VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 59 POSTED ON: 10/7/2012
Applied Psychology Chapter 17 Applied Psychology • Applied psychology is the branch of psychology that uses psychological principles to solve practical problems in everyday life Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology • Industrial/Organizational psychology is the field which applies psychology to the work-world • It studies how individual behavior is affected by the work environment, coworkers, and organizational practices I/O Psychology is composed of 2 parts • The Industrial aspect, AKA “Personnel Psychology” involves: – Human resource planning – Job analysis – Development of employee testing, selection and placement programs – Design of performance appraisal systems – Design of job evaluation for equitable compensation – Integration of legal issues in personnel policies – Design and analysis of training and development programs. Job Analyses • Job analyses are detailed descriptions of the tasks and skills that make up each job Selection Procedures • Selection procedures assess the suitability of job candidates to help an employer determine who to hire • Tests of general mental abilities are mainly paper-and-pencil tests • Work samples are hands-on simulations of some or all of a job’s tasks • One type of test that is widely used is the “test of integrity” Biases in decision-making • Negative information • Stereotypes • Heuristics/ mental shortcuts – Confirmation bias How do I/O Psychologists help people avoid bias during interviews? • Develop clear criteria through: – Job Analysis – Relevant structured and situational interview questions • Rater rating – Practice – Feedback I/O’s second part is… • Organizational Psychology is concerned with human factors and working conditions • How productivity and organizational behavior is influenced by structural characteristics and quality of work life issues – Team dynamics – Employee attitudes – Job satisfaction – Leadership behavior – Job design – Conflict – Union-management relations – Organizational career development – Personality characteristics – Stress in the workplace. Professional I/O Psychologists practice in the areas of: • Personnel research • Training and Development • Psychological Testing • Counseling and Consulting • Management Advisement • Personnel Policy Formation • Human Resource Planning • Organizational Development Some Professional Job Titles in I/O Psychology include • Human Factors/Engineering Psychologists • Industrial/Organizational Psychologists • Director of Human Resources/Vice President of Personnel • Marketing Research Project Director • Team Leadership and Communication Trainer • Director of Organizational Development • Employee Relations Manager • Director of Training and Development/Management Development • Director of Psychological Services • Assessment Center Specialist for Overseas Development • Executive Consultant in Organization Planning and Development I/O: Human Resources Psychology • Human resources psychologists are involved in a broad array of activities related to employment Salaries • I/O Psychologists are the highest paid group of psychologists • The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level industrial/organizational psychologists in 2001 was $96,000. The top 10% reported income in excess of $150,000. The mean income for those with master's degrees was more than $71,000, with the top 10% reporting more than $125,000. • Compare this with the median salary for licensed doctoral-level clinical psychologists was $72,000 in 2001. Years of Experience- Median Salary • Consulting Firm – 2 - 9 years 93,500 – 10 - 14 years 150,000 – 15 - 19 years 97,500 – 20 - 24 years 240,000 • Business/Industry – 2 - 9 years 83,000 – 10 - 14 years 93,000 – 15 - 19 years 105,000 • Independent Consultant – 25 - 29 years 125,000 Consumer Psychology • APA Division 23 - Society for Consumer Psychology • Consumer Psychology is an application of Industrial/Organizational Psychology that works with companies in defining consumer preferences in products, services, packaging, and advertising. Consumer psychologists perform market research and evaluate customer motivation and reaction. Salary Range • If you become a consumer psychologist, you can expect to make roughly about $30,000 to $40,000 (1999 data), depending on the exact field you are working in. Many psychologists with terminal master's degrees often work under the direction of a doctoral psychologist. Also, there are related jobs in organizational development, advertising, survey research and data analysis, to name a few. Engineering Psychology • APA Division 21 – Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology • Engineering Psychology applies Industrial/Organizational Psychology to the design of work environments to ensure employee motivation and safety. The engineering psychologist designs the layout of displays and controls, equipment, instrument panels, and whole systems technology to create the optimal person-machine effectiveness. Careers • Human-Computer Interface Designer • Cognitive and I/O Psychologists in the Technology Industry • Human Factors Expert • Aviation Human Factors Psychologist • Human Factors & Ergonomics: Usernomics Education and Training • Most corporations offer systematic training so employees can learn skills to improve their job performance • I/O psychologists typically break a training program down into a series of learning objectives Performance Appraisal • Performance appraisal is the process by which a supervisor periodically evaluates the job-relevant strengths and weaknesses of a subordinate Motivation of Job Performance • Drive and Goal-Setting Theory asserts that setting specific, clear, attainable goals leads to better performance Expectancy Theory • Expectancy theories say a worker’s effort to perform goal-directed behaviors is determined by expectations regarding the outcomes of behavior • Vroom’s expectancy theory suggests both motivation and ability determine job performance Equity Theory • Equity theory asserts that workers feel that what they do (input) should be balanced by their compensation. Motivation Management: 3 Approaches • I/O psychologists have observed three basic approaches to motivation in the workplace: • The paternalistic approach is the notion that a company should take care of its employees’ needs like a protective father would Motivation Management • The behavioural approach assumes people will work only if they receive tangible rewards for a specific task performance • The participatory approach is based on the belief that individuals who have a say in decisions affecting their lives are motivated to work harder Job Satisfaction • A satisfied worker is usually a high- performing worker who will remain in an organization • Job satisfaction cluster in the work itself, the perceived rewards of the work, the quality of supervision, the support of co- workers, and the work setting Leadership • Leaders are people who influence other people’s behavior toward the attainment of agreed-upon goals • Trait theories try to find characteristics that make individuals good leaders • Leadership behaviours refer to how a leader interacts with other members of the organization Leadership Effectiveness • Bass discusses transformational leadership, leaders who provide inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individual attention to followers Human Factors • Human factors, sometimes called ergonomics, studies the relationship of humans to machines, the workplace, and other environments Human Factors • Efficiency and safety are two areas of focus in human factors • To create efficiency, human factors researchers seek to develop person- machine interfaces that minimize frustration and errors, maximize output, and are reliable Behaviour-Based Safety • Behavior-based safety refers to programs that focus on changing the behavior of workers and companies to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses • A good safety culture within a company minimizes shortcut and rule violations, and encourages communication between workers and management Psychology and Law • The American Psychology-Law Society, Division 41 of the APA • Legal psychology is the field that conducts empirical research on psychological issues important to the legal system • Forensic psychology focuses on legal issues in which clinical psychologists can act as expert witnesses and consultants • Offered: University of British Columbia, Queen's University and Simon Fraser University Psychology and Law • As researchers, psychologists look at legal issues from a psychological perspective • Psychologists also serve as policy or program evaluators, helping governments and other institutions determine whether various policies, agencies, or programs actually work Psychology and Law • Psychologists also serve as policy or program evaluators, helping governments and other institutions determine whether various policies, agencies, or programs actually work • Psychologists often act as advocates, helping shape policies • Psychologists also serve as expert witnesses, brining their knowledge to the courts Interesting Subfields Within Forensic Psychology Very similar to clinical psychology. Clinical- Clients here are not only suffering from Forensic some type of mental problem, but their Psychology issues are of importance to legal decision making as well. Developmental Deals with juveniles, the elderly, and Psychology the law. The focus is on policy making rather than treatment of those with mental problems. Mostly concerned with concerned with Social how jurors interact and arrive at a Psychology group decision. Interesting Subfields Within Forensic Psychology Is closely associated with the social Cognitive psychology subfield, but it looks more Psychology into how people make decisions in legal cases. Deals with police psychology, Criminal- criminal profiling and psychological Investigative autopsies. Experts may chose to Psychology conduct research and/or work closely in analyzing the minds of criminal suspects. Salary range • The doctoral degree offers many opportunities for forensic psychologists. The salary usually starts out at between $35,000 and $40,000 annually (1999). With a doctorate, one can go into independent practice. Private practice areas might include counseling offenders, being an expert witness for hire, conducting assessment, conducting psychotherapy, and consulting on civil and criminal issues. Environmental Psychology • Environmental psychology is the study of how physical settings affect human behavior and how people change their environment • Environmental psychologists often act as consultants to governments, schools, hospitals, churches, and museums Environmental Psychology • A stressor is a stimulus that affects an organism in a psychologically or physically injurious way • Stressors elicit such feelings as anxiety, tension, and physiological arousal Temperature • Temperature can be a stressor that affects many behaviours • Very hot or very cold temperatures can cause behavioural effects ranging from annoyance to inability to function Noise • Noise is a stressor that can overstimulate people • Noise often leads to poor work performance and social functioning Environmental Toxins • Nearly any airborne substance, whether a pollutant from a factory or natural pollen, can trigger respiratory problems, resulting in diminished work performance and health consequences • Airborne toxins can impair motor tasks involving reaction time and affect long- term health Crowding • The number of people in an area can have a profound impact on individual and group behavior • It is generally not the size of a space or number of people that causes a feeling of crowding • Crowding is the perception that personal space is too limited Personal Space • Personal space is the area around an individual that they consider private • Encroachment causes displeasure and possible withdrawal Salary Range • Receiving a master's degree typically qualifies candidates for entry-level positions. With this, one is able to work for a firm, urban planning group, or do some research. Salary in this area is $35,400-$68,000 (1999 data). If you chose to take a different route such as design, the salary is around $49,900. • Mostly what a doctoral degree will do for you is allow you to open up your own consulting company. Average salary for this is $65,000+ (1999 data). Other possible employment sources are federal agencies, policy-making organizations, urban and regional planning agencies, as well as national, community, and workplace health- promotion programs and environmental design consulting firms. Community Psychology: The Career for Champions • APA Division 27 - Society for Community Research and Action: Division of Community Psychology • Community psychology seeks to reach out to society by providing services such as community mental health centers • George Orford (1992, p. vii): "community psychology is about understanding people within their social worlds and using this understanding to improve people's well- being.“ • Community psychology uses qualitative and quantitative research to address complex social problems Community Psychology • A new paradigm: Helping is always mutual, and successful helping means your services will not be needed anymore. • A key element of community psychology is empowerment • Empowerment involves helping people in the community enhance their existing skills and develop new ones Community Psychology • Prevention operates at three levels: • Primary prevention means reducing the risk of new cases of a disorder • Secondary prevention involves identifying mental health problems in their early stages • Tertiary prevention focuses on treatment of full-flown psychological problems What do they do? • Community psychologists work with community members and policy makers to address the individual, social, political and environmental factors that contribute to psychological wellbeing within communities. • Their role is to: – Recognise people’s strengths and resources; – Work to break down existing social barriers; – Emphasise empowerment and collaboration, rather than dictating ready-made solutions; – Promote the sharing of skills and knowledge; – Recognise that all research is value-based; and What can they do? • They have the knowledge and skills to: – Conduct community-based research; – Assess group and community needs; – Conduct community consultation and policy development; – Evaluate programs; – Coordinate projects; – Train staff; – Provide counselling and advocacy; – Facilitate groups; – Develop and conduct health promotion and education programs; and – Manage or promote change in systems, organisations or communities. Educational Psychology • Educational psychology is the systematic application of psychological principles to learning and teaching Salaries in Educational Psychology • Doctoral-level respondents in educational administration reported a median 11-12- month salary of $90,000 in 2001 (APA). • The overall 11-12-month salary for licensed doctoral-level respondents providing school psychology services was $77,000 in 2001 (salaries vary widely depending on the setting i.e. high school vs university). What do they do? • An educational psychologist helps gather information for teachers and parents when students have academic or behavioral problems. They assist by evaluating students' thinking abilities and assessing individual strengths and weaknesses. Together, the parents, teachers, and educational psychologist formulate plans to help students learn more effectively. And this too… • Other career tracks within educational psychology include being a school psychologist or a school counselor. – Works with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students' learning and behavior problems. – Evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in school setting. – Help people to accommodate to change or to make changes in their lifestyle (often using interviewing and testing). Sports Psychology • Sports psychology is the systematic application of psychological principles to sports American Psychological Association Division • American Psychological Association Division of Exercise and Sport Psychology (APA Division 47) • Careers: – Private Psychology Practice – Clinical/Counseling Psychologist in University Counseling Center – University Health Education Psychologist – Sports Medicine Clinic Psychological Consultant – University Substance Abuse Specialist – Career Specialist Sports Psychology • Sports psychologists help improve performance through mental strategies to refine the practices of effective players or help ineffective ones • They try to enhance the sports experience for young participants • Sports psychologists provide assistance with athletic injury rehabilitation Salary Range • Many jobs are available for those with masters degrees in this subfield. Nonetheless, people who want to utilize a broad range of skills need a doctoral degree for optimum success. To work independently, one needs also need to be licensed by the state where they work. Typical 1999 pay is the $28-32,000 starting range. WHAT IS A HEALTH SERVICE PSYCHOLOGIST? • Psychologists who specialize in health services possess a unique combination of scientific and professional training. Through their expertise in assessment and diagnosis, prevention and treatment techniques, as well as in related research, they offer a wide range of services designed to promote emotional and physical health in individuals, families, groups, and organizations.
Pages to are hidden for
"SENSATION AND PERCEPTION"Please download to view full document