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THE WORLD OF 1919

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									THE WORLD OF 1919

World War I and it’s Aftermath
          Learning Outcomes
• Students will be able to:

  1. Understand the meaning of nationalism and
  imperialism and be able to apply those
  meanings to the events leading up to 1919.


  2. Discuss the social, economic and political
  impact of the First World War.
          Causes of World War I
• The First World War was the formative event of this century.
• Some of the forces which created it and which determined the
  nature of this war from a thematic point of view are the same forces
  which propelled the remainder of the century.
• Before a discussion of the peace process which brought this war to
  an end can begin, it is necessary to review the causes of this event
  and reflect on the features of how it unfolded.
• The notes which follow are not intended as a complete survey of all
  the elements involved. They will focus on those issues which are
  particularly relevant to the rest of the century.
• The introduction will also present a discussion of the issue of power.
  An understanding of what constitutes power is a necessary
  prerequisite to the study of twentieth century history.
                    Nationalism
• Nationalism does not lend itself to a clear, quantifiable
  definition.
• As you think about nationalism, it is always important to
  remember that nationalism comes from the heart, not the
  head.
• To put that in every day language it is a matter of the
  “gut” (visceral) not a matter of the “head” (cerebral). Put
  yet another way, it is irrational, rather than rational. If you
  are still struggling with this term, it may help to
  remember that nationalism does not have to “make
  sense.”
• Having read all these introductory instructions, a
  definition of nationalism may look like that offered in your
  textbook’s glossary: “A patriotic loyalty among the people
  within a state resulting from common bonds of language,
  culture and tradition” (Global Forces, p. 325 ).
VIDEO: Nationalism
                Nationalism
• This definition, however, is too simplistic,
  because often nationalism is not attached to a
  recognized state, but is focused upon the desire
  for independence, or the desire to create a state.
• Nationalism, then, can be viewed as an
  attachment, an appreciation, or even a love for
  the “common language, culture and traditions”of
  your people regardless of statehood.
• Most importantly, before we move on, remember
  that nationalism is not explained the way your
  math teacher explains the laws of geometry—it
  is a matter of the heart.
NATIONALISM AND WORLD WAR
           ONE
• Nationalism was evident in two
  generalized ways as a cause of this war:

• 1. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT IN THE
  ACTIONS OF THE MAJOR POWERS
• 2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN
  THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE
 1. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT IN THE ACTIONS OF THE MAJOR
                        POWERS


• The intense pride that the citizens of the major powers
  demonstrated when supporting the actions of their
  countries was a major factor in bringing about the First
  World War.
• This nationalism expressed itself in the almost
  obsessive-like desire of the Germans to acquire an
  empire. Such extreme desires encouraged the German
  government to act aggressively.
• This, in turn, threatened the other great powers.
• Thus nationalism brought about instability and distrust
  amongst nations and ultimately drove them to war.
The German Empire 1914
    Shown in Brown
  1. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT IN THE ACTIONS OF
              THE MAJOR POWERS

• Similarly, in France, the desire for revenge (for the Franco-Prussian
  War), drove the government to accepting the war as a way to
  restore Europe to a situation where the French would again be
  dominant.

• Great Britain, too, eventually came to support the war in an effort to
  defend the status quo of pre-1914 Europe. They had a fierce pride in
  their imperial accomplishments, and felt secure, as they had the
  world’s most powerful navy.

• Thus we can see how nationalism as a cause of the First World War
  was not a single event perpetrated by one great power, but rather
  was the culmination of many national desires, leading Europeans of
  many nationalities to accept war as the only way to advance their
  own national interests in the summer of 1914.
 2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN THE AUSTRO-
              HUNGAR1AN EMPIRE

• If you look at a pre-
  1914 map of Europe
  you will see in the
  centre of
  Europe a very large
  Austria-Hungary
 2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN THE AUSTRO-
              HUNGAR1AN EMPIRE

• If you now look at a
  map of Europe from
  after 1919, you will
  see two postage
  stamp size countries
  called
  Austria and Hungary.
       2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN THE AUSTRO-
                    HUNGAR1AN EMPIRE

• The difference between these two maps can be attributed
  to nationalism in its “other” form (i.e. nationalism which desires to
  liberate
  people and/or create a new state.)
• This type of nationalism, while constructive for the liberated people,
  is viewed as destructive by the former oppressors.
• In the later stages of this course you will see much evidence of this
  type of
  nationalism as the Europeans lost their overseas empires. But back
  to Austria- Hungary and the First World War.
• Austria-Hungary was made up of many minority groups ruled over
  by the dominant Austrians and Hungarians.
• Before the commencement of modern nationalism this polyglot
  nature of Austria-
  Hungary presented few problems to the ruling force.
VIDEO: Austria-Hungary Declares
              War
 2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN THE AUSTRO-
              HUNGARIAN EMPIRE

• However, in the late 19th century the Slav groups in the
  Balkan region, led by the Serbs, began to demand
  freedom.
• It is important to note that they were not demanding to
  leave Austria-Hungary with only their persons. They
  were demanding to re-draw the map, taking the Slav
  groups and their territory out of Austria-Hungary.
• Subsequently, Austria-Hungary decided that the only
  way for their large
  empire to survive was to suppress this nationalist
  movement via a general
  war against the Serbs and their fellow Southern Slavs.
Austro – Hungarian Empire 1914




Note: Different ethnic groups
 2. NATIONALISM AS EVIDENT WITHIN THE AUSTRO-
              HUNGARIAN EMPIRE

• Their determination for this war brought them into direct
  conflict with Russian imperial designs in the Balkans.
• When Princep assassinated the Archduke of Austria, the
  nationalist desires of the Southern Slav and the self-
  interest of some of the great powers came into direct
  conflict.
• Thus, it is safe to say that nationalism within the great
  powers and the nationalist aspirations of the Slav groups
  within Austria-Hungary (as well as in the neighbouring
  regions of the Balkans) promoted the outbreak of
  hostilities in August, 1914.
IMPERIALISM: A DEFINITION
• At its most simplistic level imperialism is
  the act of one country acquiring
  dominance (and sometimes ownership) of
  another country or region.
• The trouble with simple definitions is that
  often they do not tell the whole story.
What is happening in this cartoon?
                       Imperialism
• Imperialism, as defined above, has been a factor in our existence
  since ancient times.

• In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, however, imperialism has
  become virtually synonymous with industrial nations expanding their
  influence over less developed regions of the globe.

• During this era industrialized nations, in their search first for raw
  materials and then the subsequent markets for their products, have
  ignored the interests of developing countries.

• At the beginning of the century imperial expansion on the part of
  Europeans (as well as the Americans and the Japanese) often
  expressed itself in its rawest form—that of conquest.
VIDEO: Imperialism
                   Imperialism
• As the twentieth century wore on, imperialism evolved to
  become perhaps more subtle in the way it was practised,
  but not necessarily more gentle in the eventual outcome.
• Nevertheless, you should pay attention to a significant
  shift regarding imperialism after the Second World War.
• On the one hand we will begin to see the undoing of
  imperialism during the decolonization struggles in the
  former European colonies.
• Yet, imperialism will present itself under other titles or
  headings known sometimes as “dollar imperialism”,
  “camps”, cultural imperialism, or even the presence of a
  Macdonald’s in every corner of the world.
IMPERIALISM AND THE CAUSES
    OF WORLD WAR ONE
• Understanding how imperialism contributed to
  the causes of the First World War can be
  achieved by recognizing a number of issues
  about pre-war Europe:
  1. There were “have” and “have-not” great
  powers with regard to colonial possessions.
  Britain and France were the principal owners of
  empires, while Germany viewed itself as a “have
  not”. This in itself did not produce conflict until
  Germany commited itself to attaining an empire.
IMPERIALISM AND THE CAUSES
    OF WORLD WAR ONE
2. By the time Germany was fully into the race for
imperial possessions most of the desirable possessions
were held by Britain, France, Belgium,
the Netherlands, etc..
3. Germany’s industrial and military strength, as well as
her willingness to be aggressive, caused concerns
amongst the other great powers. Thus, when the
Austrian Archduke was assassinated the ensuing
struggle was about a lot more than revenge for his
untimely death. It was about who would own these vast
empires when the military conflict was over. Some
powers would fight to protect their holdings, while others
would attempt to acquire those same holdings.
Imperialism in Africa
  THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
    THE FIRST WORLD WAR
• World War One witnessed not only a new style
  or form of warfare, but also a new relationship
  between the battle front and the home front.
• This new type of warfare and this new
  relationship were both brought on by
  industrialism.
• Europe and North America in the century
  previous to 1914 had industrialized
  to the point where many items were mass
  produced.
VIDEO: European Conflict
    THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
      THE FIRST WORLD WAR
•    When the war broke out, that industrial capacity was
    quickly put to advantage by the belligerent countries.
•   Before and during the war, modern technology had
    produced new weapons of warfare that were not only
    mass produced, but which also transformed the nature
    of warfare itself.
•   The machine gun and heavy artillery gave the
    advantage to the defensive which challenged the
    tradition of the infantry charge. The result was that
    much of the war was fought in hundreds of miles of
    trenches.
•   Battles lacked decisive victories.
  THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
    THE FIRST WORLD WAR
• The trenches produced massive casualty lists.
• Poison gas also introduced new terrors on the front.
• During the First World War new war tools such as the
  tank, airplane and telegraph would also radically change
  the nature of warfare.
• While most thought the “high-tech” weapons produced
  by the industrial era would make for short and swift wars
  it soon became evident that decisive battles were a thing
  of the past and that battles of attrition were the new
  order of the day.
• Battles of attrition would feature nations and their armies
  trying to wear down their enemies’ abilities and/or
  willingness to go on fighting.
                  Trench Warfare
• After the Battle of the Marne in
  September, 1914, the
  Germans were forced to
  retreat to the River Aisne.
• The German commander,
  General Erich von Falkenhayn,
  decided that his troops must at
  all costs hold onto those parts
  of France and Belgium that
  Germany still occupied.
• Falkenhayn ordered his men to
  dig trenches that would
  provide them with protection
  from the advancing French and
  British troops.
• The Allies soon realised that
  they could not break through
  this line and they also began to
  dig trenches.
  THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
    THE FIRST WORLD WAR
• One rather distasteful feature of modern industrialized
  war was the concept of fighting the faceless enemy.
• Hand to hand combat was replaced by technological
  tools of war that did not require personal identification of
  the enemy.
• This produced a rather cynical attitude amongst soldiers
  and citizens alike. This industrialized killing produced a
  sense of meaninglessness to all the killing.
• One need only read Wilfred Owen’s “Dulce Et Decorum
  Est” to realize that traditional values about war were
  significantly altered by this first ‘modern’ war.
Canadian Soldiers in Trenches - WWI
                  DULCE ET DECORUM EST
         Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
      Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
       And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
      Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
    But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
         Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
   Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.



                                 Wilfred Owen
Soldiers After Gas Attack - WWI
   THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
     THE FIRST WORLD WAR
• Industrialism also changed the role of the citizen in war.
• The home front now became as important as the battle front. For the
  first time civilians would be the target of aerial bombardment during
  the Zeppelin bombing of London.
• This was to become a feature of future twentieth century wars.
  Women went to work in the factories to replace the men who had
  gone to the front.
• Home governments introduced conscription to raise armies,
  introduced new taxes (E.g., income tax) and found new financing
  vehicles (E.g., war bonds) to pay for the war.
• The industrial capacity of the nation was reorganised to one
  purpose: to win the war.
• This, combined with the battles of attrition on the front, became
  known as total war.
   THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN
     THE FIRST WORLD WAR
• Governments also used other features of modern technology to
  advance their war efforts.
• The railroad revolutionized supply methods for modern armies. As
  fast as the factories could produce war material, it was transported
  to the front via rail (especially by the Central Powers).
• Governments also used modern mass communication to spread
  propaganda about the enemy.
• Success or failure in modern wars came to depend as much upon
  the industrial capacity of the nations as the quality of their fighting
  men.
• In modern wars success would depend upon an effective
  combination of a home front geared to one purpose: the production
  of war goods, and a fighting force equipped with the latest
  technological weaponry.
        WHAT IS POWER?
• Far too often students simplistically equate
  power with the ability to “beat up” the
  enemy.
• While exercising military might on the
  battle front certainly is one aspect of
  power, in the industrialised twentieth
  century power is a much more complex
  issue.
The Elements of Power
             WHAT IS POWER?
• Historian Paul Kennedy defines power as follows:

  “ the power of a nation-state by no means consists only in its armed
  force, but also in its economic and technological resources; in the
  dexterity, foresight and resolution with which its foreign policy is
  conducted; in the efficiency of its social and political organization. It
  consists most of all in the nation itself, the people, their skills,
  energy, ambition, discipline, initiative, their beliefs, myths and
  illusions. And it consists, further, in the way all these factors are
  related to one another. Moreover national power has to be
  considered not only in itself, in its absolute extent,
  but relative to the state’s foreign or imperial obligation; it has to be
  considered relative to the power of other states.”
                        (p. 202) The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers.

• How DO You Define Power?
        WHAT IS POWER?
• It becomes clear from Kennedy’s definition
  that power is much more than a country’s
  military might and more than its industrial
  prowess.
• Interestingly, his emphasis regarding
  power is upon the human element, even to
  the point of including a people’s myths,
  illusions and beliefs.
VIDEO: The Treaty of Versailles
         THE PARIS PEACE
          CONFERENCES
• The Treaty of Versailles, which
  resulted from the conferences, is one
  of the most important international
  agreements of this century.
• Before we look at some of the details,
  it is important to try to understand the
  enormity of the task at hand.
The Big Four
           THE PARIS PEACE
            CONFERENCES
• Delegates from all the Allied countries met in
  Paris in January, 1919 in order to decide on the
  peace terms that were to be imposed on the
  defeated Central Powers.
• Make no mistake about it, this was going to be
  an imposed treaty, not a negotiated one.
• The leading statesmen from all the Allied
  countries attended the conference, including
  President Wilson. (He was the first American
  President to leave American soil while in office.)
           THE PARIS PEACE
            CONFERENCES
• Certainly the problems confronting the delegates
  were great enough to tax the wisdom of
  Solomon, let alone everyday politicians.
• The fact that the old political structure of most of
  Europe lay in ruins was only one of the
  difficulties to be faced.
• The people of the Allied countries had been
  encouraged to bear so many hardships by the
  slogan that this was “a war to end all war”.
A tough pill to swallow. Which country is being made to “pay” ?
           THE PARIS PEACE
            CONFERENCES
• Surely it was reasonable then to expect that the
  peace made in 1919 would be an agreement to
  ensure that a world war could never happen
  again.
• It was confidently believed that the time was
  really at hand when men would “beat their
  swords into ploughshares”.
• Nevertheless, there were wide differences of
  opinion as to how to achieve this desirable state
  of affairs.
The End

								
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