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					                                                                                                         Devils Den EAST Project
                    Works Cited                                                                     Beckie Moore, Mike Kaminski,
Blehert, David S. "Bat White-Nose Syndrome: An Emerging
                                                                                                            Ashton Lamb
Pathogen?" ScienceMag 323 (2009). Www.ScienMag.org.


30 Oct. 2008. Web. 19 Oct. 2009.
                                                                                                            Fall Semester 2009
Jeffrey, Cohn P. "White-nose Syndrome Threatens Bats.


" Bioscience 1p 58.11 (2008): 1098-098.


Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2009.
                                                                                                   Bat White Nose Syndrome
United States of America.




U.S Fish and Wildlife Service. Northeast Region.


Quick Reference for White? Nose Syndrome (WNS):


Contaminant and Decontamination Procedures for Cave


activity. By U.S Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S Fish and Wildlife


Service: Northeast Region, June 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.



                                                                    Bat White Nose Syndrome

Moriarty, Marvin. A hibernating Little Brown Bat.                   Northwest Arkansas Community
                                                                    College
Photograph. www.esri.com. Sep. 2009. Web. 10 Dec. 2009.
                                                                    http://faculty.nwacc.edu/EAS
                                                                    T_original

                                                                                                   Devils Den Cave, Devils Den State Park: West
                                                                                                   Fork, Arkansas
                                                      WNS Contaminate and Decontaminate
                                                      procedures
                                                              A cave should only be entered with clothing,
                                                              boots, and equipment that have been fully
                                                              cleaned using the protocol below.

                                                             For clothing – Wash all clothing and any
                                                             appropriate equipment in washing
                                                             machine using the hottest cycle possible
                                                             for material and conventional
                                                             detergents. Rinse thoroughly, and then
                                                             follow by soaking with sodium
                                                             hypochlorite bleach solution diluted to 1
                                                             part bleach to 9 parts water in a tub or
                                                             plastic container. Soak for 10 minutes,
                                                             then rinse and air dry.
                                                             For submersible gear disinfect any                        White nose syndrome was first discovered at a
                                                             equipment that can be submersed in a            cave in Schoharie County, New York in February 2006.
                                                             solution with an appropriate and                The disease started getting media publicity in 2007, and by
What is Bat White Nose Syndrome                              compatible disinfectant such as sodium          2008 it had spread to other New York caves, as well as
                                                             hypochlorite bleach solution diluted to 1       Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. In early 2009, it
(WNS)?                                                       part bleach to 9 parts water in a tub or        had been confirmed in New Hampshire, New Jersey,
                                                             plastic container. Keep submersed for           Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The condition has been
     Bat White Nose Syndrome is a fungus that                10 minutes, then rinse and air dry.             found in over 30 caves and mines in the northeast United
     grows on the muzzle, wing membrane, or                  For non-submersible gear disinfect any          States.
     exposed skin of the bat.                                equipment that cannot be submersed by
                                                             applying an appropriate and compatible
     Effecting six different species: little brown,          disinfectant to the outside surface. Use        Bat Migration and Spread of Bat
     big brown, suiall-iooted niyotis, northern              compounds such as Lysol® All-purpose
                                                             Professional Cleaner, Lysol® disinfecting
                                                                                                             White Nose Syndrome
     long-eared, eastern pipistrelle, and Indiana
     bat.                                                    wipes or the antibacterial form of                       Some bats migrate to caves a short distance
                                                             Formula409®; Keep on surface for 10
     What WNS does is it awakens bats in the                                                                          away, while others, like the Big Brown Bat,
                                                             minutes, then rinse and air dry.
     middle of their hibernation, causing the                For boots – Boots need to be fully                       travel miles to a new hibernating spot.
     bats to look for food and water sources,                scrubbed and rinsed so that all soil and
     only to find that there are none available to           organic material is removed. The entire                  Most bats, if they do migrate, travel from
     them because of the winter months.                      rubber and leather boots, including                      North to South like birds to find warmer
                                                             soles and leather uppers, can then be                    weather and larger food sources.
                                                             disinfected with an appropriate
     Areas now being affected are New York,                  disinfectant.keep on surface for 10                      Dangerous, because this can give other bats
     Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New                minutes, then rinse and air dry                          of none migrating decent WNS and can
     Hampshire, West Virginia, and Virginia.          (www.fws.gov./northeast/whitenose                               cause a possible larger outbreak.
                                                                                                                      Influencing bat populations in the west.

				
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