Flood Mitigation Strategy MoWI June WESCOORD

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					MINISTRY OF WATER AND IRRIGATION



Flood Mitigation Strategy




           June 2009
                                                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy




TABLE OF CONTENTS



LIST OF TABLESLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................ iii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................iv
1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1
   1.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 1
   1.2 Methodology ........................................................................................................... 2
   1.3 Strategy for Integrated Flood Management .............................................................. 3
2.0 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 5
   2.1 Institutional Arrangements....................................................................................... 5
     2.1.1 Organizational Structure of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation .....................5
     2.1.2 Flood Related Legislative Arrangement ............................................................ 5
     2.1.3 Disaster Management......................................................................................6
   2.2 History of floods in Kenya ....................................................................................... 6
   2.3 Location: Areas affected by floods .......................................................................... 7
   2.4 General Characteristics of floods ............................................................................. 9
   2.5 Factors contributing to vulnerability to floods and causing flood disasters in Kenya10
   2.6 Flood Situation in the River Basins ........................................................................ 10
     2.6.1 Lake Victoria Basin .................................................................................... 12
     2.6.2 Rift Valley Catchment Basin ........................................................................... 23
     2.6.3 The Tana River Catchment Basin .................................................................... 24
     2.6.4 Ewaso Ng’iro North Catchment Basin............................................................. 25
   2.7 Drainage Potential by Basin. .................................................................................. 29
   2.8 Existing Arrangements for Flood Management ...................................................... 29
     (iv) River Daua (Mandera) ....................................................................................... 30
     2.8.1 Flood Monitoring ........................................................................................... 30
     2.8.2 Strengths in Current Scenario......................................................................... 31
     2.8.3 Weaknesses of Current Flood Management .................................................. 33
     2.8.4 Opportunities for Interventions ..................................................................... 34
     2.8.5 Threats to Flood Management ....................................................................... 35
3.0 ELEMENTS OF STRATEGY ................................................................................ 36
   Vulnerability of People to Floods ................................................................................ 36
   3.1- Reducing Vulnerability through improved livelihoods .......................................... 37
   3.2 - Integrated Approach to Water Resources Development and Flood Management .. 37
   3.3 Flood embankment (Structural Measures) .............................................................. 38
   3.4 Flood Preparedness/ Flood forecasting................................................................... 38
   3.6 Institutional Arrangement ...................................................................................... 39
   3.7- Promoting Community Participation .................................................................... 40



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4.0 FLOOD MITIGATION ACTION PLAN .............................................................. 41
   8.1- Reducing Vulnerability through improved livelihoods .......................................... 41
   8.3 Flood embankment (Structural Measures) .............................................................. 42
Specific Interventions for the Basins ....................................................................... - 45 -
ANNEX: Maps for Specific River Basins------------------------------------------------------------54




LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: Ministry of Water Irrigation Goals and Objectives ...............................................4

Table 2: Areas affected by floods in Kenya .......................................................................7

Table 3:Recent history of floods in Kenya .........................................................................8

Table 4: : flood discharges of River Nyando ....................................................................21

Table 5: Areas affected and number of people affected by the 2008 flood .....................28

Table 6: Drainage potential by Basins .............................................................................29

Table 7: Flood discharges for different return periods for River Nyando.........................32

Table 8: Implementation Matrix .....................................................................................41




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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


APFM      -     Associated Program on Flood Management
BCM       -     Billion Cubic Meters
CFFO      -     Central Flood Forecasting Office
DMC       -     Disaster Management Committees
DMU       -     Disaster Management Units
DOC       -     Disaster Operations Centre
DWOs      -     District Water Offices
FFO       -     Flood Forecasting Office
FRIEWS    -     Flood Risk Information and Early Warning System
GCM       -     Global Climate Model
Geo SFM   -     Geo Spatial Flood Forecasting Model
GFFS      -     Galway Flood Forecasting System
IDD       -     Irrigation and Drainage Department
IPCC      -     Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IFM       -     Integrated Flood Management
IWRM      -     Integrated Water Resources Management
IWUAs     -     Irrigation Water Users Association
JICA      -     Japan international Cooperation Agency
KMD       -     Kenya Meteorological Department
MDGs,     -     Millennium Development Goals
MOA       -     Ministry of Agriculture
MOWI      -     Ministry of Water and Flood mitigation
MWRMD     -     Ministry of Water Resources Management and Development
NDMA      -     National Disaster Management Authority
NEMA      -     National Environmental Management Authority
NWCPC     -     National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation
NWSS      -     National Water Services Strategy
PC        -     Provincial Commissioner
PIO       -     Provincial Irrigation Officer
PIA       -     Project Implementation Agency
PMF       -     Probable Maximum Flood
QPF       -     Quantitative Precipitation Forecast
RANET     -     Radio Internet
RBOs      -     River Basin Organizations
RTH       -     Regional Transmission Hub


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SIDA     -   Swedish International Development Agency
SHG      -   Self Help Group
VFC      -   Village Forest Committee
UG       -   User Group
WA       -   Water Association
WASREB   -   Water Services Regulatory Board
WC       -   Water Committee
WDC      -   Watershed Development Committee
WDT      -   Watershed Development Team
WMO      -   World Meteorological Organization
WRM      -   Water Resources Management
WRMA     -   Water Resources Management Authority
WRUAs    -   Water Resources Users Associations
WSBs     -   Water Services Boards
WSPs     -   Water Services Providers
WSWG     -   Water Sector Working Group
WUAs     -   Water Users Association




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Kenya has experienced serious incidents of flood and drought disasters, in different parts of the
country and caused major disturbances, destroying property and resulting in loss of life. Floods
occur due to natural factors like flash floods, river floods and coastal floods. They may also
occur due to human manipulation of watersheds, drainage basins and flood plains. For
example, in some cases floods have occurred in the river basins even with normal rains because
of excess surface water runoff occasioned by deforestation, land degradation upstream. Kenya
is affected by floods following torrential rainfall. These force thousands of people living in the
lowlands to move to higher grounds. The people affected are mostly in western and Nyanza
provinces and in Tana River district. However slum dwellers in towns like Nairobi who have
erected informal structures near rivers are not spared. In Nyanza Province River Nyando is
notorious for bursting its banks during the rainy season.

This document outlines a proposed flood mitigation strategy recommended for the Ministry of
Water and Irrigation in Kenya. It is expected to serve as a base document for developing the
National Strategy and Policy for Flood Management in Kenya. The document provides the
background, that is, the context of physical and hydro-meteorological aspects, the status of
development, and future development imperatives of the six basins in Kenya. It further
describes the proposed Strategy for Flood Management, and identifies various initiatives to be
implemented by the Ministries and Departments concerned. An outline for the mechanism for
coordination is also provided.

The document outlines the strategic intervention areas and proposes various activities that
include structural and non-structural options. It also provides financial arrangement; an
institutional mechanism as a compromise amongst various alternative options through
community participation. An outline of a suggested Flood Forecasting System is also included.
This is followed by a proposed Action Plan suggesting various short, medium and long-term
measures for the implementation of the strategy. The annexes contain the appendices
providing the detailed background socioeconomic and geographic supporting information, from
which the strategy has been drawn.




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1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background
A considerable incentive for rethinking impact of floods and droughts as an integral part of the
development process comes from the aim of achieving the goals laid out in the Millennium
Declaration. The Declaration sets forth a road map for human development supported by 191
Nations. Eight Millennium Development Goals were agreed upon in 2000, which in turn have
been broken down into 18 targets with 48 indicators for progress. Most goals are set for
achievement by 2015. The MDGs contain cross-cutting themes in development and Floods and
droughts fall in the disaster risk policy, each tied to specific targets and indicators for progress.
They require international collaboration to be met. All signatory countries now claim to be
working toward these goals and donors are providing sharply focused aid packages to support
their endeavours.

The risk to development stemming from natural disaster, such as floods and droughts, is
recognised in the Millennium Declaration in Section IV, entitled “Protecting Our Common
Future”. Within this section is stated the objective: “to intensify our collective efforts to reduce
the number and effects of natural and man-made disasters”. In Kenya the proper management
of flood not only contributes to the realisation of the MDG’s, but it also plays a vital role in the
realisation of Vision 2030.

Water availability and its use form fundamental components for economic, social and cultural
development in Kenya. Most human and wildlife settlements occur next to waterways and in
flood plains because of the advantages they offer. In spite of these benefits, water can also
cause destruction and damage. When excess as in floods, it has devastation results with loss of
lives, widespread crop destruction and associated economic disasters. When scarce as in
droughts food insecurity, vegetation and crop distraction can be equally devastating. Water is
also important to all sectors of the economy. It provides the infrastructure for the agriculture,
manufacturing, tourism, health, livestock, fisheries and housing sectors.

During the last couple of decades, Kenya has experienced serious incidents of flood and
drought disasters, in different parts of the country and caused major disturbances, destroying
property and resulting in loss of life. Floods occur due to natural factors like flash floods, river
floods and coastal floods. They may also occur due to human manipulation of watersheds,
drainage basins and flood plains. For example, in some cases floods have occurred in the river
basins even with normal rains because of excess surface water runoff occasioned by
deforestation, land degradation upstream. Kenya is affected by floods following torrential



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rainfall. These force thousands of people living in the lowlands to move to higher grounds. The
people affected are mostly in western and Nyanza provinces and in Tana River district. However
slum dwellers in towns like Nairobi who have erected informal structures near rivers are not
spared. In Nyanza Province River Nyando is notorious for bursting its banks during the rainy
season.

Kenya’s record of flood disasters indicates the worst floods recorded in 1961-62 and 1997-98,
the latter ones being the most intense, most widespread and the most severe. During this
season the flooding was associated with the El Nino phenomenon, a weather pattern that
affects most parts of the world. El Niño is a disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the
tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe. It may cause
increased rainfall in some areas and drought in others thus changing the normal weather
pattern.

The problem has been perennial each time taking back years of development and costing the
government millions of shillings in reconstruction and recovery. Each year several people are
reported dead or injured necessitating action to curb the menace. It is for this reason that the
Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), is developing a flood mitigation strategy.


1.2 Methodology


In order to develop a Flood Mitigation Strategy that will stipulate national goals, objectives and
actions to reduce the vulnerability of this country to effects of floods, this consultancy adopted
the following methodology;

    1. An overall approach based on the concept of Integrated Flood Management (IFM)
       integrating land and water resources development in a flood plain, within the context
       of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), with a view to maximise the
       efficient use of the flood plains and minimise loss of property and life. This will entail
       the flood management be carried out within the river basins and should be considered
       as integrated systems, with due consideration to;
           a. Socio-economic activities, where use of resources was addressed
           b. Land-use patterns, incorporating irrigation and effective use of flood plains and
               flood water
           c. Hydro-morphological processes,
    2. The approach considered the entire hydrological cycle rather than differentiating
       between floods and droughts when planning for water resources development



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    3. Review of various policies, Acts, studies and any other relevant information that
       addresses flood issues as listed in the annex.
    4. For all drainage basins in Kenya, using GIS data sets and earlier studies, flood prone
       areas were determined and mapped out.
    5. Identification and mapping of all seasonally water logged agricultural areas was done
       and classified on the basis of suitability for drainage/flood protection and water
       management for the purpose of growing of crops.
    6. Identification was done for both natural and man-made causes of flood in the flood
       prone areas
    7. An action plan was developed for possible flood mitigation measures for each drainage
       basin.




1.3 Strategy for Integrated Flood Management


In line with the MWI Strategic Plan 2009 – 2012, the goals summarised in table 1, have
objectives bearing on the management of floodplains. The starting point in an IFM strategy is a
reorientation of approach to floods and development. The strategy for flood management in
Kenya, therefore, must simultaneously address the present problems of the poor flood plain
dwellers and the imperative future development of the entire fertile land that is prone to
frequent flooding.




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Table 1: Ministry of Water Irrigation Goals and Objectives



                Goals                                         Strategic Objectives

   Enhanced Guidance for                    To provide policy direction and effective supervision for
   effective and sustainable                the water sector by putting in place mechanisms for
   resource utilization in the              continuous development and review of policies and
   Sector                                   frameworks
                                            To provide an enabling environment for sustainable
                                            management of National and trans-boundary water
                                            resources
                                            To formulate more effective legislation, policy and
                                            strategies for targeted interventions

   Fully Reformed Water                     To ensure that the sector reforms are concluded and all
   Sector                                   the institutions are performing their roles as specified in
                                            the respective Acts
                                            Initiate reforms in Irrigation and Land reclamation
                                            Develop strategies for ensuring continual improvements

   Enhanced Agricultural                    To increase utilisation of land through irrigation, drainage
   production through                       and land reclamation
   Irrigation and Drainage                  To develop land reclamation, water harvesting and
                                            storage policies, guidelines and legislations
                                            To increase water storage and harvesting capacity

   To develop and sustain                   Mainstream cross cutting issues in all the Ministry’s
   equity and inclusiveness in              operations
   all the Ministry’s operations
   and services



The developmental planning must be pro-active and dynamic and take into consideration the
likely multiplier or cascading effects on various other sectors of economy that may spread far
and wide beyond the target areas. The long-term view of the strategy is to strengthen national
capabilities, so that eventually national experts can develop a flood management strategy for
the specific basins with detailed programs.




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2.0 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS


2.1 Institutional Arrangements



2.1.1 Organizational Structure of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation


Flood management is under the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Water Storage in the
Ministry of Water and irrigation (MWI). The district units of MWI also report on the flood
situation. In the department, there is no section to deal exclusively with flood management
issues. The procedure for monitoring is ad hoc as there are no field staffs dedicated to keep
track of flood situations or to take preventive or remedial measures during or after the floods.

A number of flood protection works like dykes; drainage channels river conservancy works etc
were built in different river basins before and immediately after independence. The MWI owns
these assets, but has no financial or organizational mechanism for their routine repairs and
maintenance. Specific schemes for major repairs are planned and implemented from time to
time without an overview plan.

In the mid-eighties a project planning unit was established to plan and design specific flood
protection works but no comprehensive studies for flood management have been carried out
by the unit. The Ministry had, however, commissioned Ital Consult in mid eighties and the Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 1990 to prepare water resources development plans
including flood management plans. Since the preparation of the Nation Water Master Plan in
1992 by JICA, no significant follow up action has been taken for the implementation of the
proposed flood control plan.


2.1.2 Flood Related Legislative Arrangement

The Water Act, 2002 provides for developing a “Catchment management strategy” for
protection and control of water resources. It specifically provides for protection of catchment
areas. This is a significant enabling provision, which, in practical application, may substantially
reduce flood hazard. River Basin organizations (RBOs) are important institutions for Integrated
Water Resources Management. The regional offices of the Water Resources Management
Authority (WRMA) are already established in the six identified catchments (basins). According
to the present thinking in MWI these “regional offices” of WRMA are required to “formulate
catchment management strategy” and facilitate formation of Water Resource Users
Associations (WURAs) to assist in cooperative management of water resources and resolution
of conflicts.




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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


The term “catchment management” has a general meaning and connotation limited to land
management in a watershed. It would be desirable to redefine the role of these regional offices
as “formulation of basin management strategy”. Planning of flood mitigation measures should
also be factored in to the Integrated Water Resources Management and entrusted to RBOs.
These Basin Organizations can therefore provide a forum for the effective participation of the
communities in planning of flood mitigation measures considering the basin as a planning unit.



2.1.3 Disaster Management

Disaster Operations Center (DOC) under the Ministry of Special Programmes in the office of the
President is responsible for management of all disasters through the Disaster Management
Committees (DMC) at the provincial and district levels, under the Chairmanship of the
Provincial Commissioner (PC). The role of the DOC is coordination of post disaster related
activities of various Ministries up to the district level. The role of MWI is mainly in relief
operations by providing drinking water for the evacuated people in relief camps.

The Disaster Operations Centre (DOC) is provided with weather forecasts and early flood
warning by the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). DOC, after making an assessment of
the magnitude of the impending flood and its disaster potential, informs the provincial Disaster
Management Committees. These committees are responsible for rescue and relief operations
through multidisciplinary teams at the district and community levels. Lack of advance warning
of incoming floods takes the public unaware, leaving no time to take preventive measures.
Houses are prone to flooding and there are no high grounds nearby for immediate shelter and
often the people do not leave their homes unguarded, for security of their meager assets. The
flood forecasting and warning system at the river level needs to be put in place with clear
definition of roles.

There are no institutional arrangements to review and update the early warning system thereby
improving the efficiency and preparedness or determine the adequacy and efficient utilization
of resources; assess the impact of disaster management programs on the population, economy
and environment and assess the role and effectiveness of various stakeholders in the
implementation of these plans. There is need to strengthen linkage between MWI, Disaster
Operations Centre (DOC) and Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) to develop an
integrated flood forecasting and disaster management system. Existing disaster management
mechanism is geared primarily to deal with rescue and relief measures and not towards
preventive action to minimize the disaster itself.
2.2 History of floods in Kenya


Floods occur due to natural factors like flash floods, river floods and coastal floods. They may
also occur due to human manipulation of watersheds, drainage basins and flood plains. For



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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


example, in some cases floods have occurred in the river basins even with normal rains because
of excess surface water run off occasioned by deforestation, land degradation upstream.

Kenya is affected by floods following torrential rainfall. These force thousands of people living
in the lowlands to move to higher grounds. The people affected are mostly in western and
Nyanza provinces and in Tana River district. However slum dwellers in towns like Nairobi who
have erected informal structures near rivers are not spared. In Nyanza Province River Nyando is
notorious bursting its banks during the rainy season.

Kenya’s record of flood disasters indicates the worst floods recorded in 1961-62 and 1997-98,
the latter ones being the most intense, most widespread and the most severe. During this
season the flooding was associated with the El Nino phenomenon, a weather pattern that
affects most parts of the world. El Niño is a disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the
tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe. It may cause
increased rainfall in some areas and drought in others thus changing the normal weather
pattern.

The problem has been perennial each time taking back years of development and costing the
government millions of shillings in reconstruction and recovery. Each year several people are
reported dead or injured necessitating action to curb the menace.


2.3 Location: Areas affected by floods


Most parts of the nation experience river floods which are slow onset and mostly predictable.
However some parts experience more severe floods than others including most parts of Kano
plains (Nyando district) and Nyatike (Migori district) in Nyanza province, Budalangi in Western
province resulting from river Nzoia and the lower parts of Tana River.


The specific areas that experience floods almost annually include: -

    1. Nyanza Province – Kano plains, Nyakach area, Rachuonyo and Migori
    2. Western Province – Budalangi
    3. Coast Province – Kilifi, Kwale and the Tana River Basin
    4. North Eastern province – Garissa, Wajir, and Ijara
    5. Urban Centres – Nairobi, Nakuru, Mombasa, Kisumu.
    6. Tana River district (the Lower parts)
Table 2: Areas affected by floods in Kenya



  Province                                   District           Economic Activities    Population      1999
                                                                                       census


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                                                                                         Flood Mitigation Strategy


  Western Province                              Busia       district Fishing, farming                 56,000
                                                (Budalangi)
  Nyanza                                        Kano Plains          Farming                          320,000
  Tana river                                                         Farming
Republic of Kenya [Central Bureau of Statistics] (April 1996); Kenya Population Census 1989, Analytical Report Vol.
III; POPULATION DYNAMICS OF KENYA, Nairobi, Kenya.



Table 3:Recent history of floods in Kenya



  Year                                                   Area affected                      No of people affected
  2003                                                   Nyanza, Busia, Tana River          170,000
  2002                                                   Nyanza, Busia, Tana River          150,000
  1997/98                                                Widespread                         1.5 million
  1985                                                   Nyanza, Western Province,          10,000
                                                         Tana River
  1982                                                   Nyanza                             4,000
Source : Republic of Kenya (2004), National Policy on Disaster Management (Revised Draft) p4, Nairobi, Kenya.




Map 1: Kenya’s Flood-Prone Areas




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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy




       SOURCE: RELIEF WEB: www.reliefweb.int; maps- Kenya



N/B: Kenya’s flood prone areas are highlighted in red




2.4 General Characteristics of floods


   •   Flash floods- usually occur in a flash without much warning as a result of an accelerated
       runoff, dam failure etc


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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


   •   River floods –are slow onset as they build up slowly, usually occur over a long period
       when a river breaks its banks and are seasonal.
   •   Coastal floods- occur along the coast due to wave activity resulting from tropical
       cyclones, Tsunamis and storm surges


2.5 Factors contributing to vulnerability to floods and causing flood disasters in Kenya


   •   Location of settlement in the flood plains
   •   Cultivation of crops along slopes adjacent to the floodplains, causing massive erosion
       and destruction of trees in the catchments.
   •   Lack of awareness of the flood hazard by the local communities
   •   Where the capacity of the soil to absorb water is reduced due to erosion or existence of
       concrete.
   •   Poor building materials leading to non-resistant structures and foundations that cannot
       withstand the running waters
   •   High risk infrastructure



2.6 Flood Situation in the River Basins




Map 2 outlines Kenya’s physical geography, water bodies, and major drainage areas. The
country covers 582,650 square kilometres, with about 67 percent of Kenya lies at an elevation
below 900 meters, shown in the map as green lowlands.




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                                                                         Flood Mitigation Strategy


Map 2: Physical Geography, Water Bodies, and Major Drainage Areas




Sources: Cities (SoK and ILRI 2000), permanent rivers (NIMA 1997), 250-meter Digital Elevation
Model (SoK, JICA and ILRI 1998) and major drainage areas (MoWD and JICA 1992).




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2.6.1 Lake Victoria Basin


Lake Victoria is situated between South Latitude 3º-0¹ and North Latitude 0º-20¹ and East
Longitudes 31º-40¹ and 34º-53¹. It has a total catchment area of 194,000 Sq Km shared between
five countries – Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya and Tanzania.

The Kenyan part of the Lake receives inflows from rivers Sio, Nzoia, Yala, Nyando, Sondu,
Gucha/Migori, Mara and several small streams, with a total catchment area of 46,229 Sq Km. In
the North-Western part of the basin two small rivers Malaba and Malakisi flow into Uganda;
their catchment areas in Kenya being 246 Sq Km and 293 Sq Km respectively. River Sio with a
total length of 85 Km has a catchment area of 1338 Sq Km. It is joined on the left bank by the
Naliwatsi. River Nzoia in its 334 Km long course up to its outflow into the Lake is joined by 4
main tributaries on the left bank and six relatively smaller tributaries on the right bank, and has
a catchment area of 12,709 Sq Km. The next river to the south-east of Nzoia is the Yala which
together with its tributaries Mogong and Edzowa drains an area of 3280 Sq Km into the Lake.
The Nyando rises in the watershed dividing the Lake basin and the Rift Valley. In the upper
reaches its main tributaries are the Ainamatua, Nomuting and Masaija. In its lower reaches the
Awach Kano and the Asawa join it on the left bank. It drains an area of 3618 Sq Km into the
Lake. The river Sondu together with its main tributaries the Kopsonoi and the Itare has a
catchment area of 3481 Sq Km. The last major river to the south, joining the lake in the Kenyan
territory, is the Kuja with a catchment area of 6919 Sq Km. The Mara river which joins the lake
in Tanzanian territory has a length of 270 Km and catchment area of 8967 Sq Km in Kenya.
Besides these main rivers, six small streams Kibos, Awach Seme, Ndate, Kabondo Awach,
Magushi and Olambwe have independent outfalls into the lake.



2.6.1.1 Features of Major Sub-Basins



(i) Nzoia Sub-Basin



In its upper reaches from Km 135 to 257 in the highlands, the river flows in a slightly
meandering V shaped valley. The width of the channel is about 40m and bed gradient 1 in 240.
There are a few human settlements on the valley bottom with uncontrolled cattle grazing in the
watershed areas. In the middle reaches from Km 20 to 135 the river meanders over a narrow
valley floor with a channel width of 50m and bed slope of 1 in 390. The area has more human
settlements on the valley bottom with increased human activity, mainly in the nature of


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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


subsistence agriculture and livestock farming. In the last 20 Km reach up to its outfall into the
lake, the bed slope flattens to 1 in 3400 as the river meanders through a wide flood plain and
the Yala Swamp. The channel width increases to 70m and the height of the banks reduces
considerably, which causes spilling of floodwaters over the banks and consequent flooding of
large areas on either side. The density of human settlements is pronounced with considerable
economic activity in the form of agriculture and livestock farming.



(ii) Nyando Sub-Basin



The Nyando River originates in the highlands at an altitude of 1700m above mean sea level. The
river flows through Nyando and Kisumu districts of Nyanza Province. In its middle and lower
reaches, the river flows through the Kano Plains with an area of about 73,000 ha.

About 50,000 ha of the Kano Plains are arable and natural vegetation areas while an area of
13,000 ha in the lower reaches is under swamps. Approximately 50 per cent of the arable land
has been developed for paddy cultivation with supplemental irrigation supply from the Nyando
and other small streams. An area of about 20,000 ha is prone to flooding from over bank spills
of the river.



In its upper reaches from Km 75 to 109 the river flows through a V shaped valley in the
mountain area of Mount Londiani. The bed width is 20m with a gradient of 1 in 45. There are
few human settlements in the area. The prominent land uses are forests and subsistence
agriculture. In its middle reaches from Km 45 to 75 it meanders on a narrow valley floor with a
bed width of about 40m and gradient of 1 in 160. The land use remains much the same as in the
upper reaches except for cattle grazing which is quite significant. The lower most 45 Km
reaches is characterized by pronounced meandering over a wide flood plain. The bed width
increases to about 50m and the gradient flattens further to 1 in 700. The land use in this reach
is predominantly agriculture, livestock farming and fishery with lot of human settlements.


(iii) Yala Sub-Basin



In its upper reaches from Km 125 to Km190 the river flows in a slightly meandering channel
through a V shape valley with a longitudinal gradient of 1 in 120. On either side of the 20m wide
channel the main land use is grazing with few human settlements. Lower down, in the next 100


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Km stretch the channel width increases to 30m and the bed gradient becomes flatter to 1 in
250. With a few human settlements close to the river the main land use is subsistence farming
and cattle grazing. In the last 25 Km reach up to its outfall into the lake, the bed gradient
becomes very flat to a gentle 1 in 2700. While the width of the river channel increases to only
30m, the banks on either side become low causing the flood waters to spill over a wide flood
plain, a considerable part of which is the famous Yala Swamp with few human settlements. The
remaining part of the plains is intensively used for agriculture.



(iv) Sondu Sub-Basin



The Sondu sub-basin has only subsistence farming in its upper reaches from Km 25 to Km 125
where the V shaped valley is fairly wide. In the 15 Km long delta reach there are a lot of
settlements who depend mainly on agriculture, livestock and fishery for livelihood. The fan
shaped delta has a gradient of 1 in 500.



(v) Kuja Sub-Basin



The Kuja sub-basin with a 20 Km long fan shaped delta has extensive agriculture, cattle grazing
and fisheries as the main economic activities of large number of human settlements. The river
channel has a width of about 55m. In the higher reaches there are few human settlements
engaged in subsistence farming on unterraced hill slopes.



(vi) Mara Sub-Basin



The Mara sub-basin in its last 120 Km reach up to the Tanzanian border covers the semi arid
and arid lands of Narok district where the human settlements depend exclusively on livestock
farming for livelihood. The river channel is 50m wide and has a bed gradient of 1 in 360 and a
meandering plan form. The upper reaches are characterized by a slightly meandering channel
flowing through a V shape valley with few human settlements on the valley floor.




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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.6.1.2 Rainfall



In Lake Victoria Basin there is no distinctive dry season throughout the year but there are two
maxima, one in April and the other in October. By and large, highest rainfall occurs in the
northwestern parts, which gradually reduces in the southeastern direction.

The northwestern part of the basin drained by the streams Malaba, Malikisi and Alupe receives
an annual rainfall of 1682mm with little spatial variation. In Sio sub-basin to the southeast the
rainfall varies from 1802mm in its upper catchment to 1589mm in its outfall reaches. The Nzoia
basin in its vast catchment witnesses large variation from a minimum of 1076mm in the
catchment of the left bank tributary Kipkarren to a maximum of 2235mm in the south-western
edge of the catchment. The average annual rainfall for the basin is 1424mm. In the catchment
of the Yala the upper most parts receive 1486mm of rainfall, which gradually increases to a
maximum of 2168mm in the middle reaches, falling sharply to a minimum of 1088mm in the
outfall reaches. The variation in the Nyando catchment is within a relatively narrow range of
1409mm to 1179mm laterally from northwest to southeast. The Sondu basin receives an
average annual rainfall of 1497mm, the maximum variation being in the range of 1100mm to
1638mm in the middle parts of the catchment. The Kuja/Migori basin receives an average of
1444mm of rainfall, with the highest rainfall in upper catchment and falling gradually in the
down stream direction. The Mara catchment, further to the southeast witnesses variation from
a minimum of 891mm to a maximum of 1420mm with an average of 1037mm.



2.6.1.3 Flood Problem



(a) Past Floods


Major floods occurred in the low-lying parts of the Lake Victoria catchment in 1937, 1947, 1951,
1957-1958, 1961, 1978 and 1988.Exceptionally heavy and wide spread rainfall occurred during
October and November 1961 which caused unusually severe floods in the Kano Plains,Yala
Swamp and other low-lying parts of the basin. The Lake water level started rising in November
1961 and reached the highest ever level of 1136.00m.a.m.s.l in May 1964.


The total estimated run off from 1st October 1961 to 31st March 1962 in Nzoia was 1560 Million
Cum (MCM) and that in Yala was 989 MCM (Frank Grundy). In the initial stages, flooding of low-



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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


lying areas was caused by over bank spills of the six main rivers of the basin. The situation was
later aggravated by the backwater effect of the rising lake level.

Many thousands of people had to abandon their villages, some being evacuated by helicopters.
In inaccessible areas and areas marooned due to disruption of road and rail communications,
food and medicines were supplied by helicopters. The Royal Navy, The Army and The Royal Air
Force provided assistance on a massive scale to the civil authorities in flood and famine relief.
As a result of these operations, the loss of human lives was relatively small.



In subsequent years, Nzoia had severe floods in 1963, 1975 and 1977. The Yala River had severe
floods in 1968, 1978 and 1979, the Nyando River in 1964, 1985 and 1988, the Sondu River in
1964, 1968 and 1990 and the Kuja in 1978 and 1990.


Flood Damages


(i) Western Province

The foothill areas of Mount Elgon in Bungoma district were affected almost every year from the
floods of small rivers like Bokoli and Myanga. The floods affected mainly the riverine areas in a
width of about 100m with depth of inundation of less than 0.5m. The duration of flooding was
only few hours. Since there were few human settlements there was no serious damage except
that a minor bridge was washed away in 1986.

In Kakamega district, the riverine areas were affected in some years due to floods in the Nzoia
and Yala rivers. The area affected was only in a width of 100m with depth of inundation of less
than 0.5m. Except for the floods of 1988 when a small bridge was washed away, there was no
damage of any consequence.

In the lower reaches of Malakisi River, the riverine areas of Busia district were affected almost
every year in a narrow width of about 100m. Though the depth of inundation was only about
0.5m it lasted for a day or more causing limited damage to agricultural crops and affected
grazing. In 1987, a minor bridge was washed away. In the lower reaches of river Sio, the district
witnessed considerable flooding in widths up to 3 Km. Inundation lasting a day or more affected
farm lands and water supply intake for Busia Water Supply without causing any significant
damage.

The low-lying areas of Busia district especially the Yala Swamp were affected due to large scale
flooding from the Yala and Nzoia rivers. An area of about 110 Sq Km was affected almost every



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                                                                         Flood Mitigation Strategy


year with depth of inundation ranging from 0.5m to 1m and lasting about a month. The floods
caused serious damage to agricultural crops – mainly paddy and maize, and loss of livestock.
Besides, road communications were badly disrupted often with damage to roads and bridges.



(ii) Nyanza Province


The floods of Nzoia and Yala rivers also affected parts of Siaya district around Yala Swamp and
the flood situation was similar to that in Busia district.

In Kisumu district, floods affected The Kano plains almost every year from the spills of river
Nyando and small rivers like Kibos, Luanda, Ombeyi, Nyaidho and Awach Kano. The worst floods
were, however, those of 1961, 1982 and 1988. An area of about 200 Sq Km experienced
flooding with inundation of 0.5m to 1m lasting for about a week. The floods affected
agricultural crops of paddy, sugar cane, maize and cotton and inundated many towns and
villages including the town of Ahero. Thousands of people had to be evacuated to safe places
and provided with relief supplies of essential commodities. Minor roads and bridges were sub
merged and sometimes damaged. The lower Kadianga area of Kisumu district was affected by
the flood spills of Sondu River. The area affected was about 10 Sq Km and the inundation lasted
about a week affecting, to a limited extent, the farmlands and sub merging community roads
and bridges.

In South Nyanza district about 10 Sq Km of Kobala area was inundated by the over bank spills of
river Sondu and back waters of the lake. Flood damages included loss of crops, damage to
houses and community roads and bridges and loss of cattle heads. Marooned people had to be
evacuated to safer places and provided with relief supplies. The areas around the mouths of
rivers Awach Tende, Lambwe and Kuja were flooded almost every year with inundation lasting
from about a week to one month. The human settlements in central Kaden area were the worst
affected requiring evacuation and relief measures.



(ii) Recent Floods


In recent years there were 3 major flood events in 1997-1998, 2002 and 2003. The 1997- 1998
flood was the consequence of El Nino related long and intensive rainfall during the months of
October and November when precipitation was 300 to 300 percent of the normal. The floods
had a tremendous impact on the environment and the population. A weir on Kipchoria river, a
tributary of the Nyando, was washed away and a water supply dam in Kericho district was silted
up. Almost the entire Kaino Plain was inundated and agricultural crops were completely


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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


destroyed. The floods also caused land degradation and increased soil erosion with consequent
silting of hydro power dams and extensive damage to 240 river gauging facilities due to severe
bank erosion. The protective dykes were over topped and breached at several places. In
Budalangi Division of Busia district more than 12,000 people were affected due to floods in
Nzoia river. The dykes suffered extensive damage due to over topping and breaches which cost
the government over Ksh 42 million in repair and rehabilitation. In Uasin Gishu district 2
earthen dams were washed away.


The floods of 2002 and 2003 were of shorter duration. These events took place in April, May
and November 2002 and April-May 2003 and affected the Kano Plains and the Budalangi area.
These floods were caused due to heavy and concentrated rainfall in the upper catchments of
Nzoia and Nyando rivers. The Sio river inundated a 3 Km wide stretch near its outfall into the
lake. The Yala river inundated its flood plain upstream of Lake Kanyaboli. The last 15 Km of the
river in the Yala Swamp did not experience any severe flooding due to moderation of flood peak
by the Lake Kanyaboli. The problem in the Nyando river flood plains and the Budalangi division
was aggrevated due to breaches in the dykes caused during the 1997-1998 floods.


Flood Damages in Recent Years


There is at present no systematic arrangement for assessment of flood damages and
maintenance of damage data. Damage assessment is usually made by various line departments
after every major floods but due to lack of coordination, the data is rearly compiled to have a
comphrehensive appreciation of the actual socio-economic and environmental impact of
floods. However, as per the assessment made after recent floods, in the last 20 Km reach of the
Nzoia river the annual damage is of the order of Ksh 46 million. An amount of Ksh 63 million is
spent every year on relief and rehabilitation of about 12,000 displaced people. The repair and
restoration of damaged dykes is expected to cost Ksh 37.2 million.


In the Kano Plains, an estimated 5,000 people are affected every year by flood spills of Nyando
river. The average annual damage is about Ksh 49 million. Relief and rehabilitation measures
cost Ksh 37 million.




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                                                                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy


Map 3: Flood Water in Western Districts of Kenya, 2002–06




Sources: Cities (SoK and ILRI 2000), water bodies, floodplains, and valley bottoms (FAO 2000a), permanent and intermittent rivers (NIMA 1997), 250-meter Digital
Elevation Model (SoK, JICA, and ILRI 1996), and 2002–2006 flooded areas (Brakenridge et al. 2006).




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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


Average Annual Damages


In the National Master Water Plan, average annual flood damages were worked out for the
1990 and 2010 conditions based on some limited field surveys, interviews and following
assumptions


•   There are no damages at the discharges of probability corresponding to the bank full
    discharge in a river stretch and increases linearly in proportion to the probability of the
    flood.
•   Bank erosion is approximately 5m per year.
•   Farm land is 80 percent of the utilized area. Maize is the main crop in flood prone areas
    with unit yield of 2.8 tonnes per hectare.
•   Damage rate of maize varies from 0.3 to 1.0 for various depths and duration of inundation.
•   Damage rate of houses varies from a minimum of 0.03 for inundation below floor level to
    0.22 for inundation 3m above floor level.
•   Damage to public facilities is 50 percent of housing damage.
•   Indirect damage is 30 percent of total direct damage.
•   The 2010 condition is based on the assumption that all proposed flood protection works
    would be completed and the entire flood affected area except the swamps would be fully
    developed. The value of assets would increase at a uniform rate of 2.5 percent per anum.


So far no significant flood protection works have been constructed and the overall level of
development in the flood prone areas has remained virtually at the 1990 level. The extent of
average annual damage due to floods at present, therefore, may be assumed to be the same as
was assessed for the 1990 condition. -I.



Increase In Flood Hazard


A recent analysis of floods at the river gauging station No 1GD3 on river Nyando for the period
1969 to 1997 indicates that flood discharges for different return periods have since increased
drastically as shown in the following table: -




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                                                                             Flood Mitigation Strategy


Table 4: : flood discharges of River Nyando

                  Discharge (M3)                                    % Variation
  Return          2003                 1983         1992
  Period          Study
                                    Study     by    Water Master    2003-1983           2003-
  (Years)                           ItalConsult     Plan Study                          1992
      10          863.19                550             437             57                   97.5


      25          1044.22               650             564             61                   85.0


      50          1178.46              750              659             57
                                                                                        78.82
    100           1310.20               850             752             54
                                                                                        74.22




Factors contributing to increased flood hazard


The main factors contributing to increased incidence of floods especially in the lower reaches of
the river in Budalangi Division of Busia district are: -

        1. Reduced flood carrying capacity of the rivers due to excessive siltation of their bed.
        2. Settlement of the dykes in some places reducing the effective height, thereby
           rendering the dyke susceptible to over topping during floods.
        3. Erosion of dykes due to river attacks making them susceptible to breaches even
           during floods of lower magnitudes than the design flood.
        4. Increase in flood discharges due to severe degradation of watersheds caused by
           uncontrolled and unregulated human activity, especially large-scale deforestation.
        5. The dykes are, at present, overgrown with trees and shrubs resulting in loosening
           and cracking of the dykes.
        6. Excessive encroachment of the flood plains by the people for agriculture and
           livestock farming and fishery.
        7. There is no programme / provision for routine maintenance of dykes. Specific
           schemes are formulated from time to time to repair the breached or severely
           damaged sections.


A combination of the above factors has so far resulted in the dykes being breached at 20 places.



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Map 4: Reduced Forest covers in the Upper Catchments




Key: 1 – Mt Elgon; 2 - Cherangani Hills; 3 – Burnt Forest; 4 – Nandi Hills; 5 – Yala River; 6 – Bundalagi
Flood Plain; 7 – Lake Victoria; 8 – Nzoia River


The deforestation activities not only reduce forest cover but also results in erosion of exposed
soil surface. Increased farming activities in the upper and middle catchment also add to the soil
erosion. The two activities contribute to high sediment load in the river sections and increase in
river stages. The consequence is overflow of sections where the gradients are low. A similar
scenario is experienced in the Nandi hills which feed into the Yala River, which floods into the
Lake Sare and also causes spills in the Yala Swamps. In May 2005, devastating floods displaced
ten thousand people, especially along the shores of Lake Victoria; floods were aggravated by
the sudden collapse of the southern and northern dykes on the River Nzoia in the Western part
of Kenya bordering Uganda.


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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.6.2 Rift Valley Catchment Basin

This covers mostly the Rift Valley province. The geographical setting of the Great Rift Valley
cutting through Kenya makes it susceptible to weather patterns that vary greatly with the rest
of Kenya. It covers an area of 126,910 square kilometers and is characterized by a rugged
terrain. Being classified under area 2 of the national surface water resources, this means the
area is predominantly characterized by lakes with no outflows.

The rift valley river system has the lowest relative annual runoff of about 1% of the mean
annual rainfall. It has an annual river flow potential of 4%, which is the lowest in the country
giving it a climate of semi-arid nature with well-drained soils. Lake Turkana found in this area
has a depth of 120 meters deep, a surface area of 6,405 square kilometers, with brackish water.



The basin is mostly ASAL and inhabited by pastoral communities, whose traditional coping
mechanisms have been interfered with and are currently as vulnerable. Being semi arid most of
the catchment experiences insufficient rainfall, leading to overgrazing and utilisation of
available vegetation. The resultant exposure of most of the surface induces flash floods and
sediment transport downstream towards the lower plains. The areas that are prone to flood
are;

   •   The cultivate slopes in Maela and Moi-Ndabibi
   •   The lower Suswa, Narok plains and Kajiado

Tukwel River for example has flooded in its meanders just before it pours into the Lake Turkana


2.6.2.1 Impacts of Floods in Rift Valley Province:

In 2003 mudslides occurred in Nandi South, Tinderet and Central Pokot areas of Annet killing 8
children and injuring 15 others. In Pokot Central (Sigor) 367 households were affected and a
bridge washed away, cutting off transport access to the village. Floods were also experienced in
Katilu area, Turkana South District. In Namanjalala area in Kwanza Constituency, floods
displaced over 500 households.

In Trans Nzoia district, the riverine areas of small rivers were flooded almost every year. At
some places about 1 Km wide stretches were inundated under 0.5m depth of water. However ,
the flooding lasted for only a few days causing only minor damage to farmlands and bridges
disrupting road communication. In some years water supply to Kitale town were also disrupted.
Kericho, Uasin Gishu and Nandi districts, by virtue of their location in the highland areas,
suffered only minor damage to farmlands and grazing pastures – mostly along rivers.



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2.6.3 The Tana River Catchment Basin

The Tana River Catchment Basin is characterised by intense agricultural activities on steep
slopes in the upper catchment. Poor soil and water conservation provide ideal conditions for
flash floods and landslides. This increases deposition of sediments in the valley bottoms as the
river meanders down the basin. The middle to lower Tana has long stretches of valley bottoms
as the river reaches Garissa Districts further east.

The Tana catchment has three distinct zones, which are discussed below:



Zone 1: Upper Tana (Mountainous Zone)

This is the water tower zone where the major rivers of the catchement area originate from. It
extends upto Embu region and has an altitude of between 1800-1100 metres above the sea
level. This zone is characterized by springs which are the source of the major river, river Tana. In
this zone, cash crop farming is practised which include the growing of both tea and coffee. He
tea and coffee plantations provide good vegetation cover, which protects the soil from erosion
effects, thereby allowing for infiltration during heavy rains.



Zone II- Middle Tana Delta

The zone has an altitude of between 1100-3000 metres above the sea level. The zone is
characterized by a lot of agricultural activities which include both livestock keeping and crop
growing. The zone is also characterized by low seepage of precipitation as a result of increased
human activities. A lot of land is cleared for cultivation thereby exposing the soil to erosion;
there is also land sub-division into smaller parcels due to increase in population.

A lot of siltation from the cultivated land in the area accompanied by deforestation re the major
causes of flooding in this zone. During heavy precipitation the zone experiences a lot of run-off
and flash floods. However, the floods are not a big problem in the zone since much of the run-
offs are abstracted for agricultural activities.




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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


Zone III- Lower Tana Delta

This is the lowest zone along the Tana catchment with an altitude ranging between 300-0
metres above the sea level. The zone extends to the coastal areas. The major economic activity
here is livestock keeping with very little farming along River Tana.

The zone has seasonal rivers, commonly referred to as lagas. The lagas are the tributaries of the
River Tana. When it rains, the lagas carry a lot of water and a lot of silt depositing some along
the way as the lagas flow into the Indian Ocean. This sometimes results into increase in altitude
changing the river course. Most of the lagas in this zone join River Tana after the Seven_Dams
at Kiambere. Also the other rivers from Nyamere hills and Mt. Kenya region (Meru) join River
Tana after the dams. This causes River Tana to flow in any direction resulting into flooding due
to heavy load of water and silt.


2.6.3.1 Impacts of Floods in Coast Province:

The rains in Kimorigo Location, Eldoro, Gotini and Lotima areas in Taita Taveta District resulted
in floods and mudslides. Floods were experienced in the upper and lower Tana River Districts
due to heavy rains in the catchment areas. Tana River District recorded high rainfall occurrence
especially in Garsen, Kipini, Witu, Wenje, Ozi, Hola and Madogo. In Maramtu, one classroom,
two houses and three farms were washed away. In Chardende, 12 houses were washed away
by rains.



2.6.4 Ewaso Ng’iro North Catchment Basin

Flooding in this basin reduces access to clean water by destroying or polluting drinking water
supplies, increasing the chances of contracting waterborne diseases. The terrain encourages
stagnant water that remains after flooding and can increase exposure to mosquito-borne
diseases such as malaria by providing a medium for mosquitoes to breed. Washed-away bridges
and impassable roads can isolate communities for extended periods, leading to food and other
shortages. On the other hand, flooding can sometimes be helpful to both ecosystems and
people. About one million people (IUCN 2003) depend on the Ewaso Ng’iro River’s flooding
regime for their livelihoods, including nomadic and semi nomadic pastoralists, who rely on
floodplain grasslands for dry season pasture.




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                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.6.4.1 Impacts of Floods in North Eastern Province:

In addition to severe flooding in Mandera, parts of North Eastern Province recorded heavy
rains. In Garissa, 50 households and 2,000 goats were marooned in flood waters in Gurufa (Fina
village). The lack of accessible roads to the area hampered efforts to move villages and livestock
to safer grounds. A preliminary rapid assessment conducted by the KRCS indicated that floods
in central Wajir affected more than 71,160 people. Wajir town lacks flash flood drainage
channels, thus rain resulted in reservoirs of stagnant water that submerge homesteads, water
wells and bucket latrines. This increased the risk of contamination and leading to residents
experiencing acute water-related diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera outbreaks, and other faecal
orally-transmitted diseases every year during rain seasons.

Due to the floods of 2008 only four wheel drives vehicles could access the area along the
Garissa-Wajir Mandera main road. Most of the feeder roads were impassable. Wajir town
experienced shortage of fuel in most of the filling stations and an increase in prices of food. The
assessment report indicated that there would be short supply of essential food commodities in
most settlements. About 70% of households in central Wajir live in the traditional hut-type
structures which cannot withstand the marshy water. Some houses were submerged in
stagnant water and the locals were forced to vacate them. In the same district, more than 400
households were affected, especially in Township, Madina, Got-ade, Waberi one, ADC,
Khalkhaja and Gotrahma villages.


In Mandera District, clashes occurred between the Garre and Murulle clans, and intensified in
September 2008, resulting in at least 24 deaths. The clashes were related to water resources
and the Alongo borehole in Elwak) A clash between the two clans also occurred in Mandera
town in October 2008 almost concurrently with flash floods that further displaced more than
920 households. The internal fighting acquired a different dimension when the security forces
moved in to restore calm and disarm the warring clans. During the joint security operation in
October 2008 at least 300 casualties were treated at Elwak District Hospital, some in critical
condition. Those seeking medical attention increased day by day, thus overstretching the
hospital’s capacity and resources. The Elwak District Hospital extremely under staffed; normally
there are 18 health workers, but at the moment most of them have left leaving only 4 health
workers. Medical supplies are limited and cannot meet the current demands of the displaced
people.

In mid-October 2008, a seasonal river that cuts through Mandera town burst its banks for the
first time since 2000. This followed a heavy downpour that also caused the River Daua to burst
its banks. Floods & fighting in the district have displaced at least 120,000 people in Mandera


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                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy


town, Bulla Jamhuria, Rhamu, Rhamu Dimtu and Qalicha areas along the River Daua that form
the border between Kenya and Ethiopia. The heavy rains started in the Ethiopian highlands and
Banissa plateau in Mandera West destroying crops and displacing hundreds of families along
the valley. In Bulla Jamhuria village, in Mandera, seven wells were submerged and 428 latrines
washed away. There is extensive damage on remaining latrines and water systems posing a
major sanitation problem.

A pattern of cyclical disaster events in the north Eastern province together with the current
emergency has had a considerable impact on those affected, many at their lowest in terms
vulnerability. Mandera District was the epicentre of the 2004-2006 droughts that affected the
entire horn of Africa, followed by floods in 2006. Ethnic fighting in this district has been taking
place sporadically since 2004, leading to displacement and insecurity which affects access to
basic services. As a result, outbreaks of epidemics such as cholera (since 2005) and locust
invasion (2007) have occurred and coping mechanisms are considerably weakened. These
conditions bear the hallmarks of a complex humanitarian emergency that is steadily unfolding
with devastating effects if the situation does not stabilize in the near future.

In 2008, heavy rains caused serious flooding in Wajir town submerged shallow wells and bucket
latrines with more than 13,160 people affected and were at risk of a cholera outbreak.




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Table 5: Areas affected and number of people affected by the 2008 flood


    Area                            Affected by                      People affected

    Mandera                         Floods & fighting                150,342

    Budalangi                       Floods                           12,123

    Coast Province                  Floods                           16,320

    Nyando                          Floods                           2,541

    Migori                          Floods                           2,532

    Wajir                           Floods                           71,600

    Siaya                           Floods                           5,231

    Nyatike                         Floods                           12,849

    Trans Nzoia                     Floods                           11,432

    Meru/Tharaka-Tigania            Clashes & mudslides              12,530



    Pokot Central                   Mudslides                        2,500

    Total:                                                           300,000




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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.7 Drainage Potential by Basin.

An analysis based on soil and vegetation type reveals a potential for poorly drained agricultural
lands which can be economically brought into use through improved drainage.



Table 6: Drainage potential by Basins


                                  Basin                                Potential (ha)
  Tana basin – predominantly along the meander of the middle              606,600
             and lower stretches of the Tana River.

   Athi basin- in the Middle plains of Kitui, Kilifi and machakos         240,000


  Lake Victoria basin – river valleys by Rivers Sio, Nambale and          184,300
  Walasi; in Mumias and Bugoma on River Nzoia and Lusumu:

        Rift valley- lower Kerio, middle and lower Turkwel;               264,000


      Ewaso Ng’iro North basin – middle /lower parts of the               1236,000
                          Catchment;
                                   Total                                  1520,900



2.8 Existing Arrangements for Flood Management


(i) River Nzoia


There are at present 16.6 Km of dykes on the southern side of the river and 16.2 Km on the
northern side, in the Bunyala area of Busia district. These dykes were built during the period
1977 to 1984 at a cost of Ksh 17 million.


There is no standing arrangement for routine maintenance of these dykes. Only specific
schemes are planned and implemented to repair the breached or severely damaged sections of
dykes and river training works.



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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


(ii) River Nyando


In the past, flood protection works in the form of low dykes, about 1m high, were built by the
local communities under the supervision of the Chiefs. These dykes were often too close to the
river and were, therefore, prone to damage during floods. Besides, the then Ministry of
Agriculture built some check dams and diversion channels to protect agricultural fields. Soil
conservation measures were also taken as part of on-farm practices.


In 1984 the Kenyan Government established a project unit at Ahero for planning, design and
construction of flood protection works in a phased manner. The Phase I of the project
envisaged a total of about 16 Km of dykes on either side of the river in its lower reaches. In
Phase II, these dykes were to be extended by 18 Km in the upstream together with river
training works to protect the dykes against river attack. Phase III envisaged multipurpose
schemes comprising check dams and canals for irrigation, hydropower and flood control.


So far, about 8Km of dyke – 4 Km on either side, have been built with about 1 Km of river
training works. Over time, about 4 Km of dykes had to be rehabilitated as part of emergency
measures. These measures cost the Government a total of Ksh 29.2 million.




(iii) River Yala


As part of reclamation of land from the Yala swamp, a 23 Km long drainage channel and a 2 Km
long dyke on the right bank of the Yala river were proposed, but so far only 9 Km of the channel
and 2 Km of the dyke have been built.

(iv) River Daua (Mandera)



There are some flood management activities being carried out by the National Water
Conservation and Pipeline Corporation (NWCPC). It is involved in the building of dykes to
mitigate flood effects in the area.

2.8.1 Flood Monitoring


Though there are river-gauging stations in the rivers in the basins, there is no permanent or
regular arrangement for monitoring and communicating the flood situation. The only



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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


arrangement is for rainfall forecast and warning by the Kenya Meteorological Department. The
forecasts are communicated to the Disaster Operations Center in the office of the President,
who mobilizes the various provincial and district level units for rescue and relief operations.

Under the Disaster Operation Centre at the National level for coordination, there are provincial
and district level committees to carry out disaster mitigation measures which are planned well
in advance based on information received from various monitoring and surveillance systems of
different organizations and departments. They deal with all disasters such as drought/famine,
floods, epidemics etc. At the district level the Disaster Management Committees, headed by
the District Commissioners, have representatives from various line ministries and departments
such as Water Resources Management and Development, Agriculture, Environment and
Natural Resources, Livestock and Fisheries, Defense, NGO’s and Youth organizations.



2.8.2 Strengths in Current Scenario

2.8.2.1 General

With the adaptation of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Kenya and the
subsequent sector reform the Ministry of Water and Irrigation has made tremendous progress
nationwide. The IWRM is recognized as the most appropriate approach for sustainable
development of water resources, of which Integrated Flood Management (IFM) forms an
important subset. The Associated Program on Flood Management (APFM), a joint program
between WMO and the Global Water Partnership supports the efforts of countries towards
implementing Integrated Flood Management. A number of pilot projects are being
implemented in different parts of the world to develop and apply various components of the
Integrated Flood Management concept. In June 2003, the Minister of Water Resources
Development and Management, Kenya, asked the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
to assist Kenya in developing a Flood Management Strategy.

A pilot project for developing a Strategy for Flood Management for the Lake Victoria Basin in
Kenya was therefore undertaken by WMO, with full participation of national experts from
various concerned ministries, as well as the then Ministry of Water Resources Management and
Development (MWI). The long-term view of the project was to strengthen national capabilities,
so that eventually national experts can develop a flood management strategy for the entire
country.

The National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation (NWCPC) has been engaged in
rehabilitation of dykes and localised on farm water pan construction. They have also proposed


                                              31
                                                                                  Flood Mitigation Strategy


intervention measures in the Study of Causes and Effects of Floods in Nyanza and Western
Provinces, Tana Basin and Taita-Taveta Districts in 2006.


Increase in Flooding Instances

An analysis of floods by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) at the river gauging station
No 1GD03 for the period 1969 to 1997 indicates that flood discharges for different return
periods have since increased significantly as shown in Table 7. The study also draws broad
inferences that during the period 1980 to 1987 the peak discharges had decreased due to the
forestation programs that were undertaken, whereas during 1988 to 1997 these peak
discharges had increased sharply due to massive destruction of forest cover. It would be
desirable to collect and analyze data from different parts of the watershed and also analyze the
rainfall pattern, before drawing any firm conclusions. However, the increased discharges for
various return periods shown in the above table need to be taken into consideration in planning
immediate and short term measures since the effect of watershed development programs are
felt only in the long term.



Table 7: Flood discharges for different return periods for River Nyando

   Return            Discharge for different return periods (M3)                  % Variation
   Period
   (years)           2003 study         1983 study          1992 study    2003 -1983        2003-1992

      10                 863                550                 437          57                  97

      25                1044                650                 564          61                  85

      50                1178                750                 659          57                  78

     100                1310                850                 752          54                  74

Source: Flood control on Nyando, Nzoia and Tana River, MWRMD, October 2003




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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.8.2.2 Community Flood Management project:

The Western Kenya Community-Driven Development and Flood Mitigation Project WKCDD/FM)
was undertaken by the Government in cognizance of the ability/potential of communities to
define their own destiny.


       The project employs bottom-up approach by supporting community driven
       development activities.
       It also deals with the flood problem through a multi-sectoral and integrated approach. It
       identifies and deals with the cause of the floods.
       The project is also addressing the social-economic issues of the local communities.
       It covers the original ten districts of Bungoma, Busia, Kakamega, Teso, Lugari, Mt. Elgon,
       Vihiga, Bondo, and Siaya. It thus addresses the upper catchment through to the lower
       catchment.



2.8.2.3 Yala Swamp Reclamation Projects

Dominion Farms Limited is a multinational international firm entered into a Memorandum of
Understanding with the Government of Kenya in 2004. The government issued a lease for 3000
hectares of the original 6000 hectares Dominion Farms had requested. Since then the firm has
been producing large quantity of maize, cotton, sunflower, rice, groundnuts on the already
reclaimed area. It has also started a bee keeping and fish farming project which is meant to
boost the economy and food production.



2.8.3 Weaknesses of Current Flood Management


       Current management of floods in Kenya is not structured nor anchored in responsible
       agencies.
       Current interventions are more reactive than preventive with the vulnerability of the
       community at risk that determines the extent of the flood disasters.
       Long-term mitigation measures need to be planned; and where they have been
       proposed they need to be implemented.
       Funding for flood management has not been adequate and commensurate with the
       magnitude of the problem.



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                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


       Presently there is no established flood flow forecasting system on any of the flood prone
       rivers in the river basins. Some indicative forecast is made by the KMD in the form of
       rainfall. However, the KMD staffs in the field and the headquarters is not fully outfitted
       for real time observation and communication of rainfall.
       There are no existing flood early warning systems in place.
       There is no hydro-meteorological database.



2.8.4 Opportunities for Interventions

       The government of Kenya has recognised flood as a natural event, which transform into
       disasters through complex interactions between social, economic, political and
       environmental processes.
       The damage to infrastructure and loss of human life continues to rise with subsequent
       flood events.
       The government recognises that vulnerability of communities are caused by a
       combination of physical factors such as exposure to floods, degree of protection from
       flood hazards, quality of infrastructure available, degree of access to resources, and
       ability to avoid, withstand or recover from the flood hazards. Socio-economic factors
       like acute poverty, high population density, lack of education, poor planning and
       management of agricultural and farm lands, poor quality of agricultural inputs and
       technology and absence of access to modern technological options to cope with the
       situation increases the vulnerability of the population to floods.
       Occupation also plays a role, for example, fishermen whose occupation requires them to
       live close to rivers and other water bodies, are more at risk than others and are
       therefore more vulnerable. People are also unaware of adaptation measures used
       elsewhere that can help in living with floods.
       There exists capacity and knowledge to address the Flood Management for the country
       therefore not only directly deals with the flood hazard but also has strong links with
       national social, economic and other development policies.
       Disaster prevention and mitigation due to floods is a multidisciplinary endeavour
       wherein development activities in different sectors of the economy help in the
       prevention of the disasters and reduce the vulnerability of the society.
       Intervention in flood problem areas are currently being addressed and measures put in
       place to mitigate the damage in all the basins in Kenya.
       The involvement of Natural Resource Management (NRM)Programme in river
       management.




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                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy


2.8.5 Threats to Flood Management

In Kenya the factors contributing to increased flood disasters could be summarized as follows:

      1.    Population pressure: Intensive economic use of the flood plains for agriculture and
            livestock farming.
      2.    Deteriorating infrastructure: Lack of systematic and routine maintenance of flood
            dykes, makes them susceptible to breaches even during floods of lower magnitudes
            than the design flood.
      3.    Environmental degradation of watersheds caused by uncontrolled and unregulated
            human activity, especially large-scale deforestation and cultivation practices,
            resulting in:
                              Increase in flood peaks.
                              Reduced flood carrying capacity of the rivers due to excessive
                              siltation of their bed.
                              Excessive siltation of the river mouths at discharge into the lakes
                              and oceans.
                              Shifting of river courses causing erosion of dykes.

       Increasing flood disasters in Lake Victoria, Rift Valley, Tana and Ewaso Ny’iro Basins are
       a complex construct of the increasing vulnerability of the population occupying the
       flood prone areas, and the increasing flooding instances. Floods in these basins, like in
       most cases worldwide are caused by heavy rainfall interacting with hill slopes. These hill
       slopes without vegetative covers give the floods the characteristics of flash floods in the
       vicinity of foothills and produce large amount of sediment. Other anthropogenic factors
       such as increased economic use of flood plains combined with improved reporting of
       the impacts of floods have also given an impression of increased flood disasters.

       Climate Change: There is also a growing concern about the impact of climate change on
       the frequency of floods. A number of studies on the potential impacts of climate change
       on flooding have been carried out by IPCC. These studies point towards future increases
       in the incidence of flooding due to increased storm activity and overall increase in depth
       of precipitation. Increased climate variability also can lead to excessive floods or
       droughts with consequential adverse impacts.

       The future rainfall scenarios for Kenya for the year 2030 broadly indicate that the region
       extending from Lake Victoria to central highlands east of the Rift Valley will experience
       mild increases in annual rainfall with highest increments of rainfall in the vicinity of



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                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy


       Mount Elgon. If these projections are accurate, there are likely to be far reaching
       implications on intensity and frequency of regional floods. IPCC Africa outlook shows
       that the water sector is strongly influenced by, and sensitive to, changes in climate
       (including periods of prolonged climate variability).

       Evidence of inter-annual lake-level fluctuations and lake-level volatility, for example, has
       been observed since the 1960s, probably owing to periods of intense droughts followed
       by increases in rainfall and extreme rainfall events in late 1997 (e.g., in Lakes
       Tanganyika, Victoria and Turkana. After the 1997 flood, Lake Victoria rose by about 1.7
       m by 1998.




3.0 ELEMENTS OF STRATEGY


Rationale for Strategy

Flood hazards are caused by natural events, which transform into disasters through complex
interactions between social, economic, political and environmental processes. A Strategy for
Flood Management for the country therefore not only directly deals with the flood hazard but
also has strong links with national social, economic and other development policies. Disaster
prevention and mitigation due to floods is therefore a multidisciplinary endeavour wherein
development activities in different sectors of the economy help in the prevention of the
disasters and reduce the vulnerability of the society.


Vulnerability of People to Floods

It is the vulnerability of the community at risk that determines the extent of the flood disasters.
This vulnerability is caused by a combination of physical factors such as exposure to floods,
degree of protection from flood hazards, quality of infrastructure available, degree of access to
resources, and ability to avoid, withstand or recover from the flood hazards. Socio-economic
factors like acute poverty, high population density, lack of education, poor planning and
management of agricultural and farm lands, poor quality of agricultural inputs and technology
and absence of access to modern technological options to cope with the situation increases the
vulnerability of the population to floods. Occupation also plays a role, for example, fishermen
whose occupation requires them to live close to rivers and other water bodies, are more at risk
than others and are therefore more vulnerable. People are also unaware of adaptation
measures used elsewhere that can help in living with floods.




                                                36
                                                                            Flood Mitigation Strategy




This section provides strategic intervention areas and their respective broad based activities.



3.1- Reducing Vulnerability through improved livelihoods


Steps should be taken through appropriate coordination mechanism to reduce vulnerability of
the flood plain occupants by improving their resource base and incomes. Raising the standards
of living and economic development improve education, health, economic resilience and access
to resources to take preventive measures and to mitigate the post-flood affects. Reduction in
vulnerability directly influences the adverse impacts of floods. The people living in the flood
plains are poor due to small land holdings and low yields due to poor quality of agricultural
inputs and crop husbandry. The farmers do not get remunerative prices for their produce and
the support provided by the National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB) is often inadequate.
There are no alternative livelihood options to enhance their income as such they are unable to
mobilize resources to face the challenge of floods. Their vulnerability to floods is further
compounded due to poor physical and social infrastructure, lack of awareness about health and
hygiene leading to morbidity and high HIV/AIDS incidence.



Activities;

3.1.1 Improve agricultural support services through subsidized inputs, affordable and
      appropriate rural credit facilities, marketing infrastructure etc.
3.1.2 Special programs for enhanced agricultural productivity and crop diversification
3.1.3 Land fragmentation/ utilization of flood plains should be addressed in Agricultural land
      use policy.


3.2 - Integrated Approach to Water Resources Development and Flood Management


This strategic intervention area for flood mitigation is based on the concept of Integrated Flood
Management (IFM), which in its broadest sense is a subset of Integrated Water Resources
Management (IWRM) which is a necessary criterion for sustainable development. IWRM
essentially means provision of water in adequate quantity and of appropriate quality for all
those sectors of economy, which depend directly or indirectly on water by promoting
coordinated development of land, water and related resources.




                                                37
                                                                             Flood Mitigation Strategy


Activities;

3.2.1 Entrenchment of flood mitigation in CMS through improved land use planning
3.2.2 Soil and water conservation measures should be enhanced in collaboration with the
      Ministry of Agriculture.



3.3 Flood embankment (Structural Measures)


Structural measures play an important role, among the range of available options. High flood
discharges when in excess of the carrying capacity of river channels, spill over the banks and
inundate large areas on either side. In the outfall reaches of the rivers, due to mild land slopes,
there is drainage congestion, which is often aggravated due to high water levels of the lake.
When the high floods in a river coincide with high lake levels, the back water effect travels far
upstream causing wide spread inundation for long durations. Protection against these floods is
provided with the help of dykes.

Activities;

3.3.1 Enhance implementation capacity through procurement of more equipment
3.3.2 Strengthen embankment maintenance capacity



3.4 Flood Preparedness/ Flood forecasting


Structural measures for flood protection like dykes are designed for floods of certain return
period (usually 25 years); therefore there is a risk of disaster from floods of higher magnitude. It
is therefore important to have other complementary measures in place. Among the non-
structural measures, flood forecasting and warning is one of the most effective methods, of
reducing risk to life and property. It is important that the flood warnings are delivered to
affected communities without loss of time, and that they understand them, in order to take
immediate preventive steps. However, this is a complex process and needs proper awareness
building and education of both the forecasters and the communities. The local knowledge and
beliefs of the communities and their special social and cultural setting have to be kept in
perspective while issuing flood warnings.




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                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


Activities;

3.4.1 Update hydro-meteorological database in the country.
3.4.2 Update flood monitoring network.
3.4.3 Setup appropriate communication system to provide advance flood warning to the
      village level communities.

3.5 Flood Management Fund

The government has repeatedly provided flood relief and compensation to flood victims. This
may be humane but in economic terms provides an unsustainable subsidy for flood plain use.
However, in practice withdrawing flood relief and compensation to flood victims raises a moral
dilemma. It is therefore wiser to invest in flood management measures that concentrate on
prevention and preparedness rather than spending on flood relief efforts.



Activities;

3.5.1 Seek financial assistance from International Donors to fund flood mitigation
      programmes.
3.5.2 Need to establish flood fund in the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in its annual
      financial budget
3.5.3 Encourage Public-Private partnership in flood mitigation.



3.6 Institutional Arrangement


Currently there is no specific institution in the country in charge of flood management thereby
causing confusing when floods occur. There is need therefore for the establishment of an
institution mandated to manage floods.


Activities;


3.6.1: Setup Flood Management Unit under the newly created Water Resources Management
       Authority (WRMA) both at head quarters and in the field to deal with the following:




                                              39
                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy


              1. Establishing a Flood Information System through compilation of flood damage
                 data;
              2. preparation of daily, seasonal and annual flood reports and a knowledge base;
              3. Field surveys and investigations including environmental base line surveys.
              4. Planning, design and project formulation.
              5. Construction supervision and maintenance of flood management works.
              6. Coordination with other related Ministries and organizations.



3.7- Promoting Community Participation


Community support could be useful in assisting the field staff of MWI in hourly monitoring of
river water levels at the flood forecasting sites, communicating water levels to the flood
forecasting office (FFO), receiving flood warning from the FFO and its dissemination, and
mobilizing and directing transport to predetermine disaster management units (DMU) of the
district during rescue operations. Community based NGOs can provide help to the DMC in
organising relief camps and distributing essential supplies.

Activities;

3.7.1: incorporate the principle of community participation at various levels of planning,
       implementation and management of floods with special provisions for enabling
       participation of women and other minority groups.



3.7.2: Strengthen community participation in arriving at consensual flood management
       option, monitoring and rescue and relief operations. This should be  formalized
       through their participation in River Basin  Organisations.

3.7.3: Encourage Non-governmental Organizations to motivate and facilitate       community
       participation at various stages including relief and rescue operations   and capacity
       building at community level




                                               40
                                                                                                               Flood Mitigation Strategy



4.0 FLOOD MITIGATION ACTION PLAN


This section identifies various measures that should be implemented, in order to put this Strategy for Flood Management into
action. These have been classified into the short-term, medium-term and long-term measures. However, it has to be borne in mind
that no irreversible actions should be taken without preparing the Master Plans for all the basins on the IFM principles, except the
one related to the repair/restoration of the existing dykes. All actions assume the MWI as the Lead agency and coordinate the other
collaborating agencies.

Table 8: Implementation Matrix


                                                            Time Frame           Expected Output               Collaborating Agencies

8.1- Reducing Vulnerability through improved livelihoods


8.1.1: Improve agricultural support services through 2 years                     Improved       agricultural
       subsidized inputs, affordable and appropriate rural                       activities                    MWI, MOA and other
       credit facilities, marketing infrastructure etc.                                                        relevant   Government
                                                                                                               Ministries

8.1.2: Land fragmentation/ utilization of flood plains 3 years                   Reduced land                  MOA, Ministry of Land
       should be addressed in Agricultural land use policy.                      degradation                   and other     relevant
                                                                                                               Government Ministries

8.1.3: Special programs for enhanced agricultural           2 years              Improved       agricultural MWI, MOA and other
        productivity and crop diversification                                    activities                  relevant Government



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                                                                                                   Flood Mitigation Strategy


                                                                                                   Ministries



8.2 - Integrated Approach to Water Resources Development and Flood Management

8.2.1: Entrenchment of flood mitigation in CMS 1 year
       through improved land use planning.                               Flood mitigation plan     MWI and ministry of
                                                                                                   Lands

8.2.2: Soil and water conservation measures should 2 years               Improved Environmental MWI and Ministry of
        be enhanced.                                                     management             Agriculture


8.3 Flood embankment (Structural Measures)


8.3.1 Enhance implementation capacity through 1 year                     Acquisition of required   MWI
      procurement of more equipment.                                     flood mitigation
                                                                         equipment.
8.3.2 Strengthen embankment maintenance capacity     1 year
                                                                         Well maintained flood MWI
                                                                         embankment structures.
8.4 Flood Preparedness/ Flood forecasting

8.4.1: Update hydro-meteorological database in the   3 years             Hydro-meteorological      MWI and Meteorological
       country.                                                          database                  Department
8.4.2 Update flood monitoring network.               3 years             Up    to    date   flood MOWI and
                                                                         monitoring network       Meteorological
                                                                                                  Department


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                                                                                                  Flood Mitigation Strategy


8.4.3 Setup appropriate communication system to 1 year               Flood        Dissemination MWI and Meteorological
      provide advance flood warning to the                           System                     Department
      village level communities.


8.5 Flood Management Fund

8.5.1: Seek financial assistance from International 1 year           Flood Fund                  MWI and Treasury
       Donors to fund flood mitigation programmes.
8.5.2: Need to establish flood fund in the Ministry of 1 year        Flood Fund                  MWI
       Water and Irrigation in its  annual financial
       budget
8.5.3: Encourage Public-Private partnership in flood 2 years         Sustainable flood funding   MWI      and        Private
       mitigation.                                                                               Organizations.

8.6 Institutional Arrangement

8.6.1: Setup Flood Management Unit under Water Immediately           Flood management Unit       MWI
       Resources    Management Authority (WRMA)
       both at head quarters and in the field.

8.7- Promoting Community Participation

8.7.1: incorporate the principle of community 1 year                 Community Participatory MWI and CBOs & NGOs
       participation at various levels of planning,                  approach
       implementation and management of floods.

8.7.2: Strengthen community participation in arriving 1 year         Community Participatory MWI and CBOs & NGOs


                                                                43
                                                                                         Flood Mitigation Strategy


      at consensual flood management          option,            approach
      monitoring and rescue and relief operations.

8.7.3: Encourage Non-governmental Organizations to 1 year        Community Participatory MWI and CBOs & NGOs
        motivate and facilitate community participation          approach
        at various stages including relief and rescue
        operations and capacity building at community
        level.




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                                                                                                          Flood Mitigation Strategy




Specific Interventions for the Basins

As mentioned in the main report, there will be a need to prepare a comprehensive strategy for each catchment basin. The process
must be consultative and drawn from the main national strategic flood management plan. The process must also involve
stakeholders at sub basin level and assure sustainability. This section outlines specific proposals for each of the basins.


                                                                              Expected              Collaborating
Catchment       Activity                        Time Frame                    Output                Agencies


Lake Victoria North Sub Basin

                                                                                            MWI/WRMA/Special
                 1. Continue with and upscale                         Improved flood
                                                5 years                                     Programmes
                    the WKCDDFM project                               management
                                                                                            Ministry
                 2. Implement the proposed
                    large and medium sized                            Established Flood     MWI/WRMA/Special
                    reservoirs    to     store 5 years                Embankment            Programmes
                    floodwaters in the upper                          structures            Ministry
                    catchments in the Basin.

                 3. Develop     an    on-farm
                    community water pan                               Community Water
                    conservation program for 3 year                   pan conservation      MWI/WRMA/MOA
                    the basin to encourage                            plan
                    extended         improved
                    rainage and crop season.



                                                             - 45 -
                                                                                                    Flood Mitigation Strategy




          4. Take      up    watershed
             development           and                       Improved water           WRMA/Forest
                                       continuous
             management to protect                           catchments.              Department
             riverine watersheds.

          5. Intensify           forest
             rehabilitation   program,
             through community job                           Regenerated              WRMA/Forest
             creation (Kazi kwa vijana continuous            depleted forests         Department
             or    work     for   food
             programs).


          6. Accelerate     pace     of                      Sustainable
                                                                                      MWI/MOE/Ministry of
             development in the basin continuous             development of
                                                                                      Lands
             with water as an input.                         basins

          7. Plan the relocation of high                     Relocation of settlers
             vulnerability settlements 3 years                                        MWI/MOE/Ministry of
                                                             from the riparian
             at the river mouths.                                                     Lands
                                                             zones




Lake Victoria South Sub Basin

                                                                                      MWI/ WRMA/Forest
                                         3 years             Protected riverine
          1. Start      up      stream                                                Department


                                                    - 46 -
                                                                                      Flood Mitigation Strategy


   watershed development
   and management
2. Plan and Implement the
   water storage and service
   schemes for river Kuja,
                                                    River management
   Awach Tende, Awach            3 years                                 MWI/WRMA
                                                    Plan
   Kanyadhiang’,    Ombeyi
   and     Nyaidho-Nyabiego
   respectively.

3. Design Dykes for the
   valley bottoms with high                         Established flood
   (Awach      Kano,   Wath 3 years                 embankment           MWI/WRMA
   Ong’er)     to    medium                         structures.
   vulnerability community
   and infrastructure.

4. Develop    an     on-farm
   community water pan                              Community Water
                                                                         MWI/MOA/Ministry of
   conservation program for      3 years            pan management
                                                                         Lands
   the basin to encourage                           plan
   extended        improved
   drainage and crop season.

5. Plan the relocation of high                      Relocation of people WRMA/ Ministry of Land
                                 3 years
   vulnerability settlements                        from Riparian zones
   at the river mouths.
                                 3 year             River management     WRMA      and     other
6. River     training     and


                                           - 47 -
                                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


            realignment          of                                           Relevant Government
            meandered points of the                                           Ministries
            flow (Ombeyi, Awach
            Kano, Lower Miriu.
                                                            Sustainable
         7. Accelerate     pace     of
                                         3 years            development of    MWI/Ministry of Lands
            development in the basin
                                                            basin
            with water as an input.


The Athi River Basin


          1. Start up stream                                Well managed      MWI/ WRMA/Forest
                                         3 years            watersheds        Department
             watershed development
             and management.

             2. Develop an on-farm
                community water pan                         Community Water   MWI/WRMA and other
                conservation program 2 years                Pan Management    Relevant Government
                for the mid basin in                        Plan              Ministries
                Eastern Province.



                                                                              WRMA/Forest
          3. Take up watershed
                                                            Riverine          Department and other
             development and             3 years
                                                            Management        Relevant Government
             management to protect
                                                                              Ministries
             riverine watersheds.



                                                   - 48 -
                                                                                                      Flood Mitigation Strategy



                                                                  Sustainable            MWI/Ministry of Lands
                 4. Accelerate pace of
                                               3 years            development of         and other Relevant
                    development in the basin
                                                                  basins                 Government Ministries
                    with water as an input.

                 5. Plan river training and
                    relocation of vulnerable   3 years                                   MWI/Ministry of Lands
                    community at the lower
                    Athi in Kilifi.


The Tana River Basin


                 1. Start up stream watershed                       Riverine              MWI/ WRMA/Forest
                                               3 years
                    development and                                 management            Department
                    management.
                 2. Plan and Implement the
                    water storage and services
                    schemes for tributaries in                                            MWI /WRMA and
                    the Aberdare Ranges and    2 years              Water storage plan    other Relevant
                    Mt. Kenya region to act as                                            Government Ministries
                    check dams and flood
                    reduction structures.

                 3. Design Dykes for the
                                                                    Established Flood     MWI/WRMA and other
                    valley bottoms with high
                                               2 years              embankment            Relevant Government
                    (upstream of Garissa
                    downwards through                               structures.           Ministries
                    Garsen) to medium


                                                         - 49 -
                                                                                  Flood Mitigation Strategy


  vulnerability community
  and infrastructure (At
  Mbalambala, Jarajira,
  Garisa, Bura, Saka, Hola,
  Wenje and Mnazini).

4. Develop an on-farm
   community water pan
   conservation program for                     Community Water
                                                                       MWI/MOA/Ministry of
   the basin to encourage     2 year            Pan management
                                                                       Lands
   extended improved                            plan
   drainage and crop season
   in the upstream, med and
   lower catchment areas.

5. Implement the Tana Delta
                                                Functioning            MWI /MOA/Ministry of
   Irrigation Scheme and the 3 years
                                                irrigation scheme      Lands
   sub catchment drainage
   system.

6. Plan the relocation of high
                                                Resettlement of
   vulnerability settlements                                           MWI /MOA/Ministry of
   at the river mouths 3 years                  people living in the
                                                                       Lands
                                                riparian zone
   (Karawo in Kilifi and Kau in
   Lamu).

7. River    training   and
                                                                       MWI /MOA/Ministry of
   realignment           of 3 years             River management
                                                                       Lands
   meandered points of the
   flow (most of the points


                                       - 50 -
                                                                                                    Flood Mitigation Strategy


                   requiring dykes in activity
                   3 above).

                8. Accelerate    pace     of
                   development in the basin continuous
                   with water as an input.
                   Some seasonal fisher folk                                             MWI /Ministry of
                   and fish traders also                            Sustainable basin    Lands and other
                   depend on the Tana’s                             development          Relevant Government
                   flooding pattern, as do                                               Ministries
                   some farmers, who count
                   on seasonal floods to
                   irrigate their riverbank
                   farms.

The Ewaso Ngiro North Basin

                                                 3 years            Water Storage Plan   MWI /WRMA
                 1. Plan and Implement the
                    water      storage    and
                    services schemes for
                    tributaries     in    the
                    Aberdare Ranges large
                    reservoirs     to   store
                    floodwaters in the upper
                    catchments.
                                                 3 years            River management     MWI /WRMA
                 2. Develop River training
                    and    realignment  of


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                                                                                                           Flood Mitigation Strategy


                        meandered       points
                        upstream of the Lorian
                        Swamp.
                                                   3 years                Watershed            WRMA/ Forest
                   3. Take     up    watershed                            management           Department
                      development          and
                      management to protect
                      riverine watersheds.
                                                   continuous            Sustainable     basin MWI /MOA/Ministry of
                   4. Accelerate     pace     of                         development           Lands
                      development in the basin
                      with water as an input.

The Rift Valley Basin

                  1. Plan and Implement the
                     water storage and services
                                                                                               MOWI I/WRMA and
                     schemes for tributaries in the
                     Aberdare Ranges, the Nandi 3 years                  Water storage plan    other Relevant
                                                                                               Government Ministries
                     hills, and Mau large reservoirs
                     to store floodwaters in the
                     upper catchments.

                  2. Design and construct dykes
                                                                         Established Flood
                     along the vulnerable areas
                     and infrastructure around 3 years                   embankment            MOWI /WRMA
                                                                         structures
                     Maela, Moi-Ndabibi and
                     Marigat.



                                                                - 52 -
                                                                                     Flood Mitigation Strategy




3. Develop River training and
   realignment of meandered
                                                                         MOWI /WRMA and
   points in the upper catchment
   and the lower catchments 3 years                  River Management    other Relevant
                                                                         Government Ministries
   (Sindaan, Loropin, Eldune,
   Molok, Ngoswe.

4. Take up watershed
   development and
   management to protect
   riverine watersheds. Develop
                                                                         WRMA/Forest
   an on-farm community water
                                                     Watershed           Department and other
   pan conservation program for   3 years
                                                     management plan     Relevant Government
   the basin to encourage
                                                                         Ministries
   extended improved drainage
   and crop season in the
   upstream, med and lower
   catchment areas
5. Accelerate pace of                                                    MOWI /WRMA and
                                                     Sustainable basin
   development in the basin       3 year                                 other Relevant
                                                     development
   with water as an input.                                               Government Ministries




                                            - 53 -
                              Flood Mitigation Strategy




Map A1: Athi Basin



                     - 54 -
                                      Flood Mitigation Strategy




Map A2: Ewaso Ng’iro Basin



                             - 55 -
                              Flood Mitigation Strategy




Map A3: Lake Victoria Basin


          - 56 -
                            Flood Mitigation Strategy




Map A4: Rift Valley Basin




         - 57 -
                     Flood Mitigation Strategy




Map A5: Tana Basin


      - 58 -
         Flood Mitigation Strategy




- 59 -
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