III by pengxuezhi


									                  National Association of Schools of Dance

              General Standards for
         Undergraduate Programs in Dance:
                                 REVISION DRAFT I
                            FOR COMMENT ONLY

                              For current official curricular standards, see the
                                       NASD Handbook 2005–2006

       This revision draft contains the fundamental content of the present NASD standards
       reformatted to be consistent with the format for graduate standards and reviewed and
       edited for clarity and currency. A number of new features have been added to address
       various issues and contingencies.

                                            COMMENT PERIOD I
                                    September 1 – December 15, 2005
                                           Mark Marion
                         Administrative Assistant to the Executive Director
                               11250 Roger Bacon Drive, Suite 21
                                   Reston, Virginia 20190-5248
                                     E-mail: mmarion@arts-accredit.org
                                     Phone: 703-437-0700, Extension 20
                                             Fax: 703-437-6312
                                    Web Site: http://nasd.arts-accredit.org

This draft will be the subject of an open hearing at the NASD Annual Meeting in St. Petersburg, Florida
on Saturday, September 17, 2005. For details, see Professional Development Sessions under 2005 Annual
Meeting Information on the NASD Web site. (If you are unable to click on the links above, you can navigate to the
target by going to the Web site at http://nasd.arts-accredit.org, clicking Meeting Information in the main navigation menu
at the top of the homepage, then beneath that, (1) Next Annual Meeting, (2) NASD 2005 Annual Meeting Information, and
(3) Professional Development Sessions.)

Thank you for your interest in the NASD Standards Review. The
Association appreciates your participation.
Before considering the standards presented in this call for comment,
please read two introductory orientation sections on the pages pre-
ceding the standards: Frequently Asked Questions and Reviewing
and Commenting on the NASD Undergraduate Standards.
                           Frequently Asked Questions
                      Regarding the NASD Standards Review
                                            September 1, 2005

What are the NASD Standards?
    NASD Standards are statements regarding basic requirements and conditions for the study of
    dance, and for the awarding of degrees and credentials in dance and dance-related fields at
    precollegiate, collegiate, and graduate levels. The official current standards are published in
    the latest edition of the NASD Handbook and in current Handbook addenda, if any.

What is a revision draft?
    During the standards review, proposals for changes to the present standards texts are presented
    for comment. They are labeled revision drafts. Each revision draft has a number and a
    designated comment period. Be sure you are considering the current text open for comment.

Are revision drafts used in accreditation reviews?
    No. The standards published in the latest edition of the NASD Handbook and in any current
    Handbook addenda are the only standards texts used in accreditation reviews.

What is the fundamental purpose of the NASD Standards?
    To help students preparing to work professionally in dance obtain the best possible education
    and training by creating a national conceptual foundation to support the efforts of institutions
    with significant goals for dance study.

What is the source of the present NASD Standards?
    The current NASD Standards represent the evolved consensus of the institutional members of
    NASD, developed over the history of the Association. Consensus positions reflect the results
    of field-wide consultations.

Why is NASD conducting a comprehensive review of its Standards now?
    NASD schedules comprehensive reviews periodically. Among other things, NASD intends
    this review to ensure that its Standards address developing opportunities to work with new and
    evolving content and to create new approaches for teaching and learning in dance and dance-
    related fields.

What is the order of the NASD Standards Review?
    The multi-year review of NASD Standards will consider the various standards categories in the
    following order: (1) Graduate; (2) Undergraduate, including Associate degree programs; (3) Non-
    Degree Programs; (4) Operational Standards (e.g. purposes, resources, etc.); and (5) comprehen-
    sive review of all standards.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs          iii                         Frequently Asked Questions
How long will the complete review take?
    The review will cover a four- or five-year period after its initiation in the fall of 2004.

What is the area of this particular call for comment?
    Revision Draft I of the NASD undergraduate standards, not the undergraduate standards now
    published in the NASD Handbook.

Will comment in other standards areas be accepted now?
    Yes, but comment must be addressed to specific language in the NASD Handbook, or to a
    specific revision draft that is open for comment.

What do I need to remember as I review NASD Standards texts and revision drafts?
     The NASD Standards are national statements of consensus about threshold requirements for
      various degrees and credentials, and for the operations of schools of dance. Thresholds
      define what is necessary for all.
     They provide a basic framework, not a detailed blueprint, for the individual programs devel-
      oped by institutions and faculties.
     They must leave ample room for institutions and faculties to create and operate their own
      programs and fulfill their own and their students’ aspirations. The standards should produce a
      reasonable commonality in certain areas, but not standardization.
     They must be sufficient to articulate the requirements and needs of the field to those outside
      the field, including those with policy or funding influence over institutions, programs, and the
      field as a whole. The standards must protect as well as provide basic guidance.
     They must explain degree and program requirements to the public as well as to dancers.
     They must be usable in the peer-review process for NASD accredited institutional

What is the relationship of the NASD Standards to issues of quality?
    The NASD Standards outline the basic conditions for quality. Beyond these basics, quality
    itself comes from the efforts of individuals working both alone and together. NASD Standards
    support efforts to raise quality where it can be raised by establishing the characteristics of a
    contextual framework for pursuing the highest possible quality, individual by individual and
    institution by institution.

In general, how are the NASD Standards structured?
    The major standards sections start with common requirements for all programs of a certain
    type. Then, specializations are addressed. Thus, the complete set of standards for a specific
    degree program includes both the specific and the general standards applicable to that program.

How are statements regarding percentages interpreted?
    Percentages appearing in curricular standards indicate the normal time necessary to develop
    (a) competence in specific areas of study and (b) the range of competencies expected of those
    who receive various specific degrees and credentials. Percentages are benchmarks, not calipers.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs          iv                               Frequently Asked Questions
    Content, time, competence, and their interrelationships are the primary issues. Percentages are
    indicators about, not substitutes for, the development of competence.

How are words such as “must” and “should” interpreted?
    Criteria and provisions in NASD Standards are applied with careful attention to distinctions
    among standards, guidelines, and recommendations. Statements using terms such as “shall,”
    “must,” and “essential” outline threshold standards. Statements using the word “normally” indi-
    cate one or more of the numerous conditions usually present when there is compliance with a
    threshold standard. Statements using the word “should” represent guidelines. Statements using
    the terms “recommendation” or “suggestion” indicate advice based on consensus of the profes-
    sion. Accreditation is based on assurance that an institution meets the threshold standards agreed
    upon by the Association. Guidelines and advice, while related to fulfillment of functions required
    by the standards, are not themselves threshold standards.

What kinds of comments are “out of bounds”?
     Comments that seek to impose the particular unique approach of an institution or individual
      as a national requirement.
     Comments on general requirements associated with breadth of competence that blatantly
      promote the welfare of a particular field or specialization, or its practitioners, at the expense
      of other fields or specializations.
     Comments that seek to impose highly specific repertory or content choices.
     Comments that are not germane to the standards review.

How will the NASD Standards Review proceed?
    Comments on the standards or revision drafts received in any comment period will be considered
    as the next draft is developed. The next draft is then posted on the NASD web site for an
    additional review. This sequence may be repeated more than once. At some point, when the
    NASD Board of Directors determines that sufficient consensus has been reached, the final draft
    will be sent to the institutional representatives of NASD member institutions, who will seek local
    advice and counsel, comment, and ultimately vote on a standards revision.
    This same pattern will be used for all parts of the NASD Standards.
    Notice is provided prior to all votes as required by the NASD Bylaws.

What do I need to do to keep current with the NASD Standards Review?
    Follow and participate by regular visits to the Standards Review section of the NASD web
    site: http://nasd.arts-accredit.org. The Standards Review section can be accessed from the
    main navigational menu at the top of any page of the NASD web site.

How can I have access to the present standards in the NASD Handbook?
    The NASD Handbook 2005-2006 is available online in PDF format to review, print, and/or
    search the text—go to http://nasd.arts-accredit.org, click on Publications from the main naviga-
    tional menu at the top of any page of the NASD web site, then click on Books You can also
    find a link to the Handbook PDF file in the right sidebar on introductory pages of the
    Standards Review section of the NASD web site.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs         v                               Frequently Asked Questions
Will I receive a response to my suggestions?
    NASD is grateful for all comments and will give careful review and consideration to each one.
    However, due to the volume of responses, you will be contacted only if we need to ask you a
    question. The Association deeply appreciates your understanding.

What do I need to do next to participate in this call for comment in the undergraduate standards
     Please read the text: “Reviewing and Commenting on the NASD Undergraduate Standards”
      following the FAQ section of this document. (Both these texts are also available as subsec-
      tions under the Standards Review portion of the web site.)
     Then, start reviewing and commenting on the undergraduate standards as outlined in the
      attached Revision Draft I proposal, both individually and as a whole. Comments for specific
      language changes are the most helpful.
     Then, send your comments to NASD as indicated on the cover page of the draft text.

What do I receive for participating?
    The deep appreciation of NASD and its member institutions for this particular demonstration
    of your citizenship in the dance community.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs      vi                            Frequently Asked Questions
                           Reviewing and Commenting on the
                            NASD Undergraduate Standards
The most useful comment proposes specific language changes or additions. Generic criticism such
as “unclear” provides no real assistance. NASD asks that all reviewers read the entire text and
reflect on each standards statement individually and the standards statement as a whole. Please use
the issues listed below as a starting point.
Remember that this text does not contain NASD standards regarding operational matters such as
mission, faculty, finances, library, and so forth. NASD operational standards apply to all programs
offered by an institution, including graduate programs, and may be found in the NASD Handbook.
The focus in this review is on the artistic and intellectual content and the specific procedures
associated with undergraduate programs.
As you consider the present text of the standards for undergraduate programs, please —

A. Review each standards statement in terms of:
    1. Content. Consider the extent to which the content:
         a. Is fundamental to learning and the development of competence;
         b. Reflects consensus among knowledgeable experts;
         c. Is stated in terms of knowledge and skills development, or in terms of resources and
            conditions necessary for knowledge and skills development, or health and safety;
         d. Reflects an artistic/intellectual perspective;
         e. Focuses primarily on functions to be served rather than methods to be employed; and
         f.   Promotes reflective thinking and productive analysis in institutions and programs.

    2. Continuity, Timeliness, Innovation. To what extent is the text:
         a. Consistent with the fundamental principles that rarely change
            (for example, the need to define mission and goals);
         b. Responsive to new or evolving practices or conditions; and
         c. Supportive of responsible, thoughtful innovation in content or method.

    3. Communication Issues. To what extent is the text:
         a. Clearly stated;
         b. Appropriately detailed for professional users;
         c. Sufficiently direct for non-professional readers; and
         d. Presented in an orderly and logical manner.

    4. Consistency and Compatibility. To what extent is the text:
       a. Conflict-free with regard to other standards;
         b. Compatible with the entire set of standards; and
         c. Useful in determining whether any potential change in one standard would require
            review or change in another standard.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs         vii               Reviewing and Commenting on the Standards
    5. Consistency with NASD Principles. To what extent does the text:
         a. Focus on issues of educational quality, not special interests, or political action, or
            educational fashions;
         b. Emphasize content or function over procedure;
         c. Promote local analysis and action;
         d. Respect institutional autonomy; and
         e. Demonstrate fiscal responsibility.

B. Review the standards text as a whole in terms of:
    1. Content. Consider the extent to which the content:
         a. Presents a logical whole;
         b. Has reasonable and workable relationships between competency requirements and
            operational requirements with a primary focus on student learning;
         c. Reflects consensus among knowledgeable experts;
         d. Facilitates the development and achievement of an interrelated set of artistic,
            intellectual, and educational goals; and
         e. Promotes thoughtful analysis in institutions and programs.
    2. Continuity, Timeliness, Innovation. To what extent does the text:
         a. Respect transcendent principles of the art form, current practice, and innovative
            potential; and
         b. Encourage multiple approaches and methods for solving common problems.
    3. Communication Issues. To what extent is the text:
         a. Thoroughly descriptive of what is needed to meet accreditation requirements;
         b. Organizationally and stylistically consistent; and
         c. Clear, logical, and reflective of the nature of the profession.
    4. Consistency and Compatibility. To what extent is the text:
         a. Appropriate for all sizes, scopes, and types of institutions; and
         b. Coherent when institutions do not address portions that do not apply to them
            (for example, an institution that offers liberal arts-oriented undergraduate degrees,
            and not professional baccalaureate programs).
    5. Consistency with NASD Principles. To what extent does the text:
         a. Focus on issues of educational quality, not special interests, or political actions, or
            educational fashions;
         b. Emphasize content or function over procedure;
         c. Promote local analysis and action;
         d. Respect institutional autonomy; and
         e. Demonstrate fiscal responsibility.

NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs         viii               Reviewing and Commenting on the Standards
                                           September 1, 2005


             NOTE TO REVIEWERS: The standards in this section are to be used in conjunction
             with the NASD Operational Standards (Section II) applicable to all programs. If you are
             not familiar with Section II, please read it before commenting on these standards.
             The Operational Standards can be found on pages 44-59 of the NASD Handbook 2005-
             2006. You can purchase a print copy or download a PDF version of the Handbook at

 1   A. Purposes and Principles

 2      1.    Purposes

 3            Each institution is responsible for developing and defining the purposes of its overall
 4            undergraduate program in dance and of each undergraduate degree program it offers.

 5      2.    Relationships: Purposes, Content, and Requirements

 6            a.   Each institution is responsible for developing logical relationships among the purposes,
 7                 structure, and content of each undergraduate degree program offered. This includes
 8                 decisions about requirements in general dance studies, areas of dance specialization or
 9                 emphasis, and studies in other disciplines.

10            b.   For each undergraduate degree program, the curricular structure and the requirements
11                 for admission, continuation, and graduation must be consistent with program purposes
12                 and content.

13      3.    Functions

14            Whatever purposes and content are chosen for each degree program, undergraduate degrees
15            in dance provide the educational foundation for acquiring the knowledge and skills to:

16            a.   Work in one or more contexts or settings as a dancer or in a dance-related field;

17            b.   Understand and be engaged with the ways dance influences and is influenced by ideas,
18                 events, and trends;

19            c.   Contribute to cultural development, both through the practice of dance and through
20                 interactions with dancers, other professionals, and the public.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                   1           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      4.   Fundamental Components

 2           a.   Dance Studies

 3                (1) Purpose. Every dance professional must be, to some extent, a performer, creator,
 4                    communicator, theorist, and historian. For this reason, certain subject matter areas
 5                    and learning processes are common to all baccalaureate-level education in dance.
 6                    The precise format and curricular patterns to achieve the desired breadth of skill
 7                    and understanding are best determined by individual institutions in ways that are
 8                    commensurate with their unique goals and resources.

 9                (2) Content. Undergraduate studies in dance should prepare students to function in a
10                    variety of artistic roles. In order to achieve this goal, instruction should prepare
11                    students to:

12                    (a) perform in public as dancers;

13                    (b) develop visual and aural perceptions;

14                    (c) become familiar with and develop competence in a number of dance
15                         techniques and develop proficiency in at least one;

16                    (d) become familiar with the historical and cultural dimensions of dance,
17                         including the works and intentions of leading dancers and choreographers
18                         both past and present;

19                    (e) understand and evaluate contemporary thinking about dance and related arts;

20                    (f) make informed assessments of quality in works of dance.

21                (3) Curricular Organization. While certain subjects, learning processes, and ap-
22                    proaches to creativity are common to all dance studies development programs at
23                    the undergraduate level, the particular format and details of the curricula utilized
24                    to achieve such breadth are the responsibility of each institution. The content can
25                    be organized and taught in a variety of ways. Specific approaches and means will
26                    vary from institution to institution.

27           b.   General Studies

28                (1) Purpose.       General studies enable the dancer to understand and use basic
29                    information in a variety of disciplines, function and interact with the total society,
30                    and participate fully in artistic and intellectual life.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                    2           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1                (2) Content

 2                     (a) Students must develop the ability to speak and write clearly and effectively.

 3                     (b) General studies normally include requirements in the arts and humanities, the
 4                          natural and physical sciences, and the social sciences.

 5                     (c) Some dance courses, if conceived and taught in relation to other realms of
 6                          human experience, may be appropriately included in the category of general
 7                          studies. Some dance history courses may meet this criterion.

 8                     (d) Individuals should be encouraged to select offerings that will equip them to
 9                          function and interact with the total society, to adapt to changes in the society,
10                          and to fulfill roles as public advocates for the arts.

11                (3) Curricular Organization. The selection of required courses in general studies
12                     appropriate for all dance major students, or for students pursuing a particular area
13                     of dance concentration, is determined by the faculty of each individual institution.

14           c.   Relationships Between Dance Studies and General Studies

15                The combined influence of dance studies and general studies is profound and far-
16                reaching in establishing a foundation for artistic and intellectual development. Ideally,
17                this foundation enables students to acquire:

18                (1) an awareness of differences and commonalities regarding work in artistic,
19                     scientific, and humanistic domains;

20                (2) a personal artistic/intellectual mission; and

21                (3) a sense of individual responsibility for cultural development as a whole and musical
22                     development in particular.

23      5.   Flexibility and Innovation

24           a.   NASD standards for undergraduate programs constitute a framework of basic
25                commonalities that provides wide latitude for the creativity of faculty, students, and
26                institutions.

27           b.   There are many approaches and methods for achieving excellence in undergraduate
28                education. Carefully planned innovation and experimentation are encouraged. Experi-
29                mentation might lead to major programs of study not specifically indicated below.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                    3            NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1           c.   The failure to meet the specifics of each standard will not necessarily preclude
 2                accreditation; however, if deviations exist, the institution must provide an acceptable
 3                rationale documenting how functions required by the standard are being fulfilled, or
 4                how required competencies are being developed.

 5      6.   Time on Task, Curricular Proportions, and Competencies

 6           a.   Undergraduate curricular structures and requirements must provide sufficient time on
 7                task to produce the competencies expected.

 8           b.   Curricular proportions indicated as benchmarks in the standards below represent the
 9                amounts of time normally needed to reach the levels of achievement expected for
10                graduation.

11           c.   In calculating curricular structures, the Association uses a four-year degree program of
12                120 semester hours, or 180 quarter hours, as the basis for determining percentages of
13                various components. For institutions with program requirements beyond 120 semester
14                hours or 180 quarter hours, the combined percentage of the components will exceed
15                100%. For associate degrees, the basis is 60 semester hours or 90 quarter hours.

16           d.   Professional undergraduate programs in dance are shaped by the realities and expecta-
17                tions in the field to seek the development of competencies at the highest possible
18                levels. At these levels, competencies are far beyond minimum learning expectations
19                and are usually not amenable to evaluation in purely mathematical terms.

20      7.   Quality

21           a.   Quality is developed and enabled by combinations of competence, capacity, aspiration,
22                and dedication supported by essential resources. Artistic and academic quality is
23                created primarily through the work of individuals and groups of faculty and students.

24           b.   With regard to quality:

25                (1) NASD standards set thresholds that establish basic but demanding requirements
26                     for undergraduate studies in dance.

27                (2) NASD reviews analyze, recognize, and promote artistic, intellectual, and program-
28                     matic quality and their relationships through and beyond the standards of the
29                     Association.

30                (3) In addition to the requirements set by the NASD standards, the faculty and admini-
31                     stration of individual schools define and implement specific expectations for levels
32                     of quality to be reached by graduating students.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  4          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1                (4) NASD standards and reviews and sets of expectations primarily delineate charac-
 2                    teristics, indicators, and conditions of quality. Ultimately, the quality itself is in the
 3                    work that students and graduates are able to produce.

 4           c.   After fundamental competencies have been achieved, judgments about quality are best
 5                made by professionals who are able to determine high levels of artistic and intellectual
 6                quality.

 7      8.   Professional Health

 8           Institutions should assist students to acquire knowledge from qualified professionals
 9           regarding the prevention of performance injuries.

10      9.   Residence

11           No undergraduate degree should be granted by a member school of NASD unless the
12           student has fulfilled the established residence policy of the institution.

13      10. New Programs

14           Institutions planning to offer new undergraduate degree programs, or to offer an under-
15           graduate degree for the first time, must receive Plan Approval from the Commission on
16           Accreditation before the matriculation of students (see NASD Handbook, Rules of Practice
17           and Procedure, Article I, Section 3, and Article VI.).

18   B. Degree Structures

19      1.   Types of Undergraduate Degrees

20           a.   Designations. The Association recognizes two generic types of undergraduate degrees
21                in dance. To be consistent with general academic practice, these degrees are labeled
22                (1) professional degrees and (2) liberal arts degrees.

23           b.   Purposes. Each of these degrees has distinct overall goals and objectives reflected
24                structurally in the curricular time accorded to dance and to other curricular components.

25                (1) The liberal arts degree focuses on dance in the context of a broad program of
26                    general studies.

27                (2) The professional degree focuses on intensive work in dance supported by a
28                    program in general studies.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                   5             NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1           c.   Time Distributions and Degree Integrity

 2                (1) Percentages of total curricular time devoted to specific areas define the goals,
 3                    objectives, character, title, and academic currency of degree programs. Institutions
 4                    must establish and apply curricular requirements that maintain the integrity of
 5                    specific degree types and titles.

 6                (2) Variation from percentages cited at various points throughout the standards
 7                    regarding the structures of liberal arts and professional degrees will not necessarily
 8                    preclude accreditation, but logical and convincing reasons must be presented that
 9                    address (a) the development of student competencies required by the standards for
10                    each program and (b) consistency of degree titles, goals and objectives, content,
11                    and character of each degree program.

12      2.   Majors, Minors, Concentrations, and Areas of Emphasis

13            a. Designating a subject as a major normally indicates that the curriculum requires the
14                equivalent of at least one full undergraduate year of studies in that subject, or 25% of
15                the total curriculum. In order to be designated a “major” in a B.F.A. or studio
16                program, a field of specialization must be accorded no less than 25% of the total
17                credits required for the B.F.A. degree. In order to be designated a “major” in a liberal
18                arts program, a comprehensive field such as dance or dance history must be accorded
19                no less than 30% of the total credits required for the liberal arts degree.
21           b.   Minors and areas of emphasis require less time in the subject area and are not desig-
22                nated majors. Normally, course work in an area of emphasis occupies at least 10% of
23                the total curriculum.

24           c.   The term ‘concentration’ is used by some institutions to designate a major, and by
25                others to designate a minor or area of emphasis.

26           d.   Institutions must define and publicize the meanings of such terms and use such terms
27                consistently within specific subject matter areas.

28           e.   As institutions are reviewed by the Commission, distinctions will be made between
29                majors and areas of emphasis. In the NASD directory, majors will be listed as unique
30                terms appended to generic degree titles. If applicable, areas of emphasis will be placed
31                in parentheses following the term designating the major. Member institutions are
32                responsible for determining the appropriate means of making distinctions between
33                majors and areas of emphasis in their own published materials.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                     6          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      3.   Independent Study

 2           Programs that include or are based upon independent study must meet applicable
 3           requirements in Section II. Operational Standards.

 4      4.   “Professional” Degrees

 5           a.   Curricular Structure and Title. Degrees in this category include the Bachelor of Fine
 6                Arts, and normally require that at least 65% of the course credit be in studio work and
 7                related areas.

 8           b.   Content. The content common to all these degrees is found below under Section VII.
 9                The standards appropriate to the specific major areas of interest found below under
10                Section VIII.

11           c.   Combined Dance Degrees. All professional baccalaureate degrees with titles signify-
12                ing a combined program such as a double major in performance and teacher education,
13                performance and dance history, etc., must satisfy the essential competencies, experi-
14                ences, and opportunities stated by NASD for majors in each of the areas combined.

15           d.   Title Protocols. NASD recognizes that some institutions are chartered to offer only the
16                Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. When these institutions offer a bacca-
17                laureate degree meeting “professional” dance degree standards, the degree is listed as
18                Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science with a specific major, such as Dance
19                Performance or Dance Choreography and Performance.

20      5.   “Liberal Arts” Degrees

21           a.   Curricular Structure and Title. Baccalaureate degrees meeting “liberal arts” degree
22                standards normally requiring at least 30% dance content are listed as Bachelor of Arts
23                in Dance or Bachelor of Science in Dance regardless of specific options for emphasis
24                offered by the institution in the context of the liberal arts format.

25           b.   Content. The dance content shall include performance, dance studies, and elective
26                studies in dance. The content common to all of these degrees is found below under
27                Section VI.

28      6.   Baccalaureate Curricula Leading to Degrees in Dance with Intensive
29           Studies in Other Specific Fields

30           NASD recognizes a variety of curricular patterns for providing students with opportunities
31           for intensive studies in dance and other fields. The following standards and guidelines
32           regarding titles and content provide maximum flexibility for institutions while maintaining

     REVISION DRAFT I                                   7            NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1          national consistency with respect to academic credentials. NASD encourages institutions
 2          with the appropriate resources to be creative in the development of multidisciplinary
 3          curricula with intellectual, pragmatic, and professional objectives. At the same time, NASD
 4          particularly discourages the proliferation of degree titles and encourages the standard usage
 5          described below.

 6          a.   Liberal Arts Degrees. Programs must meet all NASD standards for the liberal arts
 7               degree in dance and, in addition, provide one or more of the following opportunities
 8               for:

 9               (1) Choosing one or more courses in another field on an elective or individual honors
10                      basis. The course or courses in this field are not ordered into curricular require-
11                      ments for a minor or area of emphasis but chosen from among courses available at
12                      the institution. The NASD Directory lists such programs as a Bachelor of Arts in
13                      Dance or Bachelor of Science in Dance.

14                      The institution may not advertise a curricular program in the second field in
15                      conjunction with a dance degree of this type.

16               (2) Choosing a pre-determined set of courses in another field associated with the
17                      development of specified knowledge and skills where the curricular requirements
18                      constitute an area of emphasis or minor within the curriculum. The goals may be
19                      general knowledge of or specific concentration on a second area of study. The
20                      NASD Directory lists such programs as Bachelor of Arts in Dance or Bachelor of
21                      Science in Dance.

22                      The institution may advertise the second field as an area of emphasis or as a
23                      minor, as long all published materials about the program are consistent with its
24                      content.

25               (3) Choosing a double major in dance and another field that meets institutional
26                      requirements for graduation with both majors. The NASD Directory lists such
27                      programs as Bachelor of Arts in Dance/[other field] or Bachelor of Science in
28                      Dance/[other field].

29                      The institution may advertise that it offers a double major in dance and the other
30                      field.

31          b.   Professional Degrees. Programs meet NASD standards for all professional under-
32               graduate degrees in dance. This means that graduates are expected to develop all the
33               competencies outlined in Section VII of the NASD Handbook titled “Competencies

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  8           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1               Common to All Professional Baccalaureate Degrees in Dance.” In addition, programs
 2               provide one or more of the following opportunities for:

 3               (1) Choosing one or more courses in another field on an elective basis. The course or
 4                   courses are not ordered into curricular requirements for a minor or area of empha-
 5                   sis but chosen from among courses available at the institution. The NASD Direc-
 6                   tory lists such programs as Bachelor of Fine Arts in Dance.

 7                   The institution may not advertise a curricular program in the second field.

 8               (2) Choosing a double major that meets institutional requirements for the professional
 9                   undergraduate degree in dance and the professional or liberal arts undergraduate
10                   degree in another field. The NASD Directory lists such programs as Bachelor of
11                   Fine Arts/Bachelor of Arts in [other field] or some similar designation based on
12                   degree titles used by the institution.

13                   For such degrees, the institution may not advertise a curricular emphasis in a
14                   discipline or area of study unless there is a published set of requirements in the
15                   field designated as an emphasis that occupy 10-15% of the total program.

16      7.   Programs Involving Distance Learning, Disciplines in Combination, or
17           with a Focus on Electronic Media

18           Programs in these categories must meet applicable requirements in Section II. Operational
19           Standards above.

20      8.   Two-Year Degree-Granting Programs

21           Two-year degree-granting programs in dance must meet applicable requirements in Section
22           V. below.


25   A. Admission Criteria

26      Institutions are responsible for establishing specific admission requirements for their under-
27      graduate programs in dance. Admission standards must be sufficiently high to predict the
28      prospect of success in the program for which the student is enrolling. Diversities of previous
29      education, background, and interests of applicants should be considered in assessments of
30      potential as appropriate to the specific purposes of individual degree programs.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                 9         NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1   B. High School Diploma

 2      The admission policy at the undergraduate level must be clearly stated with respect to students
 3      entering from high schools. Admission standards for dance degrees should compare favorably
 4      with those of the college or university as a whole.

 5   C. Open Admission

 6      Institutions with open admission policies shall determine by examinations appropriate to the
 7      major the eligibility of each dance major for degree candidacy no later than the end of the first
 8      half of the degree program.

 9   D. Dance Aptitudes and Achievements

10      1.   Dance Aptitudes. Applicants must exhibit creative ability and creative, scholarly, or peda-
11           gogical potential appropriate to the projected program of study.

12      2.   Performance and Scholarship. Level of achievement in dance performance shall be a
13           significant factor in determining eligibility for entrance for degrees in performance.
14           Institutions admitting students to degree study in dance history and scholarly subjects nor-
15           mally review evidence of creative and scholarly work during the admission procedure.

16      3.   Auditions and Evaluations. At some point prior to confirmation of degree candidacy,
17           member institutions must require auditions or other evaluations as part of the admission
18           decision. Member institutions are urged to require such auditions and evaluations prior to
19           matriculation. However, it is understood that some institutions have open admission poli-
20           cies. In such cases, auditions and evaluations are scheduled no later than the end of the first
21           half of the degree program as stated in Section IV.C. above.

22      4.   Professional Undergraduate Degrees. Admission procedures for professional under-
23           graduate degrees in dance should develop evidence that the candidate possesses exceptional
24           talent, the potential to develop high-level dance aptitudes, artistic sensibilities, and a strong
25           sense of commitment.

26   E. Standard Published Examinations

27      The use of standard published examinations in the admission process is the prerogative of the
28      institution.

29   F. Admission to Advanced Standing

30      Students who are able to pass examinations in dance demonstrating competence beyond that
31      required for entrance may be exempted from one or more college-level courses in the subject or

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  10           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      subjects covered by the examinations, provided that such demonstration of competence is
 2      confirmed by further successful study in residence in the same field.

 3   G. Admission by Transfer of Credits

 4      Students may be admitted on presentation of a satisfactory transcript from an accredited colle-
 5      giate institution.

 6      For standards covering the granting of course credits to transfer students, see above under Sec-
 7      tion II.I.3. (“Transfer of Credit”).


 9   A. Objectives and Protocols

10      1.   Objectives

11           Two-year degree-granting programs in dance are normally offered within the following
12           general contexts: (a) terminal offerings which have an occupational emphasis; (b) terminal
13           offerings providing instruction in dance as an element of liberal education, without the
14           intention of training for dance occupations; (3) programs intended to prepare students for
15           continuing study toward liberal arts or professional baccalaureate degrees in dance.

16      2.   Standards Applicability

17           a.   Associate degree programs offering dance courses in a terminal two-year program of
18                occupational studies should follow standards in Section V.D. below.

19           b.   Associate degree programs offering dance courses as a major in a terminal two-year
20                program of liberal studies should use as guidelines the standards for four-year institu-
21                tions offering liberal arts degrees.

22           c.   Associate degree programs offering dance courses in a curriculum intended to lead, by
23                transfer, to baccalaureate degree programs should follow the standards and guidelines
24                for the dance major transfer program found in Section V.C. below.

25   B. Standards for the General Enrichment Program in Community/Junior Colleges

26      An important goal of the dance department of the community/junior college shall be to pro-
27      vide a meaningful dance program for the general college student. Courses designed for this
28      purpose as well as opportunities for participation in performance activities shall be available
29      to students in all programs—transfer, terminal, and adult non-credit. The general enrichment
30      program does not lead to a degree in dance.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                    11       NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      1.   Basic Dance Studies

 2           The institution shall offer opportunities for studies in appreciation and basic dance studies.
 3           These may be provided in dance fundamentals courses for the classroom teacher or general
 4           college student, introduction to dance courses used in fulfilling humanities requirements,
 5           integrated humanities courses with significant dance components, or non-credit adult educa-
 6           tion courses.

 7      2.   Performance

 8           The institution shall provide opportunities for studies and experience in solo and ensem-
 9           ble performance according to the faculty and facilities available. Instruction (on both a
10           credit and non-credit basis) may be offered for college students, adults in the community,
11           and pre-college students.

12   C. Standards for the Dance Major Transfer Program

13      1.   Composite Degree Requirements

14           Dance is a highly specialized field requiring the development of many skills. In the
15           collegiate setting this development must begin in the freshman year and continue
16           throughout the four years of study. Dance majors may not be able to fulfill all the gen-
17           eral education curriculum requirements in the first two years. Therefore, courses may
18           be spread over the four years of the college program.

19      2.   Degree and Resources Relationship

20           NASD recognizes the responsibility of community/junior colleges to offer the general
21           enrichment program according to its goals for studies in dance. The dance major transfer
22           program shall be offered only by those institutions that can demonstrate the need for this
23           program in terms of minimum dance major enrollment criteria, and are in a position to
24           commit adequate faculty, physical facilities, equipment, and library resources to maintain a
25           quality program.

26      3.   Curricular Purpose

27           Institutions offering the dance major transfer program shall maintain a curricular program
28           equivalent to the first two years of a four-year baccalaureate program. In this regard,
29           institutions offering programs intended to transfer to liberal arts degrees must use the
30           standards for such degrees found under item VI. below. Institutions offering programs
31           intended to transfer to a professional baccalaureate degree must use the “Common Body of

     REVISION DRAFT I                                 12          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1           Knowledge and Skills” under Section VII.B. below as the basis for their curricular
 2           requirements.

 3   D. Standards for Two-Year Vocational Programs

 4      1.   General Standards

 5           The awarding of a diploma for a two-year vocational degree implies the successful comple-
 6           tion of a prescribed course of study oriented to the achievement of specific results.

 7           All such programs must meet applicable operational standards. In addition:

 8           a.   Specific coherent goals and objectives shall be developed and published that include,
 9                but are not limited to, (a) subject matter, techniques, or issues to be addressed; (b)
10                content, methods, and perspectives used to consider subject matter, techniques, or
11                issues; (c) expectations regarding breadth and depth; (d) aspirations for specific artistic,
12                intellectual, or disciplinary engagement.

13           b.   Operational assessments shall reveal consistent achievement of goals and objectives.

14           c.   Title shall be consistent with content. Published materials shall be clear about the level
15                and length of any degree program.

16           d.   Applicable prerequisites for courses or curricula shall be clearly stated, especially with
17                regard to levels of competence in specific disciplines central to the artistic or educa-
18                tional purposes and content of the degree.

19           e.   Guidance, counseling, and mentoring shall be adequate to support the achievement of
20                purposes.

21           f.   There must be clear descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to
22                do upon completion and effective mechanisms for assessing student competencies
23                against these expectations.

24           g.   Evaluation mechanisms shall be consistent with the goals defined for specific courses,
25                projects, programs, or curricula, and to the specific approach(es) involved.

26           h.   The institution and dance unit shall maintain and publish clear, valid information about
27                any vocational connections or career or job placement agreements claimed by the
28                institution.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  13           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      2.   Program Standards

 2           A review of each two-year vocational degree program for purposes of accreditation must
 3           demonstrate that consistent with published goals, objectives, and expectations:

 4           1.   Students are achieving a measurable degree of technical mastery in at least one of the
 5                traditional or innovative techniques which are appropriate to their craft;

 6           2.   Students are developing an effective work process and a coherent set of ideas and
 7                goals, which are embodied in their work;

 8           3.   Students are developing a significant body of skills, sufficient for evaluation, and a
 9                level of artistry and/or technical proficiency and/or analytical competence sufficient to
10                enter the vocational field at the level indicated by program purposes;

11           4.   Institutional performance with respect to operational standards in Section II above sup-
12                ports achievements of the general and program standards of Sections V.D.1 and 2.

13           To attain these objectives, it is assumed that work at the introductory level will be fol-
14           lowed by increasingly advanced work.


17   A. Titles

18      1.   The titles Bachelor of Arts in Dance and Bachelor of Science in Dance are used to
19           designate the study of dance in a liberal arts framework.

20      2.   Institutions chartered at the undergraduate level to offer only the Bachelor of Arts or
21           Bachelor of Science degree may, within these degree titles, offer curricula with objectives
22           consistent with those for professional undergraduate degrees. In these cases, standards
23           indicated elsewhere for Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees are applicable, and the standards in
24           Section VI are not applicable.

25   B. Characteristics

26      1.   By definition, undergraduate liberal arts oriented programs provide a broad general educa-
27           tion rather than intense specialization in dance or in any other discipline.

28      2.   The dance major in a liberal arts degree is oriented toward a broad coverage of dance rather
29           than heavy concentration on any single segment. These degree programs involve funda-

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  14           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1           mental dance studies, and develop capabilities in the use of principles and procedures that
 2           lead to an intellectual grasp of the art, and normally, the ability to perform.

 3      3.   The liberal arts degree in dance may provide the appropriate collegiate-level foundation for
 4           a large array of careers and professions. However, students intending to pursue careers in
 5           dance will need to pursue intensive studies in dance following graduation.

 6      4.   Beyond the general characteristics of liberal arts degrees in dance, institutions develop a
 7           variety of specific purposes that result in differences among programs in terms of attention
 8           given to specific content and the perspectives through which dance is studied.

 9   C. Curricular Structure

10      Curricular structure, content, and time requirements shall enable students to develop a range of
11      knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of those holding a liberal arts degree in dance.
12      Curricula to accomplish this purpose normally adhere to the following structural guidelines: Re-
13      quirements in general studies comprise 55-70% of the total program. Studies in dance and dance
14      electives normally total between 30% and 45% of the total curriculum.

15   D. Essential Content and Competencies

16      1.   General Education

17           a.   Competencies. Students holding undergraduate liberal arts degrees must have:

18                (1) The ability to think, speak, and write clearly and effectively. Students who earn
19                    liberal arts degrees must be able to communicate with precision, cogency, and force.

20                (2) An informed acquaintance with the mathematical and experimental methods of the
21                    physical and biological sciences; with the main forms of analysis and the historical
22                    and quantitative techniques needed for investigating the workings and develop-
23                    ments of modern society.

24                (3) An ability to address culture and history from a variety of perspectives.

25                (4) Understanding of, and experience in thinking about, moral and ethical problems.

26                (5) The ability to respect, understand, and evaluate work in a variety of disciplines.

27                (6) The capacity to explain and defend one’s views effectively and rationally.

28                (7) Understanding of and experience in art forms other than dance.

29           b.   Operational Guidelines. These competencies are usually developed through studies in
30                English composition and literature; foreign languages; history, social studies, and

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  15           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1                philosophy; visual and performing arts; natural science and mathematics. Achieving
 2                such competencies implies effective precollegiate study, regular testing and counseling,
 3                and flexibility in course requirements.

 4      2.   Dance Studies

 5           a.   Competencies. Students holding undergraduate liberal arts degrees must have:

 6                (1) The ability to identify and work conceptually with the elements of dance.

 7                (2) An understanding of choreographic processes, aesthetic properties of style, and the
 8                    ways these shape and are shaped by artistic and cultural forces.

 9                (3) An acquaintance with a wide selection of dance repertory, the principal eras,
10                    genres, and cultural sources.

11                (4) The ability to develop and defend judgments about dance.

12           b.   Operational Guidelines. There is no one division of content, courses, and credits
13                appropriate to every institution. These competencies should be pursued through a
14                process of practical and intimate contact with living dance, and are ordinarily empha-
15                sized in courses such as history and repertory of dance, dance notation, anatomy and
16                kinesiology, choreography, philosophy of dance, dance pedagogy, dance ethnology,
17                and music for dance.

18      3.   Performance and Dance Electives

19           a.   Competencies. Students holding undergraduate liberal arts degrees must develop:

20                (1) Ability in performing areas appropriate to the individual’s needs and interests, and
21                    consistent with the goals and objectives of the specific liberal arts degree program
22                    being followed.

23                (2) An understanding of procedures for realizing a variety of dance styles.

24                (3) Opportunities for advanced undergraduate study in various dance specializations
25                    in performance, scholarship, or pedagogy consistent with the liberal arts character
26                    of the degree.

27           b.   Operational Guidelines

28                (1) Instruction in dance performance, participation in large and small ensembles,
29                    experience in solo performance, and opportunities to choose dance electives are
30                    the means for developing these competencies.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                 16          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1                     (2) Institutions have various policies concerning the granting of credit for perform-
 2                          ance studies in liberal arts curricula, including the relegation of performance to
 3                          extracurricular activity. Such policies are taken into account when curricular pro-
 4                          portions are considered.

 6               DEGREES IN DANCE

 7   A. Principles and Policies

 8          1.    Title. The term Bachelor of Fine Arts is the most usual designation for the professional
 9                undergraduate degree in dance. In certain circumstances, other titles may be used if degree
10                structure and content is equivalent to that required for the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree.

11          2.    Purpose. Students enrolled in professional undergraduate degrees in dance are expected to
12                develop the skills, concepts, and sensitivities essential to the professional life of the dancer.
13                To fulfill various professional responsibilities, the dancer must exhibit not only technical
14                competence, but also broad knowledge of dance and dance repertory, the ability to integrate
15                dance-related knowledge and skills, sensitivity to dance and musical styles, and an insight
16                into the role of dance in intellectual and cultural life.

17          3.    Curricular Structure. Curricular structure, content, and time requirements shall enable
18                students to develop the range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of those
19                holding a professional baccalaureate degree in dance. Curricula to accomplish this
20                purpose normally adhere to the following guidelines: study in dance and related areas
21                should comprise 65% of the total program; general academic studies, 25-30%; and
22                elective areas of study, 5-10%.

23          4.    Competency Acquisition.          Irrespective of their area of specialization, students must
24                acquire the common body of knowledge and skills in Section VII.B. below that constitutes
25                a basic foundation for work and continuing growth as a dance professional. While the des-
26                ignation of emphases and balances among these competencies appropriate for the particular
27                degree programs are a prerogative of the institution, each institution has the responsibility to
28                ensure basic competence in all areas of the common body of knowledge and skills below,
29                and to assure that graduation requirements outlined below are met.

30          5.    Levels. The institution shall make clear the levels of competency necessary to graduate in
31                each area of the common body of knowledge and skills in Section VII.B. below.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                        17               NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      6.   Means

 2           a.   Institutions are responsible for providing sufficient classes, ensembles, repertory
 3                requirements and opportunities, performance attendance requirements, and other such
 4                experiences to develop the common body of knowledge and skills and to ensure that
 5                students meet graduation requirements associated with their specializations. All
 6                programs must meet the operational curricular standards presented in the NASD
 7                Handbook that are applicable to all programs of their type.

 8           b.   Institutions are also responsible for defining how development of essential competen-
 9                cies will be assigned among various curricular offerings and for determining student
10                evaluation procedures. These standards do not require a course for each competency.
11                Institutions are encouraged to be creative in developing courses and other formal
12                experiences that engage and integrate several or all of the requisite competencies.

13   B. Common Body of Knowledge and Skills

14      1.   Performance

15           a.   Studio experiences are of prime importance in the preparation of students for
16                professional careers in dance. Skill in at least one major area of performance must be
17                progressively developed to the highest level appropriate to the particular area of
18                concentration. Students should achieve the highest possible level of technical skill in
19                the medium and the highest possible level of conceptual understanding of the medium
20                and its expressive possibilities. Technical proficiency standards should be established
21                for each area of technique (i.e., modern dance, ballet, jazz, etc.) and for each level (e.g.,
22                freshman, sophomore, etc.), and the achievement of a specified level of proficiency in
23                technique should be required for graduation.

24           b.   Performance studies must begin at the freshman level and extend with progressive
25                intensity throughout the degree program, with opportunities for independent study at
26                the advanced level with appropriate evaluation. Students must experience a minimum
27                of one daily technique class with the opportunity for additional work if appropriate.
28                Such classes must be a minimum of 90 minutes in length.

29           c.   Opportunities should be available for all students to become familiar with every major
30                aspect, technique, and direction in their major field.

31           d.   Students must be afforded the chance to perform and have their performance critique
32                and discussed. The excellence of the work produced by students is the best determinant
33                of the adequacy of the performance studies offered by an institution.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                  18           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      2.   Choreography

 2           Students must develop basic knowledge and skills in choreography and have opportunities
 3           to develop their choreographic potential in studies that include traditional and/or
 4           experimental approaches. A minimum of two years of course work in choreography is
 5           required.

 6      3.   Theoretical Studies

 7           a.   Through comprehensive courses in dance studies, students must:

 8                (1)    Develop an understanding of the common elements and vocabulary of dance
 9                       and of the interaction of these elements, and be able to employ this knowledge
10                       in analysis.

11                (2)    Learn to analyze works of dance perceptively and to evaluate them critically.

12                (3)    Be able to place works of dance in historical and stylistic context and have some
13                       understanding of the cultural milieux in which they were created.

14                (4)    Be able to form and defend value judgments about dance.

15           b.   These competencies are achieved by course work and studies in such fields as
16                repertory, dance notation, history of dance, philosophy of dance, music, anatomy and
17                kinesiology, dance ethnology, and production design.

18           c.   In certain areas of specialization such as dance ethnology, it is advisable to require that
19                students study the historical development of works within the specialization.

20      4.   General Academic Studies

21           Students must be able to understand and use a basic set of general knowledge.
22           Undergraduate curricula must include requirements in general academic studies. Such
23           studies need not necessarily be taken at the institution, but may be taken at other accredited
24           postsecondary institutions. While liberal arts studies should include courses in English, the
25           arts and humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, specific courses and proportions
26           of distribution should be related to the specific program goals and objectives in a particular
27           concentration.

28      5.   Preparation for Teaching

29           Students should develop basic knowledge and skills in dance pedagogy. The program
30           should include the equivalent of at least one course in pedagogy and teaching experience on
31           a required or elective basis.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                 19           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1   C. Graduation Requirements

 2      Upon completion of any specific professional undergraduate degree program:

 3      1.   Students must demonstrate achievement of professional, entry-level competence in the area
 4           of specialization, including significant technical mastery, capability to produce work and
 5           solve professional problems independently, and a coherent set of artistic/intellectual goals
 6           which are evident in their work. Studies in the area of specialization must continue
 7           throughout the degree program.

 8      2.   Students must demonstrate their competence by developing a body of work for evaluation
 9           in the major area of study. A senior project or presentation in the major area is
10           recommended.

11      3.   Students must have the ability to communicate dance ideas, concepts, and requirements to
12           professionals and lay persons related to the practice of the major field. Such communication
13           may involve dance, oral, written, and visual media.

14      4.   Students must have had opportunities to build dance skills to an advanced level and to
15           broaden knowledge of dance elements, structures, repertories, and contexts.

16   D. Recommended Opportunities

17      Other goals for the professional undergraduate degree are strongly recommended:

18      1.   Student orientation to the nature of professional work in their major field. Examples are:
19           organizational   structures   and   working    patterns;   artistic,   intellectual,   economic,
20           technological, and political contexts; and developmental potential.

21      2.   Student experience with broadly based examples of excellence in various dance
22           professions.

23      3.   Opportunities for students to explore areas of individual interest related to dance in general
24           or to the major. Examples are: dance bibliography, notations, aesthetics, performance
25           practices, and specialized topics in history and analysis. Some provision should be made for
26           independent study, defined as learning activities with a minimum of guidance, but with
27           appropriate evaluation of completion. Independent studies should emphasize individual
28           creativity and synthesis of a broad range of dance knowledge and skills.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                20            NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs

 3   Please note: The standards below are in addition to those in Sections III.A.4 and VII. above.

 4   NASD encourages the development of a wide variety of curricular structures within framework of
 5   the B.F.A. outlined in Section VII above. For example, some institutions provide majors in specific
 6   areas of dance while others offer a more comprehensive approach, which provides emphases in
 7   several areas. Also of vital importance are those institutions that take experimental approaches in
 8   order to work with emerging concepts in dance and/or professional training.



11   A. Curricular Structure

12       NASD acknowledges the existence of two types of teacher preparation degree programs for
13       ages pre-kindergarten through secondary levels.

14       1.   Bachelor of Fine Arts

15            a.   Curricular structure, content, and time requirements for this degree shall enable
16                 students to develop the range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of
17                 those holding a professional baccalaureate degree in dance education.

18            b.   Curricula to accomplish this purpose normally adhere to the following guidelines:
19                 studies in dance and dance pedagogy, planned in a developmental progression from
20                 foundation to major study and including twelve to fifteen semester hours of
21                 choreography and dance theory, should comprise 55-60% of the total program;
22                 general academic studies, 25% to 30%; and professional education, 15% to 20%.
23                 Professional education is defined as those courses normally offered by the education
24                 unit which deal with philosophical and social foundations of education, educational
25                 psychology, special education, history of education, etc. Student teaching is also
26                 counted as professional education.

27       2.   Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science

28            a.   Curricular structure, content, and time requirements for this degree shall enable
29                 students to develop the range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of
30                 those holding a liberal-arts baccalaureate degree in dance education.

31            b.   Curricula to accomplish this purpose normally adhere to the following guidelines:
32                 studies in dance should comprise 35% to 40% of the total program; general studies,

     REVISION DRAFT I                                   21        NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1                including electives, 40% to 50%; and professional education, including practice
 2                teaching, 15% to 20%.

 3   B. General Characteristics

 4      1.   A fundamental consideration of all teacher preparation programs in dance must be the
 5           development of professionals who are broadly knowledgeable about dance and have the
 6           ability to teach effectively in a variety of settings. Because of the concentration of work
 7           required in the discipline and state requirements for certification, program requirements
 8           are likely to exceed the number of credits traditionally required for baccalaureate degrees.

 9      2.   Institutions are encouraged to maintain flexibility and to consider innovative approaches
10           for fulfilling certification requirements for postbaccalaureate students and working
11           professionals.

12      3.   Students accepted in teacher preparation programs must demonstrate evidence of aptitude
13           and potential for success as dance artists and educators. Active recruitment of talented
14           individuals from diverse populations is strongly recommended. Retention should be
15           based upon development of artistic and professional education skills which enable
16           communication with learners of diverse backgrounds and cultures and the ability to adjust
17           teaching styles to the needs of learners.

18      4.   The foundation of all teacher preparation programs, regardless of the degree or certificate
19           structure, is study in the depth and breadth of the dance discipline, including concentrated
20           work in the studio component and in-depth focus on educational philosophies and
21           theories. All programs should reflect attention to and be responsive to evolving
22           technologies that are particularly relevant for dance.

23   C. Program Components

24      1.   Studio Component

25           a.   The prospective dance teacher must have concentrated experience in technique,
26                improvisation, composition, repertory, and performance.

27           b.     Technical study must be continuous and sequential.

28           c.   Candidates must:

29                (1) Develop a conceptual understanding of movement and its expressive possibilities.

30                (2) Have opportunities to experience and develop an appreciation and understanding
31                    of dance forms and styles from diverse cultures.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                    22       NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1           d.   Proficiency standards should be established for each level of technique.

 2           e.   Graduation requirements should include the attainment of an intermediate or
 3                advanced level (comparable to proficiency required for the institution’s
 4                non-certification degree) in at least two forms of technique and two years of work in
 5                improvisation/composition; and choreography, performance, and production of origi-
 6                nal work.

 7      2.   Theoretical Studies

 8           a.   Prospective teachers must:

 9                (1) Learn to analyze works of dance perceptively and evaluate them critically.

10                (2) Develop working vocabularies (physical, verbal, written) based on an understand-
11                    ing and interpretation of the common elements of dance and be able to employ this
12                    knowledge in analysis.

13           b.   Prospective teachers should:

14                (1) Be able to place dance works in historical and stylistic context and have some
15                    understanding of the cultural milieux in which the works were created.

16                (2) Perceive dance as an evolving art form and be able to form and articulate value
17                    judgments about dance works.

18           c.   Comprehensive studies to accomplish these purposes should include dance
19                ethnology, history and repertory; movement analysis and notation; dance and
20                movement sciences; and music and production.

21      3.   Professional Education

22           a.   The professional education component should be addressed in a practical context,
23                relating the learning of educational theories and strategies to the student’s daily
24                artistic experiences.

25           b.   Students should be provided opportunities for various types of teaching and directed
26                observation throughout the degree program.

27           c.   Content should include the relationship of dance to current issues and trends in
28                general education, arts education, and arts advocacy.

29           d.   Attention should be given to issues surrounding diverse populations and cross-
30                cultural understandings.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                23          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1      4.   Liberal Arts

 2           a.   General education studies provide breadth of knowledge and understanding of the
 3                social, economic, political, and cultural components that give individual commu-
 4                nities their identities. Studies should include courses in the arts and humanities,
 5                social sciences, and natural sciences.

 6           b.   Students should be encouraged through courses within the dance program to relate
 7                their understanding of artistic styles and principles to other art forms and fields of
 8                study, and to engage in discussions concerning the value and place of dance within
 9                individual communities.

10      5.   Practical/Field Experiences

11           a.   Students should engage in observation and discussion of field-based teaching/learning
12                experiences in diverse settings.

13           b.   Teaching opportunities should be provided in actual elementary, middle, and secondary
14                settings, as appropriate for the student’s certification level.

15           c.   The choice of practice teaching sites must enable students to develop competencies
16                consistent with standards outlined above, and must be approved by qualified dance
17                personnel from the degree-granting institution.

18           d.   School situations and students must be supervised by qualified dance personnel from
19                the degree-granting institution and, when possible, the cooperating schools.

20           e.   Those seeking certification ideally would have teaching opportunities at elementary,
21                middle, and secondary levels and assume substantial responsibility for the full range of
22                teaching and classroom management as required of a full-time teacher.

23   C. Professional Procedures

24      1.   Dance education methods courses should be taught by faculty who have had successful
25           experience teaching dance in elementary, middle, and/or secondary schools, who main-
26           tain close contact with such schools, and who are positive professional role models. They
27           should have a master’s or doctoral degree and comprehensive knowledge of dance
28           education theory, pedagogy, and practice.

29      2.   Institutions must establish specific procedures to monitor student progress and achievement.
30           This should include an initial assessment of student potential for admission to the program,
31           periodic review to determine progress, and assessment by the university supervisor and the
32           cooperating teacher during student teaching. Dance education faculty should make regular

     REVISION DRAFT I                                   24           NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs
 1          visits during the student teaching placement and conduct both three-way and two-way
 2          conferences with the student and cooperating teacher. Individuals with dance expertise must
 3          play significant roles in all evaluation processes.



 6      The master’s degree is the appropriate medium for the professional training of dance

 7      therapists. Therefore, baccalaureate programs for those interested in dance therapy studies at

 8      the graduate level should include one or more introductory courses in dance therapy. Students

 9      seeking admission to graduate study in dance therapy shall complete an undergraduate dance

10      major or the equivalent, including a minimum of three years sequential study in modern

11      dance, including choreography.

     REVISION DRAFT I                                 25          NASD Standards for Undergraduate Programs

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