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					          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


                WELCOME TO
    SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                WORKSHOP
       BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
             January 16 & 17 2006
‘Supervisory Management - Improving Behavioral
Skills and Attitudes’
                                           1
            SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
             INTRODUCTION
Besides their technical skills all employees
including supervisors must be equipped with the
Behavioral Skills and Attitudes needed to function
in Organisations which command high Public
Importance
It is within this context that this Workshop on
Supervisory Management is being conducted
under the theme:
Supervisory Management - Improving Behavioral
Skills and Attitudes                            2
             SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


                  Course Objectives
1.   Examine the main theories which have
     accompanied the development of
     organizational management
2.   Explore the relationship between the
     supervisor, employees and the organisation
3.   Introduce concepts of strategic planning
4.   Define measures for effective management of
     employees.                               3
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT

                      Course Outline
DAY 1
Am
9:00 - 9:30          Introduction to Course
9:30 - 10:15         Organisational Management Theories
10:15 - 10:30        Break
10:30 - 12:30        Globalisation and The 21 st Century Organisation
pm
1:30 - 2:30          Organisational Culture and Strategy
2:30 - 2:45          Break
2:45 - 4: 00         Management, Leadership and Performance
DAY 2
am
9:00 - 10:30         Assessing Management Styles
10:30 – 10:45        Break
10:45 - 12:30        Motivating People at Work
pm
1:30 - 2:15          Case Study
2:15 - 3:00          Case Study (Group Reports)
3:00 - 4:00          Course Evaluation
                                                                        4
         SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT

             Organisation Management Theories
Factory System
 Adam Smith an industrialist ‘The Wealth of Nations’
  (1776) led to Production Systems which split work
  processes into separate units of workers performing
  one task with each unit controlled by a supervisor
 The first use of the term supervisor
 Role of the supervisor was to ensure that workers
  performed the task assigned to them (period)
 Workers still possessed knowledge of the work
  process and control over it                        5
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
         Organisation Management Theories
Factory System
 The advantages, according to Smith, of this
 system were that:
Constant performance of a single simple task
 endowed a worker with greater dexterity
Time was saved by avoiding movement
 between tasks
Concentration of effort on one task leads to the
 invention of machines to aid productivity     6
         SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
             Organisation Management Theories
Factory System
 As far back as those days workers objected to the
  factory system and sought ways to undermine the
  work processes
 Factory system still progressed and permeated all
  levels of industrial life and commerce in general
 Feelings of antagonism towards new methods of
  working and the introduction of new technology still
  seen in the behaviour of some groups of workers
  today
                                                         7
            SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
          Organisation Management Theories
Fast Forward to early 1900
Frederick Winslow Taylor – Principle of
 Scientific Management
Three central elements
  A systematic collection of knowledge about work
   processes by supervisors
  The removal of worker discretion and control over
   their activities
  The creation of standard procedures and times for
                                                  8
   performing certain tasks
               SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT



Organisation Management Theories
 Frederick Winslow Taylor –
  Principle of Scientific Management applied to the workplace as:
 Work process under the strict control of supervisors who told
  workers:
    What to do
    When to do it
    How long it should be done
   Compared to Adam Smith: Role of the supervisor was to
    ensure that workers performed the task assigned to
    them                                                 9
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
         Organisation Management Theories
The position of workers transformed
from:
 Monopoly of knowledge about the work process and
 control over it
To:
   Limited amount of knowledge and little or no
  control over the work process



                                                  10
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


At the same time as Taylor……Fayol in France,
‘Principles of Management’
Division of Work – More and better work from the
same effort, through the advantages of
specialisation
Authority and Responsibility – Authority brings
responsibility. Sanctions are required to generate
useful actions
Discipline – Is essential for the efficient operation of
the organisation
Unity of Command – Employees should receive
orders from only one supervisor
Cont’d                                              11
           SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


 ‘Principles of Management’
Unity of Direction – Effective co-ordination requires that
there should be only one leader – GM, CEO, MD
Subordination of Individual/Group interests – The
interests of the organisation take precedence over those of
the individual
Remuneration – Methods of payment should be fair and
reward well-directed effort
Centralisation – Varies across the organisation
Scalar Chain – A chain of superiors from ultimate authority to
the lowest ranks. Respect for line authority.
Order – A place for everything and everything in its place
Cont’d                                                     12
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


 ‘Principles of Management’
Equity – Fairness in dealing with all employees at all
levels throughout the scalar chain
Stability – Prosperous organisations have stable
managerial personnel
Initiative – A source of strength which should be
encouraged
Esprit de corps – Harmony and unity are a great
strength for the organisation
Only these last four retained as valid Principles of
Management? Discuss
                                                 13
            SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


     ‘Principles of Management’
    According to Fayol, Management has the
    responsibility of implementing these principles
    and therefore the duties of management were
    as follows:
•   Planning
•   Organising
•   Command and Control
•   Co-ordination                               14
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
             Organisation Management Theories

Human Relations Approach:
Two Central Concepts:
THE ORGANISATION
 Organisations are complex social systems and not mechanical.
  They require more than just simple close supervision, rigid rules
  and purely economic considerations and incentives for effective
  control – ethics, the environment
THE PERSON
 People are emotional beings as well as economic, they have
  both emotional and economic needs to satisfy. The work
  environment has to be structured so that it allows people to
  meet these important needs

                                                              15
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
        Organisation Management Theories

Human Relations Approach has led to the
‘Rationalistic’ approach to Human Resources
which matches the Human Resource to the
Business Strategy of the Organisation in
treating the employee as a ‘strategic resource’
that possesses ‘skills’ and ‘expertise’ that can
be harnessed for the organisation’s ‘competitive
advantage’
                                            16
           SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


Reflection
Where are we today in BVI?




                                    17
                        The Twentieth- and Twenty-first Century Organization
                                       Compared

Twentieth Century                                    Twenty-First Century


Structure                                                      Structure
-   Bureaucratic                                     - Non-bureaucratic, with
                                                       fewer rules and employees
-   Multileveled                                     - Limited to fewer levels
-   Organized with the expectation that              - Organized with the expectation
    expectation that senior management will manage     management will lead and lower-
                                                        level employees will manage

-   Characterized by policies and                    - Characterized by policies and
    procedures that create many complicated            procedures that produce the
    internal interdependencies                         minimal internal interdependence
                                                       needed to serve customers



                                                                                  18
            The Twentieth- and Twenty-first Century Organization Compared

Twentieth Century                                             Twenty-First
Century

            Systems                                           Systems
- Depend on few performance information            - Depend on many performance
  systems                                            information systems, providing
                                                     data on customers especially
- Distribute performance data to executives        - Distribute performance data
  only                                               widely


- Offer management training and support systems    - Offer management training and
  to senior people only                              support systems to many people
                                                                                    19
    The Twentieth- and Twenty-first Century Organization Compared

Twentieth Century                                          Twenty-First
Century

Culture                                          Culture

-   Inwardly focused                             -   Externally oriented
-   Centralized                                  -   Empowering
-   Slow to make decisions                       -   Quick to make decisions
-   Political                                    -   Open and candid
-   Risk averse                                  -   More risk tolerant




                                                                               20
                                Economic and Social Forces Driving the need for Major Change
                                               in Organizations

Technological Change                           International                  Maturation of Markets                          Fall of
                                               Economic                       in Developed                                   and Socialist
                                               Integration                    Countries                                      Regimes
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Faster and better com-                         Fewer tariffs                  Slower domestic growth                         More coun-
munication                                     (GATT/WTO)                                                                    tries linked
                                                                                                                             to the capitalist
                                                                                                                             system

Faster and better                             Currencies linked              More aggressive exporters                     More
Transportation                                via floating ex-                                                             privatization
                                              change rates

More information networks                     More global capital            More deregulation
Connecting people globally                    flows




                          THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS and COMPETITION
                                                                                                                                           21
                THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS and COMPETITION




More Hazards                                                        More Opportunities

-   More competition                                                - Bigger Markets
-   Increased speed                                                 - Fewer Barriers


                       More Large-scale change in organizations

To avoid hazards and/or capitalize on opportunities, firms must become stronger
competitors. Typical transformation methods include:

- Reengineering                                           - Mergers and acquisitions
- Restructuring                                           - Strategic change
- Quality programs                                        - Cultural change        22
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT

         ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE - Definitions
‘The Pattern of basic assumptions that a group has invented, discovered or
developed in learning to cope with the problems of external adaptation and
integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid, and,
therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive think and
feel in relation to these problems’

A system of shared values (what is important) and beliefs (how things work) that
interact with a company’s people organisational system to produce norms (the
way we do things around here)

The deeper level of assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an
organisation, that operate sub-consciously, and that define in a basic ‘taken for
granted’ fashion an organisation’s view of itself and its environment

Organisational Culture is influenced to a large extent by the behaviour of the
Chief Executive especially where such a person has been with the
organisation for a long time
                                                                              23
                   SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


              ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
     Organisational Culture influences behaviour in three areas:
1.   Organisational Values: Beliefs in what is best or good for the
     organisation and what should or ought to happen. They are expressed by
     reference to both goals and the means of achieving such goals
2.   Organisational Climate: The working atmosphere of the organisation as
     perceived and experienced by its members. This will encompass how
     people feel about and react to the characteristics and quality of the
     organisational culture and its values
3.   Management Style: The way in which managers behave and exercise
     authority. They may be autocratic or democratic, tough or easygoing,
     formal or informal. It also describes the way in which managers behave.

                                                                      24
         SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


      ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

Getting the Basics right a Culture for success

Clive Lloyd’s successful West Indies cricket
team vs Current The West Indies Cricket Team????


                                               25
                ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MINDSET




       Company Focus on doing the BASICS very well.
•   It’s amazing how many departments have great visions
    yet fail to achieve their full potential - all the potential in
    the world but with no focus on executing the basics
•   Many historic, recurring day-to-day problems (perhaps
    the same problems that plague your operation) can be
    permanently eliminated by a tenacious execution of the
    crucial basics. The mastering of these basics can help
    you and your department            reach full growth and
    potential.


                                                              26
                ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MINDSET




             8 Basics for Organisational Success
1.   Customer Connectivity
2.   Information Integrity
3.   Performance Management
4.   Quality Management
5.   Teamwork Organisation
6.   Knowledge of Value
7.   Business Process Management
8.   Resource Planning

                                                     27
                    CULTURE AND MINDSET




           Basic #1 – Customer Connectivity
The reality of customer responsiveness is in the eyes of
the beholder - the customer. The sooner we realize and
accept our customers' perceptions of our services as
reality, and accept it as our challenge, the sooner we will
earn their confidence.
Customer responsiveness and satisfaction strategies
must be developed together with tactical plans that
reduce customer complaints and provide world class
customer service.
In our line of business most delinquent customers are
dissatisfied with the service received (???)          28
                  CULTURE AND MINDSET




           Basic #2 – Information Integrity
It is not uncommon for supervisors to become
disenchanted with operating systems which fail to
deliver on time schedules and promised paybacks.
Truism: acceptable systems results cannot be achieved
when systems are driven by inaccurate data and
untimely, uncontrolled documentation.
For most systems a key requisite to optimizing
operational performance is through the collection of
accurate and timely information.

                                                29
                   CULTURE AND MINDSET




        Basic #3 – Performance Management
Measurement systems can be motivational or de-
motivational. The individual goal setting of the 80’s is a
good example of de-motivational measurement - it tested
one individual or group against the other and while
satisfying some individual egos, it provided little
contribution to overall company growth and profit.
Organisations must develop a performance scorecard
that will stimulate innovation and increase the
participation and contribution of all employees.

                                                     30
                  CULTURE AND MINDSET




           Basic #4 – Quality Management
QUALITY is a crucial business basics. For businesses to
master customer quality requirements, they need to
address quality as a total company change initiative
strategy.   A formalize proven quality management
system is the preferred approach.




                                                  31
                      CULTURE AND MINDSET




Basic #5 – Teamwork
    All employees in an organisation must work as a team.
    Team dynamics is predicated on the effectiveness of
    their members to communicate and share knowledge.
    As with any organizational innovation, the successful
    introduction of team dynamics requires that ability to
    assimilate significant change. Hierarchies must be
    flattened, employees must be empowered to make and
    then implement decisions, and new and at times
    unfamiliar technologies must be adopted, various
    sources of resistance must be addressed, plans must be
    clearly communicated, and ownership of the new model
                                                      32
    of teamwork must be widely deployed.
                  CULTURE AND MINDSET




  Basic #6– Knowledge of what brings value to the
                      Organisation
Developing a visual map of the value stream allows
everyone to fully understand and agree on how value is
produced in the organisation and where waste occurs.
Analysis of the processes which the maps represent will
help increase customer satisfaction by identifying
actions to decrease system breakdowns, reduce costs,
establish     customer-driven   process   performance
measures, reduce non-value-added steps, and increase
productivity.
                                                  33
                 CULTURE AND MINDSET



                   The 8-Basics?
    Basic #7 – Business Process Management
Companies must develop strategies to gain speed,
quality and reduce costs by reviewing their business
processes.




                                               34
                    CULTURE AND MINDSET



                     The 8-Basics?
            Basic #8 – Resource Planning
One of the major challenges in industry today is the
timely right sizing of operations. Profit margins can be
eroded by not taking timely downsizing actions and
market windows can be missed and customer
confidence lost by not upsizing the direct labor force in a
timely manner. These actions demand timely, tough
decisions that require accurate, well-timed and reliable
resource information (Basic # 2).



                                                      35
             BALANCED SCORECARDS


              Strategic Planning
•Strategic planning is a business process that many
companies employ to identify their critical success
targets that set the course for future growth and
profits.
•Strategic Planning is an essential process in
mastering the 8 Basics for Organisational Success.
Lewis Carroll in “Alice in Wonderland” makes a good
case for it: “Would you tell me, please, which way I
ought to go from here?” said Alice. “That depends a
good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat.
“I don’t much care where…,” said Alice. “Then it 36
doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat.
BALANCED SCORECARDS


 Strategic Planning




                       37
                    BALANCED SCORECARDS



                      Strategic Planning
In developing a strategic plan three key questions are considered:
       1. Where are we today?
       2. Where do we want to go, and when? and
       3. How do we get from here to there?




                                                                 38
                    BALANCED SCORECARDS



                      Strategic Planning

 Like most business processes, the key to success is in the effective
implementation of the plan. Companies that do a good job of
developing and executing their strategies can create a competitive
edge. Organizations that turn their plan into a "dust collector"
sitting on an executive bookshelf, will never achieve their full
potential. The key to success is the design and implementation of a
balanced scorecard.
                                                                  39
             STRATEGIC PLANNING

       The Management Process
    1.   Situation analysis
    2.   Objectives and strategies
    3.   Critical success targets
    4.   Implementation
       Benefits
    •    An understanding of the Utility’s
         vision
    •    A focus on critical success targets
    •    Team commitment and empowerment
    •    Foundation for the Balanced
         Scorecard                           40
              SITUATION ANALYSIS
As part of So Called SWOT Analysis
Identifying and Evaluating Internal Factors
  • Strengths
     – Customer Service
     – Product Innovation
     – Staff Knowledge
     – ?
  • Weaknesses
     –   A weak Dollar
     –   Long Delivery Cycle Time
     –   Poor “on-time” delivery performance
     –   ?              Where are we today?    41
               SITUATION ANALYSIS


Identifying and Evaluating External Factors
  • Opportunities
     – Poor Distribution
     – Marginal field service support
     –?
  • Threats
     – Metric products
     – Aggressive new competitors
     –?



                         Where are we today?   42
     SITUATION ANALYSIS
Developing the Mission Statement




    THE           MISSION             THE
  COMPANY        STATEMENT         CUSTOMER




            THE MARKETPLACE

  What business are we in?
           How do we describe our customer?   43
OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

 Objectives
   • Categories
       –   Financial
       –   Customers
       –   Internal Business Processes
       –   Innovation and Learning
   • Criteria
       –   Single theme for each
       –   Results oriented and quantified
       –   Ownership identified
       –   All objectives “in concert” with each other
       –   Challenging and achievable

   Where do we wish to arrive, and when?                 44
        OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES


 Defensive Strategies

   •   Solve internal weaknesses which make the organization
       vulnerable to external threats


                              DEFENSIVE           INTERNAL
         EXTENAL
         THREATS              STRATEGIES         WEAKNESSES




                   How do we get there from here?


                                                               45
  OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

Competitive Strategies
  •   Utilize internal strengths to take advantage of external
      opportunities

   INTERNAL               STRATEGIES               EXTERNAL
  STRENGTHS               TO BUILD ON            OPPORTUNITIES
                          STRENGTHS




               How do we get there from here?




                                                                 46
CRITICAL SUCCESS TARGETS
Technology Leadership
Value Delivery Systems
Operations Effectiveness




                            47
            CRITICAL SUCCESS TARGETS
Technology Leadership
  The best use of available technology




                                         48
CRITICAL SUCCESS TARGETS
Value Delivery System
  • Quality
     –   The ISO-9000 System
     –   The Baldrige System
     –   The home grown system
     –   Customer perception is reality
  • Service
     – Request-for-system expansion
       responsiveness
     – Technical assistance
     – Service call responsiveness
  • Price
     – Cost-of-services
     – Tariff
                                          49
 CRITICAL SUCCESS TARGETS
 Operations Effectiveness
  • Productivity
     – Management performance monitoring
     – Best-in-class housekeeping
  • Speed
     – An assault on turnaround times
     – Continuous improvement - elimination of waste
  • Quality
     – Customer “quality service” reports
     – “No status quo” mind-set




                                                       50
                        IMPLEMENTATION
                          Success Criteria
            CORPORATE
              VISION
                                               Must Dos

            STRATEGIC               –   Demo executive commitment
              PLAN
                                    –   Encourage participation
                                    –   Select the right staff to join team
ACTION       ACTION       ACTION    –   Easy access to information
PLAN-A1      PLAN-A2      PLAN-A3
                                    –   Focus on critical success targets
                                    –   Set well-defined objectives
              ANNUAL
             BUSINESS               –   Consider available resources
               PLAN
                                    –   Communicate plan
                                    –   Include balanced scorecards as
  PLANS &     PLANS &    PLANS &        your integrated performance
  BUDGETS     BUDGETS    BUDGETS
                                        measurement system
                                                                     51
            IMPLEMENTATION
Obtaining Required Commitment
  • Pre-planning steps
     – Demonstrate managerial commitment
     – Selecting “the right” planning team and information
     – Soliciting input from employees
  • Execution steps
     –   Encouraging participation
     –   Focusing on Critical Success Targets
     –   Setting well-balanced, qualified objectives
     –   Considering available resources
     –   Developing a balanced scorecard
  • Post-planning steps
     – Communicating and deploying the plan
     – Linking strategic to tactical planning
                                                        52
     – Fine tuning the planning process
                        IMPLEMENTATION
The Action Plan
  •    State the objective of the plan. Is it relevant?
  •    Identify the individual who has overall ownership for
       the success of the plan.
  •    Identify the individuals who have responsibility for the
       success of each action step in the plan.
  •    Indicate the due date of completion of each step.
  •    List results oriented steps. . . Using action verbs to
       describe each.
  •    Identify the resources (human, capital and facilities)
       required to perform the action steps.
                             RESPONSIBLE   DUE      DATE
         ACTION STEPS                                             COMMENTS
                              INDIVIDUAL   DATE   COMPLETE




                             RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
       TIME                                                              COMMENTS
      PERIOD        PEOPLE          FINANCIAL         EQUIPMENT
                                                                                    53
         THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

 1.Situation Analysis
   •   Identifying and evaluating internal factors
   •   Identifying and evaluating external factors
   •   Developing the mission statement
 2.Objectives and Strategies
   •   Strategic objectives
   •   Defensive strategies
   •   Competitive strategies
 3.Critical Success Targets
   •   Technology Leadership
   •   Value Delivery System
   •   Operational Effectiveness
 4.Implementation
   •   Success Criteria
   •   Resource Management
   •   The Action Plan                               54
          STRATEGIC PLANNING
         BALANCED SCORECARDS
   Purpose
    •   Improve results from strategic planning
    •   Articulate the Utility’s business vision
    •   Communicate the Utility’s “critical
        success targets”
    •   Achieve utility-wide understanding and
        commitment to the strategic plan
    •   Develop and execute tactical plans in
        support of critical success targets
    •   Create a work environment that fosters
        performance measurement, recognition and
        reward
                                               55
             STRATEGIC PLANNING
            BALANCED SCORECARDS

 BSC can be used for first time strategy
  development or for an institution which already
  has a strategy to up-date its strategy
 Up-dating strategy Process
    Assessment of Strategy
    Revise Strategy
    Selection of Metrics



                                                56
              STRATEGIC PLANNING
             BALANCED SCORECARDS
           Process
           Assessment of Strategy
Strategy is assessed from 4 Perspectives
Financial
What are the organisation’s financial goals
Customer
What value propositions are offered to customers
Internal Business Processes
What key Business Processes will enable delivery
on value propositions
Learning and Growth
What skills and infrastructure are necessary for
maintaining long-term growth of the organisation   57
               STRATEGIC PLANNING
              BALANCED SCORECARDS

   Process
     Revise Strategy
         Revise the strategy in the light of answers to
         questions posed and select strategic
         objectives for each of the 4 Perspectives




                                                   58
               STRATEGIC PLANNING
              BALANCED SCORECARDS

   Process
     Selection of Performance Metrics
      Select meaningful Performance metrics that
      gauge whether the Objectives are being met for
      each of the 4 Perspectives
      A good mix of lag and lead metrics is required




                                                 59
                          STRATEGIC PLANNING
                     STRATEGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM




   A Strategy Management System (SMS) is a framework within which a
    company could keep under constant review documented plans
    developed to address the major issues facing the institution, taking
    into consideration the interest of its owners, customers and
    changes in the internal and external environments.
   The major output of a SMS development exercise is a strategy
    matrix. The strategy matrix combines the analytical thoroughness
    of the Logical Framework Method with the performance
    measurement driven approach of the Balanced Scorecard method of
    strategy formulation.




                                                                  60
                              STRATEGIC PLANNING
                         STRATEGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM




       The strategic matrix gives a concise description and performance
        metrics for:
(i)     Management vision for the organization;
(ii)    Strategic objectives to be adopted in order to keep the vision in
        focus;
(iii)    Specific outputs critical to the achievement of the objectives; and
(iv)     Activities to be undertaken to produce the identified outputs.
       The concept of the ‘strategy matrix’ was developed by CBWMP and
        used by this organization in its own strategic planning.




                                                                      61
                           STRATEGIC PLANNING
                      STRATEGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM




Central Water and Sewerage Strategy Matrix




                                                   62
       OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS


 Objections
  • We know it all already
  • It’s too labor intensive
  • We have limited control over results
  • The results will be used against us
  • Management will misuse the results
  • They will score us by unfair standards
  • Too much complexity
  • Too expensive to deploy

                                             63
                      OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS


 Overcoming Objections
  • Overcome objections by commitment in particular a
      commitment to performance measurement
  •   Commitment should be built early in the planning
      process by getting everyone involved and encouraging
      suggestions and comments at all levels especially from
      those who have to implement the action plans
  •   The strategic plan should be widely circulated and sold
      to employees at all levels of the organisation
  •   During implementation plans should be periodically
      reviewed and lessons learned

                                                         64
        Performance Measurement

     “Financial numbers may tell us we’re winning
     the war, but it takes complete performance
     measurements to focus our energy and efforts
     to win each of the battles along the way.”
‘Supervisory Management - Improving
Behavioral Skills and Attitudes’
                                                    65
  MAINTAINING SYSTEM CREDIBILITY
Establishing a Measurement Mindset



“THERE IS NO
STATUS QUO!

                                            YOU’RE EITHER
                                             WINNING OR
                                           YOU’RE LOSING”




                                                              66
        There is no effective control without measurements!
 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

Issues To be Addressed
  • Why performance measurements
  • Benchmarking
 Benefits
  • Proactive motivation
  • Participative goal setting
  • Process ownership



                                   67
 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

  Performance measurement has a special
  role in Strategic Planning and
  Implementation
  Performance measurement also necessary
  in operational management




                                    68
                              BALANCED SCORECARDS

                     Performance Measurement
• Performance measurements provide the foundation for organisational
success and is a Critical Element of Supervision
•Without metrics to establish and track where we are and where we want
to go, there is little incentive to make positive changes happen.
•If we are to be successful in our pursuit of aggressive change we must
develop a rational performance measurement methodology that achieves
total company commitment.
•An important element in a performance measurement system is the
ability to capture relevant data that will provide a valid assessment of
how the process is being performed. To this end, we need to establish
ownership of the process, then get the process owner involved in
establishing an appropriate method of performance measurement.
Without this happening, there will be no worthwhile commitment to goal
attainment.                                                            69
 WHY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT
 Performance Measurement FOR
  Strategic Alignment

 Credible       Yes         Timely       Yes     Efficient          Yes       As            Yes
   Sales                Infrastructure          Prod’n and                  Received
Forecasting             Development             Distribution                 Quality


      No      Forecast &       No   Project Mang.         No    Materials and      No      Quality
             Commercial                Function                  Scheduling               Standards
           Operations Review            Review                 Process Review              Review




                Yes         Total        Yes                         Yes
Bottom Line                                           Inventory                  Profit
                          Customer
  Results                                           Effectiveness               Margins
                         Satisfaction



      No      Balanced               Feedback and                                          Cost vs
             Scorecard         No      Proactive          No Days of Supply        No     Revenue
                                                             Process Review
           Process Review           Process Review                                         Review

                                                                                                  70
WHY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT
Management By Facts
              “Without data, you're just another opinion.”
    SELECT        PARETO DIAGRAM           HISTORGRAM
   PROBLEM
                                   SCRAP
                                                           REWORK

    ANALIZE
   PROBLEM

                               DATA COLLECTION
   ID ROOT                                            CHECK SHEET
    CAUSE
                               CONTROL CHARTS
                       GRAPH                      SCATTER DIAGRAM
   PLAN & X
   ACTIONS


   CONFIRM
   RESULTS       BEFORE                       AFTER



    FINE
                                   ACTION 1           ACTION 2
    TUNE                                                         71
                                       TIME                           2-3
  MAINTAINING SYSTEM CREDIBILITY
Establishing a Measurement Mindset



“THERE IS NO
STATUS QUO!

                                            YOU’RE EITHER
                                             WINNING OR
                                           YOU’RE LOSING”




                                                              72
        There is no effective control without measurements!
             MAINTAINING SYSTEM CREDIBILITY
         Establishing a Measurement Mindset


Reflection
Establishing a performance measurement mindset is the responsibility of
management?




                                                                          73
                    There is no effective control without measurements!
MAINTAINING SYSTEM CREDIBILITY
Databases, Ownership and Maintenance
  • Simple Department Processes
     – User: process owner
     – Database: chalk board, tick chart and hand plot graphs
     – Maintenance: process customer
  • Complicated Processes - Service Delivery
     – Users: process owner or team
     – Database: Excel spreadsheet and computer graphs
     – Maintenance: assigned team member
  • Intradepartmental Processes - Cost of Quality
     – User: functional manager or self-directed process team
     – Databases: computerized business systems down
       loaded to Access for additional input forms and graphs
     – Maintenance: MIS and/or team data specialist
                                                            74
  Remember, “Without data, you're just another opinion.”
MAINTAINING SYSTEM CREDIBILITY
Some Requisites for Success
  • Management acceptance and support
      Commitment
  •   A few good champions
  •   Trust and understanding
  •   Valid, timely and consistent measurements
  •   Need to review and adjust range of metrics
  •   Demonstrated benefits from use of system
  •   A “want to succeed” business culture
  •   A true sense of accomplishment
Change in Behavioral Skills and
                                               75
attitudes
            BENCHMARKING
Internal - A Good Starting Place
  • Define critical company success factors
  • Identify relevant work processes and
      prioritize by importance
  •   Identify process owners and internal
      customers
  •   Agree on current performance levels and
      establish data measurements
  •   Negotiate improvement goals - celebrate the
      goal achievements and reset the marks


                                              76
             BENCHMARKING
External - Some of the Options
 •   Customers
 •   Non-Competitive Businesses
 •   Competitors
 •   World Bank
 •   CBWMP
 •   Institute of Quality and Productivity -SDSU

 Your Best Option: Industry Week
 The Benchmarking Tool Kit   - www.cbwmp.tzo.org




                                                   77
            Performance Measurement Recap

 Why Performance Measurements
   •   Management by facts
   •   Strategic Alignment
 Maintaining System Credibility
   •   Establishing a measurement mindset
   •   Databases, ownership and maintenance
   •   Some requisites for success
 Benchmarking
   •   Internal - a good starting place
   •   External - some of the options

‘Supervisory Management - Improving
  Behavioral Skills and Attitudes’

                                              78
                      A Straight From the Internet Story

I rarely open joke e-mail messages. Not that I don't enjoy a good joke but rather
because I am not usually in the mood for a joke when I am on the Internet. However,
once in awhile, I will open one and on this occasion it was worth it.

On June 20th 1969, Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo -11 Lunar Module,
stepped onto the moon and said, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for
mankind."

When reentering the module, he made a brief statement, "Good luck, Mr Gorsky."
When back in the USA many reporters kept asking him what was the significance of
the Gorsky statement. He never responded with an answer. Many speculated that it
was a message to a Soviet astronaut.

On July 5th, 1995, when once again he was asked the 26 year-old question, he finally
replied. In 1938 when I was a kid in a small Midwestern town, we used to play baseball
in a field in the back of my house. One day, one of my friends hit a ball over the fence
into my neighbor's yard. I jumped the fence to retrieve the ball that had landed up
against Mr. and Mrs. Gorsky's house directly under their bedroom window. When I
stooped to pick up the ball, I could hear Mrs. Gorsky yelling at Mr. Gorsky, " Sex! You
say you want sex! You'll get sex when the kid next door walks on the moon!"


                                                                                      79
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                  QUALITY


Buzz Words:
Quality System
Quality Assurance System
Quality Management System
Customer Satisfaction System
Total Quality Management
What do all these terms really mean?

                                       80
               SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                       QUALITY

   What is Quality?
   We associate the term quality with:
 Degree of excellence
 Superiority of some kind
 A desired characteristic or feature
For example: Rolls Royce car
   But there are more Toyotas on the road than Rolls
   Royces. We therefore know that quality is notoriety,
   and quality could come at a price. But Toyotas have
   are popular and the Toyota Company is successful
   because, to some measure, they produce ‘cheap,
   quality cars.’ So therefore what exactly is Quality.
                                                   81
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                        QUALITY


  For the Public Sector:
  Quality is associated with:
 What the public wants eg clean water
 When it wants it eg 24 hour supply of water, daily
  garbage collection
 At a price customers are prepared to pay (produce
  and supply at as low cost as possible)
  For the Private Sector, the bottom-line to quality is
  profit – The Business primary goal or Success
  Success=Business Goal=Profit=Quality                82
              SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                      QUALITY


Therefore:
A Quality system can be defined as ‘the organisational
structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and
resources required to achieve the organisation’s goals and
objectives’
As the quality system is about ‘management’ of the business
it is also referred to as a ‘Quality Management System’
And where it provides ‘assurance’ for customers and
managers it is called a ‘Quality Assurance System’


                                                       83
          SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                  QUALITY


Organisations that possess a Quality system
have documented their system in writing in the
form of Manuals, Procedures and Instructions.
One such system is called ‘Total Quality
Management’

Do BVI Gov. Depts. have ‘Quality Systems’?

                                          84
             SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
             PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT


    Management had the sole responsibility of
    implementing the Principles of Management
    and therefore the duties of Management were
    as follows:
•   Planning
•   Organizing and Co-ordinating
•   Command and Control

    More or less Supervisors are called upon
    to perform the Same duties today       85
                 SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT


    Planning
•   Agreeing on departmental/unit/section/division goals
•   Clarification of tasks to be performed by employees under
    his/her control
•   Making sure that employees have the resources to function
•   Ensuring that systems for record keeping and
    communications are set up and meet the section goals
•   Setting of standards and performance benchmarks



                                                          86
                 SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT


    Organising and Coordinating
•   Ensuring work on tasks is taken forward in a rational manner
•   Ensuring a smooth flow of resources to employees
•   Devolving responsibilities and sub-tasks to employees
•   Ensuring coordination of activities in the section
•   Keeping in focus the results expected and not being side-
    tracked
•   Arranging for evaluation of results achieved
•   Arranging for employee evaluation and feedback
•   Arranging for employee training
•   Making sure liaison and communication take place with 87
    management who are expecting results
                  SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                  PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT


    Controlling

•   Ensuring that standards are adhered to, deadlines are met
    and decisions are made
•   Checking on feedback from management on achievement of
    results to date
•   Making sure that all contribute to the unit’s efforts
•   Making sure that evaluation of section’s work takes place and
    what is learned is integrated into future work
•   Making sure that employee performance is rewarded
•   Directing workers on how to perform tasks???
                                                            88
                   SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                         LEADERSHIP


•   In most organizations a strain exists between the individual
    and management especially in the area of organization and
    individual goals
•   This strain is played out in the workplace in the attempts by
    the organization, through its management, to exercise control
    over its employees
•   The power of an organization’s management to control its
    employees rests either in specific positions, a person or a
    combination of both
•   An individual whose power is chiefly derived from his/her
    organizational position is referred to as an official (manager)
•   An individual whose ability to control others is chiefly personal
    is referred to as an informal leader.
•   One who commands both is a ‘formal leader’
•   Modern organizations thrive on formal leadership             89
                           LEADERSHIP


The Twelve Major Attributes Of Leadership are:
1. A Willingness To Try The Untried
2. Self Motivation
3. A Keen Sense Of What Is Fair
4. Definitive Plans
5. Decision ‘Stickability’
6. The Habit Of Going The Extra Mile
7. A Positive Personality
8. Empathy
9. Mastery Of Detail
10. Willingness To Assume Full Responsibility
11. Duplication
12. A Deep Belief In Their Principles
                                                 90
                              LEADERSHIP


1.   A Willingness To Try The Untried
•    No employee wishes to be led by a supervisor who lacks
     courage and self confidence
•    It is a positive leadership style that takes on challenging tasks
     or takes opportunities that have not been tried before
•    A supervisor knows in taking certain actions he/she might be
     unsuccessful, but by leading by example, will maintain the
     motivation of employees.




                                                                 91
                            LEADERSHIP


2.   Self Motivation
     The supervisor who cannot motivate himself has not the
     slightest chance of being able to motivate others




                                                              92
                            LEADERSHIP


3.   A Keen Sense Of What Is Fair
•    In order to retain the respect of employees a manager
     must be sensitive to what is fair and just
•    A leadership style whereby all people are treated justly
     and equally always creates a feeling of security




                                                           93
                          LEADERSHIP


4.   Definitive Plans
•    A good leader plans the work and then works the plan




                                                        94
                       LEADERSHIP


5. Decision ‘Stickability’
• The supervisor who waivers in the decision-making
   process shows that he/she is unsure of him/herself,
   whereas an effective leader makes a decision after
   giving sufficient thought to the problem
• However, a good leader does not stick unreasonably
   to a bad decision



                                                  95
                             LEADERSHIP


6.   The Habit Of Going The Extra Mile
•    Leaders are willing to do whatever and more than they ask of
     employees
•    The supervisor who arrives before the employee and leaves a
     little bit later is one example of this attribute of leadership




                                                               96
                              LEADERSHIP


7.   A Positive Personality

     Employees respect this quality, it not only inspires confidence
     but also builds and maintains an enthusiastic team sprit




                                                               97
                             LEADERSHIP


8.   Empathy
•    The successful leader must have the ability to put himself in
     the shoes of his employees – to be able to see the world from
     their side
•    He does not have to agree with others but must be able to
     see how they feel and understand their viewpoint




                                                             98
                             LEADERSHIP


9.   Mastery Of Detail
•    The successful leader understands and carries out every
     detail of his job and has the knowledge and the skill to master
     the responsibilities that go with the position




                                                               99
                            LEADERSHIP


10. Willingness To Assume Full Responsibility
•   A good leader must be willing to take full responsibility
    for the mistakes of followers
•   Should a follower make a mistake, perhaps through
    incompetence, the leader must consider that it is he, himself
    who has failed
•   The effective leader accepts the cliché: ‘The buck stops here’




                                                             100
                             LEADERSHIP


11. Duplication
•   The effective leader is always looking for ways of duplicating
    the skills in other people. In this way, he develops others.




                                                             101
                             LEADERSHIP


12. A Deep Belief In Their Principles
•   The effective leader has a determination to achieve goals, no
    matter what obstacles come along, and believes in what he or
    she is doing with a determination to fight for it.

‘Unless we stand for something we will fall for anything’




                                                            102
                            Management versus Leadership
                Management                                       Leadership

• Planning:                                       • Establishing direction: developing a
  establishing detailed steps and timetables        vision of the future – often the distant
  for achieving needed results, then                future – and strategies for producing
  allocating the resources necessary to make        the changes needed to achieve that
  it happen                                         vision

• Organizing:                                     • Aligning people: communicating
  establishing some structure for                   direction in words and deeds to all
  accomplishing plan requirements, staffing         those whose cooperation may be
  that structure with individuals, delegating       needed so as to influence the creation
  responsibility and authority for carrying out     of teams and coalitions that
  the plan, providing policies and procedures       understand the vision and strategies
  to help guide people, and creating methods        and that accept their validity.
  or systems to monitor implementation
                                                                                          103
                                 Management versus Leadership



                  Management                                          Leadership

• Controlling and problem solving :                   • Motivating and inspiring: energizing
  monitoring results, identifying deviations from       people to overcome major political,
  plan, then planning and organizing to solve these     bureaucratic, and resource barriers to
  problems                                              change by satisfying basic, but often
                                                        unfulfilled, human needs.




                                                                                            104
                                         Management versus Leadership




• Produces a degree of predictability and order and   • Produces change, often to a dramatic
  has the potential to consistently produce the         degree, and has the potential to produce
  short-term results expected by various stake-         extremely useful change (eg. new
  holders (eg. for customers, always being on           products that customers want, new
  time; for stockholders, being on budget)              approaches to labor relations that help
                                                        make a firm more competitive).




                                                                                           105
         Self-Evaluation: Characteristics of Effective Leadership

The questions below relate to characteristics of effective leaders. Use the questions to
evaluate whether you possess these characteristics. Use the results to see where you
might focus to strengthen your leadership skills.

Characteristics of Effective Leaders                                       Yes   No

Caring
1.   Do you empathize with other people’s needs, concerns, and goals?
2.   Would staff members confirm that you show such empathy?

Comfort with ambiguity
3.  Are you willing to take calculated risks?
4.  Are you comfortable with a certain level of disruption and conflict?

                                                                                      106
                                                                            Yes   No
Persistent; tenacious
•    When pursuing a goal, do you maintain a positive, focused attitude
      despite obstacles?

Excellent communicators
6.   Do you listen closely (rather than have a response ready before
     the other person finishes)?
7.   Are you comfortable making presentations and speaking in public?
8.   Are you comfortable running meetings?
9.   Do you have the skills needed to negotiate in a variety of settings?




                                                                                       107
                                                                                 Yes   No

Politically astute
10. Could you diagram for yourself your organization’s power structure?
11. Can you articulate the concerns of your organization’s most powerful
      group?
12. Can you identify those individuals within your organization that will
      support you when needed?
13. Do you know where to turn for the resources you need?

Able to use humor
14. Do you know how to use humor to relieve tense or uncomfortable
      situations?

Levelheaded
15. In situations that are full of turmoil and confusion, do you stay calm and
      levelheaded?                                                                     108
                                   MOTIVATION


Definition:
    ‘Motivation is getting somebody to do something because
    they want to do it. Motivation is charcterised by a set of
    internal and external driving forces which activate, channel
    and sustain behaviour towards some individual, group and
    organisational and societal goals’
Analyse this definition considering the following questions:
   –    Activate (does this mean create?)
   –    Channel (is the implication that the forces colour the individual’s
        personality?)
   –    Sustain (do the driving forces provide consistency and continuity?)
   –    Behaviour (What is behaviour?)
   –    Organisational goals (are they contingent on organisational culture?)
                                                                            109
   –    Societal goals (what is the impact of the social system on the driving
                     MOTIVATION


               MOTIVATION

•   MANAGEMENT FUNCTION TO ENSURE THAT ALL
    EMPLOYEES ARE MOTIVATED
•   EMPLOYEES MUST ALSO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY
    FOR SELF-MOTIVATION




                                            110
                              MOTIVATION


                       Theories of Motivation

From the earliest records of time men have been trying to motivate
themselves and others:

Recall: ‘Friends Romans country men lend me your ear etc.’ one of the
greatest motivational speeches ever recorded.

For those who read the Bible:
‘For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son so
whosoever believeth in him shall not perish but have everlasting life’


                                                                     111
                           MOTIVATION


                 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    Frederick Taylor who could be described as the father of
    motivational theory postulated that managers should
    concentrate on one over-riding need which provided the
    reason why people work:
                    THE NEED FOR MONEY!
    Taylor’s approach called ‘Scientific Management’ was simple:
•   Organise the work to produce the most efficient method of
    operation
•   Ensure that payment was dependent on productivity so that
    there was a financial incentive for employees to work hard
                    INCENTIVE MOTIVATION
                                                           112
                      MOTIVATION


            THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    Hawthorne studies drew attention to the socio-
    psychological aspects of behaviour at work
    Simply put:
    People’s motivation for work extends way
    beyond THE NEED FOR MONEY
    OTHER ELEMENTS:
•   ATTITUDE MOTIVATION
•   THE RIGHT ENVIRONMENT
                                             113
                           MOTIVATION
                   THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Mc Gregor
Theory X and Theory Y
Under Theory X managers assume:
•  Employees inherently dislike work and wherever possible
   attempt to avoid it
•  Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced,
   controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve
   management ends
•  Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek direction
   wherever possible (shun autonomy)
•  Most workers place job security above all other factors
   associated with work and will display little ambition
                                                          114
                                   MOTIVATION
                         THEORIES OF MOTIVATION


Mc Gregor

Under Theory Y managers assume:
•   Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play
•   People will exercise self-direction and self-control if the feel committed to
    the objectives of the company. Employee participation in decision making
    will lead to commitment to decisions
•   The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. Thus
    he or she should be given greater opportunity to experience both more
    autonomy and more participation
•   Creativity in problem solving is widely dispersed throughout the
    population. Judgment in decision making is not necessarily in the sole
    possession of those in management positions

                                                                          115
                MOTIVATION


   THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Self Test – Philosophy of Management
Questionnaire




                                       116
                     Philosophy of Management
                         INTERPRETATION

  Directions: The following descriptions gives an indication of
  your management philosophy and how strongly you hold the
  assumptions associated with it.
□ If your score falls between + 144 and 0, your management
  philosophy is based on Theory Y assumptions. The closer you
  fall to 144, the more strongly you hold these assumptions and
  the fewer Theory X assumptions you hold. The closer your
  score is to 0, the more your management philosophy reflects a
  mix of Theory Y and Theory X assumptions.




                                                          117
                          Philosophy of Management
                              INTERPRETATION


□   If your score falls between 0 and -144, your management philosophy is
    based on Theory X assumptions, The closer you fall to -144, the more
    strongly you hold these assumptions, and the fewer Theory Y
    assumptions you hold. The closer your score is to 0, the more your
    management philosophy reflects a mix of Theory X and Theory Y
    assumptions.
Theory Y
    You believe that:
    □ Management should create conditions that enable and encourage
        employees to attain their own goals by working towards the goals of the
        organization
    □ Employees are inherently ready to accept responsibility, do a good job,
        and work in the best interest of the company
    □ It is management’s responsibility to create the conditions that will allow
        employees to develop their fullest potential


                                                                         118
                  Philosophy of Management
                      INTERPRETATION



Theory X

      You believe that:
      □      Management’s only responsibility is to improve the
             company’s “bottom line”.
      □      The employees of an organization are tools to be used to
             meet this goal
            People are basically unwilling to work in the best interests of
              the company, cannot handle responsibility, and must be tightly
              controlled, prodded, and punished to get their work done.
                                                                       119
              Philosophy of Management
                  INTERPRETATION




What do the results of this questionnaire tell you about your philosophy
of management?




                                                                   120
                          MOTIVATION

              THEORIES OF MOTIVATION


Mc Gregor
Theory X                         Theory Y
Results in Conformity,           Less conflict with
Mistrust and Conflict.           managerial objectives
Motivation in these              Motivation less complex
circumstances difficult if not   leading to positive effects
impossible                       on profit, efficiency and
                                 effectiveness
                                                         121
                             MOTIVATION


               THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Maslow’s theory (1950’s) was an attempt to set out a pattern in the range
of needs and to indicate whether some needs are more important than
others.
Maslow’s hierarchy of pre-potency is explained as:

Needs higher up the hierarchy (lower pre-protency) do not motivate
behaviour unless there is some degree of satisfaction of the lower order
needs.




                                                                    122
                         MOTIVATION
                THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

                Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:
Self-actualisation – Our own standards and values which
are the motivating force of our need for autonomy
Esteem – To be valued, liked or esteemed by the group
around us
Social – Contact with others in search of friendship, affection
and a sense of belonging to a group
Safety – Protection against threat, danger and deprivation
Physiological – Food, water, shelter and reproduction



                                                          123
                     MOTIVATION

              THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

REFLECTION:


In some ways people everywhere are similar to one
another. We want to be loved, we care about the
respect of other people and of ourselves, and we do
not like to feel taken advantage of.

Do you agree?


                                               124
                         MOTIVATION
                THEORIES OF MOTIVATION



Principle of Management By Objectives
Approach – Peter Drucker:

Clear goals and Targets with incentives for achievement and
corrective action (not sanctions) for failure are motivating and
enable people to channel their energies in a focused way.

MBO combines elements of Taylor and Maslow and is the
basis for many modern Performance Management Systems


                                                          125
                      MOTIVATION

            THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
      Management By Objectives
    Major drawbacks:
•   The effect of goal setting may reduce with
    time, the initial enthusiasm wears off and
    motivation declines
•   Problems in harmonising individual and
    organisational goals
•   Demotivating where system is corrupt
                                                 126
                     MOTIVATION
           THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
   Sought to provide an explanation about what
   gave and more importantly maintained
   motivation.
   Herzberg postulated that there are two sets of
   factors those that provide satisfaction
   (Motivators) and those that prevent
   dissatisfaction (hygiene).
   Elements of both set of factors must be
   present for motivation to take place.
                                             127
                              MOTIVATION

               THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors that cause Motivators that cause
Dissatisfaction            Satisfaction
•Salary or pay                  •The degree of interest of the
•Relationship with peers        work
•Job security                   •Feelings of significant
•Status                         achievement
•Company policy                 •Feelings of personal growth
•Working conditions             •Being responsible for
                                worthwhile activities
•Relationship with the boss
                                •Promotion and recognition
                                                           128
                            MOTIVATION

               THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    From these are other theories we can develop 9 Laws of
    Motivation
•   LAW 1 - We have to be motivated to motivate
•   LAW 2 - Motivation requires a goal
•   LAW 3 - Motivation, once established, never lasts unless
    renewed
•   LAW 4 - Motivation requires recognition
•   LAW 5 - Participation motivates
•   LAW 6 – Progress (Success) motivates
•   LAW 7 – A Challenge only motivates if there is success
•   LAW 8- Everybody has a motivational fuse
                                                            129
•   LAW 9 - Belonging to a group motivates
                     MOTIVATION



RECALL:
  ‘Motivation is getting somebody to do
  something because they want to do it.
  Motivation is charcterised by a set of internal
  and external driving forces which activate,
  channel and sustain behaviour towards some
  individual, group and organisational and
  societal goals’
                                             130
                       MOTIVATION




A Clear distinction must be made between Motivation and
Manipulation

Can You distinguish between the two




                                                     131
                     MOTIVATION

               Manipulation
  Manipulation is getting somebody to do
  something because you want them to do it.
   Manipulation can and does work.
However:
• It does not activate – Law 5
• It cannot be sustained – Law 3
• It creates mistrust and does not facilitate an
  environment where managers and their staff
  all pull together in the same direction to 132
  achieve organisational goals- Law 2
                  MOTIVATION

           Manipulation


A man persuaded against his will retains the
same opinion still

                           Howard Lago




                                          133
                          MOTIVATION


                       Motivating Others

•  In Motivating Others, Managers must be wary of The Set-
   Up-To-Fail Syndrome
Scenario
   An employee slips up: a missed deadline, pipeline leaks
   after the completion of a repair job, severe cost overrun
   on a project. The supervisor decides to oversee that
   person’s work more closely. The more closely the
   supervisor oversees the employee’s work the worse the
   performance……
   The Supervisor might unwittingly be setting up the
   employee to fail
                                                       134
                          MOTIVATION

                        Motivating Others
 ‘The Set-Up-To-Fail Syndrome’ Process
•   Doubt in the mind of the supervisor
•   The supervisor begins to worry that the employee is not
    up to scratch
•   Supervisor decides on a process of close supervision
•   Employee interprets close supervision as a lack of trust
    and confidence
•   Employee fights back
•   Boss intensifies supervision efforts
•   Employee becomes demotivated and either withdraws or
    becomes confrontational
•   Relationship between supervisor and employee
    degenerates to cordial tolerance of each other’s
    presence or adversarial.
                                                       135
                      MOTIVATION

                   Motivating Others
    ‘The Set-Up-To-Fail Syndrome’ Process

•   The Supervisor – The employee as inept,
    uncooperative and indecisive
•   The Employee – The supervisor as intransigent,
    interfering and hypercritical

    The Set-Up-To-Fail Syndrome is now firmly
    entrenched
    Who is to blame?
                                                136
               MOTIVATION

            Motivating Others
Boss and Employee Views compared in a
good and failed relationship




                                   137
                                Employees Interpretation

Observed Behaviour                    Great Boss                  Impossible Boss
Giving critical feedback              Development-oriented        Negative, mean-
                                                                  spirited

Making a unilateral decision          Intuitive, decisive         Autocratic

Instructing work to be redone         Has high expectations and   Stickler for details,
                                      aspirations                 intolerant, impossible
                                                                  to please

Imposing discipline                   Driven                      Intimidating, treats
                                                                  people as resources

Setting stretch targets               Demanding, has high         Unrealistic
                                      aspirations
                                                                                         138
Observed Behaviour               “Great Boss”             “Impossible Boss”

Sticking with a doubtful         Single-minded,           Stubborn, impossible
Course of action                 focused                  to influence

Sending mixed signals            Politically astute       Manipulative

Giving unsolicited               Helpful, caring          Meddlesome,
Advice                                                    untrusting

Asking specific questions        Encouraging, coaching,   Control freak,
                                 informed, close to the   micro-manager,
                                 pulse                    evaluative

Delaying response to proposal/   Thoughtful, busy         Uncommunicative,
Request                                                   aloof, unsupportive
                                                                           139
Observed Behaviour            “Great Boss”               “Impossible Boss”

Not condemning a big          Allows self-discovery      Weak, prone to
mistake                                                  favoritism, has low
                                                         performance standards

Losing temper in public       Passionate, incisive,      Impatient, tempera-
                              mercurial, (at worst)      mental, unpredictable

Resisting a proposed          Realistic, better judge,   Ignorant, bureaucrat
change                        aware of interdepen-       clueless, defensive
                              dencies, victim of a
                              poorly sold change

Giving a routine assignment   Considerate, letting me    Stifling my
                              recover                    development      140
          BOSSES BEHAVIOUR TOWARD THEIR
                   SUBORDINATES
With “Weaker Performers”                     With “Stronger Performers”
Bosses Tend to…                              Bosses Tend to…

Be more directive when discussing tasks      Discuss project objectives with
and goals. Focus on what needs to be done,   limited focus on project implemen-
as well as how it should get done.           tation. Focus on what and why,
                                             with limited focus on how.

Set more targets, more deadlines.            Give subordinates more freedom to
Establish clear action plans and check-      choose own course of action. Set
points. Give limited decision-making         check-points farther apart and
autonomy overall.                            invite them to “get in touch” if 141
                                             need be.
                  BOSSES BEHAVIOUR TOWARD THEIR SUBORDINATES
With “Weaker Performers”                   With “Stronger Performers”
Bosses Tend to…                            Bosses Tend to…
Follow up regularly to ensure things are   Perform less obtrusive follow-up;
on track. Pay close attention to unfavour- make themselves available, as in
able variances and get more systematically “let me know if I can help”. Treat
involved when subordinates run into        unfavourable variances, mistakes,
difficulties.                              or incorrect judgments as
                                           learning opportunities.

Focus discussion on operational issues;   Engage in more casual and free-
ask precise questions.                    wheeling conversations.

Limit open-ended contact and focus on     Use subordinates as “sparring
tasks at hand. Tell more than ask.        partners.” Solicit their views on
                                          strategy, executive, policy, and
                                          procedures. Follow up on their      142
                                          suggestions.
                 BOSSES BEHAVIOUR TOWARD THEIR SUBORDINATES

With “Weaker Performers”                   With “Stronger Performers”
Bosses Tend to…                            Bosses Tend to…

Impose their own views in case of disagree- Often defer to their opinions. Emphasize
ments. Make “strong suggestions” that       that suggestions are only that, meant to
more closely resemble recommendations. encourage them to try things their way.

Give them more routine assignments and     Offer more interesting or challenging
projects.                                  stretch assignments.

Be more distant physically and emotionally. Be more comfortable with subordinates,
                                            resulting in warmer relationships.

                                                                              143
                     MOTIVATION
                 Motivating Others
            Breaking The Syndrome
    The Boss has the prime responsibility for
    breaking the syndrome.
    Intervention process
•   A good, productive intervention must be explicit, and
    must culminate in a joint decision.
•   Bosses should gather their thoughts and their evidence,
    then take them “to court” to create the openness of mind
    required to enhance the perceived fairness of their
    feedback.
                                                         144
                          STARTING OVER



•   The intervention process itself involves the following six steps:
    1. Setting the Stage
    2. Agreeing on the Symptoms
    3. Diagnosing the causes
    4. Finding the cure
    5. Preventing Relapses
    6. Monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment




                                                                    145
                      MOTIVATION
                  Motivating Others
              Breaking The Syndrome
1. Setting the stage.

    The boss should acknowledge the tension and admit some
    responsibility for problems in the employee’s
    performance. The subordinate should feel free to discuss
    the boss’s behaviour. Choosing an appropriate context
    and positioning the meeting well will help.




                                                       146
               MOTIVATION
           Motivating Others
       Breaking The Syndrome
2.   Agreeing on the symptoms.
Resting on solid evidence, the two parties must
come to an agreement on the symptoms they are
going to address. In particular they must identify
the specific areas where they concur the
subordinate has struggled.




                                              147
               MOTIVATION
           Motivating Others
       Breaking The Syndrome
3.    Diagnosing the causes.
The boss and the subordinate must jointly explore the
causes of weak performance, including how the boss’s
behaviour has affected that performance. The boss
may give the subordinate some space to vent past
grievances.




                                                 148
               MOTIVATION
           Motivating Others
       Breaking The Syndrome
4.     Finding the cure.
The two parties should agree on performance
objectives and on specific actions on both sides
that will help reach these objectives and improve
relationship.




                                              149
               MOTIVATION
           Motivating Others
       Breaking The Syndrome
5.   Preventing relapse.
Both sides should pledge to address future
problems earlier and open the door to more open
communication.




                                           150
               MOTIVATION
           Motivating Others
       Breaking The Syndrome
6.   Monitoring the effectiveness of the
treatment.
Beyond the initial discussions, the two parties
must hold periodic progress reviews to access
how well the treatment is working and discuss its
evolution over time.




                                              151
                     MOTIVATION
                 Motivating Others

Motivational Style Inventory




                                     152
                        INTERPRETATION
                         Motivating Others
Managers vary widely on the kind of motivational climate their actions tend to
create. Generally, however, these actions contribute to one of three climates:


1.   A climate that tends to create “origins” – measured by Column A.
2.   A climate that tends to create “pawns” – measured by Column B.
3.   A climate that tends to emphasize friendly relations – measured by
     Column C.


     The higher your score on each of these dimensions, the greater the
     tendency for you to create the climate described. Here is a more
     complete description of each of these climate.

                                                                          153
                      INTERPRETATION
                       Motivating Others
□   “A” creates an “origin” climate: The tendency for your management practices
    and beliefs is to create a motivational climate that enhances the development
    of origins

□   “B” Creates a “pawn” climate: the tendency for your management practices
    and beliefs is to create a motivational climate that makes others feel like
    pawns. That is, people do not feel in control, feel constrained by rules and
    procedures, feel they have little control over their organizational fate, feel they
     are not growing or developing in their jobs, rely on the boss to tell them what
    to do and when to do it.

□   “C” creates a “friendly” climate: the tendency for your management practices
     and beliefs is to create a motivational climate that stresses friendship and
    warmth between superior and subordinate as the primary goal – even if it
    means that organisational goals will be sacrificed or made secondary.
    Underlying this climate is the manager’s desire to be nurturing and reassuring.
                                                                                 154
                     INTERPRETATION
                      Motivating Others

Of course, the major question is, “Which climate is the most effective?
Research on employee motivation suggests that the origin climate is the one
that managers should strive to create whenever possible. Clearly, the extent
to which your actions work against creating such a climate – and thereby
produce an overly pawnish climate – the less effective you are in motivating
others.


Moreover, while having a friendly climate is often desirable, such a climate
can be dysfunctional if a manager places greater emphasis on being liked
than on getting subordinates to do their best. Hence, the ideal motivational
profile would be a high score on creating an origin climate, a low score on
creating a pawn climate, and a low to moderate score on creating a friendly
climate.
                                                                      155
      COMMUNICATING BAD NEWS

• State the bad news
• Be clear, don’t try to obscure the situation




                                             156
           How Did This Happen?

• Any relevant history, facts, or strategies
• Original assumptions that are no longer
  valid




                                               157
          Alternatives Considered

• Present alternative courses of action
• Discuss pros/cons of each




                                          158
       Recommendation or Decision

• State the recommended course of action
  or decision
• Discuss how recommendation addresses
  the problem
• Discuss how plan will address hardships
  resulting from action



                                            159
          Our Vision for the Future

• Reaffirm your goals
• Set expectations for future
• Set a time for expected results




                                      160
                Summary

• Key points to remember that will give
  audience confidence or improve morale




                                          161
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
     GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK

    Groups
–   A GROUP is a coming together of people for a
    particular purpose.
–   The members of a group retain their individuality and
    sense of purpose independently of the group
–   A group has synergy and a work group achieves much
    more influence and has much more power than each
    member of the group would have independently of the
    group
    Teams
    A TEAM is characterized by its Members being willing
    to subordinate their own ambitions to the overall 162
    needs of the team
       SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
    GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK

  Groups
  Groups can be:
– Formal and
– Informal




                              163
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
     GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
          Formal Groups
– A formal group is usually set up for a specific purpose
– The two most common formal groups are command and
   task groups
  • Command Groups consist of a manager with
      subordinates in a formal chain of command and
      represent a specific work unit within the organisation
  • Task groups are created to achieve a specific goal.
      They are usually set up for a limited period of time and
      once their task has been completed they are disbanded.
      The members of a task group can be from different
      hierarchical levels and from different departments.
      Task groups could function as committees, task
                                                           164
      forces, project groups or teams.
            SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
         GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK

    Groups
    Committees
   Committees have a formal structure with a chair to lead the
    work, a secretary to keep the formal records and to
    circulate papers in advance of meetings
   Members are selected to represent various interested
    parties or because they have valuable knowledge or
    experience
   Committees cross formal boundaries and corporate
    hierarchies
   Committees can be permanent or ad-hoc
   Committees can be concerned with the main purpose of
    the organization (Board of Directors) or it can be of
    peripheral interest, such as the Canteen Committee 165
    SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
 GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK

Groups
Task Force
Group selected to deal with a specific issue,
usually disbanded after resolution of the problem

Project Group
Industry now uses the term Project Team


                                              166
            SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
         GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
             Teams
Recall: A TEAM is characterized by its Members being willing to subordinate
    their own ambitions to the overall needs of the team
Characteristics of a team
–   Common goals are shared by its members. Once the team has been formed
    and the goals have been set, all members work together to achieve the team
    goals
–   Members influence each other. The social interaction taking place within the
    team causes people’s attitudes, values, ideas and beliefs to be influenced by
    other members ie the team acquires its own culture which at times outlives the
    members of the team
–   Group (Mob) think may take place
–   A Team forms a structure with stable relationships. A team has some form of
    structure and will sometimes produce a set of rules. A spokesperson or leader
    of the team normally emerges or is selected by the team
–   A Team has cohesiveness. This cohesiveness is seen in the loyalty
    members feel for the team and their feeling of responsibility for the team’s
    work.                                                                     167
–   A team allows for recognition of its members
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
           GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
            KEY ROLES WITHIN A TEAM
Chair
The person who makes the best use of the team’s resources,
makes the best use of each team member’s potential,
recognises the team’s strengths and weaknesses and
controls all of those to obtain the team’s objectives.
Company Worker
The implementing member who can turn plans and ideas into
practice and can carry out an agreed plan systematically and
Efficiently
Completer/finisher
The person who maintains a sense of urgency and progress within the
team and checks carefully every little detail to see that nothing is either
omitted or else done that should not be done
                                                                         168
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
     GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
            KEY ROLES WITHIN A TEAM
Evaluator
The person who ensures that everything is properly evaluated
so that the team can take a balanced decision
Plant
The member who puts forward new ideas and looks for a
different, creative, innovative approach to any problems the
team may be faced with
Resource Investigator
The person who maintains external contacts which may
well be useful to the team and conducts any necessary
negotiations. This member also reports on ideas,
developments and resources outside the team                169
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
     GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
         KEY ROLES WITHIN A TEAM
Shaper
The person who shapes the way the team’s effort is applied.
The shaper imposes some pattern to the team’s discussion
and ensures that attention is directed to the setting of
Objectives
Team Worker
This is the person who fosters team sprit, helps
communication, supports members by building on their
suggestions and understanding their shortcomings


                                                        170
        SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
     GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK
         Problems associated with team activity
1. Free riders – Enjoys benefits without the work
2. Costs – There are costs associated with the running of a
   team
3. Responsibility – Diffused
4. In team Resentments – Waste time and mental energy
5. Time – Consensus building could take time
6. Groupthink – Could result in decisions without proper
   analysis
7. Dysfunctional – Team goals could be given priority over
   organisational goals

                                                        171
       SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
    GROUPS, TEAMS AND TEAM WORK

                 TEAM BUILDING
Forming – Members come together for the first time
Storming – Conflicts resolved
Norming – Basis for working together sorted out
Performing – Team has reached maturity and starts
             real work




                                              172
     SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT




         TIPS & TRICKS
IN BECOMING A GOOD SUPERVISOR




                                173
                  SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                     TIPS & TRICKS

•   Tell the truth: You have only one thing to sell; your personal credibility.
    Good or bad tell people the way it is and tell it to anyone with a right to
    know. That includes your workers and your boss. You are going to need
    people’s support, and they will give it to you if and only if they can trust
    what you tell them
•   Be Consistent: Do not blow hot and cold. Do not change positions on
    issues unless the change can be supported by new evidence
•   Do not be hesitant to admit a mistake: When you make a mistake give
    a succinct forthright apology. It will offer damage control and earn trust. If
    you have done something wrong do not defend or justify your behaviour.
    However, don’t apologise if only regrets are called for eg a manager who
    made a very bad business decision, so bad that it had to be reversed, did
    not apologise for it. It turned out that the decision was made based on
    faulty information. He said ‘I made a mistake and I regret any
    inconvenience caused.’                                                   174
                  SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                     TIPS & TRICKS

•   Learn from Mistakes: Each mistake represents an opportunity for a
    lesson to be learned
•   Reward Success: Employees are motivated by recognition of success
•   Be Open to New Ideas: The best supervisors have strong views on
    issues but they are not wedded to them. They will drop cherished ideas if
    introduced to better ones. The real attachment is to the result not to the
    ways and means of achieving the result.
•   Realistic Optimism: Successful supervisors are optimistic but rooted in
    reality. The optimism ensures that even when things look bad, they keep
    away from ‘if’ thinking (If we get through this…..) which detracts from
    achieving the desired result. No matter what the problem supervisors
    search for a solution…..‘We have got to figure out another way. What we
    are trying is not working.’
•   Be a Survivor: Do not give up easily and be patient
                                                                        175
                SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                  TIPS & TRICKS

•   RESPECT: Respect is not a right it must be earned. A
    supervisor must also have a keen sense of respect for the
    dignity of man
•   COMMUNICATION: Break the culture of non-
    communication. Practice makes perfect
•   YOU ARE NOT ALONE: Seek help if help is needed. Do
    not let pride stand in the way of genuine offers of assistance




                                                              176
                      SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT
                            CASE STUDY
Union Leader:     Who called the sit down
Shop Steward: I did. That supervisor is at Jones again. This is the fourth time in two
     weeks that he has sent him to the southern section as a replacement and I agree
     with Jones that he is tired of this kind of treatment. It is either he is working in the
     north or the south, management can’t have it both ways.
Union Leader to Supervisor: Why do you keep picking on Jones? His shop steward
     says that he has had to report to the South four times in two weeks. What is going
     on?
Supervisor: As you know we have had two retirements in the South over the past two
     months. These vacancies must be filled and I am looking at promoting Jones. We
     were using these temporary assignments to familiarize him with the section while
     the paper work goes through. I never knew Jones objected.
Shop Steward: That supervisor is worse than I thought. You mean Jones is going to be
     promoted to foreman over all the others who have been here before him. Over my
     dead body!
Discuss: Were the supervisor’s actions correct? What should be the supervisor’s next
                                                                                      177
     step? What do you think should be Jones’ reaction to this whole affair?
    SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT


              BVI
         THANK YOU
Keep Working on Improving Your own
  Behavioral Skills and Attitudes’




                                     178

				
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