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					DATE:          September 4, 2012

TO:            BUS 209 Students

FROM:          Bill Moylan

RE:            Analysis of College Data

This memo analyzes college data, for putting your college education experience into context.
Data considered include population statistics (including demographics), earnings based on
education, education costs, historical enrollment trends (including differences by gender), and
the types of institutions and degrees conferred. Additionally, special emphasis is given on the
education experience in the state of Hawaii, where applicable.

Educational “Snapshot” of the U.S. Population

Once you have your degree, how unique will you be? You’ll be in the top 25% of U.S. adults, as
seen in the table below. While 75% of the adult population has no college bachelors (or higher)
degree, almost half have some college. Just fewer than 20% of American adults do not even have
a high school diploma.


                                                Number       Percent of Total

        Total Population Age 25+              182,211,639         100.0%

        Less than 9th grade                   13,755,477           7.6%

        Some high school, no diploma          21,960,148           12.1%

        High school graduate                  52,168,981           28.6%

        Some college, no degree               38,351,595           21.1%

        Associate degree                      11,512,833           6.3%

        Bachelor's degree                     28,317,792           15.5%

        Graduate or professional degree       16,144,813           8.9%

        Source: NEA



Should You Go to College?

In a word, yes. Without getting into the areas of personal development or intellectual growth, it
is clearly a prudent investment from a financial perspective. College graduates earn a lot more
than their non-college counterparts do. According to the census bureau, that degree will be worth
about $900,000 over the course of your career.
BUS 209 Students                               2                        September 4, 2012


That’s true! Work-life earnings for a full-time employee are estimated to be $2.1 million for the
average bachelor’s degree holder vs. $1.2 million for the high school graduate. However, maybe
you should consider professional school. Professional degree holders make the most—more than
double what a simple bachelor’s degree will fetch!

      Work-Life Earnings for Full-Time                Average Annual Earnings
      Employees (in $ millions)
      Professional degree       $4.4                  Professional degree       $109,600
      Doctoral degree           $3.4                  Doctoral degree           $89,400
      Master’s degree           $2.5                  Master’s degree           $62,300
      Bachelor’s degree         $2.1                  Bachelor’s degree         $52,200
      Associate’s degree        $1.6                  Associate’s degree        $38,200
      Some college              $1.5                  Some college              $36,800
      High school graduate      $1.2                  High school graduate      $30,400
      Some high school          $1.0                  Some high school          $23,400
      Source: U.S. Census Bureau



College Costs Continue to Dramatically Increase

For four year public institutions, like the University of Hawaii at Manoa, estimated costs for
tuition, books, room and board are up +332%, to $12,805 for 2006-2007. (Note: UH students are
still getting a good value when compared with average public universities!) As seen in the chart
below, costs just keep rising.


                             College Costs Up 332% in 20 Years

             $14,000
             $12,000
             $10,000
              $8,000
              $6,000
              $4,000
              $2,000
                  $0
                            7


                            6


                            1


                            2


                            3


                            4


                            5


                            6


                            7
                          98


                         99


                         00


                         00


                         00


                         00


                         00


                         00


                         00
                       -1


                      –1


                      –2


                      –2


                      –2


                      –2


                      –2


                      –2


                      –2
                     86


                    95


                    00


                    01


                    02


                    03


                    04


                    05


                    06
                  19


                 19


                 20


                 20


                 20


                 20


                 20


                 20


                 20




               Source: U.S. Department of Education

How Do You Compare to Other College Students?
BUS 209 Students                                     3                              September 4, 2012

By analyzing demographic data on college students, some very interesting findings become
known. As a student attending a public four-year university, you are in the biggest student
segment.
Almost 40% of degrees are issued by public four-year universities. Add in the two year associate
degrees issued by public colleges (like KCC), and we see that degrees from private colleges are
in the distinct minority.


                                   Public Schools Issue 74% of Degrees



                                    39%                                       24%




                                       2%

                                                                      35%

                            Public 4-year   Private 4-year   Public 2-year     Private 2-year

                  Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Public University Campuses Are Much More Crowded

While 39% of degrees come from four-year public institutions, those colleges represent only
15% of the 4,140 institutions in the U.S. This means they are more crowded. The student body
here at Manoa might be dwarfed by the largest in the country—the University of Texas at Austin
(not Ohio State, a common misperception) has 37,302! However, we are still almost 80% larger
than the average public four-year student body of 10,871, and eight times the size of the average
private four-year college (2,257).


                                 UH Manoa is 8 Times Bigger Than Average
                                             Private College!

                         20000

                         15000
              Students




                         10000

                         5000

                            0
                                     UH Manoa         Average public 4-year    Average private 4-
                                                                                     year
BUS 209 Students                              4                September 4, 2012

            Source: National Center for Education Statistics
BUS 209 Students                                 5                                September 4, 2012

Bachelor’s is the Most Common Type of Degree

There were almost 2.9 million college degrees conferred in 2006. Just over half (50.5%) of all
degrees are bachelor’s degrees. When we add in the 24.4% associate’s degrees, we see that post-
bachelor’s degrees are somewhat rare.


                              Post-Bachelor's Degrees are Rare!


                                                                         24%

                          51%



                                                                           20%
                                                        2% 3%


                     Bachelor's     Associate        Master's     Professional   Doctorate

               Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Women are No Longer “Catching Up”—they’ve lapped the Field!

Historically, women have been under-represented in higher education, in the male-dominated
U.S. society of the 20th century. Looking at gender data in higher education can be fascinating, as
seen in the graph below.


                             Ratio of Men to Women in Higher Ed

       180%
       170%
       160%
       150%
       140%
       130%
       120%
       110%
       100%
            50

            59

            64

            67

            70

            73

            76

            79

            82

            85

            88

            91

            94

            97

            00
         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         19

         20




       Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports
BUS 209 Students                                               6                               September 4, 2012

What is going on between 1950 and 1960, when the ratio of men to women attending college
jumped dramatically? It has to be a post-World War II effect. With such a huge percentage of the
male population fighting in the war in the first half of the 1940s, American society changed
dramatically, as women took over traditional male positions in their absence. After the war
ended, things slowly reverted to pre-war conditions. In addition, college enrollment jumped
dramatically (especially by men), as returning service members took advantage of the G.I. bill,
which provided broad education funding benefits.

However, by 2007, things had changed dramatically in the gender split on college campuses. The
tide has turned, and females now outpace males in enrollment—dramatically!


                                            57% of College Students are Female!




                                           43%



                                                                                             57%




                                                            Female           Male

              Source: National Center for Education Statistics



A Lot More College Graduates

As seen on the chart below, the number of degrees conferred has increased dramatically.

                                                     College Degrees Increase Dramatically

                                   1,400




                                   1,200




                                   1,000
                  (000 ommitted)




                                    800




                                    600




                                    400




                                    200




                                      0
                                      00
                                      03
                                      06
                                      09
                                      12
                                      15
                                      18
                                      21
                                      24
                                      27
                                      30
                                      33
                                      36
                                      39
                                      42
                                      45
                                      48
                                      51
                                      54
                                      57
                                      60
                                      63
                                      66
                                      69
                                      72
                                      75
                                      78
                                      81
                                      84
                                      87
                                      90
                                      93
                                      96
                                      99
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
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                                    19
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                                    19
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                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
                                    19
BUS 209 Students                                                             7                   September 4, 2012


However, that could be misleading, because of the huge increase in population. There are a lot
more degrees, but there are a lot more people. Is the percentage of the population receiving
degrees increasing?

Yes, the Percentage of the Population Receiving B.A. Degrees is on the Rise

When looking at historical data going back more than a century, we see that the incidence of
gaining a degree is increasing as well, as seen in the graph below.

                                                                      B.A. Degrees on the Rise

                             60




                             50




                             40
  Degrees per 100 HS grads




                             30




                             20




                             10


                                                                                                 End of WW II
                             0
                               00
                               03
                               06
                               09
                               12
                               15
                               18
                               21
                               24
                               27
                               30
                               33
                               36
                               39
                               42
                               45
                               48
                               51
                               54
                               57
                               60
                               63
                               66
                               69
                               72
                               75
                               78
                               81
                               84
                               87
                               90
                               93
                               96
                               99
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                             19


                                  Source: National Center for Education Statistics

The huge increase starting in 1945 is easily explained: pent-up demand for education following
the end of World War II!

How does the state of Hawaii fit in?


Hawaii is a Pretty Educated State

When looking at higher Ed data geographically, we find that Hawaii is above average. Among
adults, the U.S. average percentage of the population with a bachelor’s (or higher) degree is
25%. Hawaii is ranked 13th, with 30% of adult residents having degrees. Who’s the most
educated? Washington D.C. ranks first, with 46% of adults having degrees. Who’s worst? That
BUS 209 Students                                  8                                  September 4, 2012

dubious honor falls to West Virginia, at 16.5% Also well below average are Arkansas (18%),
Mississippi (19%), and Kentucky and Louisiana (each 20%). (Source: U.S. Census Bureau.)


Where Else Could You Go in Hawaii?

There are 21 colleges in Hawaii, with total enrollment of 66,057. (The enrollment figures do not
include the two, small private schools in downtown: Remington College and Argosy University.
They do not divulge data, but they are both believed to be less than 1,000 students.) Since the
state population is just over one million, just fewer than 7% of state residents are college
students. About 31% of all Hawaii college students are at UH Manoa. Almost 46% of all Hawaii
college students attend one of the other nine campuses of the UH system.



                                           Manoa is 41% of UH System




                                                      UH Hilo
                                                       7%          Maui CC
                                    Honolulu CC
                                                                     6%
                                       8%
                                                                             Hawaii CC
                                                                               5%
                                                                                 Windward CC
                       Leeward CC                                                    3%
                          12%                                                      Kauai CC
                                                                                     2%
                                                                                     UH West Oahu
                                                                                         2%




                     Kapiolani CC
                         14%




                                                                  UH Manoa
                                                                    41%




               Source: Peterson’s Undergraduate Dataset



Four Year Colleges in Hawaii

There are seven four-year institutions in Hawaii. Just over half (52%) of students at four year
colleges attend UH Manoa, while another 20% attend Hawaii Pacific University.
BUS 209 Students                                                               9                            September 4, 2012


                                                     UH Manoa is Biggest Four Year School

                                         UH West Oahu
             University of Phoenix
                                              Chaminade
                                         B.Y.U.–Hawaii
                                                    UH Hilo
                                                      H.P.U.
                                                UH Manoa

                                                               0       5,000        10,000     15,000     20,000   25,000

                         Source: Peterson’s Undergraduate Dataset

Of the four year schools, B.Y.U. Hawaii is the most difficult to be accepted to—only 18% of
applicants are accepted! Next up is UH Hilo (51%), followed by UH Manoa (68%), H.P.U.
(80%), UH West Oahu (87%), and Chaminade (96%). (University of Phoenix does not release
this data, but it is believed to be extremely high!)


                                                       Manoa Has the Smallest Gender Gap

                                        73%
             Female % of Student Body




                                        68%
                                        63%
                                        58%
                                        53%
                                        48%
                                        43%
                                        38%
                                        33%
                                        28%
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                                                                                                              ai
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                                                             en




                                                                                                          aw
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                                                                                                           an
                                                                       P
                                              in




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                                                                                          UH
                                                                    H.




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                                                                                               B.
                                                  rs
                                             i  ve
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                         Source: Peterson’s Undergraduate Dataset



College Degree Attainment Differs Greatly Among Races

While the gender data is intriguing, race also plays a big role in analyzing college degree
attainment. Native students of Asian ancestry were twice as likely (48.3%) to receive a degree
BUS 209 Students                                                           10                           September 4, 2012

than the average American adult (24.1%). Native Whites were also above average (29.7%),
while both Native Blacks (16.3%) and Native Latinos (13.5%) were below average, as seen in
the chart below.

                                                                 College Degree Attainment by Race

                             60%




                             50%




                             40%
  % of Segment With Degree




                                                                                                                            Foreign
                             30%
                                                                                                                            Native
                                                                                                     Average


                             20%




                             10%




                             0%
                                             Asian                 White                    Black              Latino


                                   Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports



If You Don’t Have a College Degree, Can You Hope to Be Successful?

Of course. The most successful non-graduate (at least in financial terms) is Bill Gates, who
dropped out of Harvard to start Microsoft. In addition, of course a lot of people in the arts (and
sports) skipped college or dropped out to get a start on their craft (or sometimes just continue
it—I can’t see Miley Cyrus dropping a hot thing to attend BUS 209!). However, other very
successful non-college graduates include Larry Ellison (CEO of Oracle and one of the 5 richest
people in America) and Michael Dell (of course of Dell Computer).

Hard to think of a U.S. President without a degree. Barack Obama has a very conventional
pedigree for president: Ivy League (Harvard) bachelor’s degree, followed by law school. George
W. Bush was our first M.B.A. president (make no inferences about the value of an M.B.A.
education from that fact!). Jimmy Carter attended a military academy (Annapolis), as did eight of
his predecessors. Who was the last president without a degree? Harry Truman in 1945, although
he was kind of an accidental president. Before him, you have to go back to the nineteenth
century, when eight of the presidents had no degree. The most famous one? Undoubtedly
Abraham Lincoln!
BUS 209 Students                            11                           September 4, 2012


However, unless you start a successful high tech firm or are fabulously talented in the arts (or
want to be a 19th century President), a college degree is a good thing to fall back on.

				
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