well as for varying site conditions. Onsite systems
                                                         tion costs in less densely populated areas can be                                                               electronically without having to wait for a PDF file to down-      95 or a more recent ver-
                                                                                                                 can provide additional benefits for ecologically        load off the Internet.”
                                                         incredibly high. Often the collection network it-                                                                                                                                  sion. The software needed
                                                                                                                 sensitive areas. In addition, these systems can              This CD-ROM contains a diverse collection of NSFC             to read the files is provided
                                                         self can account for 70 to 90 percent of the total      offer significant cost savings while recharging local   resources. More than 400 articles are included from                (Adobe Acrobat Reader
                                                         construction cost. He says that traditionally, rural    aquifers and providing other water reuse oppor-         NSFC’s publications since 1989, including the Small Flows          and Internet Explorer 5.5).
                                                         communities have viewed centralized systems as          tunities.                                               newsletter, the Small Flows Quarterly magazine, and the                 Wastewater Resources
                                                         the desirable goal.                                         According to Choices for Communities: Waste-        Pipeline newsletter. The articles are categorized as general       for Small Communities is an
                                                             Unlike drinking water, which has been federal-      water Management Options for Rural Areas, the           information, onsite management, and technologies. All of           excellent reference guide
                                                         ly regulated since the 1974 Safe Drinking Water         success of the decentralized approach depends           the Pipeline “theme” issues, such as the popular issues            for any wastewater profes-
                                                         Act, no federal law governs onsite septic systems.      upon establishing a management program to as-           about “Maintaining Your Septic System: A Guide for Home-           sional or homeowner to
                                                         And onsite management is in its infancy. Even           sure that systems are regularly inspected and           owners,” and “Inspections Equal Preventative Care for On-          have on hand. Get your copy today for the low price of
                                                         when underground storage tank regulations were          maintained.                                             site Systems” are included.                                        $14.95. Call the NSFC at (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-
Small Flows Quarterly, Spring 2001, Volume 2, Number 2




                                                         tightened at the end of 1998, home heating oil              Those who need information about specific                This CD provides a variety of educational information         4191 and request Item #WWCDGN162 to get the most
                                                         tanks, septic tanks and other wastewater collec-        state regulations may want to order NSFC’s A            about wastewater, such as the poster Onsite Wastewater             comprehensive source of information about small commu-
                                                         tion systems were specifically excluded.                Guide to State-level Onsite Regulations, a Novem-       Treatment for Small Communities and Rural Areas. This poster       nity wastewater treatment!
                                                             According to the 1995 American Housing Sur-         ber 2000 publication (Item #WWBKRG01). The              describes 23 different wastewater treatment technologies and
                                                         vey, 25 million households use decentralized                                                                    illustrates how they can
                                                                                                                 guide includes Web sites so readers may check
                                                         wastewater treatment, and in 1995, 2.5 million of                                                               be applied in a communi-
                                                                                                                 on updates for those states currently in the
                                                         these systems malfunctioned. Data on septic sys-                                                                ty       setting.    Three      I N     C O M I N G            I   S S U E S . . .
                                                                                                                 process of revising regulations.
                                                         tem failure rate is limited. The EPA says this esti-                                                            brochures on septic sys-
                                                                                                                     You may also wish to order NSFC’s National          tems that discuss how to
                                                         mate is probably conservative, and it anticipates       Onsite Wastewater Treatment: A National Small           prolong the life of a sep-
                                                         that as communities expand into suburban and            Flows Clearinghouse Summary of Onsite Systems                                                                                                 Onsite Impacts on Coastal Zones
                                                                                                                                                                         tic system through proper
                                                         rural areas, the number of decentralized systems—       in the United States, 1993, also known as the           maintenanceare also in-
                                                         and associated system failures—will increase. Poor-     “health department study” (Item #WWBKGN89).             cluded. These brochures                                                               Biosolids Update
                                                         ly managed septic systems remain a major con-           Tricia Angoli, NSFC engineering scientist, is cur-      are available on the CD in
                                                         cern as to groundwater contamination. The Na-           rently updating this study. An updated version          both English and Spanish.                                                             Onsite Management in
                                                         tional Small Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC) health          should be available in Summer 2001.                          Also included are                                                                Charlotte County, Florida
                                                         department survey indicates that 90,632 onsite                                                                  general and technical
                                                         system failures were reported during 1993 by                                                                    versions of fact sheets
                                                         responding local permitting agencies.
50
                        America’sSmall
                   Information Source on
                              Community and Onsite
                                Sewage Systems
     Looking for information about wastewater collection, treat-
     ment, and disposal? The National Small Flows Clearinghouse
     (NSFC) can help.

     Funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the
     NSFC is a nonprofit organization that assists small communi-
     ties (those with populations less than 10,000) with their
     wastewater-related needs. We offer a wide variety of re-
     sources about such topics as:
        • septic systems and alternative onsite and community
          wastewater treatment technologies,
        • regulations,
        • operation and maintenance,
        • design and monitoring,
        • strategies for managing small wastewater systems, and
        • public education.

     The NSFC helps homeowners, local and state government
     officials, renters, bankers, citizens’ groups, regulators, re-
     search scientists, educators, consultants, manufacturers, op-
     erators, contractors, and other professionals. We produce two
     quarterly publications, Small Flows Quarterly and Pipeline, which are free by
     request to U.S. residents. Our Web site hosts discussion groups on waste-        National Small Flows Clearinghouse
     water issues and provides information about conferences and events across        West Virginia University Research Corporation
     the country.
                                                                                                               ®

                                                                                      P.O. Box 6064
     In addition, the NSFC operates a toll-free technical assistance hotline avail-   Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
     able Monday through Friday from 8 a.m.– 5 p.m. Eastern Time. The NSFC
     provides outreach services through workshops, seminars, and conference par-      (800) 624-8301/(304) 293-4191
                                                                                      www.nsfc.wvu.edu
     ticipation. We have an inventory of more than 430 free and low-cost educa-
     tional wastewater products. Contact us today for a free information packet!




National Small Flows Clearinghouse
                                                                                                                   NONPROFIT ORGA-
West Virginia University Research Corporation                                                                           NIZATION
West Virginia University                                                                                           U.S. POSTAGE PAID
P.O. Box 6064                                                                                                        PERMIT NO. 309
                                                                                                                     KNOXVILLE, TN
Morgantown, WV 26506-6064

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