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SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

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									Applied Psychology
    Chapter 17
         Applied Psychology
• Applied psychology is the branch of
 psychology that uses psychological
 principles to solve practical problems in
 everyday life
     Industrial/Organizational (I/O)
               Psychology
• Industrial/Organizational psychology
  is the field which applies psychology
  to the work-world
• It studies how individual behavior is
  affected by the work environment,
  coworkers, and organizational
  practices
 I/O Psychology is composed of
            2 parts
• The Industrial aspect, AKA “Personnel Psychology”
  involves:
  – Human resource planning
  – Job analysis
  – Development of employee testing, selection
    and placement programs
  – Design of performance appraisal systems
  – Design of job evaluation for equitable
    compensation
  – Integration of legal issues in personnel
    policies
  – Design and analysis of training and
    development programs.
           Job Analyses
• Job analyses are detailed
 descriptions of the tasks and skills
 that make up each job
               Selection Procedures
• Selection procedures assess the suitability of job
  candidates to help an employer determine who
  to hire
• Tests of general mental abilities are mainly
  paper-and-pencil tests
• Work samples are hands-on simulations of
  some or all of a job’s tasks
• One type of test that is widely used is the “test of
  integrity”
    Biases in decision-making
• Negative information
• Stereotypes
• Heuristics/ mental shortcuts
  – Confirmation bias
How do I/O Psychologists help people
   avoid bias during interviews?
• Develop clear criteria through:
  – Job Analysis
  – Relevant structured and situational interview
    questions
• Rater rating
  – Practice
  – Feedback
              I/O’s second part is…
• Organizational Psychology is concerned with human
  factors and working conditions
• How productivity and organizational behavior is
  influenced by structural characteristics and quality of
  work life issues
   –   Team dynamics
   –   Employee attitudes
   –   Job satisfaction
   –   Leadership behavior
   –   Job design
   –   Conflict
   –   Union-management relations
   –   Organizational career development
   –   Personality characteristics
   –   Stress in the workplace.
    Professional I/O Psychologists
       practice in the areas of:
•   Personnel research
•   Training and Development
•   Psychological Testing
•   Counseling and Consulting
•   Management Advisement
•   Personnel Policy Formation
•   Human Resource Planning
•   Organizational Development
Some Professional Job Titles in
   I/O Psychology include
 •   Human Factors/Engineering Psychologists
 •   Industrial/Organizational Psychologists
 •   Director of Human Resources/Vice President of Personnel
 •   Marketing Research Project Director
 •   Team Leadership and Communication Trainer
 •   Director of Organizational Development
 •   Employee Relations Manager
 •   Director of Training and Development/Management Development
 •   Director of Psychological Services
 •   Assessment Center Specialist for Overseas Development
 •   Executive Consultant in Organization Planning and Development
  I/O: Human Resources Psychology

• Human resources psychologists are
 involved in a broad array of activities
 related to employment
                     Salaries
• I/O Psychologists are the highest paid group of
  psychologists
• The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level
  industrial/organizational psychologists in 2001 was
  $96,000. The top 10% reported income in excess of
  $150,000. The mean income for those with master's
  degrees was more than $71,000, with the top 10%
  reporting more than $125,000.
• Compare this with the median salary for licensed
  doctoral-level clinical psychologists was $72,000 in
  2001.
  Years of Experience- Median
             Salary
• Consulting Firm
  –   2 - 9 years 93,500
  –   10 - 14 years 150,000
  –   15 - 19 years 97,500
  –   20 - 24 years 240,000
• Business/Industry
  – 2 - 9 years 83,000
  – 10 - 14 years 93,000
  – 15 - 19 years 105,000
• Independent Consultant
  – 25 - 29 years 125,000
      Consumer Psychology
• APA Division 23 - Society for
  Consumer Psychology
• Consumer Psychology is an application
  of Industrial/Organizational Psychology
  that works with companies in defining
  consumer preferences in products,
  services, packaging, and advertising.
  Consumer psychologists perform market
  research and evaluate customer
  motivation and reaction.
              Salary Range
• If you become a consumer psychologist, you can
  expect to make roughly about $30,000 to
  $40,000 (1999 data), depending on the exact
  field you are working in. Many psychologists with
  terminal master's degrees often work under the
  direction of a doctoral psychologist. Also, there
  are related jobs in organizational development,
  advertising, survey research and data analysis,
  to name a few.
       Engineering Psychology
• APA Division 21 – Applied Experimental and Engineering
  Psychology
• Engineering Psychology applies Industrial/Organizational
  Psychology to the design of work environments to
  ensure employee motivation and safety. The engineering
  psychologist designs the layout of displays and controls,
  equipment, instrument panels, and whole systems
  technology to create the optimal person-machine
  effectiveness.
                Careers
• Human-Computer Interface Designer
• Cognitive and I/O Psychologists in the
  Technology Industry
• Human Factors Expert
• Aviation Human Factors Psychologist
• Human Factors & Ergonomics:
  Usernomics
           Education and Training

• Most corporations offer systematic
  training so employees can learn skills to
  improve their job performance
• I/O psychologists typically break a
  training program down into a series of
  learning objectives
      Performance Appraisal
• Performance appraisal is the process
 by which a supervisor periodically
 evaluates the job-relevant strengths
 and weaknesses of a subordinate
 Motivation of Job Performance
• Drive and Goal-Setting Theory
 asserts that setting specific, clear,
 attainable goals leads to better
 performance
              Expectancy Theory
• Expectancy theories say a worker’s effort to
  perform goal-directed behaviors is determined
  by expectations regarding the outcomes of
  behavior
• Vroom’s expectancy theory suggests both
  motivation and ability determine job performance
             Equity Theory
• Equity theory asserts that workers feel that
 what they do (input) should be balanced
 by their compensation.
Motivation Management: 3 Approaches

• I/O psychologists have observed
  three basic approaches to motivation
  in the workplace:
• The paternalistic approach is the
  notion that a company should take
  care of its employees’ needs like a
  protective father would
     Motivation Management
• The behavioural approach assumes
  people will work only if they receive
  tangible rewards for a specific task
  performance
• The participatory approach is based on the
  belief that individuals who have a say in
  decisions affecting their lives are
  motivated to work harder
             Job Satisfaction
•   A satisfied worker is usually a high-
    performing worker who will remain in an
    organization
•   Job satisfaction cluster in the work itself,
    the perceived rewards of the work, the
    quality of supervision, the support of co-
    workers, and the work setting
                Leadership
• Leaders are people who influence other
  people’s behavior toward the attainment of
  agreed-upon goals
• Trait theories try to find characteristics that
  make individuals good leaders
• Leadership behaviours refer to how a
  leader interacts with other members of the
  organization
    Leadership Effectiveness
• Bass discusses transformational
 leadership, leaders who provide
 inspiration, intellectual stimulation,
 and individual attention to followers
          Human Factors
• Human factors, sometimes called
 ergonomics, studies the relationship of
 humans to machines, the workplace, and
 other environments
          Human Factors
• Efficiency and safety are two areas of
  focus in human factors
• To create efficiency, human factors
  researchers seek to develop person-
  machine interfaces that minimize
  frustration and errors,
  maximize output, and
  are reliable
       Behaviour-Based Safety
• Behavior-based safety refers to programs that focus on
  changing the behavior of workers and companies to
  prevent occupational injuries and illnesses
• A good safety culture within a company minimizes
  shortcut and rule violations, and encourages
  communication between workers and management
          Psychology and Law
• The American Psychology-Law Society, Division 41 of
  the APA
• Legal psychology is the field that conducts empirical
  research on psychological issues important to the legal
  system
• Forensic psychology focuses on legal issues in which
  clinical psychologists can act as expert witnesses and
  consultants
• Offered: University of British Columbia, Queen's
  University and Simon Fraser University
       Psychology and Law
• As researchers, psychologists look at
  legal issues from a psychological
  perspective
• Psychologists also serve as policy or
  program evaluators, helping
  governments and other institutions
  determine whether various policies,
  agencies, or programs actually work
Psychology and Law
• Psychologists also serve as policy or program
  evaluators, helping governments and other institutions
  determine whether various policies, agencies, or
  programs actually work
• Psychologists often act as advocates, helping shape
  policies
• Psychologists also serve as expert witnesses, brining
  their knowledge to the courts
Interesting Subfields Within Forensic
                          Psychology
                Very similar to clinical psychology.
  Clinical-     Clients here are not only suffering from
  Forensic      some type of mental problem, but their
 Psychology     issues are of importance to legal
                decision making as well.

Developmental   Deals with juveniles, the elderly, and
Psychology      the law. The focus is on policy
                making rather than treatment of
                those with mental problems.

                Mostly concerned with concerned with
Social          how jurors interact and arrive at a
Psychology      group decision.
       Interesting Subfields Within
              Forensic Psychology

                Is closely associated with the social
  Cognitive     psychology subfield, but it looks more
 Psychology     into how people make decisions in
                legal cases.


                Deals with police psychology,
Criminal-
                criminal profiling and psychological
Investigative
                autopsies. Experts may chose to
Psychology
                conduct research and/or work
                closely in analyzing the minds of
                criminal suspects.
                     Salary range
• The doctoral degree offers many opportunities for
  forensic psychologists. The salary usually starts out at
  between $35,000 and $40,000 annually (1999). With a
  doctorate, one can go into independent practice. Private
  practice areas might include counseling offenders, being
  an expert witness for hire, conducting assessment,
  conducting psychotherapy, and consulting on civil and
  criminal issues.
     Environmental Psychology

• Environmental psychology is the
  study of how physical settings affect
  human behavior and how people
  change their environment
• Environmental psychologists often act
  as consultants to governments,
  schools, hospitals, churches, and
  museums
   Environmental Psychology
• A stressor is a stimulus that affects an
  organism in a psychologically or
  physically injurious way
• Stressors elicit such feelings as
  anxiety, tension, and physiological
  arousal
            Temperature
• Temperature can be a stressor that
  affects many behaviours
• Very hot or very cold temperatures
  can cause behavioural effects ranging
  from annoyance to inability to function
                   Noise
• Noise is a stressor that can overstimulate
  people
• Noise often leads to poor work
  performance and social functioning
       Environmental Toxins
• Nearly any airborne substance, whether a
  pollutant from a factory or natural pollen,
  can trigger respiratory problems, resulting
  in diminished work performance and
  health consequences
• Airborne toxins can impair motor tasks
  involving reaction time and affect long-
  term health
                Crowding
• The number of people in an area can
  have a profound impact on individual and
  group behavior
• It is generally not the size of a space or
  number of people that causes a feeling of
  crowding
• Crowding is the perception that personal
 space is too limited
          Personal Space
• Personal space is the area around an
  individual that they consider private
• Encroachment causes displeasure and
  possible withdrawal
                 Salary Range
• Receiving a master's degree typically qualifies
  candidates for entry-level positions. With this, one is able
  to work for a firm, urban planning group, or do some
  research. Salary in this area is $35,400-$68,000 (1999
  data). If you chose to take a different route such as
  design, the salary is around $49,900.
• Mostly what a doctoral degree will do for you is allow you
  to open up your own consulting company. Average
  salary for this is $65,000+ (1999 data). Other possible
  employment sources are federal agencies, policy-making
  organizations, urban and regional planning agencies, as
  well as national, community, and workplace health-
  promotion programs and environmental design
  consulting firms.
    Community Psychology: The
      Career for Champions
•   APA Division 27 - Society for Community Research
    and Action: Division of Community Psychology
•   Community psychology seeks to reach out to society
    by providing services such as community mental
    health centers
•   George Orford (1992, p. vii): "community psychology is
    about understanding people within their social worlds
    and using this understanding to improve people's well-
    being.“
•   Community psychology uses qualitative and
    quantitative research to address complex social
    problems
      Community Psychology
• A new paradigm: Helping is always
  mutual, and successful helping means
  your services will not be needed anymore.
• A key element of community psychology is
  empowerment
• Empowerment involves helping people in
  the community enhance their existing skills
  and develop new ones
      Community Psychology
• Prevention operates at three levels:
• Primary prevention means reducing the
  risk of new cases of a disorder
• Secondary prevention involves identifying
  mental health problems in their early
  stages
• Tertiary prevention focuses on treatment
  of full-flown psychological problems
           What do they do?
• Community psychologists work with community
  members and policy makers to address the
  individual, social, political and environmental
  factors that contribute to psychological wellbeing
  within communities.

• Their role is to:
  – Recognise people’s strengths and resources;
  – Work to break down existing social barriers;
  – Emphasise empowerment and collaboration, rather
    than dictating ready-made solutions;
  – Promote the sharing of skills and knowledge;
  – Recognise that all research is value-based; and
             What can they do?
• They have the knowledge and skills to:
   – Conduct community-based research;
   – Assess group and community needs;
   – Conduct community consultation and policy development;
   – Evaluate programs;
   – Coordinate projects;
   – Train staff;
   – Provide counselling and advocacy;
   – Facilitate groups;
   – Develop and conduct health promotion and education programs;
     and
   – Manage or promote change in systems, organisations or
     communities.
           Educational Psychology
•   Educational psychology is the systematic
    application of psychological principles to
    learning and teaching
      Salaries in Educational
            Psychology
• Doctoral-level respondents in educational
  administration reported a median 11-12-
  month salary of $90,000 in 2001 (APA).
• The overall 11-12-month salary for
  licensed doctoral-level respondents
  providing school psychology services was
  $77,000 in 2001 (salaries vary widely
  depending on the setting i.e. high school
  vs university).
          What do they do?
• An educational psychologist helps gather
  information for teachers and parents when
  students have academic or behavioral
  problems. They assist by evaluating
  students' thinking abilities and assessing
  individual strengths and weaknesses.
  Together, the parents, teachers, and
  educational psychologist formulate plans
  to help students learn more effectively.
                 And this too…
• Other career tracks within educational psychology
  include being a school psychologist or a school
  counselor.
   – Works with students, teachers, parents, and
     administrators to resolve students' learning and
     behavior problems.
   – Evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs,
     behavior management procedures, and other
     services provided in school setting.
   – Help people to accommodate to change or to make
     changes in their lifestyle (often using interviewing and
     testing).
         Sports Psychology
• Sports psychology is the systematic
 application of psychological principles to
 sports
      American Psychological
       Association Division
• American Psychological Association Division of
  Exercise and Sport Psychology (APA Division
  47)
• Careers:
  – Private Psychology Practice
  – Clinical/Counseling Psychologist in University
    Counseling Center
  – University Health Education Psychologist
  – Sports Medicine Clinic Psychological Consultant
  – University Substance Abuse Specialist
  – Career Specialist
         Sports Psychology
• Sports psychologists help improve
  performance through mental strategies to
  refine the practices of effective players or
  help ineffective ones
• They try to enhance the sports experience
  for young participants
• Sports psychologists provide assistance
  with athletic injury rehabilitation
            Salary Range
• Many jobs are available for those with
  masters degrees in this subfield.
  Nonetheless, people who want to utilize a
  broad range of skills need a doctoral
  degree for optimum success. To work
  independently, one needs also need to be
  licensed by the state where they work.
  Typical 1999 pay is the $28-32,000
  starting range.
WHAT IS A HEALTH SERVICE
    PSYCHOLOGIST?
• Psychologists who specialize in health
  services possess a unique combination of
  scientific and professional training.
  Through their expertise in assessment and
  diagnosis, prevention and treatment
  techniques, as well as in related research,
  they offer a wide range of services
  designed to promote emotional and
  physical health in individuals, families,
  groups, and organizations.

								
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