STRUCTURAL FIRE PRECAUTIONS PART

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					 STRUCTURAL FIRE
PRECAUTIONS PART 1
           Scope of Presentation
•   Objectives of Structural Fire Precautions
•   Needs for Compartmentation
•   Clarification of Clauses
•   Conclusion
       Objectives of Structural Fire
               Precautions
(a)   To prevent the spread of fire between adjoining
      buildings by adequate separation;

(b) To prevent the untimely collapse of building, including
    walls and floors of each unit in the event of a fire.

(c)    To prevent spread of fire from one unit to another
      within the building envelope by compartmentalising
      each unit with walls, floors and doors having the
      requisite fire resistance rating.
           Compartmentation
• Limits the size of the fire.
• Goal of compartmentation is confining a fire
  and minimizing risk of loss of occupants by
  segregating a space to control the spread the
  fire.
• Most common failure of compartmentation?
     • Leaving a door open.
                               Smoke
                               Management




            Compartmentation


Structure




                                  Response
Protection

                      Escape
                        Compartmentation
                   TABLE 3.2A SIZE LIMITATION OF BUILDING AND COMPARTMENT
                             (1)                         (2)         (3)
                                                     Maximum      Maximum
                       Compartments                  Floor Area Cubical Extent

         Compartment below ground level. No              2000m²     7500m³
         compartment to comprise more than one storey.

         Compartments between average ground level and   4000m²     15000m³
         a height of 24m. No compartment to comprise
         more than 3 storeys.

         Compartments above a height of 24m from         2000m²     7500m³
         average ground level. No compartment to
         comprise more than one storey.

         Note: Except Purpose Group I

Compartmentation by:
-Area/Cubical Extent (Clause 3.2.1)
- Height (Clause 3.2.4)
-Residential II (Clause 3.2.5(a))
-Purpose Group (Clause 3.2.5(b))
-Basement Clause 3.2.5(c))
-Others (FCC, kitchen etc)
                       Compartmentation


Compartmentation by:
-Area/Cubical Extent (Clause 3.2.1)
- Height (Clause 3.2.4)
-Residential II (Clause 3.2.5(a))
-Purpose Group (Clause 3.2.5(b))
-Basement Clause 3.2.5(c))
-Others (FCC, kitchen etc)
                       Compartmentation


Compartmentation by:
-Area/Cubical Extent (Clause 3.2.1)
- Height (Clause 3.2.4)
-Residential II (Clause 3.2.5(a))
-Purpose Group (Clause 3.2.5(b))
-Basement Clause 3.2.5(c))
-Others (FCC, kitchen etc)
Clause 3.2.3        Where however, the Relevant Authority is satisfied that
additional floor area and cubical extent are necessary for any such building or
compartment or part thereof, as aforesaid, he may consent to such additional
floor area and cubical extent, provided :

(a) Such building or compartment thereof is fitted throughout with an
automatic sprinkler system which complies with the requirements in Chapter
6,

(b) There is proper accessibility of site to fire fighting appliances, in
compliance with the requirements in Chapter 4,

(c) All other measures have been or will be taken and maintained for lessening
so far as is reasonably practicable, any danger from fire.

Such consent shall continue in force only while such building or compartment
is used for the purposes in respect of which such consent was given.

                                                                              9
To avoid providing fire compartmentation in building to comply
with the cubical extent and floor area control under Table 3.2A,
automatic sprinkler system would be proposed as an
alternative. Where automatic sprinkler system is to be provided
to a building, compliance with Table 3.2A on max. 3 storeys per
compartment is still required, unless atrium design is proposed
subject to obtaining SCDF (FSSD)’s prior approval before
submission of building plan.
Source : Handbook 2002 Volume 5




                                                               10
                      Acceptable
Mixed Development                        Mixed Development




 Compartment of 3 storeys /atrium design (with sprinkler protection)
                     Not Acceptable
Mixed Development                       Mixed Development




 Compartment more with more than single storeys (with sprinkler
 protection)
3.2.2 (b) Where two buildings are connected by external open-sided
covered way or covered link-bridge, the buildings are
considered as separate buildings, if the following conditions
are complied with:
 (i) Within the covered way or link-bridge there is no
commercial activities or other usage that would pose a
fire risk;
(ii) The width of the covered way or covered link-bridge
shall not exceed 5m measured from eave to eave.




                                                  Building   Linkage   Building
                                                     A                    B
     Building A             Building B   Ground
                                         Level



                  Linkage




          Section View                                   Plan View
                                                                                  13
3.2.2 (b) Where two buildings are connected by external open-sided
covered way or covered link-bridge, the buildings are
considered as separate buildings, if the following conditions
are complied with:
 (i) Within the covered way or link-bridge there is no
commercial activities or other usage that would pose a
fire risk;
(ii) The width of the covered way or covered link-bridge
shall not exceed 5m measured from eave to eave.            Air-Well Size should
                                                                                  be Minimum 93 sqm
                                                                                  and 6m Apart



                                                  Building   Linkage   Building
                                                     A                    B
     Building A             Building B   Ground
                                         Level



                  Linkage




          Section View                                   Plan View
                                                                                                 14
3.2.2 (b) Where two buildings are connected by external open-sided
covered way or covered link-bridge, the buildings are
considered as separate buildings, if the following conditions
are complied with:
 (i) Within the covered way or link-bridge there is no
commercial activities or other usage that would pose a
fire risk;
(ii) The width of the covered way or covered link-bridge
shall not exceed 5m measured from eave to eave.

                                                                               Minimum Air-Well
                                                                               Size should be based
                                                                               on
                                                                               Table 1.2.29
                                               Building   Linkage   Building   (min. 10 by 10m)
                                                  A                    B
  Building A             Building B   Ground
                                      Level
                                                                                 Staircase
               Linkage                                                           ventilation thru
                                                                                 air-well
       Section View                                   Plan View
                                                                                                    15
FIRE SEPARATION OF
PRUPOSE GROUPS                         Table 1.2 B Designation of Purpose Group
Clause 3.2.5 (b)
                                        1




            Mixed Development




    Note:
    Currently the Fire Code Review
    Committee is reviewing the usage
    in commercial Development
FIRE SEPARATION OF
PRUPOSE GROUPS                  Table 1.2 B Designation of Purpose Group
Clause 3.2.5 (b)
                                1




            Mixed Development

                                    2   Rooms or spaces for ancillary usage
                                        located within a building or
                                        compartment of Purpose Group III,
                                        IV, V, Vi, VII and VIII as stipulated
                                        under cl.1.2.2(B).

                                        Refer to 1.2.2(B) (a) The ancillary
                                        office, sick room/first aid room,
                                        reception lobby/area, waiting area,
                                        staff lounge/staff recreation room,
                                        staff rest room/pantry, staff
                                        changing/locker room, etc.
FIRE SEPARATION OF
PRUPOSE GROUPS                  Table 1.2 B Designation of Purpose Group
Clause 3.2.5 (b)
                                1




            Mixed Development

                                    2
                                        Rooms or spaces for ancillary usage
                                        located within a building or
                                        compartment of Purpose Group III,
                                        IV, V, Vi, VII and VIII as stipulated
                                        under cl.1.2.2(B).

                                        Ancillary offices located within a
                                 3      building or compartment of
                                        Purpose Group III, V, VI, VII and
                                        VIII.
FIRE SEPARATION OF
PRUPOSE GROUPS                              Table 1.2 B Designation of Purpose Group
Clause 3.2.5 (b)
                                            1




             Mixed Development

                                                2
                                                    Rooms or spaces for ancillary usage
                                                    located within a building or
     4                                              compartment of Purpose Group III,
                                                    IV, V, Vi, VII and VIII as stipulated
 For building types not included in the             under cl.1.2.2(B).
 above tables, occupancy load
 calculation shall be based on the                  Ancillary offices located within a
 figures established for buildings within           building or compartment of
 the same purpose group, or as              3
                                                    Purpose Group III, V, VI, VII and
 otherwise determined by                            VIII.
 the Relevant Authority.
Under Clause 3.2.5 (d), can you
install multi tiers car park
system in basement car park?
Clause 3.2.5 (d) - In any compartment below pavement level, no
compartment shall comprise more than one storey, except in the case of
purpose groups IV, V and VII as permitted under sub-clause (c) (ii) and in
the case of basement used solely for car parking. No part of a basement
storey shall be used for the bulk storage of highly inflammable liquids or
substances of an explosive nature.
                                       To comply with Clause 1.1.7
        Answer is NO                   Fully Automated Mechanised Car Park (FAMCP)
       Kitchen




Clause 3.2.5 (f) Kitchen Separation
Notwithstanding all the above, the compartment where
‘open flame’ cooking activities is carried out shall not
comprise more than one storey.
Fire Alarm Activation


                                                        Smoke curtain



                Kitchen




      Clause 3.2.5 (f) Kitchen Separation
      Notwithstanding all the above, the compartment
      where ‘open flame’ cooking activities is carried out
      shall not comprise more than one storey.
     Dormitory
     Clause 3.2.5(j) (iii) Kitchen shall be enclosed with minimum 1-hour fire
     rated compartment wall, including ½-hour fire rated door. Kitchen can
     be located within each floor, but shall not be within the dormitory
     bedroom.
                                                          Dormitory




External Corridor corridor
to comply with cl.2.9.3 and cl.2.9.4



                                                        No Fire Door Needed
3.2.5 (o) Areas of Special Hazard
(ii) Rooms housing transformer containing flammable liquid and
generator rooms shall be located against
an external wall.




                                                                    external wall


                                         Transformer

  Transformer room
  -Transformers that is dry type no need to face external wall
  -Oil cooled type are to be located against an external wall above ground level to
  allow for external ventilation and explosion relief.
 3.2.5 (o) Areas of Special Hazard
 (ii) Rooms housing transformer containing flammable liquid and generator
 rooms shall be located against an external wall.




                                                                   external wall


                                         Transformer




Transformer room
Opening of the external walls can be based on at least 10% of the floor
area for natural ventilation of the transformer room
Transformer can be
located in basement but
ventilation openings to
directly open to sky




     Transformer
                Conclusion
• Compartmentation is essential part of
  Structural Fire Precautions

• Part 2 - To prevent the spread of fire between
  adjoining buildings by adequate separation

				
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