Lenape Indians PPT by J7G2UPN

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									Part 1:
Using Anthropology as the
Scientific Basis for the Study of
Culture


Part 2:
New Jersey History – 12000 BP to
European Contact
           What is Anthropology?
      Physical                  Cultural
    Anthropology              Anthropology
• Primatology               A.K.A. Ethnology

The study of primates.     • Ethnography

• Paleoanthropology         A.K.A. Participant
                               Observation
  The study of human
  evolution                • Linguistics

• Human Variation          • Archaeology
Studies: The study of
the physical differences
in humans.
               What is Culture?

 The Culture Concept: Culture is understood
  as the learned body of knowledge, beliefs,
   and customs that people use to organize
    their natural and social environments.

   Material Traits       Non-Material Traits
• Tools                • Attitudes
• Clothing             • Behaviors
• Housing              • Beliefs
• ETC.                 • ETC.
Culture: No overall consensus as to its
meaning…over 300 definitions.
• An Autonomous Population Unit
• Distinct Cultural Characteristics
• Shared Traditions

Problems:
• Cannot Define Cultural Boundaries

• Cultures are Not Closed and Self-Contained

• Cultures are in Constant Contact and Change

• Cultures are Provisional and Transitory

• Many are Extinct
Culture is a Survival Mechanism
•An infinite variation in cultural expression,
but each meets a certain need – Food,
Shelter, Resolve Conflict, Solace, etc.

•A blueprint of our customs and ideas for
living.
•It is packaged and delivered by symbols.
•It is pervasive - we are often unaware but
it surrounds and envelops us.
•Items and ideas meld together and make
sense.
                                                 Fine Arts
Surface Culture                                 Storytelling
                                           Subsistence Pattern
                                    Dancing-Games-Cooking-Dress
                                     Observable Material Elements
                                 May Include Behavioral Characteristics,
                                     i.e. Religion, Handshakes, etc.


                 Conception of Beauty – Ideals of Governing – Patterns of Raising Children        Deep Culture
                          Notions of Modesty – Cosmology – Relationship to Animals
                       Patterns of Superior/Subordinate Relations – Courtship Practices
                      Conception of Justice – Incentives to Work – Notions of Leadership
                             Tempo of Work – Patterns of Group Decision Making
                       Conception of Status Mobility (Class, Caste, etc.) – Eye Behavior
                  Roles in Relation to Status by Age, Sex, Class, Occupation, Kinship, etc.
             Conversational Patterns in Various Social Contexts – Conception of Past and Future
            Nature of Friendship – Conception of Self – Preference for Competition or Cooperation
                                        Patterns of Handling Emotions

                                    AND MUCH, MUCH MORE…
         Cultural Anthropology-Ethnology
    Ethnography-Participant Observation
• Social Organization
• Subsistence Pattern
• Economic Pattern
• Political Organization
• Religion
• ETC.
     ETHNOCENTRISM/CULTURAL BIAS

Do these concepts inherently reinforce bias
         when we teach history?


UNDEVELOPED/DEVELOPED

PRIMITIVE

RACE
     NEW JERSEY’S
NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY
     Ice sheet on
Ellsmere Island, Canada
 From Tundra:
Semi-frozen Sub
  Arctic Plain




                  To: Deciduous Forests
New Jersey During the Late
 Pleistocene Epoch Circa
     15,000-10,000 BP
                      Hypothetical NJ
                      Local Sequence
                      in Archaeology
Woodland Period
                           2000 BP




Archaic Period
                            8000 BP



Paleo Indian Period
                            12000 BP
                                ALACHUA




This point was named by Ripley P. Bullen and Edward M. Dolan (1959:77) for Alachua
County, Florida.

PREFORM:    Broad and triangular, having convex sides and a straight to slightly
      convex basal edge.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:     A thick medium to large point with a nearly straight to
     contracting stem and a straight to slightly concave basal edge. The blade is
     broad and triangular and may have straight to slightly convex edges.
     Shoulders ace broad and angular. The juncture between stem and blade is
     usually well rounded.

AGE AND CULTURE:   This type begins in late Middle Archaic and continues into the
     Late Archaic period. Dates suggested range from 5000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.

DISTRIBUTION:   The type is found from Florida to southern Georgia.

COMMENTS:   This type has been divided into four variants. The earliest, the Putnam
     point, has a contracting stem with a rounded base. The other three points, the
     Alachua (Figui-e A), the Levy (Figure B), and the Marion (Figure 0, seem to be
     variants of the same point. Their major difference is a minor variation in the
     stem, which ranges from nearly straight to contracting and has a straight
     to slightly concave or convex basal edge.



Bullen, Ripley P. and Edward M. Dolan
          1959    The Johnson Lake Site, Marion County, Florida. The Florida
                                Anthropologi st 12(4).
An Archaeological Local Sequence
      An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ
                          Woodland Period
Circa 1000 BP     Raising Corn, Beans and Squash

Circa 2000 BP     Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow

Circa 3000 BP     Pottery
                              Archaic Hunters
                               and Gatherers

                               Semi Nomadic



Circa 8000 BP

                              Paleo Indians
                            Nomadic Herd Hunters
Circa 12000 BP
Paleo
Indians
 And
Mega
Fauna
PALEO INDIAN TOOL KIT
Paleo Indian Projectile Points
      An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ
                          Woodland Period
Circa 1000 BP     Raising Corn, Beans and Squash

Circa 2000 BP     Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow

Circa 3000 BP     Pottery
                              Archaic Hunters
                               and Gatherers

                               Semi Nomadic



Circa 8000 BP

                              Paleo Indians
                            Nomadic Herd Hunters
Circa 12000 BP
ARCHAIC PERIOD POINTS
      An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ
                          Woodland Period
Circa 1000 BP     Raising Corn, Beans and Squash

Circa 2000 BP     Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow

Circa 3000 BP     Pottery
                              Archaic Hunters
                               and Gatherers

                               Semi Nomadic



Circa 8000 BP

                              Paleo Indians
                            Nomadic Herd Hunters
Circa 12000 BP
The Three Sisters of the Garden
WOODLAND POINTS
        Woodland Period Pottery
Early          Middle             Late
Guns, Germs and Steel
The First Globalization
EUROPEAN CONTACT
FROM THIS
TO THIS
COLONIAL ARTIFACTS
18th and 19TH CENTURY HOMES
LIGHTING
                    18th and 19th
                Century Artifacts and
                      Methods




Colonial Maps
 Homesites

								
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