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					30 เมษายน 53   ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   36
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A Weld:    a localized coalescence of metals or
           nonmetals produced either by heating the
                       p                  y      g
           materials to the welding temperature, with
           or without the application of pressure, or
                       i i     f
           by the application of pressure alone and
           with or without the use of filler material.

A Joint:   A junction of members or the edge of
                                   j
           members which are to be jointed or have
           been joined
tee joint (T):   a joint between two members located
                 approximately at right angles to each other
                                  T.
                 in the form of a T

butt joint:      a joint between two members aligned
                 approximately in the same plane.
                         i t l i th         l

corner joint:    a joint between two members located
                 approximately at right angles to each other
                 in the form of an L.
Lap joint:       lap joint: a joint between two overlapping
                               p
                 members in parallel p planes.
Butt joints:

T joints:

  p joints:
Lap j


Corner joints:   Closed   Open
                 corner   corner
Butt welds:


Fillet welds:

Spot/Seam welds:
 p

Plug/Slot welds:

Edge welds:
Single bevel



Single V


Single J


Single U
Double bevel



Double V


Double J


Double U
A butt welded butt joint



A fillet welded butt joint



A compound welded butt joint
A fillet welded T joint



A butt welded T joint



A compound welded T joint
backing:    a material placed at the root of a weld joint
            for the purpose of supporting molten weld
               t l      t f ilit t          l t j i t
            metal so as to facilitate complete joint
            penetration. The material may or may not
                          joint           retainer
            fuse into the joint. See also retainer.

retainer:   Non consumable material, metallic or
            nonmetallic, which is used to contain or
            shape molten weld metal. See also backing.
                        Groove angle

                                         Root    i
                                         R t spacing.


               T




                                 Backing




30 เมษายน 53       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   46
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                                          QW – 253
                    WELDING VARIABLES PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)
                                         Metal-Arc
                                  Shield Metal Arc (SMAW)
                                                                             Supplementary
      Paragraph                   Brief of Variables           Essential       Essential     Nonessential
                  .1     ∅    Groove design                                                      ×
QW-402            .4     −    Backing                                                            ×
Joints            .10    ∅    Root spacing                                                       ×
                  .11    ±    Retainers                                                          ×

Legend:
+ Addition        > Increase/greater than              ↑ Uphill             ← Forehand       ∅ Change
- Deletion        < Decrease/less than                 ↓ Downhill           → Backhand




  30 เมษายน 53                       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                             47
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       QW-402.1 A change in the type of groove (Vee-
    groove, U-groove, single-bevel, double-bevel, etc.).
       QW-402.4 The deletion of the backing in single-
    welded groove welds. Double-welded groove welds are
         id d ldi         i h b ki
    considered welding with backing.
       QW-402.10 A change in the specified root spacing.
       QW-402.11 The addition or deletion of nonmetallic
    retainers or nonfusing metal retainers.




30 เมษายน 53       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   48
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 Question: If a WPS states that the GTAW process
 s a           on oo and second        o ope oo o
 shall be used o root a d seco d pass of open root or
 metal backed groove joints and the SMAW process
 shall be used on the remainder of the groove joint, is
                                       g       j   ,
 it necessary to state that the SMAW portion of the
 WPS must be performed with backing ( , the
                p                     g (i.e.,
 GTAW process)?
  R l No.
  Reply: N


30 เมษายน 53     ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   49
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30 เมษายน 53   ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   50
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Base metal:   the metal or alloy that is welded, brazed, or
                               y               ,       ,
              cut.


Pass:         a single progression of a welding or surfacing
               p             g joint, weld deposit, or
              operation along a j     ,         p ,
              substrate. The result of a pass is a weld bead
              or layer.
30 เมษายน 53   ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   52
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                                          QW – 253
                    WELDING VARIABLES PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)
                                         Metal-Arc
                                  Shield Metal Arc (SMAW)
                                                                           Supplementary
      Paragraph                    Brief of Variables         Essential      Essential     Nonessential
                  .5     ∅    Group Number                                       ×
                  .6          T Limit impact                                     ×
QW-403            .7          T/t Limits > 8 in. (200 mm)           ×
Base              .8     ∅    T Qualified                           ×
Metals            .9          t Pass > ½ in. (13 mm)
                                             (       )              ×
                  .11    ∅    P-No. qualified                       ×
                  .13    ∅    P-No. 5/9/10                          ×

Legend:
+ Addition        > Increase/greater than              ↑ Uphill           ← Forehand       ∅ Change
- Deletion        < Decrease/less than                 ↓ Downhill         → Backhand




  30 เมษายน 53                        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                                53
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      QW-403.11 Base metals specified in the WPS shall be
    qualified by a procedure qualification test which was
    made using base metals in accordance with QW-424.




30 เมษายน 53       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   54
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       QW-424.1 Base metals are assigned P-Number in
    table QW/QB-422; metals that do not appear in table
    QW/QB- 422 are considered to be unassigned metals
    except as otherwise defined for base metals having the
                numbers.
    same UNS numbers Unassigned metals shall be
    identified in the WPS and on the PQR by specification,
    type and grade, or by chemical analysis and mechanical
    properties. The minimum tensile strength shall be de-
    fined by the organization which specified the unassigned
    metal if the tensile strength of that metal is not defined by
    the material specification.

30 เมษายน 53         ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by      55
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                  Base Metal(s) Used for
                  B    M t l( ) U d f
              Procedure Qualification Coupon                                                  Base Metals Qualified
One metal from a P-Number to any metal from the              Any metals assigned that P-Number
same P- Number
One metal from a P-Number to any metal from any              Any metal assigned the first P- Number to any metal assigned the second P-
other P- Number                                              Number

One metal from P-No. 3 to any metal from P-No. 3             Any P- No.3 metal to any metal from P- or P- No.3 or 1

One t l f    PN      to      t lf
O metal from P-No. 4 t any metal from P-No. 4
                                      PN                     Any P- No. t lt        t lf     P N 4, 3,
                                                             A P N 4 metal to any metal from P-Nos. 4 3 or 1

One metal from P-No. 5A to any metal from P-No. 5A           Any P-No. 5A metal to any inew from P-Nos. 5A, 4, 3, or 1
One metal from P-No. 5A to a metal from P-No. 4, or P-       Any P-No. 5A metal to any metal assigned to P-No. 4, 3, or 1
No. 3, or P-No. 1
     ,
One metal from P-No. 4 to a metal from P-No. 3 or P- No. 1   Any P- No. 4 metal to any metal assigned to P-No. 3 or 1

Any unassigned metal to the same unassigned metal            The unassigned metal to itself
Any unassigned metal to any P- Number metal                  The unassigned metal to any metal assigned to the same P- Number as the
                                                             qualified metal
Any unassigned metal to any other unassigned metal           The first unassigned metal to the second unassigned metal




      30 เมษายน 53                             ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                                              56
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                                            QW/QB-422 FERROUS P-NUMBERS AND S-NUMBERS
                                                  Grouping of Base Metals for Qualification
                                                              Welding             Brazing
                                    Minimum
Spec.       Type or                 Specified     P-    Group      S-    Group   P-    S-       Nominal                  Product
 No.        Grade        UNS No.   Tensile, ksi   No.    No.       No.    No.    No.   No.     Composition                Form
SA-36         …          K02600        58          1      1        …      …      101   …      C-Mn-Si        Plate, bar, & shape

SA-53    Type S, GR. B   K03005        60          1      1        …      …      101   …      C-Mn           Smls pipe

SA-105        …          K03504        70          1      2        …      …      101   …      C-Si           Flanges & Fitting

SA-106        B          K03006        60          1      1        …      …      101   …      C-Si           Smls pipe

SA-516        70         K02700        70          1      2        …      …      101   …      C-Mn.Si        Plate

SA-240     Type 304
            yp           S30400        75          8      1        …      …      102   …      18Cr-8Ni            ,      ,       p
                                                                                                             Plate, sheet, & strip

API 5L        B            …           60          …      …         1     1      …     101    C-Mn           Smls. & welded pipe & tubes




                                                          and so on


  30 เมษายน 53                              ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                                           57
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       QW-403.8 A change in base metal thickness beyond
    the range qualified in QW-451, except as otherwise
    permitted by QW-202.4(b).




30 เมษายน 53       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   58
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                                            QW-451 Procedure Qualification Thickness Limits and Test Specimens


                                                                      QW-451.1
                                                GROOVE-WELD TENSION TESTS AND TRANSVERSE-BEND TESTS

                                            Range of Thickness T                                                        Type and Number of Tests Required
                                                                                                                         yp                         q
                                          of Base Metal, Qualified,                                                  (Tension and Guided-Bend Tests) [Note (2)]
                                                  in. (mm)
                                                                            Maximum Thickness t of
                                              [Note (1) and (2)]
                                                                         Deposited Weld Metal, Qualified,                       Side         Face          Root
Thickness T of test Coupon Welded,                                                  in. (mm)                      Tension,      Bend         Bend          Bend
             in. (mm)                     Min.               Max.               [Note (1) and (2)]                QW-150       QW-160       QW-160        QW-160

Less than 1/16 (1.5)                        T           2T                          2t                                2          …             2             2
                                          1/16
1/16 to 3/8 (1.5 to 10), incl.            (1.5)         2T                          2t                                2        Note (5)        2             2


Over 3/8(10) , but less than ¾ (19)     3/16 (5)        2T                          2t                                2        Note (5)        2             2


¾ (19) to less than 1 ½ (38)
  ( )                   ( )             3/16 (5)
                                             ( )        2T                       2t when t < ¾ (19)
                                                                                               ( )                 (    ( ))
                                                                                                                 2 (Note(4))      4            …            …

¾ (19) to less than 1 ½ (38)             3/16 (5)       2T                       2t when t ≥ ¾ (19)              2 (Note(4))      4            …            …


1 ½ (38) and over                        3/16 (5)    8 (200)[Note(3)]            2t when t < ¾ (19)              2 (Note(4))      4            …            …
1 ½ (38) and over                        3/16 (5)    8 (200)[Note(3)]          8 (2) when t ≥ ¾ (19)             2 (Note(4))      4            …            …

NOTES:
(1) The following variables further restrict the limits shown in this table when they are referenced in QW-250 for the process under consideration: QW-403.9, QW-
403.10, QW-403.32, QW-404.32 and QW-407.4. Also, see QW-202.2, QW-202.3, QW-202.4) provide exceptions that supersede the limits of this table.
(2) For combination of welding procedures, see QW-200.4
(3) For the welding processed of QW-403.7 only; other wise per Note (1) or 2T, or 2t, whichever is applicable.
(4) See QW-151 (.1, .2, .3) for details on multiple specimens when coupon thicknesses are over 1 in (25 mm).
(5) Four side-bend tests may be substituted for the required face- and root-bend tests, when thickness T is 3/8 in. (10 mm) and over.


30 เมษายน 53                                             ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                                                                       59
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       QW-403.9 For single-pass or multipass welding in
    which any pass is greater than. 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick,
    an increase in base metal thickness beyond 1.1 times
    that of the qualification test coupon.




30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   60
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       QW-403.7 For the multipass processes of shielded
    metal-are, submerged-arc, gas tungsten-are, and gas
    metal-arc, the maximum thickness qualified for 1 1/2 in.
    (38 mm) and over thickness T of the test coupon of QW-
    451.1            in.
    451 1 shall be 8 in (200 mm) for the conditions shown in
    QW-451.1. For thicknesses greater than 8 in. (200 mm),
    the maximum thicknesses of base, metal and
    deposited weld metal qualified is 1.33T or l.33t, as
    applicable.



30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   61
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          QW-403.5 Welding procedure qualifications shall be made using:
          (a) The same base metal (including type and grade) to be used in production welding; or
          (b) For ferrous material, a base metal listed in the same P-Number and Group Number (see
    QW/QB-422) as the base metal to be used in production welding; or
          (c) For nonferrous material, a base metal listed in the same P-Number and Group Number
    (see QW/QB-422) as the base metal to be used in production welding.
           For ferrous material in QW/QB-422, a procedure qualification shall be made for each P-
    Number and Group Number combination of base metals, even though procedure qualification tests
                                                                  itself
    have been made for each of the two base metals welded to itself. For ferrous material in QW/QB-
    422, a procedure qualification shall be made for each P-Number and Group Number combination
    of base metals, even though procedure qualification tests have been made for each of the two
    base metals welded to itself. If, however the procedure specification for welding the combination
    of base metals specifies the same essential variables, including electrode or filler metal, as both
                                                   itself      that,base                    change,
    specifications for welding each base metal to itself, such that base metals is the only change then
    the procedure specification for welding the combination of base metals is also qualified. In
    addition, when base metals of two different P-Number Group Number combinations are qualified
    using a single test coupon, that coupon qualifies the welding of those two P-Number Group
    Numbers to themselves as well as to each other using the variables qualified.
          This variable does not apply when impact testing of the heat - affected zone is not required
    by other Sections.




30 เมษายน 53                    ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by                                62
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         QW-403.6 The minimum base metal thickness quali-
      fied is the thickness of the test coupon T or 5/8 in.
      (16 mm), whichever is less. However, where T is less
      than 1/4 in. (6 mm), the minimum thickness qualified
         1/2T.
      is 1/2T This limitation does not apply when a WPS is
      qualified with a PWHT above the upper transformation
      temperature or when an austenitic material is solution
      annealed after welding.




30 เมษายน 53         ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   63
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        QW-403.13 A change from one P-No. 5 to any
    other P-No. 5 (viz P-No. 5A to P-No. 5B or P-No.
    5C or vice versa). A change from P-No. 9A to P-No.
    9B but not vice versa. A change from one P-No. 10
                 P No           P No        P No
    to any other P-No. 10 (viz P-No. 10A to P-No. 10B
    or P-No. 10C, etc., or vice versa).




30 เมษายน 53       ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   64
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    Question (1): A test coupon is prepared as follows: A
    1.75 in. plate is welded to 1.75 in. plate with 1 in. thick
    weld. Per QW-451.l, is 8 in. the maximum thickness
    range of base metal qualified?

    Reply (1): Yes, except that further limits or exceptions
            l     t t di N t            d (5)of QW-451.1.
    may apply as stated in Notes (1) and (5) f QW 451 1




30 เมษายน 53          ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by        65
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    Question (1): A 50 mm thick test plate done for a weld
    procedure by FCAW is welded full thickness and
    receives X-ray examination and mechanical tests,
    including impact tests. Is the thickness test range
                   in.     in.        QW 451 1?
    qualified 3/16 in to 8 in as per QW-451.1?

    R l (1): Y except when notch toughness is a
    Reply (1) Yes,      t h      t ht h         i
    requirement the minimum thickness qualified is 5/8 in.




30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by     66
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    Background: A WPS is supported by three PQRs. Two
    PQRs are recorded on 12mm and 28.5mm thick coupons
    using tensile, bend, and impact testing specimens. A third
    PQR was made using 5mm thick plate using the same
             parameters
    welding parameters, but only impact specimens were
    tested.
    Question (1): May these PQRs be combined to support a
    WPS for welding 2.5 mm through 57 mm material
      q     g           g            g
    requiring notch toughness testing?
    Reply (1): No.


30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by    67
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    Background: A WPS is supported by three PQRs. Two
    PQRs are recorded on 12mm and 28.5mm thick coupons
    using tensile, bend, and impact testing specimens. A third
    PQR was made using 5mm thick plate using the same
             parameters
    welding parameters, but only impact specimens were
    tested.
    Question (2): May these three PQRs be combined to
    support welding base metal thicknesses of 4.8 mm
          g                                   g
    through 57 mm with or without notch toughness?
    Reply (2): Yes.


30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by    68
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    Question (1): Do the provisions of QW-200.4(b) permit a
    GTAW procedure qualification test weldment performed
    on a 13 mm thick coupon to support depositing a root
    pass in a production joint of the qualified base metal
    having a thickness of 8 mm when impact testing is
    required?
               No      QW-403.6..
    Reply (1): No. See QW-403 6




30 เมษายน 53        ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   69
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    Background: A PQR is qualified in accordance
    with Section IX, with supplementary essential
    variables, using a material from British Standard
    1501-224-490A-LT50.

    Question: May this PQR be used to support a
    WPS utilizing a P-Number 1, Group Number 2
    material with supplementary essential variables?

    Reply: No.
30 เมษายน 53      ASME Section IX, WPS/PQR Prepared by   70
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