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									          STATE OF ALASKA

                                                      State of Alaska
                          Department of Military and Veterans Affairs
          Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION                                                              -1-

COMMUNITY PLANNING                                                        -2-

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND RECORDS                                              -5-

EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES                                                    -6-

ELECTRIC PLANT                                                            -8-

FUEL STORAGE                                                              -9-

AIRPORT                                                                  -10-

WATER AND SEWER SYSTEM                                                   -11-

TELEPHONE                                                                -12-

SCHOOLS                                                                  -13-

DISASTER RESPONSE                                                        -14-

AFTER THE FLOOD CHECKLIST                                                -17-

CONTACT NUMBERS                                                          -18-

Appendix A. Safe Drinking Water                                          -21-

Appendix B. Flood Preparedness - Are You Ready for a Flood??             -22-

Appendix C. Identifying, Protecting and Salvaging Vital Records          -23-

Appendix D. Myths and Facts About the National Flood Insurance Program   -26-

Appendix E. Ice Breakup Reconnaissance Approach in Alaska                -32-

Appendix F. Helpful Computer Web Links/Addresses                         -36-

This document outlines general procedures developed by the Division of Homeland
Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM), in cooperation with the National
Weather Service, to prepare State, local, and village officials for seasonal flooding along
several major river systems in Alaska. These river systems include, but are not limited
to, the Yukon, Kuskokwim, Koyukuk, Tanana, Chena, rivers and their tributaries.

   Each year, the State of Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency
   Management (DHS&EM) and the National Weather Service (NWS) separately fund
   a joint program to provide advance and emergency notification of imminent flooding
   on Alaska river system. This program, known as the “River Watch,” provides a
   necessary service to 76 Alaskan communities, tribal councils, and boroughs within
   river systems prone to seasonal flooding.


   NWS has authority to participate in this program under statutes, administrative
   regulations, and policies outlined in The Organic Act of October 1, 1890 Chap. 1266,
   Sec. 3.

   DHS&EM has authority to participate in this program under AS 26.23.040(e) (9).

Please address any questions, comments, or other requests concerning this document
to DHS&EM at (907) 428-7000 or toll free at (800) 478-2337. Additional free copies of
this document can be obtained in either paper or electronic format by contacting
DHS&EM at the telephone numbers listed above, or may be downloaded from the
Internet from the DHS&EM home page at

Throughout this document, following the topics of discussion for planning, you will see
the words; When: and Who: accompanied by Phone. The purpose of these cues is to
help community leaders and planners assign responsibility and develop a timeframe to
complete these duties. The phone cue is also provided to facilitate a more to direct line
of communication. In this document, where the When and Who are already filled in,
these are merely DHS&EM suggestions and may be changed or adjusted by the
community leaders as they deem necessary.

                               COMMUNITY PLANNING

1.   Call a special meeting with the City/Village Council, school, clinic, utilities

     •      Discuss the flood threat.
     •      Review flood preparations.
     •      Decide what is to be done.
     •      Organize the community for emergency operations.
     •      Appoint a person to see that each job is carried out.

            When: Around April 15

            Who: Chief, manager, mayor, administrator

2.   Conduct publicity campaigns to remind people to protect homes and property
     from flooding.

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup

            Who:                         Phone:

3.   Provide people with information on what to do in case of flooding. Copy and
     distribute the individual check list (Appendix B).

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

            Who:                         Phone:

4.   Conduct pre-breakup inspection of flood prone areas.

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

            Who:                         Phone:

5.   Issue daily reports to people on status of the river.

            When: Prior to and during breakup

            Who:                         Phone:

                                            -2-                           Community Planning
6.     Identify high ground and select areas safe and suitable for the sheltering of
       evacuees and for the storage of evacuated equipment and emergency supplies.

              When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

              Who:                        Phone:

7.     Identify available stocks of sandbags and other available stocks of dike-building
       material and arrange for their availability and distribution.

              When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

              Who:                        Phone:

8.     Assure the evacuation routes to the shelter areas selected will be passable.

              When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

              Who:                        Phone:

NOTE: If availability of evacuation routes is limited, and some flooding may occur but
not render the routes impassable, arrange for markers to identify the route alignment, or
arrange for pilot vehicles to guide evacuees.

9.      Inventory available stocks and sources of equipment and supplies common to
the needs of disaster workers. Include special clothing, hard hats, rubber boots, flotation
gear, flashlights and batteries, flares, maintenance tools, rescue tools, fresh water and

              When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

              Who:                        Phone:

10.     Survey essential facilities such as clinics, communications centers, broadcast
stations, power and heat generating facilities, distribution systems and other utilities.
Undertake feasible flood proofing measures.

              When: All year long

              Who:                        Phone:

                                            -3-                           Community Planning
11.    Encourage use of flood proof building techniques.

              When: All year long

              Who:                        Phone:

12.    Become a National Flood Insurance eligible community. (See Appendix D.)

              When: As soon as possible.

              Who:                Phone: For Information, contact the
                                                Division of Community Advocacy
                                                Flood Plain Management Officer,
                                                Christy Miller Ph. 907-269-4567 or
                                                Taunnie Boothby Ph. 907-269-4583

13.    Encourage people to buy flood insurance. (See Appendix D)

              When: All year long

              Who:                        Phone:

14.    Buy flood insurance for community owned buildings.

              When: Now

              Who:                        Phone:

NOTE: Flood insurance policies do not take effect until thirty days after the date of

                                            -4-                          Community Planning
                        PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND RECORDS

1.   Make sure all important City/Village records are protected from flooding.
     •     On the basis of anticipated flood levels, arrange for public equipment and
           supplies to be elevated or moved to an upper floor to avoid water damage.
     •     Insure that essential public records are protected.
     •     See suggestions for protecting and recovering vital records in Appendix C.
     •     Assess all types of records that the community might have and would
           need to protect, i.e.:
                     church                   who/ phone:______________________
                     school                   who/ phone:______________________
                     corporation              who/ phone:______________________
                     village council          who/ phone:______________________
                     tribal council           who/ phone:______________________
                     city government          who/ phone:______________________
                     postal                   who/ phone:______________________
                     clinic                   who/ phone:______________________
                     store                    who/ phone:______________________
                     airfield                 who/ phone:______________________

            When: Review record storage one week prior to the forecasted date of
            river breakup. If necessary, relocate records when the Alaska River
            Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch or

            Who:                         Phone:

2.   Prepare public buildings in the flood zone for the possibility of flooding.

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

            Who:                         Phone:

3.   Multi-story buildings in a flood zone: Relocate property to upper levels.

            When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
            issues a flood warning.

            Who:                         Phone:

                                           -5-                         Buildings and Records
                          EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES

1.   Inventory high clearance vehicles and their owners and operators.

     •     Include school buses. Organize and establish a ready emergency motor
           pool and a reserve.
     •     Arrange for central dispatch and recording of missions assigned and
     •     Assign vehicles to missions and areas in advance as much as possible.

           When: When breakup is reported at _________

           Who:                       Phone:

2.   Inventory motor boats.

     •     Test run motors and have a supply of fuel safely stored.
     •     Assure boats are adequately equipped with running lights, life jackets,
           rubber boots, rope and flashlights with spare batteries.
     •     Organize and establish a ready emergency vessel pool and reserve.

           When: When breakup is reported at _________

           Who:                       Phone:

3.   Move all city vehicles and equipment to high ground storage area.

           When: When breakup is reported at _________

           Who:                       Phone:

4.   Check shop area and work sites to make sure City/Village materials and property
     are safe from flooding.

           When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
           issues a flood watch.

           Who:                       Phone:

                                        -6-                       Equipment and Vehicles
5.    Arrange for the protection and distribution of fire fighting equipment away from
      probable flooded areas.

             When: When breakup is reported at _______________

             Who:                       Phone:

6.    Assure that all vehicles are topped off with fuel daily as breakup approaches.

             When: When breakup is reported at _______________

             Who:                       Phone:


Vehicles, boats, snow machines, and ATV’s are required by law to be registered in the
State of Alaska regardless of where they are located in Alaska. In the event of loss or
damage to these forms of transportation due to flooding or a disaster related event and
a State or Federal Disaster declaration is granted and signed, only those vehicles,
boats, snow machines, and ATV’s that are properly registered will be considered as
eligible for possible disaster assistance.

                                 Alakanuk, May 2005

                                          -7-                       Equipment and Vehicles
                                 ELECTRIC PLANT

1.    Charge generator starter batteries.

             When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

             Who:                       Phone:

2.    Shut down generator

             When: Flooding threatens the power plant, tank farm and generators.

             Who:                       Phone:

3.    Remove batteries to a safe location.

             When: Flooding threatens the power plant.

             Who:                       Phone:

4.    Protect fuel sources and close valves.
            When: Flooding threatens the power plant, tank farm and generators.

             Who:                       Phone:

NOTE: If a fuel spill occurs, notify the Alaska Department of Environmental
Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or
after-hours at 800-478-9300.

                                            -8-                               Electric Plant
                                    FUEL STORAGE

1.    Anchor fuel tanks to prevent them from floating away.

             When: Do it once as a permanent low cost prevention measure.


2.    Close valves to prevent fuel spills if lines break.

             When: Do at onset of river breakup in the area.

             Who:                         Phone:

3.    Move and secure all barrels, containers and other fuel to high ground

             When: One week before the forecasted date of river breakup.

             Who:                         Phone:

4.    Make sure fuel tank vents are above flood level

             When: Do it once as a permanent solution.


5.    Arrange for petroleum distributors to meet the additional demand for fuels in
      preparation for the emergency.

      •      Establish, if possible, the amounts of various fuels and oils on hand.
      •      Arrange for the establishment of operable means of distribution during the

             When: Two weeks prior to breakup.

             Who:                         Phone:

NOTE: If a fuel spill occurs, notify the Alaska Department of Environmental
Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or after-
hours at 800-478-9300.

                                            -9-                               Fuel Storage

1.    Monitor the airport during high water and close if necessary.

             When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
             issues a flood watch.

             Who:                           Phone:

2.    Move all aircraft to higher ground.

             When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
             issues a flood watch.

             Who:                           Phone:

3.    Report runway conditions to the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public

             When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
             issues a flood warning.

             Who: Airport Maintenance Supervisor Phone:

4.    Ensure that aircraft have sufficient fuel if fuel will not be available during a flood.
      Check the status of aviation fuel availability in nearby communities.

             When: Starting one week prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

             Who:                           Phone:

NOTE: If your community airport is out of any flood threat zone, this section may be

                                             -10-                                       Airport
                          WATER AND SEWER SYSTEM

1.   Test backup generators.

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

            Who:                        Phone:

2.   Encourage people to store water.

            When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
            issues a flood watch.

            Who:                        Phone:

3.   Store water in school building in preparation for opening it as a shelter.

            When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
            issues a flood watch.

            Who:                        Phone:

4.   Test community water after flooding in accordance with established operator’s

            When: Immediately after the flooding.

            Who: Water plant operator                        Phone:

5.   If the sewage lagoon overflows, contact the Alaska Department of Environmental
     Conservation. (Anchorage Office 269-3063, Fairbanks Office 451-2121)

            When: Immediately

            Who:                        Phone:

6.   Distribute water disinfecting guidelines (Appendix A)

            When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

            Who:                        Phone:

                                          -11-                      Water and Sewer System

1.   Charge batteries that provide backup power to the telephone system. This
     applies both to the satellite dish and the local exchange system.

           When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

           Who:                       Phone:

2.   Identify and reserve portable generators that are capable of keeping the phone
     system up in case of prolonged loss of community power.

           When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

           Who:                       Phone:

3.   Consider purchasing a portable satellite telephone for your community.

           When: During the community budget development process.

           Who:                       Phone: For technical advice, contact the
                                      Division of Homeland Security and Emergency
                                      Management technical section.
                                      Phone: 800-478-2337.

                               McGrath, May 2005

                                        -12-                         Disaster Response

1.   Notify school management of possible need to use the school as an emergency

           When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup.

           Who:                        Phone:

2.   Test the school’s backup generator and assure that there is and will be an
     adequate fuel supply to operate it.

           When: Two weeks prior to date of the forecasted date of river breakup.

           Who:                        Phone:

3.   If the school has an alternate communications system, test it.

           When: Two weeks prior to date of the forecasted date of river breakup.

           Who:                        Phone:

4.   Store water and post water disinfecting guidelines. (Appendix A)

           When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
           issues a flood Warning.

           Who:                        Phone:

                                        -13-                            Disaster Response
                              DISASTER RESPONSE

1.   Monitor river and community for problems.

     •     Receive and evaluate forecasts and predictions which indicate a potential
           for flooding.
     •     Make whatever confirmations are necessary and pursue further
           information and guidance from the Division of Homeland Security and
           Emergency Management (800-478-2337) and the Alaska River Forecast
           Center, National Weather Service (907-266-5160).
     •     In coordination with these agencies, develop the following estimates on
           the basis of past experiences or other available data.
           1. The level above flood stage that is anticipated, when will it start, and
               how long will it take to peak
           2. What areas are subject to flooding and to what extent?
           3. On the basis of available physical indications, how much warning time
               will be available from the time that flooding is definitely imminent until
               the time it actually occurs?
           4. What measures can be taken to eliminate obstructions or otherwise aid
               the runoff water in stream channels?

           When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
           issues a flood watch.

           Who:                        Phone:

2.   Prepare to shelter people whose homes are flooded.

     •     Select the buildings on high ground that will be used for shelters or select
           a safe place on high ground to which your people can move in the event
           your community gets flooded.
     •     Before a flood is expected, inform the citizens to have tents, sleeping
           bags, other bedding, stoves, medicine, food, fuel for heating, and
           emergency lighting ready to move to high ground in the event floods may
           affect their homes.
     •     If community buildings have been selected for sheltering the community,
           these items could be pre-positioned once flood warnings have been

           When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service
           issues a flood watch.

           Who:                        Phone:

                                         -14-                           Disaster Response
     NOTE: Evacuation by air and re-supply of emergency survival items is an emergency measure
     used to save lives and should be used only as a last resort. In the event that air evacuation is
     necessary, each person may carry only one small bag of belongings. Ensure that all
     needed medicines and prescriptions are included! Not only is air evacuation and re-supply
     expensive, in bad weather it can be dangerous or even impossible. Be completely ready.
     Returning to the community after the flood is not considered an emergency and return will be by
     whatever means are available at the time, and your community will have to share the
     responsibility and expense.

3.   Help people move to shelter.
     •     Make preparations for the orderly evacuation and reception of the evacuees, which will
           progress in phase with the rise of the water.
     •     Assure that evacuation routes to the areas selected will not become impassable before
           they can be reached.
     •     If availability of evacuation routes is limited, and some flooding may occur but not render
           the routes impassable, arrange for markers to identify the alignment, or arrange for pilot
           vehicles to guide evacuees.
     •     Estimate the number of evacuees and, in consultation with volunteer relief organizations
           (Tanana Valley District of the American Red Cross of Alaska 1-800- 451-8267), select
           suitable shelters and arrange for their operation.

            When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood

            Who:                        Phone:

4.   Monitor status of the elderly, young children, handicapped and other people with special needs.
     Special needs populations are defined as:

     •     Physically (e.g., hearing-impaired, sight- impaired, mobility-impaired) or mentally
     •     non-English speakers
     •     the institutionalized
     •     the aged or infirm
     •     the incarcerated
     •     the hospitalized
     •     children in school
     •     children in day care centers
     •     nursing home residents
     •     transient populations
     •     people without transportation

                                                          -15-                         Contacts Numbers
            When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood
            watch or warning.

            Who:                      Phone:

5.   Report to the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management on flood conditions
      (800-478-2337, Request the Response Section).

            When: During flooding and after flooding

            Who:                      Phone:

                             McGrath’s Cranberry Road, May 2005

                                                       -16-                      Contacts Numbers
                                   AFTER THE FLOOD CHECKLIST

NOTE: When the flooding event results in a Local, State, or Federal Disaster Declaration, it is highly
recommended the City and or Tribal Administration begin tracking all costs and efforts associated
with Emergency Protective Measures taken before, during, and after the event to save lives, protect
public health and safety, and protect improved public and private property. Included are debris
removal efforts necessary to eliminate immediate threat to lives, public health and safety, eliminating
immediate threats of significant damage to improved public and private property. Typically examples
of this would be debris removal from the streets or evacuation routes or residential access areas to
allow safe passage of emergency vehicles or debris removal from public property to eliminate health
and safety hazards. Tracking cost applies to the labor, materials, equipment, and contract costs
awarded for performance of eligible emergency work.

                    •   Initiate surveys for the identification of safety hazards and undertake corrective
                        measures. Be especially aware of electrical hazards and structure instability.

                    •   Perform preliminary damage assessments.

                    •   Arrange for initial debris clearance and restoration of essential public facilities
                        and utilities.

                    •   Arrange for the clearing of culverts and drainage of water pockets.

                    •   Arrange for a health and sanitation survey and initiation of disease prevention

                    •   Arrange for partial return of evacuees, particularly the heads of households, for
                        individual damage assessment and cleanup. Phase the return of the remaining
                        evacuees in a pace with the rehabilitation progress.

                    •   Arrange for public distribution of instructions on how to clean and restore real
                        and personal property. This information can be obtained from the Red Cross
                        (Tanana Chapter Red Cross 1-800-451-8267)

                    •   Undertake general debris clearance.

                    •   Arrange for emergency housing as may be necessary.

                    •   Initiate immediate and long range rehabilitation measures and programs.

NOTE: Following the flooding event, If a fuel spill has been discovered, notify the Alaska Department of
Environmental Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or
800-478-9300. (After-hours)

                                                              -17-                          Contacts Numbers

Governmental Agencies

 Agencies                                  Contact                                 Phone               Fax
Legislative House and Senate Districts
District C                                 Sen. Albert Kookesh                    465-3473          465-2827
District 5                                 Rep. William “Bill” Thomas, Jr.        465-3732          465-2652
District 6                                 Rep. Woodie Salmon                     465-4527          465-2197
District D                                 Sen. Ralph Seekins                     465-2327          465-5241
District 7                                 Rep. Michael “Mike” Kelly              465-4976          465-3883
District 8                                 Rep. David Guttenburg                  465-4457          465-3519
District E                                 Sen. Gary Wilken                       465-3709          465-4714
District 9                                 Rep. Jim Holm                          465-3466          465-2937
District 10                                Rep. Jay Ramras                        465-3004          465-2070
District F                                 Sen. Gene Therriault                   465-4797          465-3884
District 11                                Rep. John Coghill                      465-3719          465-3258
District 12                                Rep. John Harris                       465-4859          465-3799
District S                                 Sen. Lyman Hoffman                     465-4453          465-4523
District 37                                Rep. Carl Moses                        465-4451          465-3445
District 38                                Rep. Mary Kapsner                      465-4942          465-4589
District T                                 Sen. Donald Olson                      465-3707          465-4821
District 39                                Rep. Richard Foster                    465-3789          465-3242
District 40                                Rep. Reggie Joule                      465-4833          465-4586
Alaska Division of Homeland Security and   State Coordination Center              428-7100          428-7095
Emergency Management
Alaska River Forecast Center               Larry Rundquist                        266-5160          266-5188
AK State Troopers                          Western District                       248-1410         Not Available
AST, Fairbanks Post                        Capt. Steve Garrett                    451-5100          451-5317
AST, Bethel Post                           Lt. Pete Mlynarik                   800 478-2294         543-5102
AST, Kotzebue Post                         Sgt. Karl Erickson                  800 789-3222         442-3221
Corps of Engineers                         Mervin Mullins or Dave Spence     753-2513 / 753-2666    753-2748
ADEC, Village Safe Water                   Greg Magee                             269-7613          269-7509
ADEC,                                      Alan Wien                              376-1865          376-2382
ADEC, Northern Region                      Bill Smyth                             451-2177          451-2188
DCCED, Flood Insurance                     Christy Miller                         269-4567          269-4539
DCCED, Fairbanks                           Irene Catalone                         451-2748          451-2742
DCCED, Division of Energy                  Kris Noonan                            269-3000          269-3044
National Weather Service, Fairbanks        Ed Plumb                               458-3714          458-3737
Red Cross, Southcentral Chapter            John Ramsey                            646-5407          276-1465
Red Cross, Tanana Chapter                  Greg Williams                          456-5937          456-7329

                                                               -18-                                 Contacts Numbers
River Neighbors

Community                            Local Official             Title                 Phone           Fax
Denali Borough                       David Talerico             Mayor              907-683-1330   907-683-1340
Fairbanks North Star Borough         David Tyler                Emerg. Svs. Dir.   907-459-1481   907-459-1499
Matanuska-Susitna Borough            Dennis Brodigan            Emerg. Svs. Dir.   907-373-8815   907-376-0799
Northwest Arctic Borough             Roswell Schaeffer, Sr.     Mayor              907-442-2500   907-442-2930
Akiachak Native Community            Phillip Peter Sr.          Chairman           907-825-4626   907-825-4029
City of Akiak                        John Jasper                Mayor              907-765-7411   907-765-7512
City of Alakanuk                     Eusebia Augline.           Vice-Mayor         907-238-3313   907-238-3620
Alatna Village                       Harding Sam                Chief              907-968-2304   907-968-2305
City of Allakaket                    Julia Simon                Mayor              907-968-2423   907-968-2233
City of Ambler                       Morgan Johnson             Mayor              907-445-2122   907-445-2174
Yupiit of Andreafsky                 Gail Alstrom               President          907-438-2312   907-438-2512
City of Aniak                        Steve Hill                 Mayor              907-675-4481   907-675-4486
City of Anvik                        Robert Walker              Mayor              907-663-6328   907-663-6321
Arctic Village Traditional Council   Aaron Tritt                President          907-587-5328   907-587-5428
Beaver Village Council               Celina Petruska            President          907-628-6126   907-628-6815
City of Bethel                       Hugh Short, Jr.            Mayor              907-543-2047   907-543-4171
City of Bettles                      Dan Klaes                  Mayor              907-692-5191   907-692-5191
City of Buckland                     Floyd Ticket               Mayor              907-494-2121   907-494-2138
Chalkyitsik Village Council          James Nathaniel Jr.        Chief              907-848-8117   907-848-8986
Circle Village Council               Paul Nathaniel             Chief              907-773-2822   907-773-2823
Native Village of Crooked Creek      Johnnie John               President          908-432-2200   907-432-2201
City of Eagle                        Jerry Nelson               Mayor              907-547-2282   907-547-2338
City of Eek                          Teresa Jackson             Mayor              907-536-5129   907-536-5711
City of Emmonak                      Andrew Kelly Sr.           Mayor              907-949-1227   907-949-1926
Evansville Tribal Council            Rhoda Musser               Chief              907-692-5005   907-692-5006
City of Fort Yukon                   Vickie Thomas              Mayor              907-662-2479   907-662-2717
City of Galena                       Russ Sweetsir              Mayor              907-656-1301   907-656-1769
City of Grayling                     Shirley Clark              Mayor              907-453-5148   907-453-5223
City of Holy Cross                   Jeffery Demientieff, Sr.   Mayor              907-476-7139   907-476-7141
City of Hughes                       Janet Bifelt               Mayor              907-889-2206   907-889-2252
City of Huslia                       Joyce Sam                  Mayor              907-829-2266   907-829-2224
City of Kaltag                       Susie Nickoli              Mayor              907-534-2301   907-534-2236
City of Kiana                        Daniel Douglas             Mayor              907-475-2136   907-475-2174
Kipnuk Traditional Council           Ryan Sampson               President          907-896-5427   907-896-5022
City of Kobuk                        William Tom Cyrus          Acting Mayor       907-948-2217   907-948-2228
City of Kotlik                       Laurie Prince              Mayor              907-899-4313   907-899-4826
City of Koyukuk                      Jason Malemute             Mayor              907-927-2214   907-927-2215

                                                                  -19-                                 Contacts Numbers
River Neighbors (Continued)
Community                            Local Official         Title              Phone           Fax
City of Kwethluk                     Elizabeth S. Dillon    Mayor           907-757-6022   907-757-6497
City of Lower Kalskag                Henry Aloysius         Mayor           907-471-2228   907-471-2228
Manley Village Council               Elizabeth Woods        Administrator   907-672-3177   907-672-3200
City of Marshall                     Raymond Alstrom, Sr.   Mayor           907-679-6215   907-679-6220
City of McGrath                      Dustin Parker          Mayor           907-524-3825   907-524-3536
City of Mountain Village             Joyce Brown-Rivers     Mayor           907-591-2929   907-591-2920
City of Napakiak                     Richard Jung           Mayor           907-589-2611   907-589-2612
City of Napaskiak                    Elinor Okoviak         Mayor           907-737-7626   907-737-7412
City of Nenana                       Jason Mayrand          Mayor           907-832-5441   907-832-5503
City of Nikolai                      Peter Tony             Mayor           907-293-2111   907-293-2481
Native Village of Noatak             Larry Jones            President       907-485-2173   907-485-2137
City of Nome                         Denise Michels         Mayor           907-443-6663   907-443-5349
City of Noorvik                      Robert Wells           Mayor           907-636-2100   907-636-2135
City of Nulato                       Victor Nicholas        Mayor           907-898-2205   907-898-2203
City of Nunapitchuk                  Jamie Berlin Sr.       Mayor           907-527-5327   907-527-5011
Village of Ohogamiut                 Nick IAndrew Jr.       President       907-679-6517   907-679-6516
Oscarville Tribal Council            Ignati Jacob           Chairman        907-737-7099   907-737-7428
Native Village of Paimiut            Franklin Napoleon      President       907-561-9878   907-563-5398
City of Pilot Station                Abraham Kelly          Mayor           907-549-3211   907-549-3014
Native Village of Pitka's Point      Ruth Riley             President       907-438-2833   907-438-2569
City of Quinhagak                    Grace Hill             Mayor           907-556-8202   907-556-8166
Rampart Village Council              Elain Evans (temp.)    Chief           907-358-3312   907-358-3115
Red Devil Traditional Council        Mary Willis            President       907-447-3223   907-447-3224
Red Devil People & Community, Inc.   Charlie Thacker        President       907-447-3203   907-447-3224
City of Ruby                         Jay deLamia            Mayor           907-468-4401   907-468-4443
City of Russian Mission              Olga Kozevnikoff       Mayor           907-584-5111   907-584-5476
City of Saint Mary's                 Sven Paukan            Mayor           907-438-2515   907-438-2719
City of Selawik                      Allen Ticket           Mayor           907-484-2132   907-484-2209
City of Shageluk                     Minnie Canter          Mayor           907-473-8221   907-473-8220
City of Shungnak                     Levi Cleveland         Mayor           907-437-2161   907-437-2176
Village of Sleetmute                 Pete Mellick, Jr.      President       907-449-4213   907-449-4203
Stevens Village IRA Council          Randy Mayo             Chief           907-478-7228   907-478-7229
Village of Stony River               Thomas Willis          President       907-537-3253   907-537-3254
Village Council of Tanacross         Jerry Isaac            President       907-883-5024   907-883-4497
City of Tanana                       Donna Folger           Mayor           907-366-7159   907-366-7169
Tuluksak Native Community            Moses Teter            CEO             907-695-6420   907-695-6932
City of Upper Kalskag                Rose Nook              Mayor           907-471-2220   907-471-2237
Venetie Village Council              Ernest Erick           First Chief     907-849-8212   907-849-8149

                                                               -20-                         Contacts Numbers
                                        Appendix A
                                   Safe Drinking Water

      When You Are Unsure of the Safety of Your Drinking Water Source
                                 Treat It!

Contaminated Water of unknown quality needs to be treated before use to prevent the
transmission of disease.

Surface water and water from unprotected wells, or wells too close to a sewage
disposal system, are likely to be contaminated with intestinal wastes from birds,
animals, and man.

Whenever surface water is used for drinking and household purposes, or when any
question arises concerning the safety of your water supply, steps should be taken to
purify the water. If the water is not clear, the sediment should first be allowed to settle.
Then, only the clear water should be purified.

Either of the two methods listed below may be used.

1. Boiling. Boil water for at two minutes. Allow it to cool If the water has a flat taste,
pour it back and forth between two clean containers two or three times.

2. Bleach disinfectant. Add one drop of fresh, unscented chlorine bleach, such as
Clorox or Purex (containing 5.25 to 6 % available chlorine) to each quart of water. If
water is not clear, add 3 drops to each quart of water. Mix thoroughly and let stand for
30 minutes before drinking. If larger quantities of water are to be disinfected with
chlorine bleach, use this table for proper dosages:

        AMOUNT OF WATER             CLEAR WATER                CLOUDY WATER
             5 gallons               1/4 teaspoon*               1/2 teaspoon
            10 gallons               1/2 teaspoon                1 teaspoon
            20 gallons               ¾ teaspoon                  1 ½ teaspoons
            30 gallons               1 teaspoon                  2 teaspoons
            40 gallons               1 ¼ teaspoons               2 ½ teaspoons
            50 gallons               1 ½ teaspoons               3 teaspoons

        *Note: If a tablespoon is used for measuring, 1 tablespoon equals 3 teaspoons.

For more information, contact: Drinking Water Program
                               Anchorage (907) 269-7656 Fax (907) 269-7655
                               Fairbanks (907) 451-2108 Fax (907) 451-2188

                                                                                  Appendix A
                                      Appendix B
            Flood Preparedness – Are You Ready For A Flood?

Winter can't last forever. Soon the sun will be shining, the weather will be warmer, the
birds will be returning, and, YOU'LL BE IN THE WORST DANGER OF FLOODING ALL

1.    Listen for current flood information on radio and TV. You can check breakup
      reports on the Internet at either the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency
      Management web site or the River Forecast Center web

2.    Contact your city office or insurance agent to find out if flood insurance is
      available in your community.

3.    Remember that flooding is serious. Make sure your family and pets are safe.
      Keep them away from culverts and flood waters and don't leave pets in areas that
      might be flooded.

4.    Take measures to protect homes and personal property. Locate problem areas
      machines, chain saws, ATV's, commercial fishing gear, etc.).

5.    Monitor septic systems, wells and fuel tanks. Make sure valves are shut so tanks
      won't spill if flood waters move them.

6.    Electricity will be shut down if the power plant floods. Be prepared to do without

7.    Prepare to be isolated for several days if your airport floods.

8.    Stock up on food and water.

9.    Keep a battery powered radio and fresh batteries available.

10.   Know where your community shelter is and be prepared to move into it if

         Prepared by the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
                       PO Box 5750, Ft. Richardson, AK 99505-5750

                                                                                 Appendix B
                                       Appendix C
            Identifying, Protecting and Salvaging Vital Records

Identifying Vital Records

Vital records may be defined as those records needed to continue the government's
essential operations, to protect its legal and financial interests, and to assist in its
recovery during a period of emergency or natural disaster. An agency's legislative
mandate, mission, and public responsibilities will define those vital records.

Generally, they will comprise less than 10% of the total records volume. Many records
marked as permanent in general records schedules, or as archival in records disposition
authorities, will be vital; but other records may qualify as well. The following is a basic,
but not necessarily comprehensive, list:
        Accounts Payable/Receivable
        Bank Account Information
        Bonds and Coupons
        Building Plans and Blueprints
        Capital Asset Records
        Emergency Plans
        Computer Equipment/Software Documentation
        Contracts, Leases, Agreements
        Court Calendars and Docket Books
        Disaster Recovery Plan
        Equipment/Supplies Inventories
        General Ledgers
        Insurance Policies
        Licenses and Permits
        Maps (taxation, topographical, utility)
        Minutes, Ordinances, Resolutions
        Payroll/Pension Fund Records
        Personnel Files
        Police Identification/Fingerprint Files
        Property Tax Assessment Records
        Student Records
        Succession List of Government Officials
        Transportation Schedules/Routes
        Treasurer's Reports
        Utility Construction Plans
        Vital Records List
        Vital Statistics (births, marriages, divorces, deaths)
        Zoning Records

                                             -23-                                 Appendix C
Protecting Vital Records

The best method of protecting vital records is through duplication and dispersal. The
record's storage medium will dictate how it should be duplicated.

Paper records may be photocopied or microfilmed on silver-halide film. (This is the only
film type acceptable for preservation under American National Standards Institute and
the Association for Information & Image Management standards.)

Machine-readable records should be copied onto a back-up medium, such as magnetic
tape or computer-output microfilm (COM). There are also different methods of dispersal:
   •   Copies of vital records may be held in a vault or safe inside the agency; however,
       if the vault or safe is not "disaster proof," copies and originals will both be lost if
       the entire facility is destroyed.
   •   Off-site storage is usually a better method of dispersal. It involves keeping copies
       of vital records at a location outside the agency's primary facility, providing
       security in case the originals are destroyed.
   •   Various commercial vendors around the state also store microfilm, magnetic
       tapes or disks, and paper records.

Whatever place is chosen, the off-site facility should offer economical, high-volume
storage and quick records retrieval in the event of an emergency.

What to Do When the Flood Starts

While the following emergency measures are no substitute for a disaster plan, they may
enable agencies that don’t have a plan to get through the current flood season.
Meanwhile, if a flood threatens, these steps can be taken to protect your vital records:
   •   Take back-up computer disks and tapes, as well as microfilm, out of the office
       and as far away from the potential disaster site as possible.
   •   Ideally, the temporary storage area should have a properly controlled
       environment and a means of access to the records (back-up computer
       equipment, microfilm reader-printers, etc.).
   •   Wrap each computer in a plastic garbage bag and secure the bag with a tie
       around the electrical cord.
   •   If you are unable to remove paper records from the site, get them as far above
       the floor as possible.
   •   Wrap all shelves in plastic, and tape the plastic down to hold it in place.

If flooding occurs, or if your agency's primary facility is unusable, identify a temporary
site or sites where agency functions can resume and records salvage operations can be
Salvaging Water-Damaged Records

                                             -24-                                    Appendix C
Water-damaged records are usually recoverable if salvage work begins within two days.
After that, mold and mildew develop rapidly.

Because the disaster site will be extremely humid, salvage must be undertaken
elsewhere. Ideally in a clean, dry area with a temperature of 65 degrees and a relative
humidity of 40% or lower.

Cover floors or tables used as work areas with plastic sheeting, and move
water-damaged records with extreme care. Milk crates or similar ventilated plastic
cartons are good carriers.

Do not try to separate stuck-together pages as long as they are saturated. When the
pages are drier, paper towels may be placed between them to absorb water. Change
the towels frequently and use fans to circulate air over damaged records.

Vacuum freeze-drying is the best and quickest way of drying paper records, but it is
expensive and requires professional assistance.

Damp microfilm can be air-dried on a clean, lint-free, white cotton sheet. Do not unroll
wet microfilm, as this may cause the emulsion layer to separate from the base film.
Leave wet microfilm rolls in their containers and place them in clean water. Salvaged
microfilm will not be archival-quality and must be recopied on silver-halide film.

Recovery of water-damaged computer disks is problematic, and placing a wet disk in
the drive can seriously damage your computer.

Magnetic tapes can sometimes be hand-dried (at some risk to the data), but contact
your computer equipment's manufacturer before attempting to dry the hardware.

                                           -25-                                 Appendix C
                                     Appendix D
     Myths and Facts about the National Flood Insurance Program

Who needs flood insurance? Everyone, and everyone in a participating community of
the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) can buy flood insurance. Nationwide,
almost 20,000 communities have joined the Program. In some instances, people have
been told that they cannot buy flood insurance because of where they live. To clear up
this and other misconceptions about National Flood Insurance, the NFIP has compiled
the following list of common myths about the Program, and the real facts behind them,
to give you the full story about this valuable protection.

   1. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance if you are located in a high-flood-risk area.
      FACT: You can buy National Flood Insurance no matter where you live if your
      community participates in the NFIP, except in Coastal Barrier Resources System
      (CBRS) areas. The Program was created in 1968 to provide flood insurance to
      people who live in areas with the greatest risk of flooding, called Special Flood
      Hazard Areas (SFHAs). In fact, under the National Flood Insurance Act, lenders
      must require borrowers whose property is located within an SFHA to purchase
      flood insurance as a condition of receiving a federally regulated mortgage loan.
      There is an exemption for conventional loans on properties within CBRS areas.

      Lenders should notify borrowers that their property is located in an SFHA and
      National Flood Insurance is required.

   2. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance immediately before or during a flood.
      FACT: You can purchase flood coverage at any time. There is a 30-day waiting
      period after you've applied and paid the premium before the policy is effective,
      with the following exceptions: 1) If the initial purchase of flood insurance is in
      connection with the making, increasing, extending or renewing of a loan, there is
      no waiting period. The coverage becomes effective at the time of the loan,
      provided application and payment of premium is made at or prior to loan closing.
      2) If the initial purchase of flood insurance is made during the 13-month period
      following the effective date of a revised flood map for a community, there is a
      one-day waiting period. This only applies where the Flood Insurance Rate Map
      (FIRM) is revised to show the building to be in an SFHA when it had not been in
      an SFHA.

      The policy does not cover a "loss in progress," defined by the NFIP as a loss
      occurring as of 12:01 a.m. on the first day of the policy term. In addition, you
      cannot increase the amount of insurance coverage you have during a loss in

   3. MYTH: Homeowners insurance policies cover flooding.
      FACT: Unfortunately, many homeowners do not find out until it is too late that

                                           -26-                                 Appendix D
   their homeowners policies do not cover flooding. National Flood Insurance
   protects your most valuable assets-your home and belongings.

4. MYTH: Flood insurance is only available for homeowners.
   FACT: Flood insurance is available to protect homes, condominiums, apartments
   and nonresidential buildings, including commercial structures. A maximum of
   $250,000 of building coverage is available for single-family residential buildings;
   $250,000 per unit for residential condominiums. The limit for contents coverage
   on all residential buildings is $100,000, which is also available to renters.

   Commercial structures can be insured to a limit of $500,000 for the building and
   $500,000 for the contents.

5. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance if your property has been flooded.
   FACT: You are still eligible to purchase flood insurance after your home,
   apartment or business has been flooded, provided that your community is
   participating in the NFIP.

6. MYTH: Only residents of high-flood-risk zones need to insure their property.
   FACT: Even if you live in an area that is not flood-prone, it's advisable to have
   flood insurance. Between 20 percent and 25 percent of the NFIP's claims come
   from outside high-flood-risk areas. The NFIP's Preferred Risk Policy, available for
   just over $100 per year, is designed for residential properties located in low- to
   moderate-flood-risk zones.

7. MYTH: National Flood Insurance can only be purchased through the NFIP
   FACT: NFIP flood insurance is sold through private insurance companies and
   agents, and is backed by the Federal government.

8. MYTH: The NFIP does not offer any type of basement coverage.
   FACT: Yes it does. The NFIP defines a basement as any area of a building with
   a floor that is below ground level on all sides. While flood insurance does not
   cover basement improvements, such as finished walls, floors or ceilings, or
   personal belongings that may be kept in a basement, such as furniture and other
   contents, it does cover structural elements, essential equipment and other basic
   items normally located in a basement. Many of these items are covered under
   building coverage, and some are covered under contents coverage. The NFIP
   encourages people to purchase both building and contents coverage for the
   broadest protection.
   The following items are covered under building coverage, as long as they are
   connected to a power source and installed in their functioning location:
      o   Sump pumps
      o   Well water tanks and pumps, cisterns and the water in them
      o   Oil tanks and the oil in them, natural gas tanks and the gas in them

                                       -27-                                 Appendix D
      o   Pumps and/or tanks used in conjunction with solar energy
      o   Furnaces, hot water heater, air conditioners and heat pumps
      o   Electrical junction and circuit breaker boxes and required utility
      o   Foundation elements
      o   Stairways, staircases, elevators and dumbwaiters.
      o   Unpainted drywalls and ceilings, including fiberglass insulation
      o   Cleanup

   The following items are covered under contents coverage:
      o   Clothes washers
      o   Clothes dryers
      o   Food freezers and the food in them

9. MYTH: Federal disaster assistance will pay for flood damage.
   FACT: Before a community is eligible for disaster assistance, it must be declared
   a federal disaster area. Federal disaster assistance declarations are issued in
   less than 50 percent of flooding incidents. The premium for an NFIP policy,
   averaging about $400 a year, is less expensive than interest on federal disaster

   Furthermore, if you are uninsured and receive federal disaster assistance after a
   flood, you must purchase flood insurance to remain eligible for future disaster

10. MYTH: The NFIP encourages coastal development.
    FACT: One of the NFIP's primary objectives is to guide development away from
    high-flood-risk areas. NFIP regulations minimize the impact of structures that are
    built in SFHAs by requiring them not to cause obstructions to the natural flow of
    floodwaters. Also, as a condition of community participation in the NFIP, those
    structures built within SFHAs must adhere to strict floodplain management

   In addition, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) of 1982 relies on the NFIP
   to discourage building in fragile coastal areas by prohibiting the sale of flood
   insurance in designated CBRA areas. While the NFIP does not prohibit property
   owners from building along coastal areas, any Federal financial assistance,
   including federally backed flood insurance, is prohibited. However, CBRA does
   not prohibit privately financed development or insurance.

                                        -28-                                   Appendix D
11. MYTH: The NFIP does not cover flooding resulting from hurricanes or the
    overflow of rivers or tidal waters.
    FACT: The NFIP defines covered flooding as a general and temporary condition
    during which the surface of normally dry land is partially or completely inundated.
    Two properties in the area or two or more acres must be affected. Flooding can
    be caused by:
       o   The overflow of inland or tidal waters, or
       o   The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any
           source, such as heavy rainfall, or
       o   Mudslides, i.e., mudflows, caused by flooding, that could be described as
           a river of liquid and flowing mud and
       o   The collapse or destabilization of land along the shore of a lake or other
           body of water, resulting from erosion or the effect of waves, or water
           currents exceeding normal, cyclical levels.

12. MYTH: Wind-driven rain is considered flooding.
    FACT: No, it isn't. Rain entering through wind-damaged windows, doors or a hole
    in a wall or the roof, resulting in standing water or puddles, is considered
    windstorm-rather than flood-damage. National Flood Insurance only covers
    damage caused by the general condition of flooding (defined above), typically
    caused by storm surge, wave wash, tidal waves, or the overflow of any body of
    water over normally dry land areas. Buildings that sustain this type of damage
    usually have a watermark, showing how high the water rose before it subsided.
    Although the Standard Flood Insurance Policy (SFIP) specifically excludes wind
    and hail damage, most homeowners policies provide such coverage.
   For more information about the NFIP, ask your insurance agent or company, or
   call the NFIP's toll-free number at 1-888-CALL-FLOOD or TDD# 1-800-427-5593

                                         -29-                                 Appendix D
               “No Matter Where You Live, Floods Happen”


Overflowing rivers, coastal storms, tsunami threat, erosion, and drainage problems -- all
can result in extensive property damage, income loss, and sometimes loss of life. Add to
these costs the disruption, inconvenience of repairs, and the trauma brought on by
damage or loss of ones home or business.

If the community you live in is subject to any of these problems, then your community needs a
floodplain management program or flood mitigation plan. Local flood mitigation may include
Structural Measures such as levees or erosion control. However, structural projects are
expensive to install and maintain, and may only partially address local problems.

Nonstructural Measures such as requiring setbacks from erosion prone areas, elevating
new construction above anticipated flood heights, or restricting development in most
hazardous areas should be considered. The most comprehensive nonstructural flood
mitigation effort is for a community to join the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
thus making flood insurance coverage available to anyone in the community.


A floodplain management program can benefit a community by:

•   educating the public and local officials about the potential risks to life and property that
    exist in floodplain areas,
•   providing the opportunity for residents to buy flood insurance, thereby transferring
    unprotected losses to insured risks;
•   protecting buildings, equipment, fuel supplies against flood damage,
•   minimizing costs of flood fighting and disaster assistance,
•   funding programs - loans and grants, even disaster assistance - not available unless a
    community participates in the National Flood Insurance Program; and
•   protecting floodplain resources.


Each community should tailor its floodplain management program to local needs and
circumstances. The first step is to determine the needs, desires, and attitudes of the
community regarding local hazards. Ideally the program would address:

•   actions to reduce the susceptibility of life and property to flooding,
•   projects to modify the flood itself,
•   actions to minimize the effects on the individual and community, and
•   actions to expedite recovery from flooding.

                                            -30-                                      Appendix D
Cities and Boroughs may integrate flood loss reduction measures into comprehensive plans
and existing ordinances. For example, subdivision regulations can be amended to require plat
notes identifying known flood elevations or setback distances from eroding river front parcels.
 Or a comprehensive Flood Damage Protection ordinance and may be needed. In all cases
joining the National Flood Insurance Program should be considered.


Any owner or renter of property located in a community participating in the National Flood
Insurance Program (NFIP) may purchase a flood insurance policy. Federal Flood insurance is
not available to residents of communities that do not participate in the NFIP.

The NFIP is a federal program enabling property owners to buy flood insurance at a
reasonable cost provided their community carries out local measures to protect new
construction from future flooding.

For more assistance contact:
Christy Miller, Planner / Certified Floodplain Manager
       Phone: (907) 269-4567; email: or
Taunnie L. Boothby, Planner / Floodplain Management Programs
       Phone: (907) 269-4583; email:

Need more information, visit these websites:

Congratulations to these Cities and Boroughs that do participate in the NFIP:
    Anchorage, Aniak, Bethel, Cordova, Delta Junction, Dillingham, Emmonak,
    Fairbanks North Star Borough, Fort Yukon, Galena, Haines, Homer, Hoonah,
    Juneau City and Borough, Kenai Peninsula Borough, Ketchikan Gateway Borough,
    Kotzebue, Koyukuk, Kwethluk, Lake & Peninsula Borough, Matanuska-Susitna
    Borough, McGrath, Nenana, Nome, Northwest Arctic Borough, Petersburg,
    Shishmaref, Sitka, Skagway, Togiak, and Valdez!

                                           -31-                                     Appendix D
                                      Appendix E
                                     Larry A. Rundquist
                        National Weather Service River Forecast Center


The Alaska River Forecast Center conducts ice breakup overflights each spring to
identify potential for ice jams. The information is used to supplement ground
observations that are used to provide flood warnings to residents of affected villages.
The methodology used in the reconnaissance and a summary of selected observations
are presented.


The mission of the Alaska River Forecast Center (AKRFC) is to provide watches and
warnings for flooding along all streams in Alaska. The AKRFC was formed following a
major flood in Fairbanks in August 1967 caused by extended precipitation in the Chena
River basin. In addition to floods caused by rainfall or snowmelt, a common cause of
flooding in Alaska is breakup ice jams.

The AKRFC has monitored breakup of rivers throughout Alaska for over two decades
using two primary sources of information: 1) field reconnaissance and 2) observational
network. The information collected during the field aerial reconnaissance significantly
supplements the information obtained from the observational network through telephone
reports. Typical information obtained during aerial reconnaissance includes the timing of
stage crest at a village, a subjective assessment of the likelihood of further jamming,
and breakup activity up or down the river. This information is included in formal flood
watches and warnings, as well as communicated directly to village officials by the field

The field reconnaissance is conducted in cooperation with the Division of Homeland
Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM), which is the agency responsible for
the overall direction of the State of Alaska's flood preparedness, response, and recovery
program. The role of DHS&EM during breakup is to promote mitigative activities by local
residents in flood-prone villages prior to ice breakup and to be on hand for immediate
emergency coordination if a village is flooded.


Staff personnel from DHS&EM and AKRFC fly over major rivers to observe the
condition of the ice and assess the potential for ice jams. The primary aerial scope of
coverage is the entire length of the Yukon River in Alaska and the middle and lower
Kuskokwim River. These rivers have been found to have the greatest likelihood for ice
jam flooding. Other rivers may be included in the aerial reconnaissance if ground
observations identify a flood threat.

                                            -32-                               Appendix E
A river watch team typically consists of one DHS&EM emergency management officer,
one AKRFC hydrologist, and a pilot. Extra staff from DHS&EM or AKRFC may be
included for additional support or for training.

The team conducts daily overflights in the reach of river experiencing the most breakup
activity. During the overflight, the team makes notes on the categorized strength of the
ice in reaches denoted by river miles. Strength categories range from rotten, dark,
candled, weak ice to hard, blue-green, strong ice, and are qualitatively assessed. Other
observations include ice characteristics such as the degree of fracturing and ice
movement. Water levels are also assessed by estimating freeboard to flood levels at
villages or feet below bankfull level, area and depth of overbank water, and rising or
falling tendency.

In addition to the overflight, the field crew lands at villages along the rivers to brief the
local authorities on the status of breakup and the threat to the village. The field
hydrologist telephones the AKRFC office to report the observations.

The field team reconnaissance is occasionally supplemented by videotape of rivers
filmed by the Civil Air Patrol during practice missions. The missions are scheduled with
input from the AKRFC staff, who identify river reaches that may have flood threats, but
are not within easy access of the field team.


Ice thickness measurements are collected monthly through the winter at about 12 river
or lake locations in Alaska. The measurements are taken in approximately the same
location each year so that current year thicknesses can be compared to previous years.

The AKRFC maintains a network of about 50 river observers throughout Alaska that
measure and report river water levels during the open water season. These observers
also monitor breakup at their location and call the AKRFC with their observations and
water level measurements. Staff in the AKRFC also calls individuals in other villages
along the river to ask about breakup status at those locations.


The breakup observations accumulated over the past two decades cannot be
summarized easily in a written paper because 1) the observations are qualitative in
nature and 2) much of the information lies in the minds of the individuals that were in the
field, and some of these individuals have retired or transferred to other positions. A few
notes on 1) the breakup process and 2) ice jam formation and release follows.

Breakup process -

A significant Alaskan breakup process is that associated with large single channel rivers
in interior and northern Alaska, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers. This process
is very dynamic and is very threatening to streamside villages due to ice jam flood

                                              -33-                                   Appendix E
potential. Following the initial snowmelt period and initiation of ice decay, further
snowmelt at low elevations in the basin will cause runoff to flow onto the ice. Some of
this runoff will pond on top of the ice, while the remainder drains into the river channel
through holes or cracks in the ice sheet. Continued increasing flow in the channel will
generate increasing pressure on the underside of the ice. An early indication of this
increased pressure is lifting of the central portion of the ice sheet while the edges of the
sheet remain firmly attached to the banks; ponded runoff will concentrate in channels
along the banks while the center of the ice sheet is dry.

Additional pressure on the underside of the ice due to increasing flow and weakening of
the ice near the edges will cause 1) the ice that is frozen to the banks to break free or 2)
the ice sheet to break away from the bank ice. The ice sheet will float on the rising water
levels. Since water levels during the fall freezeup period are typically low, rising water
levels in the spring will result in a wider channel with a relatively narrow strip of main
channel ice floating above the deeper portion of the channel. Further weakening of the
ice and continued force of the river current on the sheet will eventually cause the ice
sheet to fracture and shift in the open water, resulting in the first movement of the ice.
Most observers would record this as the date of first ice movement. At locations with ice
breakup contests that are terminated by the movement of a tripod on the ice, this first
movement may be sufficient to end the contest and be called "breakup" even though ice
sheets still remain in front of the town.

It is not uncommon for the channel to be sufficiently wide that ice sheets break apart,
turn sideways in the channel, and drift downstream to accumulate some distance away.
An observer on the ground would likely conclude that the ice had broken up and that
boating was possible on the river, even though the major breakup activity had not yet
begun. Local residents often begin boating within the open reach of river at this stage
of the breakup process. Even if this local breakup has taken place, the primary breakup
process that holds the greatest threat of flooding has not yet passed this location.

The primary breakup process often begins in the upper reaches of the river, although
intermediate breakup fronts may be initiated at other points along the river. Movement
of the ice sheets is initiated when increased flow in the river and increased local stream
gradient due to the resistance of the ice sheets floating on the surface combine to
increase the drag on the ice sheet to a level sufficient to overcome the forces holding
the ice in place. The moving ice sheets reduce in size primarily by physical impact,
although ice continues to melt as it moves downstream. Ice sheets break into smaller
ice pans. Pans impacting other pans break apart to reduce the size to chunks.

The breakup front is the interface between stationary and moving ice sheets. Upstream
of the breakup front is typically 1) a reach of large moving sheets, 2) a reach of mixed
broken sheets, large and small pans, and chunks, and 3) a reach of mostly chunks. The
total length of moving ice upstream of the breakup front can be many miles, especially
on large rivers such as the Yukon River, where a run of ice 10 to 20 miles long is not

                                            -34-                                  Appendix E
Ice jam formation and release -

When the breakup front meets strong ice, the moving ice stops at this jam point. The
ice stoppage continues in the upstream direction. The severity of the water level rise
associated with the ice stoppage is directly related to the flow velocity under the ice
cover (Beltaos, 1990).

In years that have low discharges during breakup, it has been observed that the ice run
behind the breakup front loses momentum such that very weak ice may be sufficient to
cause the ice to stop running. The resulting jam is a surface jam, where ice
accumulates on the surface upstream of the jam point. Water levels upstream of such
jams increase due to the stopped ice that increases the hydraulic resistance in the
channel. Only minor flooding of upstream villages is typical associated with this type of
jam. Once the head on the jam builds sufficiently to initiate movement, the breakup front
again progresses downstream.

In years with greater runoff, the discharge and velocity will be larger. Stronger ice is
required to stop the breakup front during these years. When the ice stops, chunk ice
from upstream often submerges under the stopped ice to form a thickened jam or
hanging dam. Water levels upstream of such jams increase rapidly and often cause
major flooding in upstream villages.

Overbank flooding has been observed to extend for many miles away from the river
along certain reaches of the Yukon River.

The field team estimates the depth of overbank water and the head on the ice jam. The
release of the jam is similar to a dam break, and the increase in stage downstream,
excluding ice resistance affects, is estimated to be one half of the head on the jam.
Beltaos (1990) presents equations for the surge celerity and the surging water velocity
following the release of an ice jam. Observations of surge celerity ranging from 15 to 20
mph following ice jam releases during the 1994 breakup confirm the relatively high
surge celerity values that would be computed using the Beltaos equations. Several ice
jams in 1994 held for extended periods, during which downstream ice had the chance to
rot enough that the surge initiated ice movement. Surge celerity was estimated from
calculating the rate of movement of the breakup front. In some years, strong ice
downstream would resist movement by the surge; the surge would pass beneath the ice
making the celerity difficult to compute.

Beltaos, S. 1990. Breakup Jams. In Cold Regions Hydrology and Hydraulics. Ryan, W.L. and R.D. Crissman, Eds.
Published by American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 485-515.

                                                     -35-                                          Appendix E
                             Appendix F
                Helpful Computer Web Links/Addresses

• : Alaska Pacific River Forecast Center (APRFC)

• : Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Alaska
    Snow, Water and Climate Services

• : National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region

• : Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Alaskan
    Region's Weather Cameras

• : U.S. Department of the Interior – Bureau of Land
    Management (BLM), Alaska Fire Service

• : Alaska Energy Authority (AEA)

• : Department of
    Commerce, Community and Economic Development (DCCED), Community

• : Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC)

• : National Whether Service Forecast Office
    Alaska Ice Desk

• : Alaska Division of Homeland Security and
    Emergency Management (DHS&EM)

• : Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

                                        -36-                                     Appendix E

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