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STATE OF ALASKA DIVISION OF HOMELAND SECURITY AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT 2006 SPRING FLOOD BREAKUP GUIDE State of Alaska Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION -1- COMMUNITY PLANNING -2- PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND RECORDS -5- EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES -6- ELECTRIC PLANT -8- FUEL STORAGE -9- AIRPORT -10- WATER AND SEWER SYSTEM -11- TELEPHONE -12- SCHOOLS -13- DISASTER RESPONSE -14- AFTER THE FLOOD CHECKLIST -17- CONTACT NUMBERS -18- Appendix A. Safe Drinking Water -21- Appendix B. Flood Preparedness - Are You Ready for a Flood?? -22- Appendix C. Identifying, Protecting and Salvaging Vital Records -23- Appendix D. Myths and Facts About the National Flood Insurance Program -26- Appendix E. Ice Breakup Reconnaissance Approach in Alaska -32- Appendix F. Helpful Computer Web Links/Addresses -36- INTRODUCTION This document outlines general procedures developed by the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM), in cooperation with the National Weather Service, to prepare State, local, and village officials for seasonal flooding along several major river systems in Alaska. These river systems include, but are not limited to, the Yukon, Kuskokwim, Koyukuk, Tanana, Chena, rivers and their tributaries. PURPOSE: Each year, the State of Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM) and the National Weather Service (NWS) separately fund a joint program to provide advance and emergency notification of imminent flooding on Alaska river system. This program, known as the “River Watch,” provides a necessary service to 76 Alaskan communities, tribal councils, and boroughs within river systems prone to seasonal flooding. AUTHORITY: NWS has authority to participate in this program under statutes, administrative regulations, and policies outlined in The Organic Act of October 1, 1890 Chap. 1266, Sec. 3. DHS&EM has authority to participate in this program under AS 26.23.040(e) (9). Please address any questions, comments, or other requests concerning this document to DHS&EM at (907) 428-7000 or toll free at (800) 478-2337. Additional free copies of this document can be obtained in either paper or electronic format by contacting DHS&EM at the telephone numbers listed above, or may be downloaded from the Internet from the DHS&EM home page at http://www.ak-prepared.com. Throughout this document, following the topics of discussion for planning, you will see the words; When: and Who: accompanied by Phone. The purpose of these cues is to help community leaders and planners assign responsibility and develop a timeframe to complete these duties. The phone cue is also provided to facilitate a more to direct line of communication. In this document, where the When and Who are already filled in, these are merely DHS&EM suggestions and may be changed or adjusted by the community leaders as they deem necessary. Introduction -1- COMMUNITY PLANNING 1. Call a special meeting with the City/Village Council, school, clinic, utilities officials. • Discuss the flood threat. • Review flood preparations. • Decide what is to be done. • Organize the community for emergency operations. • Appoint a person to see that each job is carried out. When: Around April 15 Who: Chief, manager, mayor, administrator 2. Conduct publicity campaigns to remind people to protect homes and property from flooding. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup Who: Phone: 3. Provide people with information on what to do in case of flooding. Copy and distribute the individual check list (Appendix B). When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 4. Conduct pre-breakup inspection of flood prone areas. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 5. Issue daily reports to people on status of the river. When: Prior to and during breakup Who: Phone: -2- Community Planning 6. Identify high ground and select areas safe and suitable for the sheltering of evacuees and for the storage of evacuated equipment and emergency supplies. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 7. Identify available stocks of sandbags and other available stocks of dike-building material and arrange for their availability and distribution. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 8. Assure the evacuation routes to the shelter areas selected will be passable. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: NOTE: If availability of evacuation routes is limited, and some flooding may occur but not render the routes impassable, arrange for markers to identify the route alignment, or arrange for pilot vehicles to guide evacuees. 9. Inventory available stocks and sources of equipment and supplies common to the needs of disaster workers. Include special clothing, hard hats, rubber boots, flotation gear, flashlights and batteries, flares, maintenance tools, rescue tools, fresh water and rations. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 10. Survey essential facilities such as clinics, communications centers, broadcast stations, power and heat generating facilities, distribution systems and other utilities. Undertake feasible flood proofing measures. When: All year long Who: Phone: -3- Community Planning 11. Encourage use of flood proof building techniques. When: All year long Who: Phone: 12. Become a National Flood Insurance eligible community. (See Appendix D.) When: As soon as possible. Who: Phone: For Information, contact the Division of Community Advocacy Flood Plain Management Officer, Christy Miller Ph. 907-269-4567 or Taunnie Boothby Ph. 907-269-4583 13. Encourage people to buy flood insurance. (See Appendix D) When: All year long Who: Phone: 14. Buy flood insurance for community owned buildings. When: Now Who: Phone: NOTE: Flood insurance policies do not take effect until thirty days after the date of purchase. -4- Community Planning PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND RECORDS 1. Make sure all important City/Village records are protected from flooding. • On the basis of anticipated flood levels, arrange for public equipment and supplies to be elevated or moved to an upper floor to avoid water damage. • Insure that essential public records are protected. • See suggestions for protecting and recovering vital records in Appendix C. • Assess all types of records that the community might have and would need to protect, i.e.: church who/ phone:______________________ school who/ phone:______________________ corporation who/ phone:______________________ village council who/ phone:______________________ tribal council who/ phone:______________________ city government who/ phone:______________________ postal who/ phone:______________________ clinic who/ phone:______________________ store who/ phone:______________________ airfield who/ phone:______________________ When: Review record storage one week prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. If necessary, relocate records when the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch or warning. Who: Phone: 2. Prepare public buildings in the flood zone for the possibility of flooding. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 3. Multi-story buildings in a flood zone: Relocate property to upper levels. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood warning. Who: Phone: -5- Buildings and Records EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES 1. Inventory high clearance vehicles and their owners and operators. • Include school buses. Organize and establish a ready emergency motor pool and a reserve. • Arrange for central dispatch and recording of missions assigned and accomplished. • Assign vehicles to missions and areas in advance as much as possible. When: When breakup is reported at _________ Who: Phone: 2. Inventory motor boats. • Test run motors and have a supply of fuel safely stored. • Assure boats are adequately equipped with running lights, life jackets, rubber boots, rope and flashlights with spare batteries. • Organize and establish a ready emergency vessel pool and reserve. When: When breakup is reported at _________ Who: Phone: 3. Move all city vehicles and equipment to high ground storage area. When: When breakup is reported at _________ Who: Phone: 4. Check shop area and work sites to make sure City/Village materials and property are safe from flooding. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: -6- Equipment and Vehicles 5. Arrange for the protection and distribution of fire fighting equipment away from probable flooded areas. When: When breakup is reported at _______________ Who: Phone: 6. Assure that all vehicles are topped off with fuel daily as breakup approaches. When: When breakup is reported at _______________ Who: Phone: Note Vehicles, boats, snow machines, and ATV’s are required by law to be registered in the State of Alaska regardless of where they are located in Alaska. In the event of loss or damage to these forms of transportation due to flooding or a disaster related event and a State or Federal Disaster declaration is granted and signed, only those vehicles, boats, snow machines, and ATV’s that are properly registered will be considered as eligible for possible disaster assistance. Alakanuk, May 2005 -7- Equipment and Vehicles ELECTRIC PLANT 1. Charge generator starter batteries. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 2. Shut down generator When: Flooding threatens the power plant, tank farm and generators. Who: Phone: 3. Remove batteries to a safe location. When: Flooding threatens the power plant. Who: Phone: 4. Protect fuel sources and close valves. When: Flooding threatens the power plant, tank farm and generators. Who: Phone: NOTE: If a fuel spill occurs, notify the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or after-hours at 800-478-9300. -8- Electric Plant FUEL STORAGE 1. Anchor fuel tanks to prevent them from floating away. When: Do it once as a permanent low cost prevention measure. Who: 2. Close valves to prevent fuel spills if lines break. When: Do at onset of river breakup in the area. Who: Phone: 3. Move and secure all barrels, containers and other fuel to high ground When: One week before the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 4. Make sure fuel tank vents are above flood level When: Do it once as a permanent solution. Who: 5. Arrange for petroleum distributors to meet the additional demand for fuels in preparation for the emergency. • Establish, if possible, the amounts of various fuels and oils on hand. • Arrange for the establishment of operable means of distribution during the emergency. When: Two weeks prior to breakup. Who: Phone: NOTE: If a fuel spill occurs, notify the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or after- hours at 800-478-9300. -9- Fuel Storage AIRPORT 1. Monitor the airport during high water and close if necessary. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: 2. Move all aircraft to higher ground. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: 3. Report runway conditions to the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood warning. Who: Airport Maintenance Supervisor Phone: 4. Ensure that aircraft have sufficient fuel if fuel will not be available during a flood. Check the status of aviation fuel availability in nearby communities. When: Starting one week prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: NOTE: If your community airport is out of any flood threat zone, this section may be deleted. -10- Airport WATER AND SEWER SYSTEM 1. Test backup generators. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 2. Encourage people to store water. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: 3. Store water in school building in preparation for opening it as a shelter. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: 4. Test community water after flooding in accordance with established operator’s procedures. When: Immediately after the flooding. Who: Water plant operator Phone: 5. If the sewage lagoon overflows, contact the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (Anchorage Office 269-3063, Fairbanks Office 451-2121) When: Immediately Who: Phone: 6. Distribute water disinfecting guidelines (Appendix A) When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: -11- Water and Sewer System TELEPHONE 1. Charge batteries that provide backup power to the telephone system. This applies both to the satellite dish and the local exchange system. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 2. Identify and reserve portable generators that are capable of keeping the phone system up in case of prolonged loss of community power. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 3. Consider purchasing a portable satellite telephone for your community. When: During the community budget development process. Who: Phone: For technical advice, contact the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management technical section. Phone: 800-478-2337. McGrath, May 2005 -12- Disaster Response SCHOOLS 1. Notify school management of possible need to use the school as an emergency shelter. When: Two weeks prior to the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 2. Test the school’s backup generator and assure that there is and will be an adequate fuel supply to operate it. When: Two weeks prior to date of the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 3. If the school has an alternate communications system, test it. When: Two weeks prior to date of the forecasted date of river breakup. Who: Phone: 4. Store water and post water disinfecting guidelines. (Appendix A) When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood Warning. Who: Phone: -13- Disaster Response DISASTER RESPONSE 1. Monitor river and community for problems. • Receive and evaluate forecasts and predictions which indicate a potential for flooding. • Make whatever confirmations are necessary and pursue further information and guidance from the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (800-478-2337) and the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service (907-266-5160). • In coordination with these agencies, develop the following estimates on the basis of past experiences or other available data. 1. The level above flood stage that is anticipated, when will it start, and how long will it take to peak 2. What areas are subject to flooding and to what extent? 3. On the basis of available physical indications, how much warning time will be available from the time that flooding is definitely imminent until the time it actually occurs? 4. What measures can be taken to eliminate obstructions or otherwise aid the runoff water in stream channels? When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: 2. Prepare to shelter people whose homes are flooded. • Select the buildings on high ground that will be used for shelters or select a safe place on high ground to which your people can move in the event your community gets flooded. • Before a flood is expected, inform the citizens to have tents, sleeping bags, other bedding, stoves, medicine, food, fuel for heating, and emergency lighting ready to move to high ground in the event floods may affect their homes. • If community buildings have been selected for sheltering the community, these items could be pre-positioned once flood warnings have been issued. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch. Who: Phone: -14- Disaster Response NOTE: Evacuation by air and re-supply of emergency survival items is an emergency measure used to save lives and should be used only as a last resort. In the event that air evacuation is necessary, each person may carry only one small bag of belongings. Ensure that all needed medicines and prescriptions are included! Not only is air evacuation and re-supply expensive, in bad weather it can be dangerous or even impossible. Be completely ready. Returning to the community after the flood is not considered an emergency and return will be by whatever means are available at the time, and your community will have to share the responsibility and expense. 3. Help people move to shelter. • Make preparations for the orderly evacuation and reception of the evacuees, which will progress in phase with the rise of the water. • Assure that evacuation routes to the areas selected will not become impassable before they can be reached. • If availability of evacuation routes is limited, and some flooding may occur but not render the routes impassable, arrange for markers to identify the alignment, or arrange for pilot vehicles to guide evacuees. • Estimate the number of evacuees and, in consultation with volunteer relief organizations (Tanana Valley District of the American Red Cross of Alaska 1-800- 451-8267), select suitable shelters and arrange for their operation. When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood warning. Who: Phone: 4. Monitor status of the elderly, young children, handicapped and other people with special needs. Special needs populations are defined as: • Physically (e.g., hearing-impaired, sight- impaired, mobility-impaired) or mentally handicapped • non-English speakers • the institutionalized • the aged or infirm • the incarcerated • the hospitalized • children in school • children in day care centers • nursing home residents • transient populations • people without transportation -15- Contacts Numbers When: When the Alaska River Forecast Center, National Weather Service issues a flood watch or warning. Who: Phone: 5. Report to the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management on flood conditions (800-478-2337, Request the Response Section). When: During flooding and after flooding Who: Phone: McGrath’s Cranberry Road, May 2005 -16- Contacts Numbers AFTER THE FLOOD CHECKLIST NOTE: When the flooding event results in a Local, State, or Federal Disaster Declaration, it is highly recommended the City and or Tribal Administration begin tracking all costs and efforts associated with Emergency Protective Measures taken before, during, and after the event to save lives, protect public health and safety, and protect improved public and private property. Included are debris removal efforts necessary to eliminate immediate threat to lives, public health and safety, eliminating immediate threats of significant damage to improved public and private property. Typically examples of this would be debris removal from the streets or evacuation routes or residential access areas to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles or debris removal from public property to eliminate health and safety hazards. Tracking cost applies to the labor, materials, equipment, and contract costs awarded for performance of eligible emergency work. • Initiate surveys for the identification of safety hazards and undertake corrective measures. Be especially aware of electrical hazards and structure instability. • Perform preliminary damage assessments. • Arrange for initial debris clearance and restoration of essential public facilities and utilities. • Arrange for the clearing of culverts and drainage of water pockets. • Arrange for a health and sanitation survey and initiation of disease prevention measures. • Arrange for partial return of evacuees, particularly the heads of households, for individual damage assessment and cleanup. Phase the return of the remaining evacuees in a pace with the rehabilitation progress. • Arrange for public distribution of instructions on how to clean and restore real and personal property. This information can be obtained from the Red Cross (Tanana Chapter Red Cross 1-800-451-8267) • Undertake general debris clearance. • Arrange for emergency housing as may be necessary. • Initiate immediate and long range rehabilitation measures and programs. NOTE: Following the flooding event, If a fuel spill has been discovered, notify the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation at: 269-3063 (Anchorage Office); or 451-2121 (Fairbanks Office); or 800-478-9300. (After-hours) -17- Contacts Numbers CONTACT NUMBERS Governmental Agencies Agencies Contact Phone Fax Legislative House and Senate Districts District C Sen. Albert Kookesh 465-3473 465-2827 District 5 Rep. William “Bill” Thomas, Jr. 465-3732 465-2652 District 6 Rep. Woodie Salmon 465-4527 465-2197 District D Sen. Ralph Seekins 465-2327 465-5241 District 7 Rep. Michael “Mike” Kelly 465-4976 465-3883 District 8 Rep. David Guttenburg 465-4457 465-3519 District E Sen. Gary Wilken 465-3709 465-4714 District 9 Rep. Jim Holm 465-3466 465-2937 District 10 Rep. Jay Ramras 465-3004 465-2070 District F Sen. Gene Therriault 465-4797 465-3884 District 11 Rep. John Coghill 465-3719 465-3258 District 12 Rep. John Harris 465-4859 465-3799 District S Sen. Lyman Hoffman 465-4453 465-4523 District 37 Rep. Carl Moses 465-4451 465-3445 District 38 Rep. Mary Kapsner 465-4942 465-4589 District T Sen. Donald Olson 465-3707 465-4821 District 39 Rep. Richard Foster 465-3789 465-3242 District 40 Rep. Reggie Joule 465-4833 465-4586 Alaska Division of Homeland Security and State Coordination Center 428-7100 428-7095 Emergency Management Alaska River Forecast Center Larry Rundquist 266-5160 266-5188 AK State Troopers Western District 248-1410 Not Available AST, Fairbanks Post Capt. Steve Garrett 451-5100 451-5317 AST, Bethel Post Lt. Pete Mlynarik 800 478-2294 543-5102 AST, Kotzebue Post Sgt. Karl Erickson 800 789-3222 442-3221 Corps of Engineers Mervin Mullins or Dave Spence 753-2513 / 753-2666 753-2748 ADEC, Village Safe Water Greg Magee 269-7613 269-7509 ADEC, Alan Wien 376-1865 376-2382 ADEC, Northern Region Bill Smyth 451-2177 451-2188 DCCED, Flood Insurance Christy Miller 269-4567 269-4539 DCCED, Fairbanks Irene Catalone 451-2748 451-2742 DCCED, Division of Energy Kris Noonan 269-3000 269-3044 National Weather Service, Fairbanks Ed Plumb 458-3714 458-3737 Red Cross, Southcentral Chapter John Ramsey 646-5407 276-1465 Red Cross, Tanana Chapter Greg Williams 456-5937 456-7329 -18- Contacts Numbers River Neighbors Community Local Official Title Phone Fax Denali Borough David Talerico Mayor 907-683-1330 907-683-1340 Fairbanks North Star Borough David Tyler Emerg. Svs. Dir. 907-459-1481 907-459-1499 Matanuska-Susitna Borough Dennis Brodigan Emerg. Svs. Dir. 907-373-8815 907-376-0799 Northwest Arctic Borough Roswell Schaeffer, Sr. Mayor 907-442-2500 907-442-2930 Akiachak Native Community Phillip Peter Sr. Chairman 907-825-4626 907-825-4029 City of Akiak John Jasper Mayor 907-765-7411 907-765-7512 City of Alakanuk Eusebia Augline. Vice-Mayor 907-238-3313 907-238-3620 Alatna Village Harding Sam Chief 907-968-2304 907-968-2305 City of Allakaket Julia Simon Mayor 907-968-2423 907-968-2233 City of Ambler Morgan Johnson Mayor 907-445-2122 907-445-2174 Yupiit of Andreafsky Gail Alstrom President 907-438-2312 907-438-2512 City of Aniak Steve Hill Mayor 907-675-4481 907-675-4486 City of Anvik Robert Walker Mayor 907-663-6328 907-663-6321 Arctic Village Traditional Council Aaron Tritt President 907-587-5328 907-587-5428 Beaver Village Council Celina Petruska President 907-628-6126 907-628-6815 City of Bethel Hugh Short, Jr. Mayor 907-543-2047 907-543-4171 City of Bettles Dan Klaes Mayor 907-692-5191 907-692-5191 City of Buckland Floyd Ticket Mayor 907-494-2121 907-494-2138 Chalkyitsik Village Council James Nathaniel Jr. Chief 907-848-8117 907-848-8986 Circle Village Council Paul Nathaniel Chief 907-773-2822 907-773-2823 Native Village of Crooked Creek Johnnie John President 908-432-2200 907-432-2201 City of Eagle Jerry Nelson Mayor 907-547-2282 907-547-2338 City of Eek Teresa Jackson Mayor 907-536-5129 907-536-5711 City of Emmonak Andrew Kelly Sr. Mayor 907-949-1227 907-949-1926 Evansville Tribal Council Rhoda Musser Chief 907-692-5005 907-692-5006 City of Fort Yukon Vickie Thomas Mayor 907-662-2479 907-662-2717 City of Galena Russ Sweetsir Mayor 907-656-1301 907-656-1769 City of Grayling Shirley Clark Mayor 907-453-5148 907-453-5223 City of Holy Cross Jeffery Demientieff, Sr. Mayor 907-476-7139 907-476-7141 City of Hughes Janet Bifelt Mayor 907-889-2206 907-889-2252 City of Huslia Joyce Sam Mayor 907-829-2266 907-829-2224 City of Kaltag Susie Nickoli Mayor 907-534-2301 907-534-2236 City of Kiana Daniel Douglas Mayor 907-475-2136 907-475-2174 Kipnuk Traditional Council Ryan Sampson President 907-896-5427 907-896-5022 City of Kobuk William Tom Cyrus Acting Mayor 907-948-2217 907-948-2228 City of Kotlik Laurie Prince Mayor 907-899-4313 907-899-4826 City of Koyukuk Jason Malemute Mayor 907-927-2214 907-927-2215 -19- Contacts Numbers River Neighbors (Continued) Community Local Official Title Phone Fax City of Kwethluk Elizabeth S. Dillon Mayor 907-757-6022 907-757-6497 City of Lower Kalskag Henry Aloysius Mayor 907-471-2228 907-471-2228 Manley Village Council Elizabeth Woods Administrator 907-672-3177 907-672-3200 City of Marshall Raymond Alstrom, Sr. Mayor 907-679-6215 907-679-6220 City of McGrath Dustin Parker Mayor 907-524-3825 907-524-3536 City of Mountain Village Joyce Brown-Rivers Mayor 907-591-2929 907-591-2920 City of Napakiak Richard Jung Mayor 907-589-2611 907-589-2612 City of Napaskiak Elinor Okoviak Mayor 907-737-7626 907-737-7412 City of Nenana Jason Mayrand Mayor 907-832-5441 907-832-5503 City of Nikolai Peter Tony Mayor 907-293-2111 907-293-2481 Native Village of Noatak Larry Jones President 907-485-2173 907-485-2137 City of Nome Denise Michels Mayor 907-443-6663 907-443-5349 City of Noorvik Robert Wells Mayor 907-636-2100 907-636-2135 City of Nulato Victor Nicholas Mayor 907-898-2205 907-898-2203 City of Nunapitchuk Jamie Berlin Sr. Mayor 907-527-5327 907-527-5011 Village of Ohogamiut Nick IAndrew Jr. President 907-679-6517 907-679-6516 Oscarville Tribal Council Ignati Jacob Chairman 907-737-7099 907-737-7428 Native Village of Paimiut Franklin Napoleon President 907-561-9878 907-563-5398 City of Pilot Station Abraham Kelly Mayor 907-549-3211 907-549-3014 Native Village of Pitka's Point Ruth Riley President 907-438-2833 907-438-2569 City of Quinhagak Grace Hill Mayor 907-556-8202 907-556-8166 Rampart Village Council Elain Evans (temp.) Chief 907-358-3312 907-358-3115 Red Devil Traditional Council Mary Willis President 907-447-3223 907-447-3224 Red Devil People & Community, Inc. Charlie Thacker President 907-447-3203 907-447-3224 City of Ruby Jay deLamia Mayor 907-468-4401 907-468-4443 City of Russian Mission Olga Kozevnikoff Mayor 907-584-5111 907-584-5476 City of Saint Mary's Sven Paukan Mayor 907-438-2515 907-438-2719 City of Selawik Allen Ticket Mayor 907-484-2132 907-484-2209 City of Shageluk Minnie Canter Mayor 907-473-8221 907-473-8220 City of Shungnak Levi Cleveland Mayor 907-437-2161 907-437-2176 Village of Sleetmute Pete Mellick, Jr. President 907-449-4213 907-449-4203 Stevens Village IRA Council Randy Mayo Chief 907-478-7228 907-478-7229 Village of Stony River Thomas Willis President 907-537-3253 907-537-3254 Village Council of Tanacross Jerry Isaac President 907-883-5024 907-883-4497 City of Tanana Donna Folger Mayor 907-366-7159 907-366-7169 Tuluksak Native Community Moses Teter CEO 907-695-6420 907-695-6932 City of Upper Kalskag Rose Nook Mayor 907-471-2220 907-471-2237 Venetie Village Council Ernest Erick First Chief 907-849-8212 907-849-8149 -20- Contacts Numbers Appendix A Safe Drinking Water When You Are Unsure of the Safety of Your Drinking Water Source Treat It! Contaminated Water of unknown quality needs to be treated before use to prevent the transmission of disease. Surface water and water from unprotected wells, or wells too close to a sewage disposal system, are likely to be contaminated with intestinal wastes from birds, animals, and man. Whenever surface water is used for drinking and household purposes, or when any question arises concerning the safety of your water supply, steps should be taken to purify the water. If the water is not clear, the sediment should first be allowed to settle. Then, only the clear water should be purified. Either of the two methods listed below may be used. 1. Boiling. Boil water for at two minutes. Allow it to cool If the water has a flat taste, pour it back and forth between two clean containers two or three times. 2. Bleach disinfectant. Add one drop of fresh, unscented chlorine bleach, such as Clorox or Purex (containing 5.25 to 6 % available chlorine) to each quart of water. If water is not clear, add 3 drops to each quart of water. Mix thoroughly and let stand for 30 minutes before drinking. If larger quantities of water are to be disinfected with chlorine bleach, use this table for proper dosages: AMOUNT OF WATER CLEAR WATER CLOUDY WATER 5 gallons 1/4 teaspoon* 1/2 teaspoon 10 gallons 1/2 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 20 gallons ¾ teaspoon 1 ½ teaspoons 30 gallons 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons 40 gallons 1 ¼ teaspoons 2 ½ teaspoons 50 gallons 1 ½ teaspoons 3 teaspoons *Note: If a tablespoon is used for measuring, 1 tablespoon equals 3 teaspoons. For more information, contact: Drinking Water Program Anchorage (907) 269-7656 Fax (907) 269-7655 Fairbanks (907) 451-2108 Fax (907) 451-2188 Appendix A -21- Appendix B Flood Preparedness – Are You Ready For A Flood? Winter can't last forever. Soon the sun will be shining, the weather will be warmer, the birds will be returning, and, YOU'LL BE IN THE WORST DANGER OF FLOODING ALL YEAR! WHAT TO DO 1. Listen for current flood information on radio and TV. You can check breakup reports on the Internet at either the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management web site www.ak-prepared.com or the River Forecast Center web site http://aprfc.arh.noaa.gov. 2. Contact your city office or insurance agent to find out if flood insurance is available in your community. 3. Remember that flooding is serious. Make sure your family and pets are safe. Keep them away from culverts and flood waters and don't leave pets in areas that might be flooded. 4. Take measures to protect homes and personal property. Locate problem areas and MOVE PERSONAL PROPERTY TO HIGH GROUND IF NECESSARY (snow machines, chain saws, ATV's, commercial fishing gear, etc.). 5. Monitor septic systems, wells and fuel tanks. Make sure valves are shut so tanks won't spill if flood waters move them. 6. Electricity will be shut down if the power plant floods. Be prepared to do without electricity. 7. Prepare to be isolated for several days if your airport floods. 8. Stock up on food and water. 9. Keep a battery powered radio and fresh batteries available. 10. Know where your community shelter is and be prepared to move into it if necessary. Prepared by the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management PO Box 5750, Ft. Richardson, AK 99505-5750 Appendix B -22- Appendix C Identifying, Protecting and Salvaging Vital Records Identifying Vital Records Vital records may be defined as those records needed to continue the government's essential operations, to protect its legal and financial interests, and to assist in its recovery during a period of emergency or natural disaster. An agency's legislative mandate, mission, and public responsibilities will define those vital records. Generally, they will comprise less than 10% of the total records volume. Many records marked as permanent in general records schedules, or as archival in records disposition authorities, will be vital; but other records may qualify as well. The following is a basic, but not necessarily comprehensive, list: Accounts Payable/Receivable Bank Account Information Bonds and Coupons Budgets Building Plans and Blueprints Capital Asset Records Charters Emergency Plans Computer Equipment/Software Documentation Contracts, Leases, Agreements Court Calendars and Docket Books Deeds Disaster Recovery Plan Equipment/Supplies Inventories General Ledgers Insurance Policies Licenses and Permits Maps (taxation, topographical, utility) Minutes, Ordinances, Resolutions Payroll/Pension Fund Records Personnel Files Police Identification/Fingerprint Files Property Tax Assessment Records Student Records Succession List of Government Officials Transportation Schedules/Routes Treasurer's Reports Utility Construction Plans Vital Records List Vital Statistics (births, marriages, divorces, deaths) Wills Zoning Records -23- Appendix C Protecting Vital Records The best method of protecting vital records is through duplication and dispersal. The record's storage medium will dictate how it should be duplicated. Paper records may be photocopied or microfilmed on silver-halide film. (This is the only film type acceptable for preservation under American National Standards Institute and the Association for Information & Image Management standards.) Machine-readable records should be copied onto a back-up medium, such as magnetic tape or computer-output microfilm (COM). There are also different methods of dispersal: • Copies of vital records may be held in a vault or safe inside the agency; however, if the vault or safe is not "disaster proof," copies and originals will both be lost if the entire facility is destroyed. • Off-site storage is usually a better method of dispersal. It involves keeping copies of vital records at a location outside the agency's primary facility, providing security in case the originals are destroyed. • Various commercial vendors around the state also store microfilm, magnetic tapes or disks, and paper records. Whatever place is chosen, the off-site facility should offer economical, high-volume storage and quick records retrieval in the event of an emergency. What to Do When the Flood Starts While the following emergency measures are no substitute for a disaster plan, they may enable agencies that don’t have a plan to get through the current flood season. Meanwhile, if a flood threatens, these steps can be taken to protect your vital records: • Take back-up computer disks and tapes, as well as microfilm, out of the office and as far away from the potential disaster site as possible. • Ideally, the temporary storage area should have a properly controlled environment and a means of access to the records (back-up computer equipment, microfilm reader-printers, etc.). • Wrap each computer in a plastic garbage bag and secure the bag with a tie around the electrical cord. • If you are unable to remove paper records from the site, get them as far above the floor as possible. • Wrap all shelves in plastic, and tape the plastic down to hold it in place. If flooding occurs, or if your agency's primary facility is unusable, identify a temporary site or sites where agency functions can resume and records salvage operations can be started. Salvaging Water-Damaged Records -24- Appendix C Water-damaged records are usually recoverable if salvage work begins within two days. After that, mold and mildew develop rapidly. Because the disaster site will be extremely humid, salvage must be undertaken elsewhere. Ideally in a clean, dry area with a temperature of 65 degrees and a relative humidity of 40% or lower. Cover floors or tables used as work areas with plastic sheeting, and move water-damaged records with extreme care. Milk crates or similar ventilated plastic cartons are good carriers. Do not try to separate stuck-together pages as long as they are saturated. When the pages are drier, paper towels may be placed between them to absorb water. Change the towels frequently and use fans to circulate air over damaged records. Vacuum freeze-drying is the best and quickest way of drying paper records, but it is expensive and requires professional assistance. Damp microfilm can be air-dried on a clean, lint-free, white cotton sheet. Do not unroll wet microfilm, as this may cause the emulsion layer to separate from the base film. Leave wet microfilm rolls in their containers and place them in clean water. Salvaged microfilm will not be archival-quality and must be recopied on silver-halide film. Recovery of water-damaged computer disks is problematic, and placing a wet disk in the drive can seriously damage your computer. Magnetic tapes can sometimes be hand-dried (at some risk to the data), but contact your computer equipment's manufacturer before attempting to dry the hardware. -25- Appendix C Appendix D Myths and Facts about the National Flood Insurance Program Who needs flood insurance? Everyone, and everyone in a participating community of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) can buy flood insurance. Nationwide, almost 20,000 communities have joined the Program. In some instances, people have been told that they cannot buy flood insurance because of where they live. To clear up this and other misconceptions about National Flood Insurance, the NFIP has compiled the following list of common myths about the Program, and the real facts behind them, to give you the full story about this valuable protection. 1. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance if you are located in a high-flood-risk area. FACT: You can buy National Flood Insurance no matter where you live if your community participates in the NFIP, except in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) areas. The Program was created in 1968 to provide flood insurance to people who live in areas with the greatest risk of flooding, called Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs). In fact, under the National Flood Insurance Act, lenders must require borrowers whose property is located within an SFHA to purchase flood insurance as a condition of receiving a federally regulated mortgage loan. There is an exemption for conventional loans on properties within CBRS areas. Lenders should notify borrowers that their property is located in an SFHA and National Flood Insurance is required. 2. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance immediately before or during a flood. FACT: You can purchase flood coverage at any time. There is a 30-day waiting period after you've applied and paid the premium before the policy is effective, with the following exceptions: 1) If the initial purchase of flood insurance is in connection with the making, increasing, extending or renewing of a loan, there is no waiting period. The coverage becomes effective at the time of the loan, provided application and payment of premium is made at or prior to loan closing. 2) If the initial purchase of flood insurance is made during the 13-month period following the effective date of a revised flood map for a community, there is a one-day waiting period. This only applies where the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) is revised to show the building to be in an SFHA when it had not been in an SFHA. The policy does not cover a "loss in progress," defined by the NFIP as a loss occurring as of 12:01 a.m. on the first day of the policy term. In addition, you cannot increase the amount of insurance coverage you have during a loss in progress. 3. MYTH: Homeowners insurance policies cover flooding. FACT: Unfortunately, many homeowners do not find out until it is too late that -26- Appendix D their homeowners policies do not cover flooding. National Flood Insurance protects your most valuable assets-your home and belongings. 4. MYTH: Flood insurance is only available for homeowners. FACT: Flood insurance is available to protect homes, condominiums, apartments and nonresidential buildings, including commercial structures. A maximum of $250,000 of building coverage is available for single-family residential buildings; $250,000 per unit for residential condominiums. The limit for contents coverage on all residential buildings is $100,000, which is also available to renters. Commercial structures can be insured to a limit of $500,000 for the building and $500,000 for the contents. 5. MYTH: You can't buy flood insurance if your property has been flooded. FACT: You are still eligible to purchase flood insurance after your home, apartment or business has been flooded, provided that your community is participating in the NFIP. 6. MYTH: Only residents of high-flood-risk zones need to insure their property. FACT: Even if you live in an area that is not flood-prone, it's advisable to have flood insurance. Between 20 percent and 25 percent of the NFIP's claims come from outside high-flood-risk areas. The NFIP's Preferred Risk Policy, available for just over $100 per year, is designed for residential properties located in low- to moderate-flood-risk zones. 7. MYTH: National Flood Insurance can only be purchased through the NFIP directly. FACT: NFIP flood insurance is sold through private insurance companies and agents, and is backed by the Federal government. 8. MYTH: The NFIP does not offer any type of basement coverage. FACT: Yes it does. The NFIP defines a basement as any area of a building with a floor that is below ground level on all sides. While flood insurance does not cover basement improvements, such as finished walls, floors or ceilings, or personal belongings that may be kept in a basement, such as furniture and other contents, it does cover structural elements, essential equipment and other basic items normally located in a basement. Many of these items are covered under building coverage, and some are covered under contents coverage. The NFIP encourages people to purchase both building and contents coverage for the broadest protection. The following items are covered under building coverage, as long as they are connected to a power source and installed in their functioning location: o Sump pumps o Well water tanks and pumps, cisterns and the water in them o Oil tanks and the oil in them, natural gas tanks and the gas in them -27- Appendix D o Pumps and/or tanks used in conjunction with solar energy o Furnaces, hot water heater, air conditioners and heat pumps o Electrical junction and circuit breaker boxes and required utility connections o Foundation elements o Stairways, staircases, elevators and dumbwaiters. o Unpainted drywalls and ceilings, including fiberglass insulation o Cleanup The following items are covered under contents coverage: o Clothes washers o Clothes dryers o Food freezers and the food in them 9. MYTH: Federal disaster assistance will pay for flood damage. FACT: Before a community is eligible for disaster assistance, it must be declared a federal disaster area. Federal disaster assistance declarations are issued in less than 50 percent of flooding incidents. The premium for an NFIP policy, averaging about $400 a year, is less expensive than interest on federal disaster loans. Furthermore, if you are uninsured and receive federal disaster assistance after a flood, you must purchase flood insurance to remain eligible for future disaster relief. 10. MYTH: The NFIP encourages coastal development. FACT: One of the NFIP's primary objectives is to guide development away from high-flood-risk areas. NFIP regulations minimize the impact of structures that are built in SFHAs by requiring them not to cause obstructions to the natural flow of floodwaters. Also, as a condition of community participation in the NFIP, those structures built within SFHAs must adhere to strict floodplain management regulations. In addition, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) of 1982 relies on the NFIP to discourage building in fragile coastal areas by prohibiting the sale of flood insurance in designated CBRA areas. While the NFIP does not prohibit property owners from building along coastal areas, any Federal financial assistance, including federally backed flood insurance, is prohibited. However, CBRA does not prohibit privately financed development or insurance. -28- Appendix D 11. MYTH: The NFIP does not cover flooding resulting from hurricanes or the overflow of rivers or tidal waters. FACT: The NFIP defines covered flooding as a general and temporary condition during which the surface of normally dry land is partially or completely inundated. Two properties in the area or two or more acres must be affected. Flooding can be caused by: o The overflow of inland or tidal waters, or o The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source, such as heavy rainfall, or o Mudslides, i.e., mudflows, caused by flooding, that could be described as a river of liquid and flowing mud and o The collapse or destabilization of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water, resulting from erosion or the effect of waves, or water currents exceeding normal, cyclical levels. 12. MYTH: Wind-driven rain is considered flooding. FACT: No, it isn't. Rain entering through wind-damaged windows, doors or a hole in a wall or the roof, resulting in standing water or puddles, is considered windstorm-rather than flood-damage. National Flood Insurance only covers damage caused by the general condition of flooding (defined above), typically caused by storm surge, wave wash, tidal waves, or the overflow of any body of water over normally dry land areas. Buildings that sustain this type of damage usually have a watermark, showing how high the water rose before it subsided. Although the Standard Flood Insurance Policy (SFIP) specifically excludes wind and hail damage, most homeowners policies provide such coverage. For more information about the NFIP, ask your insurance agent or company, or call the NFIP's toll-free number at 1-888-CALL-FLOOD or TDD# 1-800-427-5593 -29- Appendix D “No Matter Where You Live, Floods Happen” WOULD A FLOOD DAMAGE PREVENTION PROGRAM BENEFIT YOUR COMMUNITY? IS FLOODING AND EROSION A PROBLEM IN YOUR COMMUNITY? IS A THREAT OF TSUNAMI POSSIBLE? Overflowing rivers, coastal storms, tsunami threat, erosion, and drainage problems -- all can result in extensive property damage, income loss, and sometimes loss of life. Add to these costs the disruption, inconvenience of repairs, and the trauma brought on by damage or loss of ones home or business. If the community you live in is subject to any of these problems, then your community needs a floodplain management program or flood mitigation plan. Local flood mitigation may include Structural Measures such as levees or erosion control. However, structural projects are expensive to install and maintain, and may only partially address local problems. Nonstructural Measures such as requiring setbacks from erosion prone areas, elevating new construction above anticipated flood heights, or restricting development in most hazardous areas should be considered. The most comprehensive nonstructural flood mitigation effort is for a community to join the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) thus making flood insurance coverage available to anyone in the community. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT? A floodplain management program can benefit a community by: • educating the public and local officials about the potential risks to life and property that exist in floodplain areas, • providing the opportunity for residents to buy flood insurance, thereby transferring unprotected losses to insured risks; • protecting buildings, equipment, fuel supplies against flood damage, • minimizing costs of flood fighting and disaster assistance, • funding programs - loans and grants, even disaster assistance - not available unless a community participates in the National Flood Insurance Program; and • protecting floodplain resources. HOW CAN YOUR COMMUNITY DEVELOP A FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM? Each community should tailor its floodplain management program to local needs and circumstances. The first step is to determine the needs, desires, and attitudes of the community regarding local hazards. Ideally the program would address: • actions to reduce the susceptibility of life and property to flooding, • projects to modify the flood itself, • actions to minimize the effects on the individual and community, and • actions to expedite recovery from flooding. -30- Appendix D Cities and Boroughs may integrate flood loss reduction measures into comprehensive plans and existing ordinances. For example, subdivision regulations can be amended to require plat notes identifying known flood elevations or setback distances from eroding river front parcels. Or a comprehensive Flood Damage Protection ordinance and may be needed. In all cases joining the National Flood Insurance Program should be considered. WHAT ABOUT FLOOD INSURANCE? Any owner or renter of property located in a community participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) may purchase a flood insurance policy. Federal Flood insurance is not available to residents of communities that do not participate in the NFIP. The NFIP is a federal program enabling property owners to buy flood insurance at a reasonable cost provided their community carries out local measures to protect new construction from future flooding. For more assistance contact: Christy Miller, Planner / Certified Floodplain Manager Phone: (907) 269-4567; email: firstname.lastname@example.org or Taunnie L. Boothby, Planner / Floodplain Management Programs Phone: (907) 269-4583; email: email@example.com Need more information, visit these websites: http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/nfip/nfip.htm http://www.floods.org/ http://www.floodplain.org/index.htm Congratulations to these Cities and Boroughs that do participate in the NFIP: Anchorage, Aniak, Bethel, Cordova, Delta Junction, Dillingham, Emmonak, Fairbanks North Star Borough, Fort Yukon, Galena, Haines, Homer, Hoonah, Juneau City and Borough, Kenai Peninsula Borough, Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Kotzebue, Koyukuk, Kwethluk, Lake & Peninsula Borough, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, McGrath, Nenana, Nome, Northwest Arctic Borough, Petersburg, Shishmaref, Sitka, Skagway, Togiak, and Valdez! -31- Appendix D Appendix E ICE BREAKUP RECONNAISSANCE APPROACH IN ALASKA Larry A. Rundquist National Weather Service River Forecast Center ABSTRACT The Alaska River Forecast Center conducts ice breakup overflights each spring to identify potential for ice jams. The information is used to supplement ground observations that are used to provide flood warnings to residents of affected villages. The methodology used in the reconnaissance and a summary of selected observations are presented. BACKGROUND The mission of the Alaska River Forecast Center (AKRFC) is to provide watches and warnings for flooding along all streams in Alaska. The AKRFC was formed following a major flood in Fairbanks in August 1967 caused by extended precipitation in the Chena River basin. In addition to floods caused by rainfall or snowmelt, a common cause of flooding in Alaska is breakup ice jams. The AKRFC has monitored breakup of rivers throughout Alaska for over two decades using two primary sources of information: 1) field reconnaissance and 2) observational network. The information collected during the field aerial reconnaissance significantly supplements the information obtained from the observational network through telephone reports. Typical information obtained during aerial reconnaissance includes the timing of stage crest at a village, a subjective assessment of the likelihood of further jamming, and breakup activity up or down the river. This information is included in formal flood watches and warnings, as well as communicated directly to village officials by the field staff. The field reconnaissance is conducted in cooperation with the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM), which is the agency responsible for the overall direction of the State of Alaska's flood preparedness, response, and recovery program. The role of DHS&EM during breakup is to promote mitigative activities by local residents in flood-prone villages prior to ice breakup and to be on hand for immediate emergency coordination if a village is flooded. FIELD RECONNAISSANCE Staff personnel from DHS&EM and AKRFC fly over major rivers to observe the condition of the ice and assess the potential for ice jams. The primary aerial scope of coverage is the entire length of the Yukon River in Alaska and the middle and lower Kuskokwim River. These rivers have been found to have the greatest likelihood for ice jam flooding. Other rivers may be included in the aerial reconnaissance if ground observations identify a flood threat. -32- Appendix E A river watch team typically consists of one DHS&EM emergency management officer, one AKRFC hydrologist, and a pilot. Extra staff from DHS&EM or AKRFC may be included for additional support or for training. The team conducts daily overflights in the reach of river experiencing the most breakup activity. During the overflight, the team makes notes on the categorized strength of the ice in reaches denoted by river miles. Strength categories range from rotten, dark, candled, weak ice to hard, blue-green, strong ice, and are qualitatively assessed. Other observations include ice characteristics such as the degree of fracturing and ice movement. Water levels are also assessed by estimating freeboard to flood levels at villages or feet below bankfull level, area and depth of overbank water, and rising or falling tendency. In addition to the overflight, the field crew lands at villages along the rivers to brief the local authorities on the status of breakup and the threat to the village. The field hydrologist telephones the AKRFC office to report the observations. The field team reconnaissance is occasionally supplemented by videotape of rivers filmed by the Civil Air Patrol during practice missions. The missions are scheduled with input from the AKRFC staff, who identify river reaches that may have flood threats, but are not within easy access of the field team. OBSERVATIONAL NETWORK Ice thickness measurements are collected monthly through the winter at about 12 river or lake locations in Alaska. The measurements are taken in approximately the same location each year so that current year thicknesses can be compared to previous years. The AKRFC maintains a network of about 50 river observers throughout Alaska that measure and report river water levels during the open water season. These observers also monitor breakup at their location and call the AKRFC with their observations and water level measurements. Staff in the AKRFC also calls individuals in other villages along the river to ask about breakup status at those locations. BREAKUP OBSERVATIONS The breakup observations accumulated over the past two decades cannot be summarized easily in a written paper because 1) the observations are qualitative in nature and 2) much of the information lies in the minds of the individuals that were in the field, and some of these individuals have retired or transferred to other positions. A few notes on 1) the breakup process and 2) ice jam formation and release follows. Breakup process - A significant Alaskan breakup process is that associated with large single channel rivers in interior and northern Alaska, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers. This process is very dynamic and is very threatening to streamside villages due to ice jam flood -33- Appendix E potential. Following the initial snowmelt period and initiation of ice decay, further snowmelt at low elevations in the basin will cause runoff to flow onto the ice. Some of this runoff will pond on top of the ice, while the remainder drains into the river channel through holes or cracks in the ice sheet. Continued increasing flow in the channel will generate increasing pressure on the underside of the ice. An early indication of this increased pressure is lifting of the central portion of the ice sheet while the edges of the sheet remain firmly attached to the banks; ponded runoff will concentrate in channels along the banks while the center of the ice sheet is dry. Additional pressure on the underside of the ice due to increasing flow and weakening of the ice near the edges will cause 1) the ice that is frozen to the banks to break free or 2) the ice sheet to break away from the bank ice. The ice sheet will float on the rising water levels. Since water levels during the fall freezeup period are typically low, rising water levels in the spring will result in a wider channel with a relatively narrow strip of main channel ice floating above the deeper portion of the channel. Further weakening of the ice and continued force of the river current on the sheet will eventually cause the ice sheet to fracture and shift in the open water, resulting in the first movement of the ice. Most observers would record this as the date of first ice movement. At locations with ice breakup contests that are terminated by the movement of a tripod on the ice, this first movement may be sufficient to end the contest and be called "breakup" even though ice sheets still remain in front of the town. It is not uncommon for the channel to be sufficiently wide that ice sheets break apart, turn sideways in the channel, and drift downstream to accumulate some distance away. An observer on the ground would likely conclude that the ice had broken up and that boating was possible on the river, even though the major breakup activity had not yet begun. Local residents often begin boating within the open reach of river at this stage of the breakup process. Even if this local breakup has taken place, the primary breakup process that holds the greatest threat of flooding has not yet passed this location. The primary breakup process often begins in the upper reaches of the river, although intermediate breakup fronts may be initiated at other points along the river. Movement of the ice sheets is initiated when increased flow in the river and increased local stream gradient due to the resistance of the ice sheets floating on the surface combine to increase the drag on the ice sheet to a level sufficient to overcome the forces holding the ice in place. The moving ice sheets reduce in size primarily by physical impact, although ice continues to melt as it moves downstream. Ice sheets break into smaller ice pans. Pans impacting other pans break apart to reduce the size to chunks. The breakup front is the interface between stationary and moving ice sheets. Upstream of the breakup front is typically 1) a reach of large moving sheets, 2) a reach of mixed broken sheets, large and small pans, and chunks, and 3) a reach of mostly chunks. The total length of moving ice upstream of the breakup front can be many miles, especially on large rivers such as the Yukon River, where a run of ice 10 to 20 miles long is not uncommon. -34- Appendix E Ice jam formation and release - When the breakup front meets strong ice, the moving ice stops at this jam point. The ice stoppage continues in the upstream direction. The severity of the water level rise associated with the ice stoppage is directly related to the flow velocity under the ice cover (Beltaos, 1990). In years that have low discharges during breakup, it has been observed that the ice run behind the breakup front loses momentum such that very weak ice may be sufficient to cause the ice to stop running. The resulting jam is a surface jam, where ice accumulates on the surface upstream of the jam point. Water levels upstream of such jams increase due to the stopped ice that increases the hydraulic resistance in the channel. Only minor flooding of upstream villages is typical associated with this type of jam. Once the head on the jam builds sufficiently to initiate movement, the breakup front again progresses downstream. In years with greater runoff, the discharge and velocity will be larger. Stronger ice is required to stop the breakup front during these years. When the ice stops, chunk ice from upstream often submerges under the stopped ice to form a thickened jam or hanging dam. Water levels upstream of such jams increase rapidly and often cause major flooding in upstream villages. Overbank flooding has been observed to extend for many miles away from the river along certain reaches of the Yukon River. The field team estimates the depth of overbank water and the head on the ice jam. The release of the jam is similar to a dam break, and the increase in stage downstream, excluding ice resistance affects, is estimated to be one half of the head on the jam. Beltaos (1990) presents equations for the surge celerity and the surging water velocity following the release of an ice jam. Observations of surge celerity ranging from 15 to 20 mph following ice jam releases during the 1994 breakup confirm the relatively high surge celerity values that would be computed using the Beltaos equations. Several ice jams in 1994 held for extended periods, during which downstream ice had the chance to rot enough that the surge initiated ice movement. Surge celerity was estimated from calculating the rate of movement of the breakup front. In some years, strong ice downstream would resist movement by the surge; the surge would pass beneath the ice making the celerity difficult to compute. REFERENCE CITED Beltaos, S. 1990. Breakup Jams. In Cold Regions Hydrology and Hydraulics. Ryan, W.L. and R.D. Crissman, Eds. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 485-515. -35- Appendix E Appendix F Helpful Computer Web Links/Addresses • http://aprfc.arh.noaa.gov : Alaska Pacific River Forecast Center (APRFC) • http://ambcs.org : Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Alaska Snow, Water and Climate Services • http://www.arh.noaa.gov/ : National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region Headquarters • http://akweathercams.faa.gov/ : Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Alaskan Region's Weather Cameras • http://fire.ak.blm.gov/ : U.S. Department of the Interior – Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Alaska Fire Service • http://www.aidea.org/aea.htm : Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) • http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CF_COMDB.htm : Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development (DCCED), Community Profiles • http://www.state.ak.us/dec/ : Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) • http://pafc.arh.noaa.gov/ice.php : National Whether Service Forecast Office Alaska Ice Desk • http://www.ak-prepared.com : Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHS&EM) • http://www.fema.gov/ : Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) -36- Appendix E
"STATE OF ALASKA DIVISION OF HOMELAND SECURITY AND "