Euphorbia milli SA by J7G2UPN

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									       Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i. Research
       directed by C. Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban
       Forestry Program and US Forest Service




       Euphorbia milii Des Moul.; Euphorbia splendens (crown of thorns)                    Answer Notes
                                                                                                    (1)The
1.01   Is the species highly domesticated?                                   y=-3, n=0        n     Crown-of-
                                                                                                    (1)Natura
1.02   Has the species become naturalized where grown?                       y=-1, n=-1             lized in
                                                                                                    No
1.03   Does the species have weedy races?                                    y=-1, n=-1       n     evidence
                                                                                                    Origin:
2.01   Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat,
                                                                             See Append 2 2         Madagas
2.02   Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high)                          2 2 (1)USDA
                                                                                    see appendix
2.03   Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)                 y=1, n=0         n     : 9b to 10
                                                                                                    Naturaliz
2.04   Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climatesy=1, n=0         y     ed in
                                                                                                    (1)The"C
2.05                                                                           its natural
       Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside?=-1, n=0 range? y=-2 y     rown of
                                                                                                    (1)Natura
3.01   Naturalized beyond native range                                                              lized
                                                y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05 No in
3.02   Garden/amenity/disturbance weed                          y = 1*multiplier (see Append n
                                                                             n=0              2)    evidence
                                                                                                    No
3.03   Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed                  y = 2*multiplier (see Appendn
                                                                             n=0                    evidence
                                                                                              2) Invasive
3.04   Environmental weed                                        y = 2*multiplier (see Appendn2) E.
                                                                             n=0                    potential:
3.05   Congeneric weed                                           y = 1*multiplier (see Appendy2) helioscop
                                                                             n=0
                                                                                                     The
4.01   Produces spines, thorns or burrs                                      y=1, n=0          y     leaves
                                                                                                     No
4.02   Allelopathic                                                          y=1, n=0          n     evidence
                                                                                                     No
4.03   Parasitic                                                             y=1, n=0          n     evidence
                                                                                                     (1)thorns
4.04   Unpalatable to grazing animals                                        y=1, n=-1         y     . (2)The
4.05   Toxic to animals                                                      y=1, n=0                'Generall
                                                                                                     This site
4.06   Host for recognized pests and pathogens                               y=1, n=0          y     lists 15
                                                                                                     (1)As
4.07   Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans                      y=1, n=0          y     with the
                                                                                                     Leaf type
4.08   Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems                           y=1, n=0                and
                                                                                                     (1)Sun
4.09   Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle             y=1, n=0          n     Exposure
                                                                                                     Soil
 4.1   Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions y=1, n=0             n     tolerance
                                                                             if not a volcanic island)
                                                                                                     Not a
4.11   Climbing or smothering growth habit                                   y=1, n=0          n     Grows -
                                                                                                     climberas
4.12   Forms dense thickets                                                  y=1, n=0                "impenet
                                                                                                     Terrestri
5.01   Aquatic                                                               y=5, n=0          n     al
                                                                                                     Woody
5.02   Grass                                                                 y=1, n=0          n     perennial
                                                                                                     Euphorbi
5.03   Nitrogen fixing woody plant                                           y=1, n=0          n     aceae
                                                                                                     No
5.04                                                                          corms, or
       Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs,y=1, n=0 tubers)          n     evidence
                                                                                                     Natural
6.01   Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat        y=1, n=0          n     crosses
                                                                                                     Seeds
6.02   Produces viable seed.                                                 y=1, n=-1         y     can be
                                                                                                     Natural
6.03   Hybridizes naturally                                                  y=1, n=-1               crosses
                                                                                                     Pollen
6.04   Self-compatible or apomictic                                          y=1, n=-1         n     These &
                                                                                                     release
6.05   Requires specialist pollinators                                       y=-1, n=0         n     are
                                                                                                     Propagat
6.06   Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation                              y=1, n=-1         y     ion: Stem
                                                                                                     (1)Seedli
6.07   Minimum generative time (years)                                                         1
                                                      1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1 ngs will
                                                                             See left                No
7.01                                                                         y=1, n=-1         n
       Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)evidence
                                                                                                     Uses:
7.02   Propagules dispersed intentionally by people                          y=1, n=-1         y     ground
                                                                                                      'Seeds
7.03   Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant                y=1, n=-1         n     can be
                                                                                                     FRUITS:
7.04   Propagules adapted to wind dispersal                                  y=1, n=-1         n     Dry,
                                                                                                     No
7.05   Propagules water dispersed                                            y=1, n=-1         n     evidence
                                                                                                     FRUITS:
7.06   Propagules bird dispersed                                             y=1, n=-1         n     Dry,
                                                                                                     No
7.07   Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)                    y=1, n=-1         n     evidence
                                                                                                     No
7.08   Propagules survive passage through the gut                            y=1, n=-1         n     evidence
                                                                                                     (1)The
8.01   Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)                                   y=1, n=-1         n     No are
                                                                                                     fruits
8.02   Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)           y=1, n=-1               evidence
                                                                                                     No
8.03   Well controlled by herbicides                                         y=-1, n=1               evidence
                                                                                                     (1)Since
8.04   Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire         y=1, n=-1         n     Don’t
                                                                                                     crown-of-
8.05   Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)
                                                                             y=-1, n=1               know
       Total score:                                                                            1
Source
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doflorist.com/e
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Holm et al.
1997. An
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http://gateway.li
brary.uiuc.edu/
http://nt.ars-
grin.gov/fungal
(1)http://www.d
esert-
http://hort.ifas.u
fl.edu/shrubs/E
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http://66.102.7.
104/search?q=
http://gateway.li
brary.uiuc.edu/
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http://www.des
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(1)http://216.23
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http://www.aller
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http://www.aller
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