STUDY OF FLOOD WALL SYSTEM FOR RIVER uTM by alicejenny

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									STUDY OF FLOOD WALL SYSTEM FOR A RIVER REHABILITATION
             AND FLOOD CONTROL METHOD




                    KOK CHA YEE




           UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
                                                                      PSZ 19:16 (Pind. 1/97)
                     UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

                   BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
  JUDUL:      STUDY OF FLOOD WALL SYSTEM FOR A RIVER
              ____________________________________________________________________
              REHABILITATION AND FLOOD CONTROL METHOD
              ____________________________________________________________________


                                                 2005/2006
                             SESI PENGAJIAN : ___________________

  Saya                               KOK CHA YEE
              ___________________________________________________________________
                                      (HURUF BESAR)
  mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan
  Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

  1.   Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  2.   Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan
       pengajian sahaja.
  3.   Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara
       institusi pengajian tinggi.
  4.   * * Sila tandakan ( )

                                     (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau
                   SULIT              kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam
                                     AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

                   TERHAD            (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan
                                     oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

                   TIDAK TERHAD
                                                                         Disahkan oleh


       ________________________________                    ________________________________
           (TANDATANGAN PENULIS)                               (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)


   Alamat tetap:
    26, JALAN KASA 9, TAMAN SENTOSA
   ____________________________________
    80150 JOHOR BAHRU
   ____________________________________                  PM DR NORHAN ABD. RAHMAN
                                                       ___________________________________
    JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM.
   ____________________________________                               Nama Penyelia
  Tarikh:           18 APRIL 2006                          Tarikh :      18 APRIL 2006


CATATAN:            * Potong yang tidak berkenaan.
                    * * Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak
                        berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan
                        tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD.
                        Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana
                        secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan
                        penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).
“I recognize that I have read this composition and in my opinion this composition is
satisfy from aspect of scope and quality for the purpose of the award of the degree
                        of Bachelor of Civil Engineering”.


       Signature              :
       Supervisor Name        : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Norhan bin Abd. Rahman
       Date                   :
STUDY OF FLOODWALL SYSTEM FOR A RIVER REHABILITATION AND
                   FLOOD CONTROL METHOD




                           KOK CHA YEE




            A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the
             requirements for the award of the degree of
                    Bachelor of Civil Engineering




                     Faculty of Civil Engineering
                    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




                             APRIL 2006
                                                                                   ii




“I admit that this composition is completed with my own efforts without plagiarism
unless some citation from other available articles and sources, which also have been
                             noted its original sources.




      Signature              :
      Student Name           : Kok Cha Yee
      Date                   :
                                              iii




Exclusively dedicated to my beloved parents
          and all my dear friends
                                                                                  iv




                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




       With a fully sincere and faithful heart, I would like to express appreciation
towards persons who had helping me to complete this project.


       First of all, I would like to thank to my beloved parents, Kok Peng Chin and
Tan Chong Yok, they have been encouraging me all the time. With their
encouragement, I am willing to proceed my project at any condition and
circumstance without the feeling of giving up.


       I also want to thank my project supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr Norhan Abd.
Rahman, he has been giving the advices and instructions to me to complete the
project. Beside this honorable supervisor, I also would like to thank his master
student who is Ms. Siti Salhawati Mohd. Salleh.


       I also express my appreciation towards the Hydraulic and Hydrology
Laboratory technicians, Mr. Shaarin, Mr. Ridzuan, Mr. Shaid, Mr. Surbani, Ms. Aida,
and Structural Laboratory technician Mr. Jailani.


       Appreciation also expressed to my dear course mates, especially Tiong Kung
Leong, How Seng Chuan, and Teoh Chin Siang. They have been giving me a helping
hand during the laboratory tests and some suggestion of my project.
                                                                                   v




                                    ABSTRAK




       Banjir seringkali merupakan malapetaka alam sekitar sejak zaman silam
sampai sekarang. Ia bukan sahaja menyebabkan kehilangan harta benda, nyawa,
malahan ia juga secara tidak langsung membawakan banyak kesan buruk kepada
alam sekitar dan masyarakat. Dengan itu, kajian terhadap pengawalan banjir adalah
penting. Penerbitan laporan ini adalah untuk menyelidik keupayaan dan
keberkesanan dinding banjir sebagai penyelesaian jenis kuantiti untuk pemuliharaan
sungai dan pengawalan banjir. Dengan itu, ia hanya memberi lebih banyak tumpuan
kepada kontek sistem dinding banjir yang wujud pada masa kini. Daripada kajian
literatur, terdapat banyak jenis dinding banjir yang moden, dan sistem dinding banjir
menaik sendiri merupakan salah satu daripada mereka. Dalam projek ini, prinsip
daya kenaikan hidraulik (principle of Hydraulic lift force) merupakan prinsip
pertama yang digunakan sebagai prinsip operasi untuk sistem dinding banjir. Setelah
sistem dinding banjir berdasarkan prinsip ini gagal untuk menaikkan dinding banjir,
prinsip Archimedes dipakai sebagai gantian kepada prinsip yang terdahulu. Model
fizikal sistem dinding banjir dibina di Model Sungai Klang, bahagian Pandan Indah
untuk kegunaan ujian atau eksperimen makmal. Terdapat dua jenis dinding banjir
yang diperbuatkan daripada dua jenis bahan yang berbeza digunakan untuk ujian
dalam projek ini iaitu FRP(Fiber Reinforce Polymer) dan papan lapis (plywood).
Kesimpulannya, penerbitan tesis untuk kajian ini bersasaran berfungsi sebagai satu
pencatatan untuk penyelidikan terhadap keupayaan dan keberkesanan bagi sistem
dinding banjir, bersama dengan bukti yang kukuh iaitu data eksperimen dan
keputusan yang didapati daripada eksperimen dan ujian yang dilaksanakan berulang-
ulangan di dalam makmal hidraulik dan hidrologi.
                                                                                        vi




                                     ABSTRACT




       Flooding is always the serious environmental disaster from the ancient age
until now. It not only causing loss of property, life, but also indirectly bringing a lot
of bad effects towards the environmental, and the society. So, the study of the flood
control is very essential. The edition of this report is to research the applicability and
effectiveness flood wall as the quantity method of river rehabilitations and flood
control. So, it just pay much concentration on the context of floodwall system which
available currently. From the literature review, there are various types of modern
flood walls, and the self rising flood wall is among one of them. In this project,
principle of hydraulic lift force is the first used principle as the operation principle
for the floodwall system. As the floodwall system failed to rise up, principles of
Archimedes is used to replace the previous principle. The physical model of
floodwall system is build at the Model of Sungai Klang, Pandan indah segment for
use of laboratory experiments or tests. There are two types of floodwall materials to
be testing in the project which are FRP(Fiber Reinforce Polymer) and plywood. In
conclusion, this edition thesis of the study aims to function as a record of the
research of applicability and effectiveness of the floodwall system, with solid proof
that is experiment data and results which obtained from the regularly conducting of
experiment and test in the hydraulic and hydrology laboratory.
                                                    vii




                           CONTENT




CHAPTER      TITLE                          PAGE


             DECLARATION                     ii
             DEDICATION                      iii
             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                 iv
             ABSTRAK                         v
             ABSTRACT                        vi
             CONTENT                         vii
             LIST OF TABLE                   xiv
             LIST OF FIGURE                  xv
             LIST OF PHOTO                   xvi
             LIST OF SYMBOL AND SHORTFORM    xvii
             LIST OF APPENDIX                xix




CHAPTER I    PREFACE                        1


             1.1   Introduction              1-2
             1.2   Objective of Study        3
             1.3   Scope of Study            3
             1.4   Importance of Study       3-4




CHAPTER II   LITERATURE REVIEW               5
                                                          viii


2.1   Introduction                                   5
2.2   Cause of Flood                                 6
      2.2.1 Intensity of Rainfall In Catchments Area 6
      2.2.2 Topography of The Catchments             6
      2.2.3 Sedimentation of Rivers                  7
      2.2.4   Obstruction In The River Flow          7
      2.2.5   Contraction of River Section           8
      2.2.6   Inadequate Cross Drainage Works        8
      2.2.7   Negligence In Discharge Observation    8-9
       2.3    Effects of Flood                       9
      2.3.1 Bad Effects of Flood                     9
              2.3.1.1 Damage of Property             9
              2.3.1.2 Loss of Life                   9
              2.3.1.3 Water Logging                  10
              2.3.1.4 Loss of Crops                  10
              2.3.1.5 Disruption of Communication    10
              2.3.1.6 Rise of Price of Food Grains   11
              2.3.1.7 Loos of Work                   11
              2.3.1.8 Epidemic                       11
      2.3.2 Good Effect of Flood                     12
2.4   Methods of Flood Control                       12
      2.4.1 Active Methods of Flood Control          12-13
      2.4.2 Passive Methods of Flood Control         13
      2.4.3 General Methods of Flood Control
              Passive Methods                        14
              2.4.3.1 Construction of Check Dam      14
              2.4.3.2 Construction of Contour
                       Bunds or Terrace Bunds        14
              2.4.3.3 Construction of Detention
                       Reservoirs                    14-15
              2.4.3.4 Construction of Retarding
                       Reservoirs                    15
              2.4.3.5 Provision For Flood Control
                       In Multipurpose Reservoirs    15
                                                            ix


             2.4.3.6 Construction of Leeves or
                      Dykes                            16
             2.4.3.7 Construction of Flood Walls       16
             2.4.3.8 Construction of Flood Ways        17
             2.4.3.9 Construction of Diversion
                      Channel                          17
             2.4.3.10 Construction of Cut-Off          17-18
2.5   Benefits of Flood Control                        18
      2.5.1 Intangible Losses And Benefits             18
      2.5.2 Tangible Losses And Benefits               18-19
2.6   Categories of River Rehabilitation               19
      2.6.1 Water Quality Control                      19
      2.6.2 Water Quantity Control                     19
2.7   Necessity of River Training Works                20
2.8   Types of River Training Works                    21
      2.8.1 Bank Protection                            21
             2.8.1.1 Brick Pitching                    21
             2.8.1.2 Stone Riprap                      22
             2.8.1.3 Boulder Pitching                  22
             2.8.1.4 Concrete Slab Lining              22
      2.8.2 Dikes                                      23
             2.8.2.1 Permeable Dikes                   23
             2.8.2.2 Impermeable Dikes                 24
      2.8.3 Grade Control Structure                    24
2.9   Types of Modern Flood Walls                      25
      2.9.1 Panel Barrier                              25
             2.9.1.1 IFCW (Invisible Flood Control
                      Wall)                            25-26
             2.9.1.2 Into-valve ‘Stop-log’ Removable
                      Flood Barriers                   26
             2.9.1.3 Richardson Flood Control Panel
                      Barriers                         26
      2.9.2 Air And Water Filled Tube                  27
             2.9.2.1 WIPP Flood Protection-
                                                          x


                       Standard Duty (SD) Design     27
              2.9.2.2 WIPP Flood Protection-
                       Max Duty (MD) & Heavy Duty
                       (HD) Design                   28
              2.9.2.3 Mobile Dam                     28
       2.9.3 Filled Container- Permeable/Impermeable 29
              2.9.3.1 MRP System                     29
              2.9.3.2 Quick Dam Flood Safety
                       System                        29
       2.9.4 Flood Barrier-With Frame                30
              2.9.4.1 Portadam                       30
              2.9.4.2 Pallet Barrier                 30-31
       2.9.5 Flood Barrier-Rigid                     31
              2.9.5.1 PFW (Personal Flood Wall)      31-32
              2.9.5.2 SCW (Self Closing Wall Dam)    32
              2.9.5.3 Flood Barrier Wall             33
              2.9.5.4 The Meiklewall Rising Flood
                       Wall                          33-34
              2.9.5.5 Dam-IT Flood Gates/ Presray
                       Flood Gates                   34-35
       2.9.6 Flood Barrier-Free Standing/ Flexible   35
              2.9.6.1 Bolt Down Rapidam Barrier      35
              2.9.6.2 Free Standing Rapidam
                       Barrier                       35-36
              2.9.6.3 Water-Gates Instant Water
                       Barrier                       36
2.10   Influences of Flood Walls                     37
       2.10.1 River Bank Protection                  37
       2.10.2 Flood Plain Area Protection            37-38
       2.10.3 Residential Area Protection            38-39
2.11   Benefits of Self-Rising Flood Wall            39
       2.11.1 Working Principles                     39
       2.11.2 Economic                               39
       2.11.3 Aesthetic                              40
                                                                           xi


                     2.11.4 Environment                               40
              2.12   Application of Self-Rising/ Self-Closing
                     Flood Wall                                       40
                     2.12.1 Underground Parking Complex               40
                     2.12.2 Sanitary Sewer Lift Station               41
                     2.12.3 Water Treatment Facility                  41
                     2.12.4 Administration Building                   41
                     2.12.5 Industrial Complex                        42
              2.13   Case Study of Application of Self-Rising/Self-
                     Closing Flood Walls                              42
                     2.13.1 Case Study of United State of America     42-43
                     2.13.2 Meiklewall Flood Wall System              44
              2.14   Summary                                          44




CHAPTER III   METHODOLOGY OF STUDY                                    45


              3.1    Introduction                                     45
              3.2    Identify The Title of The Study                  46
              3.3    Literature Review of Study                       46
              3.4    Determine The Model of Pandan Indah Section      46
              3.5    Measurements Determinations                      47
              3.6    Application For The Uses of Hydraulic and
                     Hydrology Laboratory                             47
              3.7    Flood Wall Design                                47
                     3.7.1 Flood Wall Model Sketching                 47-48
                     3.7.2 Flood Wall Operation Principles            48
                            3.7.2.1 Hydraulic Lift Force
                                     Principle                        49
                            3.7.2.2 Example of The Hydraulic
                                     Lift Force Principle             50
                            3.7.2.3 Principle of Archimedes           51
                            3.7.2.4 Buoyant Force, FB                 51-52
                            3.7.2.5 Stability                         52-53
                                                                        xii


                   3.7.3 Flood Wall Material Determination         53
                   3.7.4 Optimum Design Parameters                 54
                          3.7.4.1 Design Parameters of The
                                      Flood Wall                   54
                          3.7.4.2 Other Design Parameters          55
                          3.7.4.3 Data Scheduling                  55-56
                   3.7.5 Design Software                           56
             3.8   Construction of Self-Rising Flood Wall          56
                   3.8.1 Discussion With The Laboratory
                          Technician                               57
                   3.8.2 Preparation of Equipments And
                          Materials                                57
                   3.8.3 Controlling and Supervision               57
             3.9   Experiments of Flood Wall                       58
                   3.9.1 Preparations of Experimental
                          Equipments                               58
                          3.9.1.1 Current Meter                    58
                          3.9.1.2 Weights                          59
                          3.9.1.3 Stop Watch                       59
                          3.9.1.4 Scale Ruler                      59
                   3.9.2 Collecting Experiment Parameters
                          Data                                     59
                          3.9.2.1 Data Analysis                    60




CHAPTER IV   DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS DISCUSSION                  61


             4.1   Introduction                                    61
             4.2   Design of Flood Wall System                     62
                   4.2.1 Main Data                                 63
                   4.2.2 Design Sheet of Hydraulic Lift Force
                          Principle                                63-64
                   4.2.3 Design Sheet of Principle of Archimedes
                          (Buoyancy Forces)                        64-66
                                                                         xiii


               4.3   Results (Experimental Data)                    67
               4.4   Data Analysis                                  67
                     4.4.1 Flood Wall Elevation versus Time         67-68
                     4.4.2 Water Volume versus Time                 68-69
                     4.4.3 Flood Wall Elevation versus Water
                              Volume                                69-70
                     4.4.4 Comparison of Graph Floodwall
                              Elevation versus Time                 71-72
                     4.4.5 Comparison of Graph Water Volume
                              versus Time                           72-73
                     4.4.6 Comparison of Graph Floodwall
                              Elevation versus Water Volume         74-75




CHAPTER V      CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS                          76


               5.1   Introduction                                   76
               5.2   Failure of Principle of Hydraulic Lift Force
                     Based Floodwall System                         76
                     5.2.1 Leak of Floodwall System Structure       77
                     5.2.2 Mixing of Hydraulic Oil And Water        77
               5.3   Principle of Archimedes Based Floodwall
                     System                                         78
                     5.3.1 Defects of Principle of Archimedes
                              Based Floodwall System                78
               5.4   Suggestions                                    79
               5.5   Conclusion                                     79-81




BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                        82-83




APPENDIX                                                            84
                                                                           xiv




                            LIST OF TABLE




TABLE NO.                         TITLE                               PAGE


3.1         Example data scheduling for design parameters
            (dimensions)                                              55
3.2         Example data scheduling for design parameters
            (weights)                                                 56
4.1         Determination of pressure, P produced from small piston   64
4.2         Determination of pressure, P produced from small piston   64
4.3         Design sheet to determine floating force, J for plywood
            floodwall with numerious number of floater
            (polystyrene)                                             65
4.4         Design sheet to determine floating force, J for plywood
            floodwall with numerious number of floater (polystyrene   66
4.5         Design sheet to determine floating force, J for FRP
            floodwall with numerious number of floater
            (polystyrene)                                             66
4.6         Design sheet to determine floating force, J for FRP
            floodwall with numerious number of floater
            (polystyrene)                                             66
                                                                 xv




                            LIST OF FIGURE




FIGURE NO.                         TITLE                       PAGE


2.1          SCW Concept Drawing                                32
2.2          Operation of Meiklewall Rising Flood Wall          34
3.1          Typical Sketching of Flood Wall System             48
3.2          Plan View of Flood Wall System                     48
3.3          Operation of Hydraulic Lift Force Principle        50
3.4          Condition of Stable and Unstable for a floating
             Particle                                           53
3.5          Flow chart of methodology of Study                 60
4.1          Slope of the Klang River, Pandan Section Model     62
4.2          Graph Floodwall Elevation versus Time              72
4.3          Graph Water volume versus Time                     73
4.4          Graph Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume      75
                                                  xvi




                             LIST OF PHOTO




PHOTO NO.                         TITLE         PAGE


2.1         Example application of IFCW.         25
2.2         Example application of IFCW.         26
2.3         WIPP Flood Protection Tube           27
2.4         Mobile Dam                           28
2.5         Portadam                             30
2.6         Pallet Barrier                       31
2.7         Construction of PFW                  32
2.8         Flood Barrier Wall                   33
2.9         Presray Flood Gates                  35
2.10        Water-Gates Instant Water Barrier    36
                                                                                  xvii




                  LIST OF SYMBOL AND SHORTFORM




SYMBOL


A    -   Surface area of polystyrene/Wetted surface area of model channel
         (Principle of Archimedes experiment); Surface area of piston (hydraulic
         lift force principle experiment)
A1   -   Upper surface area of polystyrene contact with floodwall
A2   -   Bottom surface area of polystyrene
h1   -   Distance from upper part of polystyrene to water surface
h2   -   Distance from bottom part of polystyrene to water surface
v    -   Volume of polystyrene (Principle of Archimedes experiment), volume of
         water (Hydraulic lift force principle experiment)
V    -   Velocity of water flow
Q    -   Water flow rate of water flow
P    -   Pressure, the force exerted on a unit area of large piston (Hydraulic lift
         force principle experiment)
F    -   Force applied to the small piston (Hydraulic lift force principle
         experiment)
F1   -   Force produced by weight of floodwall at upper part of polystrene
F2   -   Force produced by lower part of polystrene
g    -   Gravity acceleration
J    -   Floating Force/Buoyancy Force
FB   -   Buoyancy Force
ρ    -   Density of water
ρ2   -   Density of water in basin of floodwall system
ρ1   -   Density of polystyrene in floodwall system
                                                                              xviii


D     -   Water depth of water flow in model channel
W     -   Width of model channel
m     -   Mass of polystyrene in gram (principle of Archimedes experiment); Mass
          of small/large piston (Hydraulic lift force principle experiment)




SHORTFORM


FRP       -    Fiber Reinforced Polymer
IFCW      -    Invisible Flood Control Wall
SRFW      -    Self-Rising Flood Wall
SCFW      -    Self-Closing Flood Wall
WIPP      -    Water Inflated Property Protector
PFW       -    Personal Flood Wall
SD        -    Standard Duty
HD        -    Heavy Duty
MD        -    Max Duty
CB        -    Center of buoyancy
CG        -    Center of Gravity
LLC       -    Limited Liability Company
MRP       -    Mobile Radiation Protection
R&D       -    Research and development
US        -    United State
UTM       -    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
                                                                     xix




                         LIST OF APPENDIX




APPENDIX                           TITLE                          PAGE


A          Plan view, cross section view, location                84-85
           of Floodwall system


B          Data used in simulation process, recorded experiment   86-119
           data, plotted graphs.


C          Floodwall system photos                                120-124


D          Autocad drawing of designed floodwall system           125
                                                                                   1




                                   CHAPTER I




                                    PREFACE




1.1    Introduction




       Flood is the natural disaster mainly occurred along the riverside, floodplain
area which endanger or even sacrifice human, animal life, causing property losses,
stuck the economy activities, and letting the transportation system hang out, and
affecting certain ecosystem.


       The flood always causing damages not only to the properties, farms,
industries area, housing estate, transportation system nearby the riverside, but also
causing damages to the river bank. Bank erosion is an ongoing problem, as are
flooding and erosion-related sedimentation problems. (Goodwin, 1995)


       River rehabilitation is one of the flood control method, which is passive
method of flood control. The aim of these methods is to convey the flood flows
discharging from the upstream parts of the catchments towards a downstream
section, or recipient without endangering human lives and causing no, or but
minimal pre-calculated losses to property. River rehabilitation commonly divided
into two categories, one is water quality control, and another one is water quantity
control.
                                                                                      2


       The field of river rehabilitation or restoration has experienced considerable
growth in the last decade, particularly in Europe, the United States of America and
in Australia. In contrast, while there is a growing research interest in river
rehabilitation in South Africa, very few significant rehabilitation projects have been
undertaken and there is a lack of guidelines specific to South Africa. One of the
significant areas of progress in Australia has been the development of a framework
for planning rehabilitation projects. This framework was adopted, with slight
modification, as the basis for river rehabilitation planning in the project and specific
research projects were undertaken to develop components of a decision support
system to assist in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation projects.


       There are mainly four types of new solutions, flood wall around the world.
They are IFCW (Invisible Flood Control Wall), SRFW (Self Rising Flood Wall),
WIPP (Water Inflated Property Protector), and PFW (Personal Flood Wall).


       Self Rising Flood Wall is one of the hydraulic structures that newly invented
recently to be applied as the method of quality control for river rehabilitation. In
Malaysia, use the Self Rising Flood Wall concept as the method for to improve the
river rehabilitation work still uncommon. Basically, river rehabilitation for flood
control applied in Malaysia still using traditional method such as: construction of
earthen levees, dikes, river widening, deepening, construction of concrete wall to
protect the river bank and even using onsite detention pond method.


       In short, Self Rising Flood Wall (SRFW) is a proposed flood wall which will
design in this study; it is base on Self Closing Flood Wall (SCFW). Resemble to
SCFW system, SRFW is a fully automatic self-rising barrier wall, require no any
pumps, motors, electricity, or human intervention. As floodwaters reach the Flood
Barrier Wall an underground vault fills, causing the Wall to rise automatically,
preventing flood related losses. Once the floodwaters recede, the Wall automatically
retracts underground for future use.
                                                                                         3


1.2     Objective of Study




        The main objective of the study is to identify applicability and effectiveness
of floodwall system to flood control.




1.3     Scopes of Study




        The study will carry out in the Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory Faculty
of Civil Engineering, UTM. The scopes of study include:


   i.   Survey the latest information of the types of flood wall.
  ii.   Collecting dimension of artificial channel, model in laboratory which is
        physical model of Sungai Klang, Pandan Indah Section.
 iii.   Design floodwall system; determine material used, dimensions, weight of
        flood wall, with fixed water discharge, Q.
 iv.    Apply the principle of Archimedes, hydraulic lift force principles in the
        simulation.
  v.    Testing at laboratory.
 vi.    Analysis the result.




1.4     Importance of Study




        This study is conducted with a motive to orientate a new river rehabilitation
technology which have been applied in other pioneer country and introduce to our
                                                                                   4


country so that can improve the river rehabilitation method in our country instead of
using traditional method. Among the importance of the study are as below:


   i.   New solution of river rehabilitation during flooding season.
  ii.   Take over the traditional flood control system in Malaysia.
 iii.   A new system which combine flood control and river rehabilitation function.
 iv.    Protection of river bank and flood plain area.
  v.    Increase the option of the method of river rehabilitations.
                                                                                    5




                                   CHAPTER II




                             LITERATURE REVIEW




2.1    Introduction




       Flood can be occurred due to many reasons and it also have a wide range of
influences towards mankind, geology, ecology, sociology and many others field.
There are numerous of method to solve the flooding problem at a particular area.
River rehabilitation is one of the methods of flood control and mostly use as
traditional method to reduce the probability of flood or even eliminate the flood
disaster. There are many types of river rehabilitation works in water quantity control
such as: river deepening, widening, constructions of levees, dikes, concrete wall, and
flood wall. Self raising flood wall is a latest method can be applied as one of the
component of the river rehabilitation in water quantity control.
                                                                                      6


2.2     Causes of Flood




2.2.1 Intensity of Rainfall In Catchments Area




        The intensity of rainfall in the catchments area is the main cause of the flood.
If the rainfall is normal and the storm duration is short, then some of the surface run-
off will flow down smoothly through the tributaries and rivers, some will infiltrate
into the ground water system, this phenomenon will not create any trouble to the
downstream side. But if the rainfall is very heavy and the storm duration is longer,
then the surface run-off will be increased unexpectedly and it may exceed the
normal carrying capacity of the river and hence overtopping of the river bank may
occur and the surrounding area may get submerged.




2.2.2 Topography of The Catchments




        For catchments area with steep slope the run-off and sediment inflow will
increase due to the high velocity of the flow. While the catchments area with flatter
slope reduces the run-off and reduces the sediment inflow due to the low velocity of
flow because low velocity increase the travel time of overland flow, and therefore
decrease the infiltration of the run-off. So, the topography of the catchments area
directly affects the discharge of the river.
                                                                                     7


2.2.3 Sedimentation of Rivers




       Due to river bank erosion, waste of human being, animals and nature, the
sediment load in a river will increase. If the tributaries of a river carry heavy
sediment load the river bed goes on silting up gradually every year. Thus, the
carrying capacity of the river goes on reducing annually. Ultimately the cross
section of the river will be shallow and it will not be able to carry the high flood
discharge. The sedimentation of the river also is responsible for the flood.




2.2.4 Obstruction In The River Flow




       In hilly catchments area, sometimes it may happen that the debris from the
land slides may form an obstruction in the river valley like a dam, and thus a
reservoir may be formed on the upstream side. Due to heavy rainfall, when the water
pressure reaches a maximum value, then suddenly that obstruction may be removed
and a high column of water may rush downstream destroying roads and railway
bridges on its way and wipe out towns, villages, etc.


       The river obstruction was the main cause of the destructive flood on 4th Oct,
1968 in Jalpaiguri district in North Bengal. In that year, a vast land slide obstructed
the flow of Tista river just on the upstream side of Tista Bazar bridge( near
Kalimpong). Due to the nonstop rainfall for about a week, that obstruction was
suddenly removed and a water column of about 15m rushed downstream, destroying
Tista Bazar bridge, road and railway bridges near Jalpaiguri town and smashed
Jalpaiguri town on the night of 4th Oct 1968.
                                                                                   8


2.2.5 Contraction of River Section




       While constructing road or railway bridges across a river, the approach
works are done on both banks which reduce the cross-section of the river. Again, the
waterways provided by constructing piers may not be sufficient for the outlet of the
high flood discharge. In that case, the water rises on the upstream side due to
insufficient passage and thus the upstream area may get submerged.




2.2.6 Inadequate Cross Drainage Works




       In cross drainage works like aqueduct the river passes below the canal. Here,
the structure which is constructed for the smooth running of the river water may be
inadequate for the high flood discharge. Thus the water level may rise on the
upstream side and may submerge the surrounding area.




2.2.7 Negligence In Discharge Observation




       For the construction of bridges, cross drainage works, etc the hydrological
survey is very essential. It includes the observation of discharge of a river at
different sites. The discharges observation should be done sincerely and regularly at
the specified time. The discharge data and silt analysis data are sent to the design
office for the necessary design work of the structures. If the discharge records are
made arbitrarily and false statement are sent to the office then this might lead to a
serious consequence since the design is based on false statements. So, the observers
                                                                                  9


should be loyal to their duties and there should be no negligence in discharge
observation.




2.3      Effects of Flood




2.3.1 Bad Effects of Flood




2.3.1.1 Damage of Property




         When the villages or towns are submerged under considerable depth of water
(1.5m to 2m) with high velocity of flow, then many houses may collapse, furniture
and other valuable things may get damaged. If the flood water remains stagnant for
several days, it accelerates the damage of buildings and other structures




2.3.1.2 Loss of Life




         If the flood water suddenly submerges the inhabitant areas under high depth
and with high velocity the loss of life (both human and cattle) is more. The loss of
life will become maximum, if the flood water suddenly enters the inhabited areas at
night.
                                                                                     10


2.3.1.3 Water Logging




       The flood water may cause waterlogging in agricultural land making the soil
alkaline in nature and reducing the yield of crop. Again, if the water remains
stagnant for months, the cultivation of the land gets totally hampered.




2.3.1.4 Loss of Crops




       If the flood water enters are agricultural land where the crops are nearly
matured, they get totally spoiled. This loss of crops has financial implications for the
cultivations.




2.3.1.5 Disruption of Communication




       Due to the flood the culverts or bridges on the road and railways may be
damaged. In some places the roads or railways may be disrupted. This may pose
problem lems to the people.
                                                                                   11


2.3.1.6 Rise of Price of Food Grains




       When the road and railway communication is disrupted due to damage by
flood, the movement of the food grains and essential commodities is hampered. This
leads to the rise of price of food grains and other essential materials.




2.3.1.7 Loos of Work




       During the flood all types of works such as building works, road works,
agricultural works, etc remain suspended. So, the laborers who depend entirely on
such works become unemployed during the period of flood and their life becomes
miserable as they live a hand to mouth.




2.3.1.8 Epidemic




       During flood, the water gets contaminated and the whole environment
becomes polluted. Due to the pollution of water, the fishes carry germs of some
diseases like cholera, dysentery, etc there is every chance of outbreak of epidemic of
these diseases.
                                                                                  12


2.3.2 Good Effect of Flood




       The only good effect is that the agricultural land becomes enriched with silt
which has a good manure value and hence the yield of the crop becomes high.




2.4    Methods of Flood Control




       It is understood that flood control methods meaning to cover all the measures
taken to reduce the flood hazard along a particular river section. The methods
classified into diverse criteria where are: located within the basin as upstream and
downstream, whether constructional measures are involved, or not, constructional or
non-constructional, whether the flood runoff reduced, or not, and active and passive.
For this study, due to the flood control method we concern about is a passive method,
so we only focus on the comparison and introduction of the active methods and
passive methods.




2.4.1 Active Methods of Flood Control




       Active methods of flood control aimed for reducing the runoff and flood
discharges resulting from snowmelt and precipitation either by land retention,
subsurface, and surface storage.


       The first group of these measures belongs to the domain of land management,
or soil conservation and includes afforestation and selected timber cutting, grazing
control and range management, further agro technical methods, such as terracing,
                                                                                    13


strip cropping, water spreading and the use of proper crop rotation. Depth and
texture of soils, slope of terrain, annual precipitation and nature of rainfall are the
parameters which influencing the type of treatment to be applied on a particular area.


       The second group of active method measures is surface storage which
belongs mostly to the domain of hydraulic engineering and involves the construction
of reservoirs. Surface storage classified into uncontrolled and controlled.


       In uncontrolled storage no possibility is provided for regulating the outflow
from the impounding dam. While in controlled storage, gates, or valves are provide
to regulate the outflow according to a schedule devised to meet a range of interests.




2.4.2 Passive Methods of Flood Control




       Passive methods aimed for convey the flood flows discharging from the
upstream parts of the catchments towards a downstream section, or recipient without
endangering human lives and causing no, or but minimal, pre-calculated loss to
property. Normally these passive methods also can divide into two categories which
are constructional and non-constructional. For the constructional, there are: river
training, the construction of levees floodwalls and flashboards, floodways and
confinement dykes.


       Among the traditional flood control passive methods, levees are the primitive
measure, it consume much of the floodplain area, and this may causing some defects
to one town’s riverside view and causing economical losses. Huge earth levees
damage a town’s culture, charm, character, and history and riverfront heritage, erase
a community’s well-established identity, when important sites, landmarks like
museum, parks, historical structures are lost.
                                                                                     14


2.4.3 General Methods of Flood Control Passive Methods




2.4.3.1 Construction of Check Dam




        The check dams are constructed across the tributaries of river at a suitable
place near the confluence point. These are low dams like weirs where the surplus
dam through which the flood water flows out completely. In the other hand, the
numbers of opening are such that the water takes much time to discharge off
completely. Then, the sediments are blocked just at the base of the dam. The height
and section of the dam depends on the site condition. The dam may be constructed
with stone masonry or concrete. If required such types of low dams may be
constructed at different points of the tributaries.




2.4.3.2 Construction of Contour Bunds or Terrace Bunds




        Generally contour bunds are constructed in hilly catchments area, in rows at
different elevations transverses to the slope. These are low height embankments
constructed with earth work (with stone pitching) or stone masonry. The sediments
and surface runoff are arrested by these bunds before flowing towards river or lower
parts of catchments area.




2.4.3.3 Construction of Detention Reservoirs


        Reservoirs are formed on the upstream of the area to be protected or on the
head reach of the river. The mostly functions of the reservoirs is to store a portion of
                                                                                     15


the flood water temporarily to minimize the peak flow of flood discharge resulting
from precipitation, rainfall, snowmelt and others at the downstream area which is
desired to be protected. There are two types of flood control reservoirs: Detention
reservoirs, and retarding reservoirs.


       These are provided with outlets and spill ways with adjustable gates which
are operated according to the conditions of downstream area.




2.4.3.4 Construction of Retarding Reservoirs




           These reservoirs are not provided with gates on the outlets or spill ways.
The size and number of outlets are kept in such a way that the peak flood flow is
retarded and it take much times to discharge the flood storage water completely.




2.4.3.5 Provision For Flood Control In Multipurpose Reservoir




       Recently, in all multipurpose reservoir projects the provisions are made to
store the flood water at the top zone of the reservoir up to a specified limit. Then the
surplus water is released slowly by opening the spill way gates when the period of
heavy rainfall is over or the downstream area has no danger.
                                                                                      16


2.4.3.6 Construction of Levees or Dykes




           To confine the river water within a specified section, the levees as earthen
embankments constructed parallel to the river bank. Therefore, the surrounding area
may be protected from being flooded with high flow, extraordinary level of water
which may flow through the river during the heavy rainfall in catchments area. The
height and top width of the levees depends on the H.F.L. of the river. The side slope
varies from 2:1 to 3:1. The river side is protected by stone pitching and country side
is protected by turf. Commonly, the levees run along the river bank. Sometimes, the
levees may run some distance away from the river bank. In that case, river side areas
may remain unprotected. Evacuation should be done from these areas when the
flood warning is received in advance from the upstream gauge station or monitoring
station.




2.4.3.7 Construction Of Flood Walls




           Construction of the flood walls have certain relationship with the levees
which was when there are no space is available for the construction of levees or
when it is not suitable to construct the levee due to the site condition such as the site
consists of important landmarks, historical structures. The traditional flood walls are
made of masonry or concrete walls with certain thickness along the river side and
constructed merely on the river bank. It protected the river bank and the flood plain
behind river bank either when there is high flow of flood water. The traditional flood
wall have trapezoidal in section and act as retaining wall. Proper foundation should
be provided and all precautions should be taken against scouring. Nowadays,
modern flood walls such as Self Closing Flood Walls, Invisible Flood Control Walls,
Personal Flood Wall, and others have been invented and developed.
                                                                                   17


2.4.3.8 Constructions of Flood Ways




        Flood way known as the low lying areas along the course of the river. When
the floods happen, the river water may be diverted to these flood ways by artificial
channel. At the floodways, the flood water can be stored temporarily. When the river
flow recede the water from the flood way returns back to the river. So, actually the
flood ways are large shallow reservoirs created during the flood period only. At
other times the flood ways could be playing an important role for agriculture
functions such as irrigations works.




2.4.3.9 Construction of Diversion Channel




        A diversion channel can be excavated from the upstream side of the flood
affected area to connect the river with a large lake (marshy land). Furthermore, the
lake is connected to other rivers or any water courses by a link channel. Thus, the
flood water is diverted to the lake to reduce the water pressure at the flood affected
area. The water of the lake again flows to the other river which reduces the pressures
in the lake.




2.4.3.10       Construction of Cut-Off




        The velocity of flow and the rate of discharge will be reduces in case of
sharp bends in the course of a river. When large flood water discharge approaches
the sharp bend of the river, it overflows it banks and submerges the surrounding area.
                                                                                  18


So, the cut-off or chord channel may be constructed so that the water can flow with
high velocity along a straight path.




2.5    Benefits of Flood Control




2.5.1 Intangible Losses And Benefits




       The intangible losses are those which cannot be estimated in money values.
The following are the intangible losses,


           a) Loss of human life.
           b) Loss of health due to diseases caused by the flood.
           c) Loss caused by social distress.
           d) Loss due to hindrance in development works of towns or cities.


       All the above losses will be converted to benefits, if the flood control works
are done successfully.




2.5.2 Tangible Losses And Benefits




       The tangible losses are those which can be estimated in terms of some
money value. The following are tangible losses,


           a) Damage of personal properties like building, furniture, etc.
           b) Loss of Crops.
                                                                                   19


           c) Loss due to disruption of trade, business, etc.
           d) Loss due to disruption of road and railway communications.
           e) Additional expenditure for the safety against flood.
           f) Additional expenditure for medical care.


       All the above losses will be converted to benefits, if the flood control works
are done satisfactorily.




2.6    Categories Of River Rehabilitation




2.6.1 Water Quality Control




       This measure relate to the non-constructional river regulation which not
much contribute to the flood control matters. But its importance is more preferred by
the stability for a river biology and ecological system. This measure also importance
to maintain the river water quality so that of human activities and life style such as
water ways, irrigation, water supplies, agriculture and environment protection.




2.6.2 Water Quantity Control




       This measure always relate to the constructional passive method of flood
control such as river deepening, widening, river training, construction of reservoirs,
levees, dykes, floodwalls, flashboards, floodways and other hydraulics structures
which concern about physically water flow, water discharges, water level, and others.
                                                                                   20


2.7 Necessity of River Training Works




       River training works is one of the quantity control method for river
rehabilitation. Its most obvious function is to protect river bank, river bed,
downstream local scour and flood plain.


       The following statements are the reasons for river training works for a river.


     a) When a river flow is in trough stage, the tendency of river is to change its
         course frequently. So, proper protection works should be carried out and
         adopted at the place from where the change of course is suspected.


     b) When there is a heavy downpour occurred at a river, the flood water may
         increase the normal water level and the high flow may submerge the vast
         cultivated and inhabited area by overflowing the banks of the river. So,
         proper protection works should be conducted so that flood water does not
         overtop the banks.


     c) Structures which across the river or on the river such as bridge, culvert,
         barrage, weir and others may damage by the scouring or erosion effect of
         the river water. So, protection works should be provided to eliminate the
         scouring effect.


     d) There always a curve at some parts of river, so that strong and swift water
         flow may cause one bank goes on eroding continuously and this endanger
         villages or towns in that banks because it may regularly washed out. So, it
         is important to have bank protection to protect villages, towns, or valuable
         agricultural land appropriate measures should be taken.
                                                                                  21


2.8 Types of River Training Works




        The commonly used types of training works can be broadly classified as
bank protection, dikes, and grade control structures.




2.8.1 Bank Protection




        There are various types of bank protection available in the river engineering
field. The types include brick pitching, stone riprap, boulder pitching, and concrete
slab lining.




2.8.1.1 Brick Pitching




        Bamboo or timber piles of length 3m are use in this type of bank protection,
they driven at 15cm centre to centre along a line about 1m away from the toe of the
embankment. Cement concrete (1:3:6) of thickness 15cm is laid over a brick flat
soling on the space between the toe and the pile line. The sloping side is protected
by double layer brick pitching with cement mortar (1:6).
                                                                                   22


2.8.1.2 Stone Riprap




       Timber piles of length 3m are driven at 1m centre to centre along the line
about 1m away from the toe of the embankment. The piles are projected about 45cm
above the ground surface. Then sausage work (boulders enclosed in wire net) is
done along the space between the toe and the pile line, the slopping side is provided
with stone riprap which is finished with cement mortar.




2.8.1.3 Boulder Pitching




       Timber piles of length 4m to 5m are driven at 1m centre to centre along the
line about 1m away from the toe of the embankment. The piles are projected about
50cm above the ground surface. Then two layers of boulder apron is provided within
the space between the toe and the pile line. The sloping side is lined with boulder
pitching. The surface is finished with cement grouting.




2.8.1.4 Concrete Slab Lining




       A toe wall is constructed along the bank of the river. Concrete slabs are set
with cement mortar within the space between the toe of the embankment and toe
wall. The sloping joints are finished with cement mortar. Concrete slabs may be of
various dimensions according to the site conditions. Generally, concrete slabs of size
50cm x 50cm x 10cm are used.
                                                                                  23


2.8.2 Dikes




       Dikes are one of the river training method which extend from the river at an
angle, or perpendicular, to the flow. Dikes are usually used to form a system
covering a certain river reach. Dikes also serve one or more of the following
functions:


             a) Training a river along a desired course.
             b) Creating a region of low velocity to induce siltation.
             c) Protecting the bank by keeping the flow away.
             d) Contracting a wide river channel usually for the improvement of
                depth for navigation.




2.8.2.1 Permeable Dikes




       One example of this type of dikes is timber piles dikes and jetty fields. This
type of dikes permits flows through the dikes at reduced velocities, thereby
preventing the bank erosion and causing deposition of suspended sediment from the
flow. From experience, permeable dikes are more effective than solid ones as a bank
protection, especially in silt and sandy river bed. That is because permeable dikes
have the major advantages of being economical. They are extensively useful when
riprap is difficult to obtain and in deep rivers, where solid dikes are expensive. No
intensive eddies and severe scours holes will result after installing the permeable
dikes if the flow is not severely disturbed by the permeable dikes. However,
permeable dikes not enough strong for streams with a high velocity, submerged
dikes also present a hazard for navigation as well.
                                                                                       24


2.8.2.2 Impermeable Dikes




        This type of dikes also can call as solid dikes. It designed to attract, repel, or
deflect the flow away from the bank along a desired course of flow. They are often
rock-filled or built as masonry structure. The rock-filled dikes are constructed with
well-graded stones so that large voids are eliminated. The head and the toe of an
impermeable dike usually need to be armored heavily with materials like large
stones, concrete blocks, and so on. Such dikes also need to be extended sufficiently
deep into the bed because of the severe potential scour near the toe, around which
large stones are usually dumped. This dike can stay under water at high velocity but
promised the top material must be strong enough to withstand overtopping.




2.8.3 Grade Control Structure




        This type of river training works also called drop structures, stabilizers, weirs,
barrages, or check dams. It generally constructed normal to the channel flow and
traverse the channel bed. They are usually used in river channels to maintain a slope
flatter than the slope of the terrain. Stabilizers refer to sediment control structures
that are used primarily to stabilize the upstream channel bed where scour may
endanger certain structures such as bridge foundations. The crest of a structure
usually extends across the channel, and the side walls should extend into the bank
and have adequate bank protection to prevent flanking at high flows. Each structure
should also have adequate upstream and downstream protection. Dumped stones
should be placed on the downstream side to the anticipated scour depth. While a
grade-control structure stabilizes the upstream channel bed, it usually induces
downstream changes, which are either related to the gradation change in the reach or
to local scour, or both.
                                                                                       25


2.9 Types Of Modern Flood Walls




     Generally, modern flood wall have the classification as generic group such as:
panel barrier, air and water filled tube, filled container-permeable/impermeable,
flood barrier-with frame, flood barrier-rigid, flood barrier-free standing/flexible.




2.9.1 Panel Barrier




2.9.1.1 IFCW (Invisible Flood Control Wall)




       IFCW is not a traditional flood control system. It is a new method of flood
protection which require no a hugely invasive system that robs a community of its
charm, scenery and riverfront access. It is a removable floodwall. Most importantly
it is easy and fast to erect during flood season. Furthermore, it can be restoring after
flood season and leaving the waterfront free of obstruction.




       a) Commercial Establishment                          b) Closure Structure


                       Photo 2.1 Example application of IFCW.
                                                                                26




    a) Schools and Municipal Buildings                  b) Communities


                        Photo 2.2 Example application of IFCW.




2.9.1.2 Into-valve ‘Stop-log’ Removable Flood Barriers




        The Into-valve system consists of mild steel or aluminum stanchions with
plastic, marine-grade hardwood, aluminum or steel fencing planks. The system has
concealed location plates under lockable caps on the roadway. Installed onto these
plates are the stanchions, which can handle of various materials with an average
length of 2000mm.




2.9.1.2 Richardson Flood Control Panel Barriers




        Richardson Flood Control Products offers sheet metal and pre-cast concrete
panel barriers of varying sizes. These can be used separately or mounted on traffic
barriers(of US design). Some design are lightweight for hand installation with
interconnecting gaskets to accommodate corners and bends. All require a relatively
flat surface for installation.
                                                                                   27


2.9.2 Air And Water Filled Tube




2.9.2.1 WIPP Flood Protection-Standard Duty (SD) design




       This design is especially for light Commercial and residential applications. It
manufactured from polyethylene. The system heights ranging from 1-ft to 3-ft It is
designed for one or more installations. And it can be minimally patched in the field.
Repairs must be completed by the manufacturer. Last it is recommended for light
commercial or residential use.




                      Photo 2.3 WIPP Flood Protection Tube
                                                                                   28


2.9.2.2 WIPP Flood Protection-Max Duty (MD) & Heavy Duty (HD) design




       This design is for industrial and commercial applications. Owing to its
applications, it is manufactured from vinyl. The system’s height ranging from 1 feet
to 8 feet. It is designed for multiple installations and many years of service if used
and stored properly. It also can be permanently repaired if damaged. Last it is
recommended for industrial and heavy commercial use.




2.9.2.3 Mobile Dam




       The Mobile Dam system consists of Twin Flex tubes (two large tubes) made
of polyfibre coated with PVC, which are joined lengthways with special coupling
units. These couplings are hollow and made of aluminum. Each coupling has air and
water valves fitted internally to protect them during transportation. The couplings
may be closed between each tube section making it possible to differentiate the
water pressure inside each tube. The tubes are attached to the coupling by a
tightening clip before the Twin Flex tubes are filled with water. The system can be
unrolled as it is being filled to reduce the deployment time




                               Photo 2.4 Mobile Dam
                                                                                       29


2.9.3 Filled Container-Permeable/Impermeable




2.9.3.1 MRP System




       The MRP block system consists of a range of hollow, plastic, molded
interlocking units. Each unit is provided with interlocking features on all four edges.
A plugged hole on the top surface provides access to the interior for filling with sand
or water: pumps are also available for filling. The blocks are made of black
polyethylene, which is UV-stabilized. Wall and floor fixing plates and self-adhesive
strips are available for the interlocking surfaces. The system was designed
specifically for radiation resistance and, as such MRP has no data on its performance
flood conditions.




2.9.3.2 Quick Dam Flood Safety System




       The Quick Dam Flood Safety System consists of a simple steel tube
(aluminum tubing is an option for smaller sizes) covered with a specially formed,
flexible geo-textile fleece (permeable container), or for tensile strength, a water-
proof PVC-covered polyester textile (impermeable container). The open containers
are trapezoidal in shape and can be filled with sand, gravel, soil, stones, rock or
cinders (geo-textile fleece) and water (water proof high tensile polyester textile).
                                                                                30


2.9.4 Flood Barrier-With Frame


2.9.4.1 Portadam




       The unique "Portadam" system compromises of welded rectangular steel "A"
frames which are placed in the water course at pre-calculated intervals. A tailored
membrane is then suspended from the frames and lays along the "A" frame and bed
of the water course. Dewatering behind the "Portadam" system creates a hydrostatic
seal. (http://www.portadam.co.uk/ ,October 2005)




                               Photo 2.5 Portadam




2.9.4.2 Pallet Barrier




       The barrier consists of collapsible galvanized steel supports, which hold a
standard wooden Euro pallet. The supports are spaced one pallet width apart.
Introduction of a double support beam construction and horizontal connecting rods,
which fix the distance between supports to the required 1.2m, has made construction
easier. The pallets are fixed to the supports and covered with a waterproof
polypropylene membrane. Sand bags are used to hold down the leading edge of the
                                                                                    31


membrane and clips hold the membrane in place on the top of the pallets. The sand
bags are fastened to the membranes by sealer clips.




                               Photo 2.6 Pallet Barrier




2.9.5 Flood Barrier-Rigid




2.9.5.1 PFW (Personal Flood Wall)




       Actually it is the wall surrounds the house and is located three to six feet
away from the existing outside wall of the house. It stands three feet above the grade
level of the home. It is three - four feet thick. Then, the sides of the personal flood
wall are made out of plastic. This flood wall use sand as intermediate medium for
water tight utilities. Then, it need pump to pump out water out of the wall, due to
expected small leakage of the wall.
                                                                                    32




                               Photo 2.7 Construction of PFW




2.9.5.2 SCW (Self Closing Wall Dam)




       This type of flood wall consists of a basin with a floating wall underground.
There is a lid and closing surface locks the wall. When water rise, the basin filled up
with a polymer/PVC filling pipe. When water subsides, the basin drained off the
water with a drained pipe and a one way check valve. After the flood wall locate to
the original position, the lid close the opening to keep debris out.




                          Figure 2.1 SCW Concept Drawing
                                                                                     33


2.9.5.3 Flood Barrier Wall




        It is a fully automatic self-rising barrier wall. It operates without the use of
any pumps, motors, electricity, or human intervention. As floodwaters reach the
Flood Barrier Wall an underground vault fills, causing the Wall to raise
automatically, preventing flood related losses. Once the floodwaters recede, the
Wall automatically retracts underground for future use.




                              Photo 2.8 Flood Barrier Wall




2.9.5.4 The Meiklewall Rising Flood Wall




        The wall is composed of units 1 metre long bolted together to form sections
from 1 to 20 metre long which have an ornamental pillar approximately 2 metre high
at each end. The pillars are used to join adjacent sections and allow the wall to curve
to suit the bends in the river.
                                                                                  34




               Figure 2.2 Operation of Meiklewall Rising Flood Wall




2.9.5.5 Dam-IT Flood Gates/ Presray Flood Gates




       The Presray model FB55 (a bottom-hinged ‘flip-up’ flood gate with
inflatable gaskets and the BF44 hinged gate) is one of a series of flood gates and
flood panels manufactured in the UK by Dam-it (Flood Protection) Ltd under license
from the Presray Corporation in the USA. The products rely on continuous
pneumatic seals to the perimeter of the panels. The system can be raised or lowered
by either manual or mechanical means as and when emergency situations arise or
subside. The gate offer protection up to height of 2.4m. Custom-made gates are
possible for higher units. The gates are suitable for any commercial, industrial or
municipal location. When not in use, the gate is recessed into the floor. The exposed
surface is constructed of diamond plate to allow the passage of traffic.
                                                                                  35




                            Photo 2.9 Presray Flood Gates




2.9.6 Flood Barrier-Free Standing/ Flexible




2.9.6.1 Bolt Down Rapidam Barrier




       It is a flexible flood barrier which is portable, and reusable. It also mainly
used in urban area. Threaded sleeves are pre-installed into a prepared surface.
During deployment, eyelets on the barriers are aligned with these sleeves and the
barrier is secured into place using eyebolts.




2.9.6.2 Free Standing Rapidam Barrier




       It’s difference from Bolt Down Rapidam Barrier is that it used in both urban
and rural area. That is because its temporary free standing design is suitable for
these two areas’ soil conditions. It also need no prior work before deployment and it
                                                                                       36


consists of PVC-coated linen fabric sections, which are joined to form a barrier. The
barrier can reach a height of 1.0m and it’s cross section is in triangular shape.




2.9.6.3 Water-Gates Instant Water Barrier




       Water-Gates Instant Water Barrier is a portable and reusable flood barrier
system. This type of flood barrier can be self-filling as when water enters over the
front ‘bib’, the barrier will form a wedge shape and thus creates the barrier. The
water pressure on the barrier hold the barrier in place. Then, the horizontal force
exerted on the barrier is equal to the vertical force. The width of the base is greater
than the depth the water being held back, this making the pressure (force/area)
applied to the base greater. Individual units are joined together to form a barrier.




                        Photo 2.10 Water-Gates Instant Water Barrier
                                                                                    37


2.10   Influences of Flood Walls




2.10.1 River Bank Protection




       The main problem facing by the river bank is the erosion or scouring. So,
protecting river bank is one of the main task for the flood wall. With flood wall, the
soil located along the river bank is protected from washing out by the high flow of
flood water. After the construction of the flood wall, river bank stability can be
maintained, this assisting the river training works or even reduce the cost for river
training maintenance. With flood walls, will improving traditional river
rehabilitation works.


       The vegetation growth along the river bank also can be rehabilitate with the
construction of the flood walls. Once the vegetation growth is stable, the biological
and ecosystems can be conserved.




2.10.2 Flood Plain Area Protection




       Flood plain area is an integral part of the local landscape which along a river,
it usually undeveloped and relatively undisturbed include riparian areas (corridors of
natural vegetation alongside rivers), marshes (low-lying areas where there is water at
or near the ground surface throughout the entire year), and swamps (areas where
there is water at or near the ground surface during the late fall). These area is
important for giving some benefits such as environmental, conservations,
agricultural and aesthetic benefits.


       Obviously, without the protections of the flood wall, these area will be
washed out by the high velocity flood water, this causing damage of agricultural,
                                                                                     38


plantation area, affecting the soil conditions (especially flooding by the sea water or
polluted river water), causing pollution and diseases at the flood plain area.


       Flood wall also protected the habitat for wildlife, valuable flora and fauna
species, herbaceous plant and other valuable creatures.


       Further more, flooding water which immediately hitting and even damage
the riparian areas corridors of vegetation along the rivers will affect the stability of
the riverbanks, destroy the important travel ways for migrating and resident wildlife,
this may eventually causing the non-balance of ecology system. Riparian areas also
prevent erosion, and willing filter surface waters removing nutrients and impurities
from runoff. By protecting riparian area in the flood plain will also reduce damage
to downstream areas.




2.10.3 Residential Area Protection




      Owing to the convenience of the waterway for transportation uses, water
resources, and economical purposes: plantation, paddy irrigation, industry and
factory operations, mining activities, tourism, agricultural, fishery, and food
productions, people are more preferred living along the riverside. Therefore, there
are many residential area along the riverside. With the availability of the flood walls,
these areas can be protected from directly expose to the flood hazard after the heavy
rainfall, snowmelt or precipitation.


      For those residential area which is very closed to the riverbank, flood wall
become the best flood solution. That is because the construction of the flood wall do
not as construction of levees which requires a lot of space, instead it only consume
small space to build.
                                                                                   39


       Further more, the flood wall can provide the instant protection for these area,
not as sand bagging, if the flooded river lack of river training, such as channel
alignments. In fact, rigid flood walls is the long life flood control method and it
remain long term at the particular areas.




2.11   Benefits of Self-Rising Flood Wall




2.11.1 Working Principles




        It is very convenient to work because it is fully automatic, this making the
labor requiring, intensive practice of sandbagging thing of the past. Its fully
automatic working method making people saving time, money, energy to install
flood protection equipment such as sand bag, and it no need labor to rehabilitate the
river side after the flood. The flood wall also designed very light and easy to
assemble.




2.11.2 Economic




        It is very economic because using inexpensively material to erect. It saving
other times, money, and energy to install and uninstall flood protection equipment
such as sand bag. It also need low maintenance cost to maintain. It is also very
economic because using not very high technology and installation method to install.
                                                                                      40


2.11.3 Aesthetic




       This flood wall is underground storage design. So, it allows the property the
flood protection while remaining esthetically unchanged. In a nutshell, this flood
wall does not damage the significant building, important site, landmarks, historical
site because it using small space to erect. It also does not disturb the riverside view.




2.11.4 Environment




       It is an environmental friendly flood wall because the material used to
construct the flood wall is non-toxic, non-corrosive and free-standing or fit to
existing riverbank walls. Most importantly it can protect river bank, flood plain.




2.12 Application of Self-Raising/ Self-Closing Flood Walls




2.12.1 Underground Parking Complex




       For this application, single opening nominal 4’ x 8’, hinged flood door is
used. The hydrostatic design pressure for 8 feet of water is condidered. During
actual flooding, door performed without leakage at water heights exceeding design
pressure and hence protect the underground parking complex from flooded.
                                                                                  41


2.12.2 Sanitary Sewer Lift Station




         This application using a flood shields nominal 3’ x 7’ to cover personnel
doors on a new structure. Cast-in-place frames with stainless steel personnel doors
have been provided. Flood shields were lift-off type, designed for approximately 10
feet of hydrostatic pressure. These doors have been in place for over ten years, with
exposure to many floods. Inspections have revealed no seepage when exposed to
water.




2.12.3 Water Treatment Facility




         There are multiple openings to surround an entire water treatment plant
consisting of several structures. And twenty-six openings consisted of small
ventilation louver openings up to vehicle sized openings. Hydrostatic pressure
design heights up to 8 feet. All panels incorporated lift-off flood shields, retrofit
frames, storage carts, and installation sequencing timetables. Retrofit framing at
personnel doorways needed to be minimized for aesthetics and obstruction to
personnel traffic.




2.12.4 Administration Building




         The self-raising flood wall with multiple hinged openings have been applied.
It is important as function of flush sill for pedestrian traffic.
                                                                                   42


2.12.5 Industrial Complex




       Multiple vehicle openings to close off roadway openings in a perimeter
floodwall application. The flood wall have nominal opening widths of 24 feet and 36
feet, all with hydrostatic pressure design height of up to 8 feet. These units were
furnished with frames for cast-in-place installation within their flood wall system.
Can be the flush sill for driveway application. It also having compression gasketing.




2.13   Case Study of Application of Self-Raising/Self-Closing Flood Walls




2.13.1 Case Study in United Stated of Amerika




       Combining flood proofing barriers with wet flood proofing measures,
developers of a commercial/residential project in an eastern metropolitan city turned
an unsightly, deteriorating industrial area in a floodplain into one of the nation's
most valuable pieces of real estate. Constructed on the banks of a large river, the
3.5-acre complex consists of two upscale office and condominium buildings that
share a common foundation and parking garage. An innovative, almost invisible
flood proofing system with retractable floodgates protects the complex and its shops,
restaurants, and businesses.


       Specifically designed to preserve the scenic views and water access during
non-flood conditions, the floodwall system includes 58 watertight floodgates hidden
in vertical pockets in the parking garage beneath the plaza. A counter-flooding
system protects the complex from hydrostatic uplift.


       The slow-rising floodwaters of the river were an important consideration in
the design of this system. A minimum 12-hour warning is required to raise the
                                                                                     43


floodgates and form a continuous floodwall protecting the complex. The gates are
located in place between concrete pylons disguised as ornamental columns topped
with globe lights.


       Floodgates are equipped with inflatable seals-designed to withstand the
pressures of a 100-year flood-running continuously around three edges of the gate.
When inflated, the seals provide a watertight barrier when the gate is raised. The
force of the water on a P-seal on the back side of the gate provides an absolutely dry
condition on the land side. Once the gates are raised, the seals are inflated with a
hand-held air compressor.


       For aesthetic reasons, the 58 gates are hidden in vertical pockets beneath the
plaza until flooding occurs. A crane then lifts the gates from their pockets. Together,
the 58 flood gates and five swing gates (located at service entrances) provide 960
linear feet of floodwall protection. In the plaza area, the gates run continuously for
590 linear feet. Building walls serve as a flood barrier where possible.


       At six feet above flood stage, the complex becomes an island. Without
protective measures, hydrostatic uplift could cause portions of the building and plaza
to pop up like a cork. To prevent this, a carefully controlled counter-flooding system
floods the lower level of the parking garage. Designed for redundancy, the counter-
flooding system consists of three inlet screens, three intake structures, and five pipes.
For aesthetic reasons, the intake structures each-17 feet long-are concealed below
benches outside the floodgates. To prevent excess debris from entering the garage,
these structures collect water from below the debris-filled surface of the floodwater.
Through a series of valves located on the upper level of the parking garage, the
water is gradually introduced into the lower level. To control ballasting, the system
introduces one inch of water into the garage for each inch the river rises. Each pipe
is equipped with two valves to ensure that the water can be shut off manually or with
electric motors. After a 100-year flood, two 800-gallon-per-minute sump pumps can
evacuate eight million gallons of water from the parking garage in only 3.5 days.
                                                                                      44


2.13.2 Meiklewall Flood Wall System




       Wayne Fisher sits atop one of the largest side hinged watertight gates
designed and built by Presray. This particular assembly has since been installed at a
hospital truck entrance (see image below). The owners insisted upon a gate that
could be closed quickly by one person and would be "out of the way" during an
open conditions. We met their expectations. Although the gate weighs over 4 tons,
one person can easily close the gate, throw the latches, and fully activate the seals in
less than 4 minutes.




2.14 Summary




       After the literature review towards various kind of flood wall system all
around the world, and consideration of laboratory condition, can be found that self
closing flood wall system (SCFW) is the best flood wall system that can be referred
to design the flood wall system in the study which is Self Rising Flood Wall system.
That is because self closing flood wall have the easy concept of operation, economic,
and is believe that suitable for the use of fundamental modeling of flood wall system
for the beginner.
                                                                                   45




                                   CHAPTER III




                         METHODOLOGY OF STUDY




3.1    Introduction




       Owing to the self rising flood wall still the latest technology in Malaysia and
even in the world. This study practically do not have a site to do the research,
instead of it, the model of the flood wall will be construct and testing, experiment
will be carry out in the Hydrology and Hydraulic Laboratory of Civil Engineering
Faculty, UTM. Then, the model of the river will be used for the study is physical
model for Klang River, Pandan Indah Section.


       The purpose to do this study is parallel to the objective of the study which is
to identify applicability and effectiveness of Self Rising Flood Wall as method of
quality control for river rehabilitation in practice using best design parameters such
as: weight of flood wall, material of flood wall, dimensions of flood wall, with fixed
water discharge, Q.


       The procedures to conduct the research of study will be show out in Figure
3.3.
                                                                                     46


3.2    Identify The Title of The Study




       This step of methodology is important to determine the objective, scope of
the study, and it helps the following jobs to complete the study such as finding the
relating articles, references and literature reviews.




3.3    Literature Review of Study




       This step is important to narrow the scope of the study, and it also helping
more understand about the study. There are plenty of methods to do the literature
review of the study, such as: Library, Resources Center, Project Room in Hydraulic
and Hydrology Laboratory and Internet access. From these mentioned methods, can
find resources which are relate to our study such as books, journals, internet articles,
thesis, research paper, dissertations, CDs, and others.


       The outputs of the literature review for the study are determination of the
latest technologies of flood wall around the world, flood wall operation principles,
and suitable material for flood wall modeling.




3.4    Determine The Model of Pandan Indah Section




       Pandan Indah Section is a part of Klang River, the modeling ratio is 1: 20,
while the water flow rate, Q model is 0.115 m3/s for water depth of 0.20m; 0.075
m3/s for water depth of 0.15m; 0.041m3/s for water depth of 0.10m, and 0.014 m3 /s
for water depth of 0.05m.
                                                                                   47


3.5    Measurements Determinations




       For upstream, the depth of the model is 250mm+IL, width of the model is
1000mm; for chain-age 6.0-8.5, the depth of the model 205mm+IL, width of the
model is 1000mm.




3.6    Application For The Uses of Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory




       This is the official procedure to conduct the study in the laboratory. A formal
application letter consists of project title, equipments needed, supervisor name and
jobs will be carrying out stated.




3.7    Flood Wall Design




3.7.1 Flood Wall Model Sketching




       Flood wall model is sketch in this step so that the decisions of the dimension
of flood wall model can be make. By sketching the flood wall model, flood wall
operation principles also could be determines and decide. The design of the flood
wall model system is modify from the existing flood wall system, which is self
closing flood wall. Basically, the self rising flood wall is designed base on the self
closing flood wall.
                                                                                      48


                                                 Plywood   Plastic Net
                                Floodwall                          Entrance
                                                                   holes for
                                                                   flood
                                                                   water

                                                                Removable
                                                                plyw ood
                                                                stick
                                                                    Normal
                                                                    Level




                                Nail as spacer             Polystyrene




                 Figure 3.1 Typical Sketching of Flood Wall System



                                                  Supporting Plywood
                                                 Small Basin




                                                               Model
                                                               channel




                                     Floodwall                  Plywood




                      Figure 3.2 Plan View of Flood Wall System




3.7.2 Flood Wall Operation Principles




        Due to the title of the study, the flood wall to be construct for the research is
self rising flood wall, and the operation principles is determine at this stage. Some
survey of the operation principles of flood wall had already done during literature
review. Finally the hydraulic lift force becomes the principle as a blue plan to design
the self rising flood wall.
                                                                                    49


3.7.2.1 Hydraulic Lift Force Principle




       Regarding the principle mentioned above, when extra pressure is applied to a
fluid enclosed in a container. Engineers use this principle to create a hydraulic lift,
shown in the Figure 3.1


       In Figure 3.1, when a force is applied to the small piston, the small piston
pushes on the liquid with a certain pressure. The same pressure pushes against
everything in the system, including the large piston.


       Pressure is defined as the force exerted on a unit area of a surface. The
formulas are shown as below:



                     force                      F
        pressure =              ,          p=                  (Equation 3.1)
                     area                       A




       To let force is alone on one side of the equation, rearrange the above
equation, then multiply both side by area, which will cancel on the right side:



                             force
        pressure × area =          × area                      (Equation 3.2)
                             area




Hence, become:



        pressure × area = force        ,            p× A = F   (Equation 3.3)
                                                                                    50


3.7.2.2 Example of The Hydraulic Lift Force Principle




        Due to the combination of basic equation of pressure with the hydrostatic
fluid pressure principle, we obtain the principle of hydraulic lift force principle. An
example to prove principle is: suppose that the area of the large piston is 100 times
the area of the small piston. Because the pressure is the same everywhere in the
liquid container, the upward force on the large piston will be 100 times as large as
the downward force on the small piston.


        Because force can be multiplied in this way, hydraulic force is used in
devices like automobile lifts and barber chairs. It is hydraulic force that enables a
driver to stop a moving car by only pushing on the brake pedal by his leg.


        The hydraulic lift force principle will be applied in the study as an attempt
ion to lift the self rising flood wall.




                 Figure 3.3 Operation of Hydraulic Lift Force Principle
                                                                                      51


3.7.2.3 Principle of Archimedes




       This principle will also apply in the research of study. That is because in the
self rising flood wall system, the flood wall is designed remain floating on a fluid
surface. That fluid probably will be the oil. By using this principle, we can make
sure that the flood wall always stability and able totally floating on that particular
fluid. This is the basic principle as we know that, if the gravity force is greater than
the up thrust, then the floating body will sink; if the gravity force is smaller than the
up thrust, then the floating body will remain floating.




3.7.2.4 Buoyant Force, FB




       Calculation and measure the buoyant force, FB on the flood wall caused by
beneath fluid surface is state as below:
           a) Prepare the flood wall panel.
           b) Measure the height h, width, w, and length, l of the flood wall panel
               with the scale ruler.
           c) Then the volume of the flood wall panel can be calculated using


                                            πhD
                                            2            2
                                    D
               Vsample = πr 2 h = π   h =                   (Equation 3.4)
                                    2       4

           d) The flood wall panel will be immersed into fluid. So the volume of
               displaced fluid due to the flood wall panel will be

               Vdisplacedfluid = Vsample                      (Equation 3.5)


           e) Then, the weight W of the displaced fluid is

               Wdisplacedfluid = m fluid g = ρ fluidVg        (Equation 3.6)
                                                                                         52


               where ρ fluid is the density of the fluid. And according to Archimedes

               Principle, the weight of the displace fluid is equal to the magnitude of
               the buoyant force:


                FB = Wdisplacedfluid                           (Equation 3.7)




3.7.2.5 Stability




       Another interesting and important problem associated with submerged or
floating bodies is concerned with the stability of the bodies. A body is said to be in a
stable equibilium position if, when displaced, it returns to its equilibrium position.
Conversely, it is in an unstable equilibrium position if, when displaced (even
slightly), it moves to a new equilibrium position.
       For this study, as the flood wall panel in the equilibrium condition, two basic
forces are at work. The first is gravity, a naturally downward force that is trying to
pull your boat toward the center of the earth. The second force is buoyancy, which
effectively moves your boat upward to the point equal to the weight of the amount
of water the boat is pushing out of the way.


       If you look at a cross-section of your boat's hull, sitting level in the water,
you can imagine two theoretical points. The Center of Gravity (CG) will be in the
very center of the entire hull space. The other point, the Center of Buoyancy
(CB), will be in the center of underwater portion of your boat.
                                                                                     53




                       CG                                         CG


                          CB                            CB
                                                                   C

                 Stable                                                  Unstable


          Figure 3.4 Condition of stable and unstable for a floating particle

       When the CG and the CB are vertically aligned, the flood wall is level. If the
flood wall is constructed properly, CG will always vertically aligned with CB. The
distance between the Center of Gravity and the Center of Buoyancy is called the
righting arm. The weight of the boat is pushing down at the CG and the weight of
the water is pushing up at the CB. This situation creates a rotating force or motion
that is called the righting moment.




3.7.3 Flood Wall Material Determination




       In this step, flood wall material has to be determined. The option of the
material is suggested such as: polystyrene with steel mesh reinforcement, fiber glass,
balsa wood, asphalts, reinforced polyester (GRP) and filled up with synthetic-foam.
Finally we use the fiberglass material as the material of floating part of flood wall
system. Next to this, collections of the materials have to go, like purchasing, or reuse
former or extra materials for certain other projects.
                                                                                  54


3.7.4 Optimum Design Parameters




        This is the essential concentration criteria for the study, because it is the
important elements to achieve the objective study. In short, with the parameters, we
can determine the most effective and applicability of self rising flood wall so that
further we can conclude the identification of the effectiveness and applicability of
the self rising flood wall.




3.7.4.1 Design Parameters of The Flood Wall




        Design approximate dimensions of the flood wall also a part of flood wall
design parameters. Anyway, during the initial stage, only manual calculation of
optimum dimensions of flood wall can be done. The practically optimum
dimensions of flood wall for the model only can obtain after doing the regularly
experiments. The dimensions of the Flood Wall are:


        a)    Height
        b)    Length
        c)    Thickness
        d)    Basin Width
        e)    Basin Depth
        f)    Weight
                                                                                     55


3.7.4.2 Other Design Parameters




          Except flood wall design parameters others parameters for the whole flood
wall system also have to determine initially by manual calculation such as
spreadsheet, that is Microsoft Excel. These parameters are dimensions for both large
piston and small piston, weights for both small piston and large piston, and assumed
water levels, volume of water enter the basin.




3.7.4.3 Data Scheduling




          By using table, data is scheduled neatly and this help other and our self easy
to understand the parameters results. The example table for design parameters has
shown as Table 3.1 and Table 3.2


          Table 3.1 Example data scheduling for design parameters (dimensions)


Dimensions                 SCW 500         SCW 1000          SCW 1500         SCW 2000
Protecting height
                                500              1000             1500              2000
(mm)
Minimum length
                               1000              1000             1000              1000
element
Standard element
                               4000              4000             4000              4000
lengths
Width of the lid                200              200               200               250
Basin depth                    1150              1650             2150              2650
Basin width
                                500              750              1000              1250
(bottom plate)
                                                                                      56



            Table 3.2 Example data scheduling for design parameters (weights)


Weights

Weight floating
                                 36                40                44                55
wall kg/m
Floating power
                                142               165               216               415
kg/m
Weight basin /
                                245               336               443               657
meter
Total weight
                                281               376               487               712
/meter




3.7.5       Design Software




          The design software will be use to design the floodwall system is Autocad
2005, and Microsoft Excel.




3.8         Construction of Self-Rising Flood Wall




          The site for the construction of self rising flood wall is in the Hydraulic and
Hydrology Laboratory, located at model of Klang River, Pandan Indah Section.
Before the building of self rising flood wall, some procedures have to undergo, as
following:discussion with the laboratory technician, preparation of equipments and
materials, purchase the materials.
                                                                                 57


3.8.1 Discussion With The Laboratory Technician




       Before building the self rising flood wall at the existing model of Klang
River, Pandan Indah Section, the discussion with the laboratory technician is
necessary. The purpose to have this discussion is to familiar with the model and the
condition, that is because technician have more experience to do the modification
work due to more familiar with the model and its conditions. In the other hand,
modification of the model of Klang River need many helping hands and others’
opinion and guides.




3.8.2 Preparation of Equipments And Materials.




       Equipments which are determined before now can be prepare, and this mean
that apply the supply of material from the fund of research which allocated to
lecturer, laboratory administration and borrow the relevant equipments and tools of
the study from the laboratory administration. Apart from this, can also getting the
flood wall materials from previous projects which left the extra material.




3.8.3 Controlling And Supervision




       Any construction work need controlling and supervision so that the
construction work is qualified and follow the requirements and standards, and safety
guaranteed, so as the construction of self rising flood wall. Controlling and
supervision carry out is confirm there is no dimension, geometry error made.
                                                                                     58


3.9    Experiments of Flood Wall




       After constructing the flood wall, experiments can be conduct to test the
applicability of the flood wall in practice. The flood wall for experiments will be
following the theoretically calculated dimensions, weights, using variable of water
level, discharge of flow. In the experiments, certain data will be collected such as
water level, discharge of flow, water pressure apply to the large piston, flooding
periods to certain water level. Experiments will carry on until the optimum condition
of self rising flood wall achieved that is when the self rising flood wall can rising up
without overtopping, and can resist the lateral water acting forces. However, certain
tests to determine the effectiveness of the designed self rising flood wall will be
conducted later.




3.9.1 Preparations of Experimental Equipments




       In order to apply the experimental equipments from the laboratory smoothly,
the equipments for the experiments of flood wall will be firstly determined.




3.9.1.1 Current Meter


       This equipment is use to measure the velocity of the water flow when the
experiment is carry out. The unit of the reading is meter per second (m/s), this
equipment functioned using the dry batteries.
                                                                                 59


3.9.1.2 Weights




       The weights will be use during the design of flood wall system or before the
experiments mainly measure the weights of flood wall, pistons, floating particles
(polystyrene) and others.




3.9.1.3 Stop Watch




       Stop watch is use to measure the time to reach a certain water level, and the
time to rise up and fall down of the flood wall when the flood water reduce.




3.9.1.4 Scale Ruler




       Normally people using this equipments to measure the water level of the
flow of the flood water.




3.9.2 Collecting Experiment Parameters Data




       This step involve data collecting, data scheduling, systematic store the
collected data. This step is important as the previous data recordation is very
important as the references and comparison for the next coming experiments.
                                                                                          60


3.9.2.1 Data Analysis




       The jobs included in this step are varies, such as plotting graph, for an
example: plotting the graph of increasing pressure and decreasing pressure versus
load of piston, computer modeling and others. This important for us to make
comparison of the experiments with theoretical results, and making change and
modification of our design. Next, it also very important to prove the actual
phenomena during the experiment and can be the reference for our design.




                  Collect data and information of physical lab.
                            Model (straight channel)




                                                                        Principle of
                                                                        Archimedes
                                                  Theoretical
                Material and Equipments
                      Preparation
                                                    design

                                                                        Hydraulic Lift
                                                                        Force Principle

                        Construction of
                        Floodwall System


                                                            Two polystyrene with
                                                             plywood floodwall
                          Lab test and
                          Experiments                       Two polystrene with
                                                              FRP floodwall

                                                             One polystrene with
                        Data stored                          plywood floodwall
                        and analysis
                                                             One polystrene with
                                                               FRP floodwall

                          Conclusion




                 Figure 3.5 Flow Chart of Methodology of Study
                                                                                    61




                                    CHAPTER IV




                DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS DISCUSSION




4.1    Introduction




       The Floodwall System is originally designed using principle of hydraulic lift
force, but since the practical experiment is fail to rise up the flood wall even though
in theoretical it does. Therefore, in order to rise up the floodwall and accomplish the
floodwall system to get the experimental data, the principle used to redesign the
floodwall system is principle of Archimedes which using buoyancy forces to rise up
the floodwall. The data is taken from the structure (Floodwall System) built at the
location shown in the figure in Appendix A. The type of data taken comprises of
water flow velocity, time, floodwall rising elevation, and the produced data after
calculation are flow rate, water height, water volume. The data collected and
produce will then be analysis which is comparison of floodwall height at certain
times with different flow rate, floodwall height at certain water height (water
volume into the floodwall system basin) with different flow rate, and water height at
certain times with different flow rate.
                                                                                 62


4.2    Design of Flood Wall System




       Due to that the floodwall system model have to construct at the existed river
channel model which was physical model for Klang River, Pandan Indah Section in
the Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory, therefore information and condition of the
river model have to be collected at the very initial stage. These information
including the length of each particular parts of river model, width of river model,
maximum water flow level of the river model condition of the river model such as
slope. Information about the landscape and geometry of the river model is shown in
Appendix A, information of maximum water level is gained from testing of the river
model which is 266mm from the surface of the channel bed, where the slope at the
river model also determined and described as Figure 4.1.




                                                                  366 mm (Height of Existing
            382 mm
                                                                  Plywood Board)


        16 mm


                                    610 mm



                Figure 4.1 Slope of the Klang River, Pandan Section Model


       Design of flood wall system can be start using Autocad depend on the
information gained at earlier stage. The length of the flood wall system is 1 meter.
The designed cross section and plan view of the flood wall system is shown in
Appendix A. The ability of flood wall system can be modeled using spread sheet or
Microsoft Excel. The following shown the design sheet of hydraulic forces principle
and principle of Archimedes to determine the designed specimen of flood wall
system can be apply or not.
                                                                                   63


4.2.1 Main Data




       Before doing the experiment, some main data of flood wall system
components have to be collected to determine the availability size that can be apply
in the system. Some assumptions have been made before the experiment and both
collected or assumed values of components can be become un-adjustable or fixed
parameters of the system. As for experiment base on hydraulic force lift principle,
the un-adjustable parameters are small/large piston size and small/large basin size;
the adjustable parameters are flood wall material, size. As for experiment base on
Archimedes principle, the un-adjustable parameters are flood wall width, small
basin size, large basin size (which have been constructed as designed). So, the
adjustable parameters are flood wall height and length (affecting weight) (excluding
FRP flood wall height due to too hard to cut off), polystyrene length (affecting
weight and volume). In the design of flood wall system before running the
experiment, assumption have been made for the theoretical calculation like
polystyrene (floating particles) weight and size, and if can not applicable during the
experiment, the parameters can be adjusted for the theoretical calculations.




4.2.2 Design sheet of Hydraulic Lift Forces principle



       Base on the Equation 3.3, the design sheet can be done using spread sheet of
Microsoft Excel as following:
                                                                                              64



           Table 4.1: Determination of pressure, P produced from small piston
                                                      Small piston &
                                                      water

 water
 height        A1 (cm)      v             F water     m(kg)     F piston     F total      P
         0          400            0             0       0.5         4.905        4.905   0.012263
       6.6          400         2640       25.8984       0.5         4.905     30.8034    0.077009
     12.85          400         5140       50.4234       0.5         4.905     55.3284    0.138321
     21.22          400         8488      83.26728       0.5         4.905   88.17228     0.220431
      23.6          400         9440       92.6064       0.5         4.905     97.5114    0.243779




              Table 4.2: Determination of pressure, P produced from small piston
 Large piston(flood wall)

                                                          m(kg)           floodwall
 P                  A2          width      F              (height)        (kg)            KN
       0.012263       1050         10.5        12.87563          1.3125         0.7125     6.989625
       0.077009       1050         10.5        80.85893          8.2425         7.6425     74.97293
       0.138321       1050         10.5        145.2371          14.805         14.205     139.3511
       0.220431       1050         10.5        231.4522        23.5935         22.9935     225.5662
       0.243779       1050         10.5        255.9674        26.0925         25.4925     250.0814




4.2.3 Design Sheet of Principle of Archimedes (Buoyancy Forces)




          Before doing the experiment to test the floodwall system to get the required
data, there are some theoretical calculation using spread sheet of Microsoft Excel by
using the existing theoretical equation shown as below:


          From the equation, F1 = p1A
                                   = ρgh1A


where ρ = density of the floater
      g = gravity acceleration, 9.81
      h1 = distance from top of floater to the surface water
      A = surface area of floater
                                                                                  65


       and the equation F2 = p2A
                              = ρgh2A


where ρ = density of the floater
      g = gravity acceleration, 9.81
      h2 = distance from bottom of floater to the surface water
      A = surface area of floater


Buoyancy force, J = F2 - F1
                  = ρgh2A - ρgh1A
                  = ρgA (h2 - h1)
where J = water volume which same to the floater volume x water density x gravity
         acceleration.
       J = vρg
        = mg
        = water weight (dissipated)


Designed Flood wall (Plywood) specimens:
   a) Height = 200 mm
   b) Weight = 1.60 kg
   c) Length = 972 mm
   d) Thick = 12 mm
   e) Material = Plywood




 Table 4.3: Design sheet to determine floating force, J for plywood floodwall with
                     numerious number of floater (polystyrene).
Floodwall=1.60kg
Polystrene                                                  Floodwall
kg     m v         ρ1         g            h1       A1      Force     F(kn) F1
 0.037 37 0.00361 10.24214          9.81        0.01 0.10322 15.696 0.015696 0.01580
 0.074 74 0.00598     12.3838       9.81        0.01 0.08537 15.696 0.015696 0.01580
 0.111 111 0.00896    12.3838       9.81        0.01 0.08537 15.696 0.015696 0.01577
 0.148 148 0.01195    12.3838       9.81        0.01 0.08537 15.696 0.015696 0.01577
 0.185 185 0.01494    12.3838       9.81        0.01 0.08537 15.696 0.015696 0.01576
                                                                                                         66



  Table 4.4 Design sheet to determine floating force, J for plywood floodwall with
                         numerious number of floater (polystyrene).
           Water                                  Polystrene
ρ2         g       h2                A2           F2            J                          J (KN)
      1000    9.81           0.045        0.10322       0.0456                  0.029765             0.00003
      1000    9.81            0.08        0.08537         0.067                 0.051195             0.00005
      1000    9.81           0.115        0.08537       0.0963                  0.080531             0.00008
      1000    9.81            0.15        0.08537       0.1256                  0.109849             0.00011
      1000    9.81           0.185        0.08537       0.1549                  0.139164             0.00014




Designed Flood wall (FRP) specimens:
     a) Height = 250 mm
     b) Weight = 7.5 kg
     c) Length = 972 mm
     d) Thick = 12 mm
     e) Material = Fiber Reinforced Polymer




     Table 4.5: Design sheet to determine floating force, J for FRP floodwall with
                         numerious number of floater (polystyrene).
Floodwall=7.5kg
kg (poly) m      v           ρ1           g          h1      A1         Force     P(kn)         F1
     0.037 37 0.00361 10.24214                9.81    0.01    0.10322       73.575 0.073575         0.073679
     0.074 74 0.00598 12.38380                9.81    0.01    0.08537       73.575 0.073575         0.073782
     0.111 111 0.00896 12.38380               9.81    0.01    0.08537       73.575 0.073575         0.073679
     0.148 148 0.01195 12.38380               9.81    0.01    0.08537       73.575 0.073575         0.073679
     0.185 185 0.01494 12.38380               9.81    0.01    0.08537       73.575 0.073575         0.073679




     Table 4.6: Design sheet to determine floating force, J for FRP floodwall with
                                  numerious number of floater (polystyrene).
ρ2           g          h2           A2               F2                J                  J (KN)
      1000       9.81        0.045        0.10322            0.035439           -0.03824             -3.8E-05
      1000       9.81         0.08        0.08537            0.075369           0.001586             1.59E-06
      1000       9.81        0.115        0.08537            0.096305           0.022626             2.26E-05
      1000       9.81         0.15        0.08537            0.125615           0.051936             5.19E-05
      1000       9.81        0.185        0.08537            0.154925           0.081246             8.12E-05
                                                                                  67


4.3    Results (Experimental Data)




       Due to the failure of experiments base on principle of hydraulic lift force,
there is no data can be collected from the experiments. Therefore, the principle of
Archimedes has been replaced as the new operation principle of the floodwall
system.


       There are 4 types of experiments have been carried out to get the results or
experimental data of the floodwall system base on the principle of Archimedes.
There are: i) Experiment using two polystyrenes with plywood floodwall, ii)
Experiment using two polystyrenes with FRP floodwall, iii) Experiment using one
polystyrene with plywood floodwall, iv) Experiment using one polystyrene with
FRP floodwall. The data recorded during the experiments are velocity of water flow,
water flow depth in case to get the water flow rate with the equation, Q = AV;
wetted area = water flow depth x width of channel, and water height which can be
seen through the perspex, and floodwall elevations. The data recorded and plotted
graphs are shown in Appendix B.




4.4    Data Analysis




4.4.1 Flood Wall Elevation versus Time




       There are total sixties graphs have been plotted from twenties sets of data
collected after doing four different types of experiments. Each experiment consist of
five different sets of data with different water flow rate, this mean there are five
different water flow rate for each experiments. The graphs plotted into three
categories which are floodwall elevation versus time, water volume versus time and
floodwall elevation versus water volume.
                                                                                    68


       For graph floodwall elevation versus time, commonly for all three
experiments have similar graph shape and show the proportional relationship
between floodwall elevation and time, except the experiment with one polystyrene
and FRP floodwall. It not any increment of floodwall elevation according to the
increment of time. That is because from the experiment, there is no rise of floodwall
even though the water continuous enter into the basin of floodwall system. This
might cause by friction force at the contact between floodwall and floodwall system
structure. There also a significant different between plywood floodwall and FRP
floodwall experiment, which the starting floodwall height for plywood floodwall is
lower than FRP floodwall, and another significant different between the graphs,
which is the one polystyrene experiment giving the higher elevation than the two
polystyrene experiment. The increment elevation for two polystyrenes experiment is
from 0.034m to 0.041m while increment elevation for one polystyrene experiment is
from 0.045 to 0.067m.


       From the data table and plotted graph, we can also see that the higher water
flow rate will cause the floodwall rise in a shorter time for all cases of experiments.
As an example, for experiment using two polystyrene with plywood floodwall, when
the water flow rate is 0.008108 m3/s, can be consider small water flow rate, the time
to rise up the floodwall is 30 seconds. When the water flow rate is 0.013899m3/s, the
time to rise up the floodwall is 5 seconds. However, for the largest water flow rate,
0.015685m3/s, it takes 10 seconds to rise up the floodwall. This might caused by
wrongly recording the data, inaccurately recording water velocity, or most probably
the water flow rate had recess when recording the water height due to the water
volume in the water tank reduce.




4.4.2 Water Volume versus Time




       For graph water volume versus time, the graph shape for all cases of
experiments is almost the same, which is the proportional graph between water
                                                                                  69


volume and time. This means that water volume in the basin of floodwall system
increase proportionally with the increase of time. Most of the graph show that the
initial water volume in the basin not the zero because it is not necessary to dry off
the water in the basin of floodwall structure since the that water volume not able to
rise up the floodwall in theory.


       The equivalent of all graphs shape for both one polystyrene and two
polystyrenes indicating that the water volume come into the basin of floodwall
system does not influence by the number of polystyrene. Refer to the graphs plotted,
it is very obvious to say that, commonly the larger the water flow rate, the faster
increment of water volume in the basin of floodwall system.


       As an example, take the experiment using one polystyrene with plywood
floodwall. The time to increase the water volume in the basin seems shorter for the
larger water flow rate. When the water flow rate is 0.0038m3/s, the water volume
start increased after 40 seconds, while when the water flow rate is 0.013688m3/s, the
water volume increased just after 10 seconds. However, for water flow rate
0.008544m3/s and 0.008722m3/s, the water volume increases after 45 seconds. This
considers an error of the experiment and suspected caused by wrongly recording of
the water height which was the water height reading was not according to the timing,
or the time reader unconsciously start recording time early without waiting the water
channel gate completely closed. The other probably cause which causing the error is
the water tank out of water due to improper controlling of the water pipe valve, so
that the water flows become not consistent.




4.4.3 Flood Wall Elevation versus Water volume




       The graph of floodwall elevation versus water volume for all cases of
experiments not involved the times. This type of graph shows the different between
plywood floodwall and FRP floodwall. There are two main type of graph shapes
                                                                                      70


appear in the graph of floodwall elevation versus water volume. The one with
gradually increase and showing proportional increment of floodwall elevation
toward water volume from beginning to the end. The other one with gradually
increase and showing proportional of floodwall elevation toward water volume from
beginning but drastically increment of floodwall at the maximum water volume.


       From the graphs, plywood floodwall for both one polystyrene and two
polystyrene experiments contribute the first mentioned graph type. The FRP
floodwall with two polystyrenes (one polystyrene not able to rise up the floodwall)
contribute to the second mentioned graph type. This mean that plywood floodwall
rise up gradually with the increment of water volume but FRP rise up firstly
gradually with the increment of water volume and at the maximum water volume it
rise up drastically. The experiment performance for the plywood floodwall is
considered normal. The phenomenon happened on the FRP floodwall during the
experiment might caused by the friction which produced at the surface between FRP
floodwall and wall of the opening of the structure. Probably the thickness of the FRP
which ordered from the supplier is not uniformly, the lower part is thicker than the
upper part. Therefore, at the beginning it rises up normally with increment of water
volume until the thicker part contact to the wall of opening of the structure. The
floating force at the beginning is able to float the FRP floodwall easily without
displace the water volume same to the total volume of floater. When reach the
maximum water volume in the basin, the displace water same to the total volume of
the floater, the floating force increase drastically then the total floating force is
bigger than the friction and weight of floodwall and able to push up the floodwall.


       The other type of graph is only a straight horizon line, which represented by
the data from the experiment using one polystyrene with FRP floodwall. This
indicated that no floodwall elevation from beginning to the end. That is because
floating force smaller than the friction between floodwall and structure.
                                                                                   71


4.4.4 Comparison of Graph Flood Wall Elevation versus Time




        Graphs above shows that the relationship between the floodwall elevation
and time. The graphs take the largest water flow rate for each case of experiment. It
is obvious that for all of four graphs, there is an increment of floodwall elevation
due to the increase of times unless the graph of experiment with one polystyrene
with FRP floodwall. This is the only graph not show the increment of floodwall
elevation with increment of times. That is because the floating force smaller than the
friction force produced in between of the floodwall surface and wall of opening of
the structure.


        There are different between experiment of plywood floodwall and
experiment of FRP floodwall in the graph of floodwall versus time. For plywood
floodwall, the initial floodwall elevation is 0.242m for one polystyrene and 0.261m
for two polystyrene, where for FRP floodwall, the initial floodwall elevation is
0.312m for both one and two polystyrenes. That is because FRP flood wall have
greater height than the plywood floodwall, which is 0.25m for FRP floodwall and
0.20m for plywood floodwall.


        As for comparison between one polystyrene plywood floodwall and two
polystyrene plywood floodwall, the different is that one polystyrene plywood
floodwall rise up to maximum elevation using more times than two polystyrene
plywood floodwall. That is caused by one polystyrene plywood floodwall
experiment underwent smaller water flow rate than two polystyrene plywood
floodwall. One polystyrene plywood floodwall have 0.013688m3/s and two
polystyrene FRP floodwall have 0.015685m3/s.
                                                                                                      72




                                                Floodwall Elevation versus Time

                               0.36


     Floodwall Elevation (m)
                               0.34                                                 Two polystrene with
                                                                                    plywood floodwall
                               0.32
                                0.3                                                 Two polystrene with
                                                                                    FRP floodwall
                               0.28
                                                                                    One polystrene with
                               0.26
                                                                                    plywood floodwall
                               0.24
                                                                                    One polystrene with
                               0.22                                                 FRP floodwall
                                0.2
                                      0         20       40       60       80
                                                      Time (s)



                                          Figure 4.2 Graph Floodwall Elevation versus Time




4.4.5 Comparison of Graph Water Volume versus Time




                         For this graph, all case of experiment show the approximately same graph
shape. However, this combination graph only involves the data set from each type of
experiment case which recorded during the largest water flow rate. This indicated
that increment of water volume in the basin of floodwall structure does not influence
by the number of polystyrene (floater volume) or material of floodwall.
                         The most obvious criteria can be differentiate in this combination graph is
the time to achieve the highest water volume. In this criteria, one polystyrene with
either plywood floodwall or FRP floodwall show that the longer time to achieve the
maximum water volume, where two polystyrene with either plywood floodwall or
FRP floodwall show that shorter time to achieve the maximum water volume. The
reasonable reason to explain this phenomenon is that two polystyrene take up much
space in the basin of floodwall structure, so fewer water volume have to fill up the
basin of floodwall structure. The other reason is for two polystyrene experiment
                                                                                       73


either using plywood floodwall or FRP floodwall in this graph, the maximum water
flow rate volume is larger than the water flow rate of one polystyrene experiment
using plywood floodwall. Two polystyrene plywood floodwall experiment
underwent the maximum water flow rate of 0.015685m3/s and two polystyrene FRP
floodwall experiment underwent the maximum water flow rate of 0.018396m3/s,
while one polystyrene plywood floodwall only have the maximum water flow rate of
0.013688m3/s. However, one polystyrene FRP floodwall have the maximum water
flow rate of 0.01628m3/s yet have same graph shape with the one polystyrene
plywood floodwall experiment. This might caused by wrongly recording of the
water height and wrongly record timing, or the water flow rate is not always
consistent due to water volume in the water tank have been reduced.




                                    Water volume versus Time

                        0.02
   Water volume (m3)




                                                                      Two polystrene with
                       0.015                                          plywood floodwall
                        0.01                                          Two polystrene with
                                                                      FRP floodwall
                       0.005                                          One polystrene with
                                                                      plywood floodwall
                          0                                           One polystrene with
                               0   20      40       60       80       FRP floodwall
                                        Time (s)



                                   Figure 4.3 Graph Water Volume versus Time
                                                                                   74


4.4.6 Comparison of Graph Flood Wall Elevation versus Water volume




       The different of initial floodwall elevation between plywood floodwall
experiment and FRP floodwall experiment has been explained before as in the
analysis of comparison of combination graph for floodwall elevation versus time.


       One polystyrene with plywood floodwall and two polystyrene with plywood
floodwall have similar graph shape and different from the two polystyrene with FRP
floodwall. One polystyrene with FRP floodwall show the straight horizon line graph
shape. That is because the floodwall could not rise up due to friction between
surface of floodwall and wall of opening of structure bigger than the floating forces.
This indicate that if using FRP as the material to build the floodwall, have to use
more volume of floater to gain more floating forces regarding to the weight of FRP.


       From the combination graph, can be compared that one or two polystyrene
experiment with plywood floodwall have the gradual increment of floodwall
elevation with the increment of water volume, while two polystyrene experiment
which involve only FRP floodwall have the gradual and slightly increment of
floodwall elevation with the increment of water volume but drastically increment of
floodwall elevation at the maximum water volume. This phenomenon has been
analysis and explained as in the sub chapter 4.4.3.
                                                                                                  75




                                     Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume


Floodwall Elevation (m)
                           0.4
                                                                                  Two polystrene with
                          0.35                                                    plywood floodwall

                           0.3                                                    Two polystrene with
                                                                                  FRP floodwal
                          0.25                                                    One polystrene with
                                                                                  plywood floodwall
                           0.2                                                    One polystrene with
                                 0       0.005     0.01    0.015     0.02         FRP floodwall
                                           Water volume (m3)




                                     Figure 4.4 Graph Floodwall Elevation versus Water Volume
                                                                                    76




                                     CHAPTER V




                      CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS




5.1    Introduction




       Flood is the common disaster that happened frequently during the rain
season throughout Malaysia nation wide. Floodwall system is the combine method
of flood control and river rehabilitation. This thesis could give some information
about the applicability and effectiveness of floodwall system after doing the
laboratory test on the model, which have been build. There are two stages of
laboratory test which are: first stage using principles of Hydraulic Lift Force as the
floodwall system operating principle, the second stage using principles of
Archimedes after the failure of first principle.




5.2    Failure of Principles of Hydraulic Lift Force Based Floodwall System




       There are two main reasons causing the failure of the principle which are:
leak of flood wall system structure and mixing of hydraulic oil and water. The
following sub-sub chapters will discuss more detail of the failure.
                                                                                     77


5.2.1 Leak of floodwall system structure




       This reason occurred due to lack of the sense of chemical reaction between
certain materials. During the construction of floodwall system, is not realized that
tar will melt when contact with the hydraulic oil. Tar is used to cover or fill the gap
between the plywood and the base. This condition is realized when the newly pasted
tar begin to melt after pouring the hydraulic oil into the basin of floodwall system. Is
worry that the hydraulic oil will affect also to the old pasted tar for a longer times,
therefore model test have to conduct in a short time before the floodwall system leak.
But, is found that laboratory test can not certainly conduct in a short time to get the
required amount of data. At last, decision to give up the principle of Hydraulic Lift
Force made.




5.2.2 Mixing of Hydraulic Oil And Water




       There is gap between the small piston with the wall of small basin, is hard to
close the gap because friction will produced. The water enter into the small basin of
floodwall system could pass through the gap and mix with hydraulic oil. This
causing pressures transfer from the water load to the small piston become not
complete. Apart from this, gap between the large piston and large basin also causing
pressure transfer to the large piston not optimum, there occurred pressure lost
through the gap. As a result, both plywood flood wall and FRP floodwall could not
rise up and no data can get from the laboratory test.
                                                                                   78


5.3      Principles of Archimedes Based Floodwall System




         This principle applied as the operation principle for the floodwall system
after the failure of previous principle which is principle of Hydraulic Lift Force. By
using this principle, finally the both plywood floodwall and FRP floodwall can rise
up and the results of laboratory test can get. The following sub chapter will discuss
about the defects for the floodwall system if using this principle as the operation
principle.




5.3.1 Defects of Principles of Archimedes Based Floodwall System




      1. The perspex piece not enough strong to retain the water inside the basin of
         floodwall system when the maximum water level reached if using clay and
         nails to seal the gap between perspex and plywood.


      2. There is gap between dynamic floodwall and the plywood board, so can not
         retain water at the maximum water level.


      3. No opening to flow out the water inside the basin of floodwall system so that
         need to open the perpex piece to flow out the water after every laboratory
         test.


      4. Not enough space of basin of floodwall system(112.5mm), only can put in
         two pieces polystyrene(70mm). And floodwall rise up elevation limited.


      5. Both plywood and FRP floodwall can not submerged underneath when using
         two polystyrenes.


      6. Floodwall could not automatic drop down after the floodwater recession.
                                                                                     79


5.4      Suggestions




      1. Screwing more screw nails to stronger hold the perpex piece on the plywood.


      2. Nail the plastic piece on the plywood board and long enough to cover the gap
         between dynamic floodwall and plywood board.


      3. Drill a hole on the perspex piece and fill up the hole with clay to close the
         hole, when need to flow out the water, remove the clay from the hole.


      4. Doing renovation of the channel model to deepen the depth of the channel
         bed. Or increase the maximum water level so that the floodwall system
         structure can be build higher.
      5. Increase the space of the large basin of floodwall system.


      6. Deepen the large basin of floodwall system and lower the water entrance
         height.




5.5      Conclusion




         In conjunction with the objective of the project which is: to identify
applicability and effectiveness of flood wall for river rehabilitation and flood control
in practice using best design parameters, such as: weight of flood wall, material of
flood wall, dimensions of flood wall, for various water discharge, Q, the laboratory
test or experiments have been carry out to get required data and further determine
the applicability and effectiveness of the floodwall system.


         The principle operation of floodwall system is principles of Archimedes, and
the force pushing up the floodwall is the buoyancy forces.
                                                                                      80


       There are four types of laboratory experiments or test have been carried out.
These experiments using different material of floodwall and different number of
polystyrene. There are: i) Experiment using two polystyrenes with plywood
floodwall, ii) Experiment using two polystyrenes with FRP floodwall, iii)
Experiment using one polystyrene with plywood floodwall and iv) Experiment using
one polystyrene with FRP floodwall.


       There are five sets of data taking for each type of experiment. Every set of
data representing different values of water flow rates. So, total 20 sets of data are got
through the laboratory experiment or test toward the model of floodwall system built.
For every set of data, three different graphs have been plotted for analyze and
comparison purposes. In another word, there are total 60 graphs have been plotted
for use of data analyze and as comparison between the four different type of
laboratory experiments. These three types of graphs are: i) Floodwall elevation
versus time, ii) Water volume versus time, iii) Floodwall elevation versus water
volume.


          As a conclusion for the result of laboratory test, the floodwall system can
functioned as theoretically simulated for experiment using two polystyrenes with
plywood floodwall, experiment using two polystyrenes with FRP floodwall, and
experiment using one polystyrene with plywood floodwall. The floodwall system
can not functioned as theoretically simulated for experiment using one polystyrene
with FRP floodwall. This indicating that the floodwall can be rise up using both
types of material: plywood and FRP, and required at least one polystyrene for
plywood floodwall and two polystyrenes for FRP floodwall.


       After the laboratory tests, can also be concluded that the dimensions and
weights of floodwall which assumed earlier is pass and verified. As for plywood
floodwall with 200mm height, thickness of 12mm and length of 972mm, weight of
1600 grams, it can be rise up using at least one polystyrene with volume of
0.00361m3 at various values of water discharges. Also could be concluded that FRP
floodwall with 250mm height, thickness of 12mm, and length of 972mm, weight of
7500 grams can be rise up using at least two polystyrenes with volume of 0.00598m3
at various values of water discharges.
                                                                               81


       At last, the objective of the project have been achieved and the floodwall
system model can be functioned base on the designed parameters as following:


I)     For plywood floodwall:
       Weight of floodwall: 1600 grams
       Height of floodwall: 200 mm
       Length of floodwall: 972 mm
       Thickness of floodwall: 12 mm
       Minimum number of floater (polystyrene): 1 unit (0.105m X 0.983m 0.035m)


II)    For FRP floodwall:
       Weight of floodwall: 1600 grams
       Height of floodwall: 200 mm
       Length of floodwall: 972 mm
       Thickness of floodwall: 12 mm
       Minimum number of floater (polystyrene): 2 units (0.105m X 0.813m X
       0.07m)
                                                                              82




                            BIBLIOGRAPHY




1. State of the Art- Irrigation, drainage and flood control by K.K.Framji (1978)


2. Smiths Fork River rehabilitation planning study by Goodwin, C. N. (1995)


3. Drainage & Flood Control Engineering by George W. Pickels (1941)


4. Flood Control & Drainage Engineering by Gosh, S.N. (1986)


5. Principles of River Engineering- The non-tidal alluvial river by P Ph Jansen,
   L van Bendegom, J van den berg, M de Vries, A Zanen (1979)


6. The Hdraulics of Floods & Flood Control by Jane Stanbury (1985)


7. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young,
   Theodore H. Okiishi (1990)


8. Manual of flood control methods and practices by K. K. Framji (1983)


9. Hydraulic aspects of floods and flood control by H S Stephens, C A
   Stapleton (1983)


10. Civil Engineering Laboratory I Lab Manual, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
   UTM (2003)


11. Fizik Asas Untuk Sains Dan Kejuruteraan by Mohd. Mustamam Abd Karim,
   Husin Wagiran, Md Rahim Sahar (2000)
                                                                 83


12. Mekanik Bendalir Untuk Kejuruteraan Awam by Fatimah Mohd. Noor,
   Faridah Jaffar Sidek, Goh Guit Keau (2000)


13. http://www.crcwater.org/issues/fludwall.html


14. http://www.floodcontrolwall.com


15. http://www.meiklewall.com


16. http://www.evereadyfloodcontrol.com


17. http://www.wippsystem.com


18. http://www.megasecur.com


19. http://www.intovalve.co.uk


20. http://www.presray.com


21. http://www.floodbarriers.net


22. http://www.portadam.com


23. http://www.floodcontrolam.com


24. http://www.psdoors.com/flooddoors.htm


25. www.fema.gov/pdf/fima/job6.pdf


26. www.usace.army.mil/civilworks/cecwp/NFPC/fphow/ace8-11.htm


27. http://www.waterstructures.com/pdf/130_1_ig.pdf


28. http://go.hrw.com/resources/go_sc/ssp/HK1IE056.PDF
                                                                                            84


                                         APPENDIX A


250m m

140m m

300m m




1000m m




300m m

140m m

250m m


                            D o w n s tre a m              U p s tr ea m




         Plan view of Model Sungai Klang, Pandan Indah Segment



                     250m m                                                   250m m




                                                                           105m m

           1 0 0 m m + IL




                                                1000m m




                      Cross Section view of Model (Upstream)




                                                            10mm

            140mm 300mm                                                         250mm


                                                                                70mm
1                                                                               10mm
     20                                                                                 230mm
                    150mm
            1

                2

                              30mm               40mm     30mm


                                                1000mm



                    Cross Section View of Model (Downstream)
                                                                                   85




                        0.14                                         0.14

                   0.25        0.3   0.3       0.4m        0.3 0.3      0.25




      4.50 m




                     0.48m

      2.55 m


    0.65 m

                                               Floodwall
      1.00 m                                    System
                                                  Site
    0.35 m




      5.05 m




                 0.25          0.3                             0.3          0.25
                        0.14                                         0.14




Plan view of Floodwall system location at the Model of Sungai Klang, Pandan Indah
                                           Section.
                                                                                86


                                   APPENDIX B

Data Used For Floodwall System Modeling

1.      Designed parameters of experiment base on Hydraulic force lift
                              principle


Components        Height (mm)      Length (mm)      Width (mm)     Weight (g)
Small piston      40               976              40             500
Large piston      12               988              105            600
Floodwall         250              972              12             7500
(FRP)
Floodwall         230              972              12             1840
(plywood)




2.      Designed parameters of experiment base on Archimedes principle


                Components                       Height   Length   Width   Weight
                                                 (mm)     (mm)     (mm)     (g)
            Flood wall (Fiber Reinforced          250      972      12      7500
                       Polymer)


            Flood wall (Plywood)                  200      972      12      1600
            Polystyrene (single)                  35       988     105       37
            Polystyrene (double)                 2 x 35    813     105     2 x 37
                                                                                      87


Experiment Data Recorded

1.     Experiment using two polystyrenes and plywood Flood wall


     Data Set 1

     V (m/s) =     0.38              W= 40cm                      Q (m3/s) =   0.008108
     D= 2.1x 2.54 = 5.334cm          A=               0.021336
     Time        Water Height (m)    Floodwall Elevation (m)      Water Volume (m3)
         0        0.008                    0.261                  0.00162634
         5         0.01                    0.261                  0.00203292
        10        0.017                    0.261                  0.00345596
        15        0.018                    0.261                  0.00365926
        20        0.022                    0.261                   0.0043514
        25        0.028                    0.261                  0.00520808
        30        0.035                    0.263                  0.00620754
        35        0.048                    0.263                  0.00806368
        40        0.058                    0.271                  0.00949148
        45        0.067                     0.28                   0.0107765
        50        0.078                     0.29                  0.01234708
        55        0.089                        0.3                0.01391766
        60        0.098                        0.3                0.01520268




     Data Set 2

     V (m/s) =      0.43             W(cm)=                  40   Q (m3/s)=    0.013106
                                     A=
                                                2
     D (inci) =        3      7.62   0.021336m         0.03048
     Time         Water Height (m)   Floodwall Elevation (m)      Water Volume (m3)
          0        0.012                    0.261                  0.0024395
          5        0.014                    0.261                 0.00284609
         10        0.017                    0.261                 0.00345596
         15        0.026                    0.261                 0.00492252
         20        0.043                    0.266                 0.00734978
         25        0.048                    0.269                 0.00806368
         30        0.056                    0.278                 0.00920592
         35        0.066                    0.289                 0.01063372
         40        0.077                    0.295                  0.0122043
         45        0.086                       0.3                0.01348932
         50        0.097                       0.3                 0.0150599
         55        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
         60        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268




     Data Set 3

     V (m/s) =      0.56             W(cm)=                 40    Q (m3/s) =   0.011379
                                     A=
                                              2
     D (inci) =       2       5.08   0.021336m         0.02032
                                                                                 88


Time         Water Height (m)   Floodwall Elevation (m)      Water Volume (m3)
    0         0.012                   0.261                   0.0024395
    5         0.015                   0.261                  0.00304938
   10         0.016                   0.261                  0.00325267
   15         0.018                   0.261                  0.00365926
   20          0.02                   0.261                  0.00406584
   25         0.023                   0.261                  0.00449418
   30         0.027                   0.261                   0.0050653
   35         0.033                   0.263                  0.00592198
   40         0.038                   0.265                  0.00663588
   45         0.056                   0.266                  0.00920592
   50         0.068                   0.277                  0.01091928
   55          0.08                   0.298                  0.01263264
   60         0.097                       0.3                 0.0150599




Data Set 4

V (m/s) =      0.57             W(cm)=                  40   Q (m3/s) =   0.013899
                                A=
                                           2
D (inci) =      2.4     6.096   0.021336m        0.024384
Time         Water Height (m)   Floodwall Elevation (m)      Water Volume (m3)
     0        0.012                    0.261                  0.0024395
     5        0.035                    0.264                 0.00620754
    10         0.06                     0.27                 0.00977704
    15        0.062                    0.278                  0.0100626
    20        0.098                     0.29                 0.01520268
    25        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    30        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    35        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    40        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    45        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    50        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    55        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268
    60        0.098                       0.3                0.01520268




Data Set 5

V (m/s) =      0.65             W(cm)=                  40   Q (m3/s) =   0.015685
                                A=
D (inci) =    2.375    6.0325   0.021336m2        0.02413
Time         Water Height (m)   Floodwall Elevation (m)      Water Volume (m3)
     0        0.012                    0.261                  0.0024395
     5        0.018                    0.261                 0.00365926
    10        0.034                    0.264                 0.00606476
    15        0.062                    0.267                  0.0100626
    20         0.08                    0.278                 0.01263264
    25         0.09                    0.301                 0.01406044
    30        0.098                    0.302                 0.01520268
    35        0.098                    0.302                 0.01520268
    40        0.098                    0.302                 0.01520268
                                                                             89

          45      0.098               0.302                0.01520268
          50      0.098               0.302                0.01520268
          55      0.098               0.302                0.01520268
          60      0.098               0.302                0.01520268




2.     Experiment using two polystrenes and FRP Flood wall


     Data Set 1

     V=            0.49        W=                     40     Q=         0.004312
     D=             2.2        A=                 0.0088
                               Floodwall
     Time      Water Height    Elevation                     Water Volume (m3)
         0       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
         5       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        10       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        15       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        20       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        25       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        30       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        35       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        40       0.012                0.315                   0.00244
        45       0.016                0.315                  0.003253
        50       0.023                0.315                  0.004494
        55       0.036                0.315                   0.00635
        60       0.048                0.315                  0.008064
        65       0.054                0.315                   0.00892
        70       0.063                0.315                  0.010205
        75       0.076                0.317                  0.012062
        80       0.092                0.32                   0.014346
        85       0.104                0.322                  0.016059
        90       0.104                0.327                  0.016059
        95       0.104                0.33                   0.016059
       100       0.104                0.347                  0.016059
       105       0.104                0.348                  0.016059
       110       0.104                0.349                  0.016059


     Two Polystrene
     Floodwall: FRP
     Data Set 2

     V=            0.52        W=                     40     Q=          0.00936
     D=             4.5        A=                  0.018
                               Floodwall
     Time      Water Height    Elevation                     Water Volume (m3)
         0       0.012                0.312                   0.00244
         5       0.012                0.312                   0.00244
        10       0.012                0.312                   0.00244
        15       0.012                0.312                   0.00244
        20       0.012                0.312                   0.00244
                                                                    90

  25            0.02              0.312             0.004066
  30           0.024              0.312             0.004637
  35           0.034              0.312             0.006065
  40           0.046              0.312             0.007778
  45            0.06              0.312             0.009777
  50            0.08              0.319             0.012633
  55            0.09              0.32               0.01406
  60           0.098              0.322             0.015203
  65           0.098              0.322             0.015203
  70           0.098              0.349             0.015203


Two Polystrene
Floodwall: FRP
Data Set 3

V=               0.55       W=                 40   Q=           0.0055
D=                2.5       A=               0.01
                            Floodwall
Time         Water Height   Elevation               Water Volume (m3)
    0          0.012               0.312             0.00244
    5          0.012               0.312             0.00244
   10          0.012               0.312             0.00244
   15          0.015               0.312            0.003049
   20          0.023               0.312            0.004494
   25          0.026               0.312            0.004923
   30          0.034               0.312            0.006065
   35          0.046               0.312            0.007778
   40           0.06               0.312            0.009777
   45          0.077               0.318            0.012204
   50          0.088               0.321            0.013775
   55          0.092               0.322            0.014346
   60          0.092               0.342            0.014346
   65          0.092               0.348            0.014346
   70          0.092               0.349            0.014346

Data set 4
V=               0.73       W=                 40   Q=         0.018396
D=                6.3       A=             0.0252
                            Floodwall
Time         Water Height   Elevation               Water Volume (m3)
    0          0.015               0.312            0.003049
    5          0.038               0.312            0.006636
   10          0.072               0.316             0.01149
   15          0.094               0.341            0.014632
   20          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   25          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   30          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   35          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   40          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   45          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   50          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   55          0.104               0.35             0.016059
   60          0.104               0.35             0.016059
                                                                                       91




     Data set 5
     V=               0.76             W=                        40    Q=         0.01672
     D=                5.5             A=                     0.022
                                       Floodwall
     Time         Water Height         Elevation                       Water Volume (m3)
         0           0.01                     0.312                    0.002033
         5          0.012                     0.312                     0.00244
        10          0.025                     0.312                     0.00478
        15          0.048                     0.312                    0.008064
        20          0.076                     0.317                    0.012062
        25          0.087                     0.319                    0.013632
        30          0.103                     0.321                    0.015917
        35          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917
        40          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917
        45          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917
        50          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917
        55          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917
        60          0.103                     0.347                    0.015917




3.     Experiment using one polystrene and plywood Flood wall


                  Data Set 1

                  V=            0.38             W=               40   Q=          0.0038
                  D=              2.5            A=            0.01
                  Time       Water Height        Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
                     0         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                     5         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    10         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    15         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    20         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    25         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    30         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    35         0.005              0.242                0.001016
                    40         0.007              0.242                0.001423
                    45         0.014              0.242                0.002846
                    50         0.033              0.244                0.005922
                    55         0.039              0.247                0.006779
                    60         0.049              0.249                0.008206
                    65         0.063              0.249                0.010205
                    70         0.072              0.249                 0.01149
                    75         0.084               0.25                0.013204
                    80         0.096              0.259                0.014917
                    85         0.096              0.277                0.014917
                    90         0.096              0.288                0.014917
                    95         0.096              0.297                0.014917
                    100        0.096              0.297                0.014917
                    105        0.096              0.297                0.014917
                                                             92

 110      0.096         0.297                0.014917




V=         0.47        W=               40   Q=         0.007426
D=         3.95        A=          0.0158
Time    Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
   0           0        0.242                       0
   5           0        0.242                       0
  10           0        0.242                       0
  15           0        0.242                       0
  20           0        0.242                       0
  25           0        0.242                       0
  30      0.025         0.244                 0.00478
  35       0.03         0.247                0.005494
  40      0.036         0.248                 0.00635
  45      0.041          0.25                0.007064
  50      0.057         0.254                0.009349
  55      0.065         0.257                0.010491
  60      0.076         0.265                0.012062
  65      0.087         0.299                0.013632
  70      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  75      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  80      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  85      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  90      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  95      0.102         0.299                0.015774
  100     0.102         0.299                0.015774
  105     0.102         0.299                0.015774
  110     0.102         0.299                0.015774


V=         0.48        W=               40   Q=         0.008544
D=         4.45        A=          0.0178
Time    Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
   0      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
   5      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  10      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  15      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  20      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  25      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  30      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  35      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  40      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  45      0.007         0.242                0.001423
  50       0.01         0.242                0.002033
  55      0.014         0.242                0.002846
  60      0.019         0.242                0.003863
  65      0.024         0.244                0.004637
  70       0.03         0.247                0.005494
  75      0.042          0.25                0.007207
  80      0.058         0.253                0.009491
  85      0.067         0.267                0.010777
                                                             93

 90       0.075         0.274                0.011919
 95       0.085         0.279                0.013347
 100      0.092         0.282                0.014346
 105         0.1        0.287                0.015488
 110         0.1        0.293                0.015488
 115         0.1        0.298                0.015488


V=         0.49        W=               40   Q=         0.008722
D=         4.45        A=          0.0178
Time    Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
   0      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
   5      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  10      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  15      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  20      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  25      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  30      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  35      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  40      0.006         0.242                 0.00122
  45      0.008         0.245                0.001626
  50       0.01         0.247                0.002033
  55      0.023         0.257                0.004494
  60      0.032         0.265                0.005779
  65       0.04         0.265                0.006921
  70      0.044         0.267                0.007493
  75      0.053         0.272                0.008778
  80      0.062         0.275                0.010063
  85       0.07         0.277                0.011205
  90      0.078         0.278                0.012347
  95      0.088         0.284                0.013775
  100     0.097         0.284                 0.01506
  105     0.097         0.284                 0.01506
  110     0.097         0.287                 0.01506


V=         0.58        W=               40   Q=         0.013688
D=           5.9       A=          0.0236
Time    Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
   0      0.008         0.242                0.001626
   5      0.008         0.242                0.001626
  10      0.012         0.244                 0.00244
  15       0.02          0.25                0.004066
  20      0.037         0.257                0.006493
  25      0.046         0.265                0.007778
  30      0.052         0.276                0.008635
  35      0.063         0.287                0.010205
  40      0.072         0.294                 0.01149
  45      0.086           0.3                0.013489
  50      0.097         0.304                 0.01506
  55      0.097         0.309                 0.01506
  60      0.097         0.309                 0.01506
  65      0.097         0.309                 0.01506
                                                                              94

                70         0.097         0.309                 0.01506




4.   Experiment using one polystrene and FRP Flood wall


        Data Set 1

        V=              0.39        W=               40   Q=             0.004056
        D=                2.6       A=          0.0104
        Time         Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
            0          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
            5          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           10          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           15          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           20          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           25          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           30          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           35          0.005         0.312                 0.00101646
           40          0.007         0.312                0.001423044
           45          0.014         0.312                0.002846088
           50          0.033         0.312                 0.00592198
           55          0.039         0.312                 0.00677866
           60          0.049         0.312                 0.00820646
           65          0.063         0.312                 0.01020538
           70          0.072         0.312                  0.0114904
           75          0.084         0.312                 0.01320376
           80          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
           85          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
           90          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
           95          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
          100          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
          105          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
          110          0.096         0.312                 0.01491712


        One Polystrene
        Floodwall: FRP
        Data Set 2

        V=              0.53        W=               40   Q=              0.00742
        D=                3.5       A=           0.014
        Time         Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
            0               0        0.312                          0
            5               0        0.312                          0
           10               0        0.312                          0
           15               0        0.312                          0
           20               0        0.312                          0
           25               0        0.312                          0
           30          0.025         0.312                 0.00477974
           35           0.03         0.312                 0.00549364
           40          0.036         0.312                 0.00635032
                                                                    95

  45         0.041         0.312                 0.00706422
  50         0.057         0.312                  0.0093487
  55         0.065         0.312                 0.01049094
  60         0.076         0.312                 0.01206152
  65         0.087         0.312                  0.0136321
  70         0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
  75         0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
  80         0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
  85         0.096         0.312                 0.01491712
  90         0.096         0.312                 0.01491712


One Polystrene
Floodwall: FRP
Data Set 3

V=           0.55         W=               40   Q=              0.0077
D=             3.5        A=           0.014
Time      Water Height    Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
    0       0.006          0.312                0.001219752
    5       0.006          0.312                0.001219752
   10       0.006          0.312                0.001219752
   15       0.006          0.312                0.001219752
   20       0.006          0.312                0.001219752
   25       0.018          0.312                0.003659256
   30       0.022          0.312                  0.0043514
   35       0.038          0.312                 0.00663588
   40       0.045          0.312                 0.00763534
   45       0.056          0.312                 0.00920592
   50       0.062          0.312                  0.0100626
   55       0.074          0.312                 0.01177596
   60       0.083          0.312                 0.01306098
   65       0.096          0.312                 0.01491712
   70       0.096          0.312                 0.01491712
   75       0.096          0.312                 0.01491712
   80       0.096          0.312                 0.01491712
   85       0.096          0.312                 0.01491712


Data set 4
V=            0.63        W=               40   Q=            0.010836
D=              4.3       A=          0.0172
Time       Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
    0        0.006         0.312                0.001219752
    5        0.006         0.312                0.001219752
   10        0.008         0.312                0.001626336
   15        0.012         0.312                0.002439504
   20        0.025         0.312                 0.00477974
   25        0.033         0.312                 0.00592198
   30        0.038         0.312                 0.00663588
   35        0.051         0.312                 0.00849202
   40        0.055         0.312                 0.00906314
   45        0.062         0.312                  0.0100626
                                                                    96

  50         0.078         0.312                 0.01234708
  55         0.084         0.312                 0.01320376
  60         0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
  65         0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
  70         0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
  75         0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
  80         0.097         0.312                  0.0150599


Data set 5
V=            0.74        W=               40   Q=            0.01628
D=              5.5       A=           0.022
Time       Water Height   Floodwall Elevation   Water Volume (m3)
    0        0.008         0.312                0.001626336
    5        0.008         0.312                0.001626336
   10        0.015         0.312                 0.00304938
   15         0.02         0.312                 0.00406584
   20        0.037         0.312                  0.0064931
   25        0.046         0.312                 0.00777812
   30        0.052         0.312                  0.0086348
   35        0.063         0.312                 0.01020538
   40        0.072         0.312                  0.0114904
   45        0.086         0.312                 0.01348932
   50        0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
   55        0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
   60        0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
   65        0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
   70        0.097         0.312                  0.0150599
                                                                                                                    97


Plotted Graphs (Floodwall elevation versus Time)


1.    Experiment using two polystyrenes and plywood Flood wall

                                                                 Floodwall Elevation versus Time




           Floodwall Elevation
                                                0.31
                                                 0.3
                                                0.29
                  (m)
                                                0.28
                                                0.27
                                                0.26
                                                0.25
                                                       0    10         20        30         40       50   60   70
                                                                                  Tim e (s)



      Graph 4.1 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008108 m3/s

                                                                 Floodw all Elevation versus Tim e


                                                0.32
           Elevation (m)
             Floodwall




                                                 0.3
                                                0.28
                                                0.26
                                                0.24
                                                       0    10         20        30         40       50   60   70
                                                                                  Tim e (s)




      Graph 4.2 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.011379 m3/s


                                                           Floodwall Elevation versus Time
                      Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                0.31
                                                 0.3
                                                0.29
                                                0.28
                                                0.27
                                                0.26
                                                0.25
                                                       0    10          20       30           40     50   60   70
                                                                                      Time (s)




      Graph 4.3 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013106 m3/s
                                                                                                                   98


                                                      Floodwall Elevation versus Time




          Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                     0.31
                                      0.3
                                     0.29
                                     0.28
                                     0.27
                                     0.26
                                     0.25
                                            0        10        20        30           40         50     60    70
                                                                          Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.4 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013899 m3/s


                                                           Floodwall Elevation versus Time
        Floodwall Elevation




                                          0.31
                                           0.3
                                          0.29
                                    (m)




                                          0.28
                                          0.27
                                          0.26
                                          0.25
                                                 0    10         20       30           40        50     60    70
                                                                              Tim e (s )




     Graph 4.5 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.015685 m3/s


2.   Experiment using two polystrenes and FRP Flood wall


                                                     Floodwall Elev ation v ersus Time
         Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                     0.36
                                     0.35
                                     0.34
                                     0.33
                                     0.32
                                     0.31
                                             0        20            40          60          80        100    120
                                                                          Time (s)




     Graph 4.6 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.004312 m3/s
                                                                                                             99

                                                       Floodwall Elevation versus Time




                  Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                            0.36
                                            0.35
                                            0.34
                                            0.33
                                            0.32
                                            0.31
                                                   0   10    20        30        40      50   60   70   80
                                                                            Tim e (s)




Graph 4.7 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0055 m3/s



                                                        Floodwall Elevation versus Time
                  Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                            0.36
                                            0.35
                                            0.34
                                            0.33
                                            0.32
                                            0.31
                                                   0   10    20        30        40      50   60   70   80
                                                                            Time (s)




Graph 4.8 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.00936 m3/s



                                                       Floodwall Elevation versus Time
       Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                            0.35

                                            0.34

                                            0.33

                                            0.32

                                            0.31
                                                   0    10        20        30          40    50   60        70
                                                                             Time (s)



Graph 4.9 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.01672 m3/s
                                                                                                                                   100


                                                                         Floodwall Elev ation v ersus Time




          Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                                0.36
                                                0.35
                                                0.34
                                                0.33
                                                0.32
                                                0.31
                                                                 0       10           20        30           40    50   60    70
                                                                                                 Time (s)




     Graph 4.10 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.018396 m3/s


3.   Experiment using one polystrene and plywood Flood wall


                                                                                   Floodwall Elevation versus Time
                                    Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                              0.35
                                                               0.3
                                                              0.25
                                                               0.2
                                                              0.15
                                                               0.1
                                                              0.05
                                                                 0
                                                                     0        20           40           60        80    100    120
                                                                                                     Tim e (s)




      Graph 4.11 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0038 m3/s

                                                                                   Floodwall Elevation versus Time
                                    Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                              0.35
                                                               0.3
                                                              0.25
                                                               0.2
                                                              0.15
                                                               0.1
                                                              0.05
                                                                 0
                                                                     0        20           40           60        80    100    120
                                                                                                     Tim e (s)



     Graph 4.12 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.007426 m3/s
                                                                                                                                                   101




                                                                              Floodwall Elevation versus Time




         Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                               0.4

                                               0.3

                                               0.2

                                               0.1

                                                             0
                                                                 0       20        40         60            80        100        120        140
                                                                                                   Tim e (s)



Graph 4.13 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008544 m3/s



                                                                              Floodwall Elevation versus
        Floodwall Elevation                                                   Time
        (m) 0.2
            9
            0.2
            8
            0.2
            7
            0.2
            6
            0.2
            5
            0.2
            4
            0.2
            3   0           20                                                           40            60         80             100          120

                                                                                                    Time
                                                                                                    (s)



Graph 4.14 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008722 m3/s


                                                                                Floodw all Elevation versus Tim e
                                   Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                             0.4

                                                             0.3

                                                             0.2

                                                             0.1

                                                                 0
                                                                     0    10        20        30         40      50         60         70         80
                                                                                                     Tim e (s)




Graph 4.15 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s
                                                                                                                     102


4.   Experiment using one polystrene and FRP Flood wall



                                                              Floodw all Elevation versus Tim e




                          Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                                    0.4

                                                    0.3

                                                    0.2

                                                    0.1

                                                     0
                                                          0   20        40           60            80    100   120
                                                                                  Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.16 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.004056 m3/s


                                                              Floodw all Elevation versus Tim e
               Floodwall Elevation




                                                    0.4
                                                    0.3
                     (m)




                                                    0.2
                                                    0.1
                                                     0
                                                          0     20           40               60        80     100
                                                                                  Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.17 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.00742 m3/s



                                                              Floodw all Elevation versus Tim e
               Floodwall Elevation




                                                    0.4
                                                    0.3
                      (m)




                                                    0.2
                                                    0.1
                                                     0
                                                          0     20           40               60        80     100
                                                                                  Time (s)




      Graph 4.18 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0077 m3/s
                                                                                                                103


                                                  Floodwall Elevation versus Time




         Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                   0.4

                                   0.3

                                   0.2

                                   0.1

                                    0
                                         0            20        40               60        80        100
                                                                     Tim e (s)




Graph 4.19 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.010836 m3/s




                                                  Floodwall Elevation versus Time
         Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                   0.35
                                    0.3
                                   0.25
                                    0.2
                                   0.15
                                    0.1
                                   0.05
                                      0
                                             0   10        20   30         40         50   60   70         80
                                                                        Tim e (s)




Graph 4.20 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.01628 m3/s
                                                                                                         104


Plotted Graphs (Water Volume versus Time)


1.    Experiment using two polystyrenes and plywood Flood wall



                                                    Wate rv olume vs. time




              Water volume (m3)
                                   0.02
                                  0.015

                                   0.01
                                  0.005

                                     0
                                          0    10      20     30          40        50        60        70
                                                                   time




     Graph 4.21 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008108 m3/s



                                              watervolume vs. time (data set
                                              3)
               0.01
             water volume
               0.01
               4
             (m3)
               20.0
               0.00
                1
               8
               0.00
               0.00
               6
               0.00
               4
               2 0
                     0    10                            20      30             40        50        60        70
                                                                     time



     Graph 4.22 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.011379 m3/s
                                                                       105


                   Watervolume vs. time (data set 2)
    water volume
    (m3)
       0.01
       4
       0.01
       20.0
         1
       0.00
       8
       0.00
       6
       0.00
       4
       0.00
       2    0
              0      1      2       3           4    5    6        7
                     0      0       0           0    0    0        0
                                        time
                                        `


Graph 4.23 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013106 m3/s



                   water volume vs. time (data set
                   4)
    water volume
       0.01
    (m3)
       4
       0.01
       20.0
         1
       0.00
       8
       0.00
       6
       0.00
       4
       0.00
       2    0
              0      1      2       3           4    5    6        7
                     0      0       0           0    0    0        0
                                         tim
                                         e



Graph 4.24 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013899 m3/s


                   water volume vs. time (data set
                   5)
      0.01
    water volume
      0.01
      4
    (m3)
      20.0
      0.00
       1
      8
      0.00
      0.00
      6
      0.00
      4
      2 0
            0    10         20      30          40   50   60       70
                                         time



Graph 4.25 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.015685 m3/s
                                                                                                                    106


2.   Experiment using two polystrenes and FRP Flood wall



                                                        Watervolum e versus Tim e


                                   0.02




              Water volume (m3)
                                  0.015

                                   0.01

                                  0.005

                                     0
                                          0        20         40           60            80        100        120
                                                                        Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.26 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.004312 m3/s



                                                        Watervolum e versus Tim e


                                   0.02
              Water volume (m3)




                                  0.015

                                   0.01

                                  0.005

                                     0
                                          0   10         20        30      40       50        60         70    80
                                                                        Tim e (s)




      Graph 4.27 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0055 m3/s


                                                        Watervolum e versus Tim e


                                   0.02
              Water Volume (m3)




                                  0.015

                                   0.01

                                  0.005

                                     0
                                          0   10         20        30      40       50        60         70    80
                                                                        Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.28 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.00936 m3/s
                                                                                    107



                                         Watervolum e versus Tim e


                         0.02




     Watervolume (m3)
                        0.015

                         0.01

                        0.005

                           0
                                0   10     20       30        40     50   60   70
                                                      Tim e (s)




Graph 4.29 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.01672 m3/s



                                         Watervolum e versus Tim e


                         0.02
     Watervolume (m3)




                        0.015

                         0.01

                        0.005

                           0
                                0   10     20       30        40     50   60   70
                                                      Tim e (s)




Graph 4.30 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.018396 m3/s
                                                                                                        108


3.   Experiment using one polystrene and plywood Flood wall


                                                    Watervolum e versus Tim e


                               0.02




          Watervolume (m3)
                              0.015

                               0.01

                              0.005

                                  0
                                      0    20              40        60         80         100    120
                                                                 Tim e (s)




      Graph 4.31 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0038 m3/s



                                                    Watervolum e versus Tim e


                               0.02
          Watervolume (m3)




                              0.015
                               0.01
                              0.005
                                  0
                              -0.005 0         20          40        60         80         100    120

                                                                 Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.32 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.007426 m3/s




                                                    Watervolum e versus Tim e
          Water volume (m3)




                               0.02
                              0.015
                               0.01
                              0.005
                                  0
                                      0   20          40        60        80         100    120   140
                                                                 Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.33 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008544 m3/s
                                                                                                               109



                                                   Watervolume versus Time


                              0.02




         Water volume (m3)
                             0.015

                              0.01

                             0.005

                                0
                                     0        20         40           60            80        100        120
                                                                   Tim e (s)




Graph 4.34 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008722 m3/s




                                                   Watervolume versus Time


                              0.02
         Water volume (m3)




                             0.015

                              0.01

                             0.005

                                0
                                     0   10         20        30      40       50        60         70    80
                                                                   Tim e (s)




Graph 4.35 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s
                                                                                                    110


4.   Experiment using one polystrene and FRP Flood wall



                                                      Watervolum e versus Tim e




            Water volume (m3)
                                 0.02
                                0.015
                                 0.01
                                0.005
                                    0
                                        0   20             40           60            80    100   120
                                                                     Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.36 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.004056 m3/s




                                                      Watervolum e versus Tim e


                                 0.02
            Water volume (m3)




                                0.015
                                 0.01
                                0.005
                                     0
                                -0.005 0         20             40               60        80     100

                                                                     Tim e (s)




     Graph 4.37 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.00742 m3/s




                                                      Watervolum e versus Tim e
            Water volume (m3)




                                 0.02
                                0.015
                                 0.01
                                0.005
                                    0
                                        0    20                 40               60        80     100
                                                                     Tim e (s)




      Graph 4.38 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0077 m3/s
                                                                                                      111



                                                 Watervolum e versus Tim e




       Water volume (m3)
                            0.02
                           0.015
                            0.01
                           0.005
                              0
                                   0        20            40               60         80        100
                                                               Tim e (s)




Graph 4.39 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.010836 m3/s



                                                 Watervolum e versus Tim e
       Water volume (m3)




                            0.02
                           0.015
                            0.01
                           0.005
                              0
                                   0   10        20      30       40        50   60        70    80
                                                               Tim e (s)




Graph 4.40 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.01628 m3/s
                                                                                                                                112


Plotted Graphs (Flood Wall Elevation versus Water Volume)


1.    Experiment using two polystyrenes and plywood Flood wall



                                                              floodw all elevation vs. Water volum e




                floodwall elevation
                                           0.32
                                            0.3


                      (cm)
                                           0.28
                                           0.26
                                           0.24
                                                  0                      0.005                 0.01         0.015        0.02
                                                                                     w ater volum e (m 3)




      Graph 4.41 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008108 m3/s


                                                      Floodwall elevation vs. Water volume
                floodwall elevation




                                            0.31
                                             0.3
                                            0.29
                                            0.28
                                            0.27
                                            0.26
                                            0.25
                                      -2              0          2               4         6          8     10      12     14
                                                                             w ater volum e (m 3)




      Graph 4.42 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.011379 m3/s


                                                              Floodwall elevation vs Watervolume
                floodwall elevation




                                                0.31
                                                 0.3
                                                0.29
                      (cm)




                                                0.28
                                                0.27
                                                0.26
                                                0.25
                                           -2             0          2               4         6      8      10     12     14
                                                                                 w ater volum e (m 3)




      Graph 4.43 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013106 m3/s
                                                                                                             113




                                                   floodwall elevation vs. Water volume

                                 0.31




          floodwall elevation
                                  0.3
                                 0.29




                (cm)
                                 0.28
                                 0.27
                                 0.26
                                 0.25
                                        0          0.002   0.004   0.006    0.008    0.01   0.012   0.014   0.016
                                                                    w ater volume (m 3)




Graph 4.44 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013899 m3/s


                                               floodwall elevation vs. Watervolume

                                        0.31
           floodwall elevation




                                         0.3
                                        0.29
                 (cm)




                                        0.28
                                        0.27
                                        0.26
                                        0.25
                                 -2            0           2       4        6        8      10       12       14
                                                                   w ater volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.45 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.015685 m3/s
                                                                                                                        114


2.   Experiment using two polystrenes and FRP Flood wall


                                                          Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




                       Floodwall Elevation
                                             0.36
                                             0.35
                                             0.34




                              (m)
                                             0.33
                                             0.32
                                             0.31
                                                    0             0.005             0.01            0.015             0.02
                                                                            Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.46 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.004312 m3/s




                                                    Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
              Floodwall Elevation




                                      0.36
                                      0.35
                                      0.34
                     (m)




                                      0.33
                                      0.32
                                      0.31
                                               0        0.002   0.004     0.006   0.008    0.01   0.012     0.014   0.016
                                                                          Water volum e (m3)




      Graph 4.47 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0055 m3/s


                                                        Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
              Floodwall Elevation




                                       0.36
                                       0.35
                                       0.34
                     (m)




                                       0.33
                                       0.32
                                       0.31
                                               0        0.002   0.004     0.006   0.008    0.01   0.012     0.014   0.016
                                                                          Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.48 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.00936 m3/s
                                                                                             115




                                        Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




       Floodwall Elevation
                             0.35
                             0.34




              (m)
                             0.33
                             0.32
                             0.31
                                    0           0.005          0.01           0.015   0.02
                                                        Water volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.49 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.01672 m3/s



                                        Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
       Floodwall Elevation




                             0.36
                             0.35
                             0.34
              (m)




                             0.33
                             0.32
                             0.31
                                    0           0.005          0.01           0.015   0.02
                                                        Water volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.50 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.018396 m3/s
                                                                                                                                     116


3.   Experiment using one polystrene and plywood Flood wall




                                                            Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




                       Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                                 0.32
                                                  0.3
                                                 0.28
                                                 0.26
                                                 0.24
                                                 0.22
                                                  0.2
                                                        0                   0.005             0.01            0.015           0.02
                                                                                      Water volum e (m 3)




      Graph 4.51 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.0038 m3/s



                                                                Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
            Floodwall Elevation




                                                                 0.35

                                                                  0.3
                   (m)




                                                                 0.25

                                                                  0.2
                                                 -0.005                 0            0.005          0.01       0.015    0.02
                                                                                    Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.52 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.007426 m3/s


                                                                Floodw all Elevation versus Water volum e
                     Floodwall Elevation




                                                   0.35
                                                    0.3
                            (m)




                                                   0.25
                                                    0.2
                                                            0               0.005            0.01           0.015      0.02
                                                                                     Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.53 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008544 m3/s
                                                                                                       117




                                            Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




           Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                      0.3
                                     0.28
                                     0.26
                                     0.24
                                     0.22
                                      0.2
                                            0         0.005           0.01            0.015     0.02
                                                               Water volum e (m 3)



Graph 4.54 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.008722 m3/s




                                            Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
           Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                     0.32
                                      0.3
                                     0.28
                                     0.26
                                     0.24
                                     0.22
                                      0.2
                                            0         0.005          0.01            0.015    0.02
                                                              Water volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.55 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s
                                                                                                                          118


4.   Experiment using one polystrene and FRP Flood wall


                                                      Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




                  Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                            0.4
                                            0.3

                                            0.2
                                            0.1

                                              0
                                                  0                   0.005            0.01           0.015       0.02
                                                                               Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.56 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s



                                                          Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
               Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                            0.4

                                                            0.3

                                                            0.2

                                                            0.1

                                                              0
                                            -0.005                0            0.005           0.01       0.015    0.02
                                                                               Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.57 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s


                                                           Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
               Floodwall Elevation




                                              0.4
                                              0.3
                      (m)




                                              0.2
                                              0.1
                                                  0
                                                      0                0.005            0.01          0.015       0.02
                                                                                Water volum e (m 3)




     Graph 4.58 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s
                                                                                                                                119



                                                               Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume




          Floodwall Elevation (m)
                                    0.35
                                     0.3
                                    0.25
                                     0.2
                                    0.15
                                     0.1
                                    0.05
                                       0
                                                               0              0.005          0.01           0.015      0.02
                                                                                      Water volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.59 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s



                                                                       Floodwall Elevation versus Water volume
                                     Floodwall Elevation (m)




                                                               0.4
                                                               0.3

                                                               0.2
                                                               0.1

                                                                   0
                                                                       0         0.005          0.01           0.015     0.02
                                                                                         Water volum e (m 3)




Graph 4.60 Floodwall Elevation versus Time for Q = 0.013688 m3/s
                                                                              120


                                APPENDIX C


Photos (Rise up of FRP Floodwall using two polystrenes)




                      Front view of FRP Floodwall system.




 Two polystrenes in the basin of floodwall system can be see through the Perspex
                                      piece.
                                      121




       Left side view of
     FRP Floodwall system.




FRP Floodwall at initial elevation.




 FRP Floodwall start to rise up
                                            122




      FRP Floodwall rise up higher.




FRP Floodwall at highest elevation.




 Floodwall water flow to the flood plain.
                                                               123


Photos (Rise up of Plywood Floodwall using two polystrenes)




                     Plywood Floodwall at initial elevation.




                      Plywood Floodwall start to rise up.




                       Plywood Floodwall rise up higher.
                                          124




Plywood Floodwall at highest elevation.




  Flood water flow to the flood plain.
                                               125


                             APPENDIX D


Autocad Drawing of Designed Floodwall System

								
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