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IT 5110

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 75

									      IT 5110

Technology Applications:
 Education and Training

        Week 2
                  Agenda
•   Instructional Design
•   Review of the NTeQ Philosophy
•   NTeQ Lesson Plan
•   MS Word for Teaching
    – Concept Mapping/Drawing
          Instructional Design
• Design - to plan
• Instructional Design
  – Systematic planning of instruction
• Both an Art and a Science
  – Art: Creativity, imagination, etc.
     • Consider an analogy of architects with same
       materials, site, and purpose producing different
       results
     • Some designers may be innovative, others more
       traditional
     • Novice versus expert designers
         Instructional Design
• Both an Art and a Science
  – Art: Instructional Philosophy
     • Behaviorism
        – Focuses on changes in what learner does
          (observable behaviors); stimulus-response-
          reinforcement
     • Cognitivism
        – Focuses on what learner knows (non-observable
          changes in memory structures)
     • Constructivism
        – Knowledge is constructed by an active learner;
          Sources of meaning are experience and context; no
          shared reality
         Instructional Design
• Both an Art and a Science
  – Science
     • Based on proven practices and research
        – Performing learner and instructional analyses
        – Writing objectives, sequencing of content, etc.
     • A Systematic Procedure (methodical,
       deliberate, purposeful, often step-by-step)
        – Especially important when technology is used
          for instruction, because pre-developed
          technologically-developed instruction is not
          as flexible as a good teacher
        Instructional Design
• Robert Mager (1984)
  – Poses three questions an instructional
    designer should answer
     • Where are we going? (objectives)
     • How will we get there? (strategy and
       medium)
     • How will we know when we have arrived?
       (evaluation and revision)
         Instructional Design
• Andrews and Goodson (1991) described 40
  such models for systematic design of
  instruction
  – For Novice and Expert designers
  – Some contextual, some with a focus on
    technology
  – Some for K-12, some for training, some for
    products
  – Some are macro-level (curriculum/courses),
    some are micro-level (lessons)
        Instructional Design
• Most ID models share the same basic
  processes/steps
• The ADDIE Model is perhaps the most
  generic (more macro-level; ISD)
        Instructional Design
• ADDIE Steps
  – Analysis
    • Needs/causes, gap analysis, content/tasks
      analysis, etc.
  – Design
    • Objectives, assessment items, draft (or story
      board), learner analysis, environment analysis,
      etc.
  – Development
    • Determine instructional strategies/methods, create
      materials/media, lesson design, prototyping, etc.
         Instructional Design
• ADDIE Steps
  – Implementation
     • Delivery, teach, provide feedback, use technology,
       staff development, logistics, etc.
  – Evaluation
     • Formative, summative, of teachers, students, and
       materials; Revision until mastery
     • Kirkpatrick’s (1994) Four Levels of Evaluation
        – Reaction
        – Achievement
        – Transfer to job
        – Impact on organization
            Instructional Design
• Consider Robert Gagne’s Nine Events of
  Instruction (good at lesson level)
  –   Gaining attention
  –   Informing learners of the objective
  –   Stimulating recall of prior learning
  –   Presenting the stimulus
  –   Providing learning guidance
  –   Eliciting performance
  –   Providing feedback
  –   Assessing performance
  –   Enhancing retention and transfer
         Instructional Design
• Dick and Carey Model (good for lesson level)
  – One of the most common, well-known models
  – For novice to expert, K-12 to training
         Instructional Design
• Kemp, Morrison and Ross (1998)
  – The Four Components to Instructional Design



            Learners    Methods



           Objectives   Evaluation
         Instructional Design
• ASSURE Model (technology-specific)
  – Analyze Learner Characteristics
     • General, entry competencies, learning style
  – State Objectives
  – Select, Modify or Design Materials
  – Utilize Materials
     • Conduct the instruction
  – Require Learner Participation
     • Provide feedback and practice
  – Evaluate and Revise
The NTeQ Model Philosophy

       From Last Week
       The NTeQ Philosophy
• Some basic components of the NTeQ Model
  – Students use technology solve problems,
    promote critical thinking and meta-cognition
     • Technology as tool
     • Learn to learn (reflection, think/KWL sheets, etc.)
  – Students also learn the technology
  – Group-based, collaborative activities
     • Learn how to work in a team (listening, taking
       turns, taking responsibility)
     • Students help each other; teacher guidance
       (facilitation) still needed
       The NTeQ Philosophy
• Some basic components of the NTeQ Model
  – Student-centered and authentic
     • Meet the needs of diverse students, provide
       motivation, etc.
     • Active involvement of students (research,
       discovery, groups, etc.)
  – Students to identify problems, formulate
    hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, draw
    conclusions
     • May require guidance
       The NTeQ Philosophy
• Some basic components of the NTeQ Model
  – Interdisciplinary in nature
     • When possible integrate multiple subjects, e.g.
       math, science, social studies
  – Multiple resource-rich activities and resources
     • Newspaper, CD-ROM, Web, etc.
NTeQ Model Steps
      NTeQ Model Steps

           – Specify Objectives
– Match Objectives to Computer Functions
           – Specify a Problem
            – Specify Standards
 – Specify Prior Knowledge/Skills Needed
       – Plan the Data Manipulation
      – Plan the Results Presentation
         NTeQ Model Steps

 – Plan the Activities While Using the Computer
– Plan the Activities Prior to Using the Computer
 – Plan the Activities After Using the Computer
         – Plan the Supporting Activities
              – Plan the Assessment
             – Culminating Activity
            NTeQ Model Steps
                    Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  –   There are several types of objectives
  –   Behavioral versus cognitive
  –   Bloom’s Taxonomy
  –   Terminal and enabling
  –   Designed to communicate what is to be learned to
      teacher, student, administration, parents,
      community, etc.
       • Found at curriculum level, course level and lesson
         plan level
            NTeQ Model Steps
                   Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Behavioral (Mager) Approach
  – ABCD’s of behavioral objectives
     •   Audience will do
     •   expected Behavior
     •   under what Conditions
     •   to what Degree
  – Example: Given a right triangle, the student
    will correctly calculate the length of the
    hypotenuse
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Incorrect behavioral objective
     • By tomorrow, know the continents
        – What is knowing the continents?
        – Is it naming them?
        – Is it ordering them from largest to smallest?
        – Is it labeling them on an outline map?
        – Is it naming the direction each lies from the
          United States?
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Correct behavioral objective
     • Given an outline map of the seven continents
       named in the geography text, the student will
       write the name of each continent within the
       outline of the continental area
  – Others
     • Given 10 seeds, students will identify the grain
       crops they grow with at least 90% accuracy.
     • Given the necessary parts, student will correctly
       replace the rotor and pads for the brakes of an
       automobile within 15 minutes.
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Cognitive Objectives
     • Not as easily stated in one sentence
     • Useful for higher level learning tasks that allow
       for more than one approach to mastery
     • Behaviors such as apply, interpret, solve or
       evaluate suggest more than one solution
     • Distinguish general (terminal) and specific
       (enabling) objectives
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Terminal versus enabling objectives
     • Terminal: general instructional objective for unit
     • Enabling: one or more specific statements
       describing specific performances that indicate
       mastery of the terminal objective (sub-objectives)
  – Example
     • Terminal Objective
        – Perform psychiatric physical examination
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
   – Example, continued
     • Enabling Objectives
        – Perform gait evaluation, including recognizing
          common abnormal gait patterns.
        – Evaluate musculoskeletal system including
          joint palpation, range of motion, stability, and
          recognize signs of inflammation and infection.
        – Perform central and peripheral nervous system
          examination
            NTeQ Model Steps
                    Specify Objectives

1. Specify Objectives
  – Cognitive Domain: Levels
     •   Knowledge - finding out; recall
     •   Comprehension - understanding; interpret
     •   Application - applying; making use of knowledge
     •   Analysis - take apart the known; relationships
     •   Synthesis - put together (in same or another way)
     •   Evaluation - judging outcomes; quality
          NTeQ Model Steps
      Matching Objectives to Computer Functions

2. Matching Objectives to Computer
  Functions
  – Ask yourself how you would achieve the
    objective if you were the student. What process
    or technology/feature would you perform?
     • Use a spreadsheet to determine
        – Calculations, relationships, tables, charts, ordered
          lists, etc.
     • Create a chart to show...
        – Visual needs, relationships, etc.
     • Use a database to find
        – Find patterns, queries, calculations, search, etc.
          NTeQ Model Steps
      Matching Objectives to Computer Functions

2. Matching Objectives to Computer
  Functions
  – Some objectives are less easy to match with
    computer function, or to only one application
  – Example: Student evaluation of a story or data
     • Spreadsheet or database to aid in analysis
     • Chart ot evaluate the data
     • Word processor to generate report that explains
       evaluation
          NTeQ Model Steps
                 Specify the Problem

3. Specify the Problem
  – A brief statement
  – Make it meaningful to the students so they can
    relate to it
  – Authentic to students, real-world events, issues,
    etc. (motivation and retention)
  – Problem-based (critical thinking) and reflective
  – Sports, hobbies, friends, television, spring
    break budgets, college budget, where to live
    criteria, buying a car, news paper route, etc.
          NTeQ Model Steps
                   Specify Standards

4. Specify Standards
  – Look up educational standards that apply
  – National Standards
     • National Educational Technology Standards Projects
       http://cnets.iste.org/
  – State Standards
     • Michigan Technology Standards
       http://cdp.mde.state.mi.us/Technology/default.html
  – Local standards?
  – Will go over in more detail in future class...
          NTeQ Model Steps
                  Specify the Problem

5. Prior Knowledge
  – Prior knowledge and/or skills necessary for
    students to successfully accomplish lesson
  – Examples
      Students will have prior knowledge and skill in
       working on a computer
      Students will have prior knowledge and skill in
       creating word processing documents
      Students will have prior knowledge and skills in
       doing research
         NTeQ Model Steps
            Plan the Data Manipulation

6. Plan the Data Manipulation
  – How will student manipulate data?
  – Will they need guidance/instruction or
    instructions?
  – A Think/KWL Sheet? (before, during, after)
     What I KNOW What I WANT        What I
                 to know/learn      LEARNED
         NTeQ Model Steps
             Plan the Data Manipulation

6. Plan the Data Manipulation
  – Examples
     • Navigating web sites
     • Spell check, punctuation, format, etc. in
       Word Processor
     • Searching a database
     • Experiment with values in spreadsheet and
       observe changes to formulas and functions
         NTeQ Model Steps
            Plan the Results Presentation

7. Plan the Results Presentation
  – Word, Excel, PowerPoint, web site, portfolio
  – Presentation, poster, reports
  – Move away from traditional assessment
    instruments
  – Individual or group-based?
  – Other
     • Hard-copy, demonstration,Q&A, newsletter
       (desktop publishing)
            NTeQ Model Steps
                Multidimensional Activities

8-10. Multidimensional Activities
  Many of these may be group-based
  8. Plan the Activities While Using the Computer
     • Formulas in Excel? Queries in a database?
     • Searches on the Web or CD? Sort data in Word?
     • Create a chart of graph? Read a chapter?
  9. Plan the Activities Prior to Using the Computer
     •   Especially important if computers are limited
     •   Can data be collected and organized beforehand?
     •   Create an outline
     •   Search engine keywords
          NTeQ Model Steps
              Multidimensional Activities

8-10. Multidimensional Activities
  Many of these may be group-based
  10. Plan the Activities After Using the Computer
     • Explore and interpret results
     • A Think Sheet might be helpful
     • If predictions or hypotheses were made, how
       did they turn out and why?
            NTeQ Model Steps
                      Final Two

11. Planning the Supporting Activities
  –   Look up web pages, practice, further reading
  –   Posters, experiments, discussions
  –   Reinforcement, retention
  –   Any rotational activities needed?
          NTeQ Model Steps
                      Final Two

12. Assessment/Evaluation
  – Development of a Rubric
     • Contains: assessment criteria, rating scales, and
       levels of performance; see p. 171 of text for
       example
     • http://edtech.sandi.net/rubric/
     • Will discuss more later….
  – Evaluation form is a possibility
          NTeQ Model Steps
                    Final Two

13. Culminating Activity
  – Purpose: To solidify and confirm learning
  – Examples: Discussion of findings, implications,
    and/or applications; a class review/summary
  – KWL may be helpful
         NTeQ Model Steps
• Visit NTeQ Examples at
  – From Wayne State University
     • http://tbf.coe.wayne.edu/it8130/nteq.html
  – From University of Maryland
     • http://www.education.umd.edu/Depts/EDCI/e
       dci385/Projects101/projects101.html
     • http://www.education.umd.edu/Depts/EDCI/e
       dci385/Projects301/projects301.html
         NTeQ Model Steps
• Visit NTeQ Examples at
  – Saskatoon Public Schools
    http://schools.sbe.saskatoon.sk.ca/DE/1-
    4/1/animals.htm
  – Greg Doyle's lesson plans for the 8th grade
    http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~z06gkd/mywork.htm

  – Your exact format may vary some
An NTeQ Model Example
       NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial)
  – Students: 6th Grade
  – Subject(s): Math lesson
  – Assignment:
     • “You have $50 to buy groceries from your
       family
     • You have to buy everything on a list from
       one store advertised in today’s paper
       NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial, continued)
  – To help save money, you can buy store brands,
    and you can use three special coupons for each
    store: two for one, 15% off the regular price,
    and save 75 cents when you buy two
  – You may want to shop carefully, because you
    get to keep any money left over
  – Work in groups of three to determine most
    economical store among three. Group with
    lowest grocery bill will receive 15 bonus points
        NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial, continued)
  – Create Know/Want/Learned (KWL) chart
    (Word, PowerPoint, or Excel) as a guide
    students thinking through problem
    What do we         What do we want What have we
    know?              to know?        learned?
    We have $50        How much can
                       we save?
    We can use three   Which store will
    special coupons    have the best
                       prices?
  – And so on…
  – Assign students to groups and computers
       NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial, continued)
  – Resources: today’s newspaper, several grocery
    list recording sheets, special coupons, Think
    Sheet 1, a computer disk with the spreadsheet
    template (has grocery list, but students need to
    add formulas).
  – On Think Sheet, students will answer
     • What will be the easiest part of this assignment?
     • What will be the most difficult part?
     • How much money do you think you’re group will
       save?
         NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial, continued)
  – Each group will create “Define and Assign”
    sheet to determine which tasks need to be
    completed and who will complete them, e.g.
     •   Locate grocery store ads
     •   Complete price list for each store
     •   Enter data in spreadsheet
     •   Experiment with coupon savings, etc.
  – As students work, teacher guides them by
    posing questions such as
     • What if you use your 15% coupon on the milk and
       instead of the eggs
       NTeQ Model Example
• A sample lesson (partial, continued)
  – Have students complete their Think Sheets
  – Have them present findings and guide questions
  – Have students complete third column of KWL
    chart
Concept Mapping
           Concept Mapping
• Tool (represented in diagrams) for organizing
  and representing knowledge for learning
  – Graphical representation where nodes (points or
    vertices) represent concepts, and links (arcs or
    lines) represent the relationships between concepts
  – Shows relationships (associations) between
    concepts (through crosslinks)
  – Relationship between existing ideas, or to connect
    new concepts/ideas to existing concepts/ideas
  – Also referred to as MindMapping
           Concept Mapping
• Goals for Concept Mapping
  – Learning tool
     • Not rote memorization, but understanding, e.g.
       link to prior knowledge, relationships,
       examples, etc.
     • Used as a summary (or before instruction, e.g.
       Ausubel called it an advanced organizer)
     • Memory aid for spatial or visual learners
     • Visual symbols are quickly and easily
       recognized
     • Solve problems/explore options
           Concept Mapping
• Goals for Concept Mapping, continued
  – Learning tool
     • Gather and explore new information, ideas,
       and relationships (brainstorming)
     • Minimum use of text makes it easy to scan for
       a word, phrase, or the general idea
     • Understanding of a body (domain) of
       knowledge (a holistic approach)
     • Share knowledge and information generated
       (collaboration)
           Concept Mapping
• Goals for Concept Mapping, continued
  – Learning tool (Jonassen, 1990)
     • Proposes that few of the computer tools used
       today for learning have been designed as
       learning tools
     • Usually educators use existing tools for teaching
       purposes
     • Concept mapping computer tools belong to the
       rare category of computer tools that were
       designed specifically for learning
           Concept Mapping
• Goals for Concept Mapping, continued
  – Tool to organize information/knowledge
     • To design and communicate complex structures
       (long texts, multi/hyper-media, large web sites,
       task analysis)
  – Evaluation tool
     • Evaluate a students comprehension (summative
       evaluation)
     • Help identify student understanding and
       misunderstanding (Formative Evaluation)
The Theory Behind Concept Mapping

• Based on David Ausubel’s world (1968) in
  cognitive psychology and schema theory
  – Ausubel stressed the importance of prior
    knowledge in being able to learn about new
    concept
  – Implemented by Novak (1993) who
    summarizes: “Meaningful learning involves the
    assimilation of new concepts and propositions
    into existing cognitive structures [schemas]”
The Theory Behind Concept Mapping

• Mayer (1977)
  – Describes it as a process of “assimilation-to-
    schemata”
  – The process of learning as the acquisition of
    new material in the learner by connecting it
    with (or ‘assimilating’ it to) some aspect of
    existing cognitive structures (or schema)
  – More inclusive concepts serve as ideational
    anchorage for meaningful learning
           Concept Mapping
• Steps
  – List concepts
  – Rank and/or cluster concepts
  – Diagram concepts
     • Can be colorful (for attention or motivation)
     • Can use images (for better retention or to
       group items or to differentiate prior and new
       knowledge)
     • Begin with most inclusive (top-down
       approach)
           Concept Mapping
• Steps, continued
  – Identify relationships
     • Lines with arrows to show cause-and-effect
  – Provide examples (optional)
• Can be Macro or Micro-level Concept Maps
  – Micro - Lesson planning; previous examples
  – Macro - Curriculum planning
• Graphically expressed in many ways
Concept Map Examples
Concept Map Examples
Concept Map Examples
      Concept Map Examples




A concept map of concept mapping
        Concept Map Examples




micro
        Concept Map Examples




micro
Concept Map Examples
Concept Map Examples
Concept Map Examples
Macro
(curriculum)
      Concept Mapping Tools
• Microsoft Word (or PowerPoint)
  – Drawing tools
• Inspiration (most common in the classroom)
  – http://www.inspiration.com/
• IHMC Concept Mapping Software
  – http://cmap.coginst.uwf.edu/
• Mind Jet
  – http://www.mindjet.com/
• Graphics software
  – More flexible, but complicated
Microsoft Word

    A snip-it
 Microsoft Word for Teaching

  Concept Map the five philosophical
underpinnings (and related issues) to the
  NTeQ model using Microsoft Word
           drawing features
End of Presentation

								
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