Physical Development

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					       Chapter 10
Physical Development and
   Caring for Children
        Years 1-3
          Development 1-3
• Toddlers (kids 1-2 years)
• Preschool (kids 3-5 years)
• Physical growth slows from the fast pace
  of the first year
• But skills develop and mature
• Plays big part in child’s physical
• Other factors also contribute like nutrition,
  health, and experiences
• Hereditary differences more visible now
  than in infancy
• Children’s height and weight gain per
  month are less than half what they were in
  the first year
• Proportion changes- torso, arms, and legs
  get longer
• Kids have better balance and motor skills
• 1 yr.- 8 teeth 2 yr.- 16teeth 3 yr.- 20 teeth
• Formed before birth, mother’s diet during
  pregnancy affects health of primary teeth
• First 2 years adult teeth forming, so child’s
  diet affects teeth
  – Calcium, fluoride
• Baby bottle decay- cause by milk, juice,
  etc. in mouth too long
• Take child to dentist at 18 months.
        Motor Development
• Three developmental patterns evident
• Vast skill difference between 1 and 3
• Important to know about developmental
  milestones (average age children can
  perform tasks)
• Developmentally appropriate- activities,
  toys, and tasks designed for children at
  different ages
         Gross Motor Skills
• Large muscle groups
• Exercising muscle groups builds
  confidence, strength, and coordination
• Start by walking, then climbing everything
• Important to safety-proof home
           Fine Motor age 1
• Age one ability to pick up small objects
  with thumb and forefinger (pincer grasp)
• Use skills to eat and drink, messy at first
  because of poor hand-eye coordination
           Fine Motor age 2
• Dexterity (skillful use of hands and fingers)
  improves at age 2
• Coloring, stacking blocks, turn book pages
• Hand-eye coordination and strength
• Turn door knobs, pick up small objects off
  the ground without losing balance
            Fine Motor age 3
•   More successful at skills
•   Take things apart and put back together
•   Draw circles, lines, crosses
•   Preference for left or right handedness
        Sensory Integration
• Brain combines information from a variety
  of senses to create one big picture
• Some children cannot process information
  normally. May react strongly to certain
  stimulation. May be sign of learning and
  behavioral problems.
• What does developmentally appropriate
  mean? What are some developmentally
  appropriate activities for children age 1-3?
• How do gross and fine motor skills relate
  to developmentally appropriate activities?
• Around age 2 children require less sleep
  and may not fall asleep easily
• 10-14 hours of sleep a day
• Mostly at night, but naps during the
• Nightly routine will build security for
• Habits and attitudes learned at this
age will influence eating throughout life
• Vital to start healthy eating young.
• Give children a variety of healthy choices
  to select their own.
• Like consistency, may prefer certain plate
  or cup
• Age 1- eat finger foods, use a spoon,
  sippy cups
• Age 2- able to use a fork, but take along
  time to eat. Children should eat with the
• Age 3- Skillful at spoon and fork feeding.
  Full set of baby teeth, but tough foods
  should be cut into small pieces
               Meal Appeal
•   Make nutritious foods appealing by using
•   Color
•   Texture
•   Shape
•   Temperature
•   Ease of Eating
•   Be a role model for nutritious eating
             Meal Creation
• At your table create a lunch meal for a
  child from 1-3. Select at least four foods.
  Think of meal appeal as you are creating
  your meal.
          Personal Hygiene
• Daily baths, children often want to be
  independent and wash themselves
• Age 2 children can begin to brush own
  teeth, but need caregivers to do most of
  the brushing
            Toilet Training
• Toilet training (age 2-3)- children must be
  physically and emotionally ready
• Use calm encouragement, not harsh rules
  and punishment
• Encourage self-dressing when a child
  shows interest
• Age 1- helps by holding out arm
• Age 2- pulls up pants
• Age 3- Dress independently, but need help
  with buttons and fasteners
• Builds self-esteem
• Check ups at 12 mo. 15 mo.
18 mo. And 24 mo.
• Get vaccinations
• Secondhand smoke major indoor pollutant
• Increase respiratory infections, ear
  infections, and asthma
• Lead can affect brain development
• Choking hazards- seated while eating,
  small food bites
• Safe toys- no small or sharp parts
• Poisons in the home- keep cleaners and
  medicines locked up
• Fire and burns- keep children away from
  candles, fireplaces. Teach stop, drop,
  and roll.
• Water- Never leave child
unattended in pool or tub
• Motor vehicles- must ride in car seat
• Avoid sunburn- use sunscreen and wear
• Pets- Not mature enough to know how to
  treat animals. Never leave children alone
  with cat or dog.

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