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					     oTar qarCava




transporti agrarul sferoSi
                                        damxmare saxelZRvanelo agrosinJinro
                specialobis studentebisTvis




                                                                          1
                Tbilisi 2008
uak. 631.004
           ganxilulia da mowonebulia         gamosacemad
           saqarTvelos saxelmwifo agraruli
           universitetis meqanizaciis fakultetis
           meTodkomisiis mier (oqmi N6 2.03.03)




  recenzentebi: saqarvelos saxelmwifo agraruli
           universitetis traqtorebis da
           avtomobilebis kaTedris gamge teqnikis



       mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
                 oTar mSvildaZe

           saqarvelos saxelmwifo teqnikuri
           universitetis profesori, teqnikis
       mecnierebaTa doqtori
             valerian xaritonaSvili




  redaqtori: saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis
       mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi,
            teqnikis mecnierebaTa doqtori,
            profesori, saxelmwifo premiis
            laureati revaz maxarobliZe




                                                           2
                        Sinaarsi

    Sesavali---------------------------------------------------------------______--------5

Tavi 1. satransporto procesebi-----------------------------------_------ _-----7
  1.1. soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli
     satransporto saSualebebi--------------------------------------- ----___7
  1.2. satransporto procesebis klasifikacia----- -______---------11
  1.3. sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebis klasifikacia------___---------12
           1.4. gzebis klasifikacia-----------------------------__________------------ 14
        1.5. gzebis teqnikuri daxasiaTeba--------------------------------_______ 16
  1.6. sagzao moZraobis organizacia----------------------------________-17
  1.7. avtomobilis eqsploataciis Taviseburebani
     samTo pirobebSi---------------------------------------------------------------_--20

Tavi 2. satransporto saSualebebis gamoyenebis
         Teoriuli safuZvlebi---------------------------------------------24
   2.1. satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebis
     dakompleqteba samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT-----------24
   2.2. satvirTo avtomobilebis tvirTamweobis
      gansazRvra samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT---------------26
   2.3. satransporto saSualebis tvirTzidvis
      maCveneblebi--------------------------------------------------------------------------35
   2.4. satransporto saSualebis garbenis maCveneblebi-----------37
   2.5. satransporto saSualebis droiTi maCveneblebi------------39
   2.6. satransporto saSualebebis siCqaruli
      maCveneblebi------------------------------------------------------------------------40
   2.7. satransporto saSualebis mwarmoebloba------------------------43
   2.8. satransporto saSualebis sawvavis xarji----------------------44
   2.9. tvirTis masis gavlena satransporto saSualebis
      sawvavis xarjze-----------------------------------------------------------------45
   2.10. fuladi saxsrebis saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi                                          satransporto
procesebze--------------------------------------------------------47
   2.11. satransporto procesebis energetikuli Sefaseba------48
   2.12. optimaluri satransporto saSualebis SerCevis
      meTodika-----------------------------------------------------------------------------49

Tavi 3. datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa
           meqanizacia---------------------------------------------------------53
  3.1. datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis teqnikuri saSualebebi---------53
  3.2. damtvirTavi saSualebebis mwarmoebloba-----------------------54
  3.3. gamtarunarianoba, damtvirTavi punqtebis
     raodenoba da samuSao frontis sigrZe----------------------------56
  3.4. datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa
     TviTRirebule     bis angariSi------------------------------------------------57
  3.5. optimaluri damtvirTavi saSualebis SerCevis
      meTodika-------------------------------------------------------------------------------58


                                                                                                             3
Tavi 4. satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri


                                                                                        eqsploatacia.--------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------60                                4.1.
teqmomsaxurebis perioduloba da grafikebis
     Sedgena-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
   4.2 teqnikuri momsaxurebebis da remontebis
     raodenobis            angariSi-------------------------------------------------------------62
   4.3. satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri
      diagnostika------------------------------------------------------------------------63
   4.4. samanqano ezo --------------------------------------------------------------------65
   4.5. sawvav-sazeT masalebze moTxovnilebis angariSi----------67

Tavi 5 satransporto parkis dagegmva-------------------------------------68
  5.1 tvirTzidvis angariSi--------------------------------------------------------68
  5.2 sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis optimizacia--------------70
  5.3 damoukidebeli satransporto procesebis
    dagegmva--------------------------------------------------------------------------------72

Tavi 6 satransporto firmis biznes-gegma-----------------------------75
  6.1 biznes-gegmis zogadi struqtura-------------------------------------75
  6.2. satranspoto firmis biznes-gegma ----------------------------------77

Tavi 7 usafrTxoebis teqnika satransporto
     procesebis warmoebisas-------------------------------------------------82
  7.1. transportis muSaobis ekologizacia----------------------------82
  7.2. usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebi avtotransportiT
     tvirTzidvisas-------------------------------------------------------------------84
  7.3. usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebi satraqtoro-
     satransporto agregatebiT tvirTzidvisas------------------85

     literatura---------------------------------------------------------------------87
     danarTi-----------------------------------------------------------------------------88




                                                                                                                  4
                 Sesavali

   transporti Tanmedrove ekonomikis erTerTi umniSvnelovanesi dargia, romelzedac damokidebulia
warmoebis TiTqmis yvela sferos funqcionireba. satransporto procesi moicavs saavtomobilo,
satraqtoro, motoblokur, sarkinigzo, sahaero, sazRvao, samdinaro, sabagiro, milsaden da saWapane
satransporto saSualebebs.
   saqarTvelos meurneobis dargebs Soris sabazro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis pirobebSi
satransporto parkis funqcionireba efuZneba satransporto bazris moTxovnebs, risTvisac saWiroa
mocemuli regionisTvis racionaluri struqturuli da raodenobrivi Semadgenlobis satransporto parki,
romlis efeqtur gamoyenebaze did gavlenas axdens satransporto saSualebis saeqsploatacio
Tvisebebi, eqsploataciis pirobebi, moZraobis da ekologiuri usafrTxoeba.
    sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidva saerTo tvirTzidvis daaxloebiT 27...30 %-s Seadgens tvirTebis
saerTo masis mixedviT, xolo samuSaos moculobis mixedviT 20...25%-s./3/
   sasoflo-sameurneo samuSaoebis saerTo kompleqsSi satransporto da datviTva-gadmotviTvis
samuSaoebze modis Sromis mTliani danaxarjebis 38...42 %, fuladi saxsrebis - 30...35% da
energetikuli danaxarjebis 45...50%-mde, maT Soris saavtomobilo simZlavreebze modis saerTo
energetikuli danaxarjebis 32...36%. / 2, 4, 7/.
 sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidva didi mravalferovnebiT xasiaTdeba. upirveles yovlisa tvirTebia
mravalgvari: myari, fxvieri, Txevadi. aseTi tvirTebis gadazidva umetes SemTxvevaSi moiTxovs
specialuri teqnologiuri moculobiT aRWurvil stransporto saSualebis gamoyenebas. amis garda soflis
meurneobis warmoebaSi xSirad satransporto samuSaoebi teqnologiur procesebTan aris
dakavSirebuli. magaliTad, Semzadebuli sasuqebis Sezidva nakveTSi, aRebuli mosavlis gadatana da
sxva. aseT pirobebSi satransporto procesebis vadebis koreqtireba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia, amitom
am dros xSirad saWiro xdeba didi raodenobis satransporto saSualebebis mozidva. /3, 4, 19/.
   Tavisi specifiurobis gamo saqarTveloSi sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvisas moZraobis marSrutebi
xSirad garTulebuli sagzao pirobebiT xasiaTdeba. kerZod, savali gzebi Seicaven mixveul-moxveul,
aRmarTebian da cudi safaris mqone monakveTebs. aseT pirobebSi satransporto saSualebis siCqare
Sors aris optimalurisgan, xSirad saWiro xdeba gazrdili gamavlobis satransporto saSualebis
gamoyeneba da zogjer SeiZleba marSrutebze mobiluri teqnikisTvis miuRweveli monakveTebic
Segvxvdes. zemoTqmuli Taviseburebebis gamo soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli
satransporto saSualebebi Zalzed mravalferovani SeiZleba iyos: sarkinigzo, sazRvao da sahaero
transporti, mZlavri supertrailerebi, avto matareblebi, gazrdili gamavlobis da mcire satvirTo
tvirTamweobis avtomobilebi, satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebi, motoblokuri satransporto
saSualebebi, jalambrebi, saWapane transporti, sabagiro gzebi, pnevmotransportiorebi da sxva.
   sabazro ekonomikuri urTierTobebis pirobebSi kidev ufro mravalferovani satransporto
saSualebebis saWiroeba gaCnda. gaizarda saSualo da mcire tvirTamweobis satransporto
saSualebebis wili saerTo satransporto kompleqsSi. amasTan satransporto saSualebebi stiqiurad
Semovida TiTqmis yvela maTi mwarmoebeli qveynebidan. garTulda maTi servisi da Semcirda
gamoyenebis koeficienti, rac mZime tvirTad daawva maT mflobel firmebs. amis gamo aucilebeli
gaxda satransporto saSualebebis racionaluri Semadgenlobis gansazRvris meTodebis gadasinjva,
kerZod dasazustebelia optimalurobis kriteriumis sakiTxi, sakuTari da daqiravebuli satransporto
saSualebebis optimaluri SeTanawyobis sakiTxebi. ukve aRar aris problema nebismieri firmis
satransporto saSualebis SeZena, amitom aucilebelia Camoyalibdes meTodika, romelic uzrunvelyofs
optimaluri satransporto saSualebis SerCevas tvirTzidvis moculobis da adgilobrivi bunebriv-
sawarmoo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
   naSromSi mocemulia satransporto da damtvirTavi saSualebebis eqsploataciis Taviseburebani
garegani bunebrivi da sawarmoo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. damuSavebulia energetikuli,
saeqsploatacio da teqniko-ekonomikuri maCveneblebis gansazRvris meTodika samTo pirobebis da
stoqastikuri xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT. damuSavebulia mocemuli sawarmoo pirobebisTvis

                                                                                              5
optimaluri satransporto saSualebis SerCevis meTodika daqiravebuli satransporto saSualebis
gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gadawyvetilia satransporto procesebis optimizaciis
amocanebi sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT da Sedgenilia
satransporto parkis funqcionirebis biznes-gegma konkretuli stransporto firmisaTvis.
  naSromi mniSvnelovan samsaxurs gauwevs agrosainJinro specialobebis studentebs, aspirantebs
da mecnier-muSakebs satransporto procesebis marTvis ZiriTadi meTodebis aTvisebaSi.
   avtori madlobis grZnobiT miiRebs naSromis mimarT gamoTqmul yvela safuZvlian SeniSvnas.




                     Tavi - 1
               satransporto procesebi

   1.1. soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli satransporto saSualebebi
   Cvens qveyanaSi sabazro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis Camoyalibebam satransporto saSualebebis
mflobelebis winaSe axali problemebi warmoSva. satransporto saSualebebis firmebis mflobelebi
erTdroulad arian satransporto saSualebebis momxmareblebi da gamqiraveblebi. maTi aseTi fuqcia
ganpirobebulia imiT, rom racionalurad daitvirTon satransporto saSualebebi da miRweuli iqnas
sabolao mizani - mogebis gazrda. amisTvis firmas unda gaaCndes adgilobriv sawarmoo-bunebriv
pirobebSi konkurentunariani da racionulurad dakompleqtebuli satransporto saSualebaTa parki.
   amJamad saqarTvelos sawarmoebSi muSaoben msoflios TiTqmis yvela cnobili firmis
satransporto saSualebebi, romelTa Semotana moxda stiqiurad, kerZo pirebis da sxvadasxva
firmebis mier. amitom saWiroa gavecnoT msoflioSi arsebuli satransporto saSualebebis
mwarmoebeli firmebis zogad struqturas mwarmoebeli
qveynebis mixedviT:

                                                                                             6
  iaponia. am qveyanaSi mdebareobs umsxvilesi manqanaTmSenebeli firmebi: toiota, micubiSi,
honda, mazda, nisani, suZuki, daihacu. isuZu, subaru. es firmebi uSveben TiTqmis Yyvela tipis
satransporto saSualebas: rogoricaa: motoblokuri satransporto satransporto agregetebi, mcire da
saSualo tvirTamweobis saerTo daniSnulebis satvirTo avtomobilebi da satraqtoro-satransporto
agregatebi, msubuqi avtomobilebi specialuri daniSnulebis satvirTo avtomobilebi (TviTvclelebi,
avtomobili-cisternebi, aragabarituli tvirTebis gadamtani platformebi, madnis gadamzidavi
specialuri aragabarituli satransporto saSualebebi da a.S.) zemZlavri supertrailerebi, sxvadasxva
saxis pnevmoda hidro transportiorebi, damtvirTavebi da a.S. iaponuri satransporto saSualebebis
ZiriTad ganmasxvavebel Tvisebebs warmoadgens saSualo fasebi, daxvewili radioeleqtronuli
sistema, salonis dizaini da xedvis are, simZlavris erTeulze mosuli sawvavis SedarebiT dabali xarji,
teqnikuri momsaxurebis SedarebiT siiafe. amasTan, Cvens pirobebSi eqsploataciisas
gansakuTrebulad kargi Sedegi aCvena gadidebuli gamavlobis mcire tvirTamweobis jipis tipis
satransporto saSualebebma. unda iTqvas, rom Cvens pirobebSi iaponuri satransporto saSualebebis
eqsploataciisas iqmneba garkveuli siZneleebi sawvav-sazeT masalebTan dakavSirebiT, radganac
iaponuri warmoebis teqnikis eqsploataciisTvis maRali oqtanebis mqone sawvavis da
maRalxarisxovani sazeTi masalebis gamoyeneba aris aucilebeli.
  samxreTi korea. am qveyanaSi dominirebs sami avtomSenebeli koncerni kia, sani, da hundai,
aRniSnulma firmebma bolo xans arnaxul warmatebas miaRwia da Seqmna saerTaSoriso bazarze
sakmaod konkurentunariani satransporto saSualebebis TiTqmis iseTive speqtri, rogoric iaponurma
firmebma. samxreT koreuli warmoebis satransporto saSualebebis ZiriTad upiratesobas
warmoadgens iaponur satransporto saSualebebTan SedarebiTi siiafe, vinaidan satransporto
saSualebebi am qveyanaSi mzaddeba SedarebiT iafi samuSao Zalis gamoyenebiT, rac
mniSvnelovnad amcirebs maT TviTRirebulebas da isini saeqsploatacio, teqnikuri, teqniko-
ekonomikuri da ergonomikuli TvisebebiT TiTqmis ar Camouvardeba iaponurs. amasTan, rogorc es
saqarTvelos pirobebSi eqsploataciisas gairkva, SedarebiT dabali xarisxis sawvvze muSaobis unari
gaaCniaT. maT uaryofiT Tvisabad unda CaiTvalos saimedobis SedarebiT dabali done.
   CineTi. oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisSi am qveynaSi funqcionireba daiwyo ucxour-Cinurma
erToblivma manqanamSenebelma firmebma, Sanhai, sangCini, jipi, Sanhai-peJo,tainjin-daihacu,
Cangang-suZuki, viCai-sitroeni. romlebic uSveben rogorc samrewvelo, aseve sasoflo-sameurneo
daniSnulebis satransporto saSualebebs, romelTac rogorc simZlavris, aseve tvirTamweobis sakmaod
didi diapazoni gaaCniaT. am qveyanaSi gamoSvebuli satransporto saSualebebi saTao qarxnebis
mier gamoSvebulisgan ZiriTadad SedarebiT moZvelebuli formebiT da SedarebiT dabali
saimedobiT gamoirCeva, maT mTavar Rirsebas warmoadgens siiafe da dabali xarisxis sawvavze
muSaobis unari.
  ruseT-belorusia: bolo dromde saqarTveloSi umTavresad gamoiyeneboda Semdegi
manqanaTmSenebeli qarxnebis mier gamoSvebuli satranaporto saSualebebi - kamazi, toliati, zili,
gazi, moskviCi, uazi,. mazi, belazi, urali. aRniSnulma manqanaTmSenebelma firmebma ukanasknel
wlebSi Seqmnes aRmosavleT evropis da aziis bazarze konkurentunariani produqcia, romelic
maRali saimedobiT da mkveTrad gaumjobesebuli diziniT gamoirCeva, gansakuTrebiT is
satransporto saSualebebi, romlebic adre samxedro warmoebaSi gamoiyeneboda. amasTan radgan
mas amzadebs iafi samuSao Zala, is sxva qveynebis mier gamoSvebul misi klasis da tvirTamweobis
satvirTo avtomobilebze mniSvnelovnad iafi Rirs. garda zemoTqmulisa aRsaniSnavia is, rom Cveni
qveynis specialistebi ZiriTadad icnoben rusul teqnikas rac mniSvnelovnad amcirebs maT
danaxarjebs teqnikur momsaxurebaze da saremonto samuSaoebze agreTve isic, rom maT SeuZliaT
dabali xarisxis benzinze da dizelis sawvavze muSaoba. maT ZiriTad uaryofiT Tvisebad unda
CaiTvlos SedarebiT moZvelebuli kvebis, gaciebis, kontrolis da samuxruWe sistemebi, rac iwvevs
sawvavis xvedriTi xarjis gazrdas, ekologiuri da moZraobis usafTxoebis maCveneblebis gauaresebas
da xangamZleobis vadis Semcirebas.
  Svecia: am qveyanaSi manqanaTmSeneblobis liderebs warmoadgenen volvos da saabis
manqanaTmSenebeli firmebi, es qarxnebi sakmaod maRali xarisxis didi diapazonis mqone satvirTo
avtomobilebs uSvebs ris mixedviTac volvos firma mersedesTan erTad faqtiurad flobs evropis
bazars is gamoirCeva Zalian maRali saimedobiT, daxvewili marTvis sistemiT, ekologiuri da

                                                                                                 7
moZraobis usafrTxoebis msoflioSi erTerTi saukeTeso maCveneblebiT da srulyofili dizainiT
gamoirCeva, Cvens pirobebSi ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens sawvav-sazeTi masalebiT
uzrunvelyofa, vinaidan is moixmars maRali xarisxis zeTs da benzins. amasTan, imis gamo,
vinaidan volvos firmis satransporto saSualebebis maragnawilebis gamoSvebis eqskliuziuri ufleba
mxolod aRniSnul firmas aqvs, maTi siZviris gamo Zneldeba maragnawilebiT momarageba Cveni
qveynisTvis, amasTanave Zviri jdeba maTi teqnikuri momsaxureba da remonti, rac xSirad
miuwvdomels xdis Cvens qveyanaSi satransporto saSualebebis momxmareblebisTvis.
   inglisi: am qveynis mravali manqanaTmSenebeli qarxnebidan aRsaniSnavia rols-roisi, bentli,
iaguari, roveri, karbodiesi, turi, jibsi, voqsholi da eston-martini. am firmebTan erTad am qveyanaSi
Seqmnilia satransporto saSualebebis gamomSvebi erToblivi firmebi - peJosTan, fordTan da
hondasTan erTad. aRniSnuli firmebis satvirTo avtomobilebi maRali teqnikuri saimedobis da
ergonomikuli maCveneblebiT gamoirCeva, magram imis gamo, vinaidan maTi eqsploataciisTvis
aucilebelia umaRlesi xarisxis sawvav-sazeTi masalebi da umaRlesi kategoriis gzebi da SedarebiT
Zviri jdeba maTi teqnikuri momsaxureba, Cvens pirobebSi maTi eqsploataciisas mosalodnelia, rom
damatebiTi problemebi Seeqmneba satransporto firmebs da xSir SemTxvevaSi teqnikis
momxmarebelisTvis miuwvdomelia zemoaRniSnuli firmis saatransporto saSualebebis Sesyidva da
gamoyeneba.
   germania: unda iTqvas, rom germaniis manqanaTmSenebel firmebs uWiravs evropuli, aziuri da
amerikuli satransporto saSualebebis bazris mniSvnelovani nawili am qveyanaSi funqcionirebs iseTi
saqveynod cnobili manqanaTmSenebeli firmebi, rogoricaa mersedesi, bmv, opeli, folksvageni, audi,
porSe da sxva erToblivi sawarmoebi msoflios sxvadasxva cnobil firmebTan erTad. am qveynis
produqcia gamoiCevva uaxlesi teqnologiuri gadawyvetebiT, klasikuri stiliT, maRali saimedobis
maCveneblebiT, xangamZleobiT da gansakuTrebiT Semgueblobis unariT, rac gamoCnda
saqarTveloSi maTi eqsploataciisas; am qveynis mier gamoSvebuli satransporto saSualebebis Cvens
qveyanaSi eqsploataciisas ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens maRal oqtanur sawvavze muSaobis
aucilebloba maTi SedarebiT maRali xarji da satransporto da sxva specialuri daniSnulebis teqnikuri
saSualebebis SedarebiTi siZvire.
         safrangeTi: am qveyanaSi hegemonis funqcia uWiravs ZiriTadad sam avtomSenebel firmas:
renos, peJos da sitroens. franguli satvirTo avtomobilebis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebs warmoadgens
eqstrvaganturi dizaini da SedarebiT mcire tvirTamweobis avtomobilebis didi raodenoba. maT
ZiriTad nakls warmoadgens SedarebiT naklebi xangamZleoba saqarTvelos pirobebSi, vinaidan isini
ZiraTadad swrafmavali manqanebia da umaRlesi kategoriis gzebs moiTxoven.
   italia: es qveyana cnobilia fiatis markis tvirTamweobis didi diapazonis mqone satvirTo
avtomobilebiT da Tvliani traqtorebiT, amis garda satransporto saSualebebs uSvebs alfa-romeo,
lamborjini, mazerati de tomazo, avtobianCi, lancia, ferari, bertone, magram es ukanaskneli firmebi
ZiriTadad muSaoben specialuri dakveTis eqskavaganturi msubuqi avtomobilebis warmoebaze,
Tumca firma lamborjini didi simZlavris Tvlian traqtorebsac uSvebs. saqarTvelosTan sagzao
pirobebis mixedviT yvelaze axlos aris italia. misi sasoflo-sameurneo gzebic xSirad
keTilmouwyobelia, amitom italiuri satransporto saSualebebi sakmaod kargad moergnen
eqsploataciis pirobebs saqarTveloSi. maTi xngamZleoba da saimedoba sakmaod maRalia da aseve
SeuZliaT dabali oqtanebis ricxvis mqone sawvavze muSaoba.
   aSS: amerikuli manqanaTmSeneblobis flagmanebi ZiriTadad gaerTianebuli arian sam
supergigantSi: ford-motorsi, jeneral-motorsi da amerikan motors korporeiSen. romelSic Sedian
iseTi cnobili firmebi, rigoricaa kraisleri, linkolni, biuiki, jipi, pontiagi, doji, jm, daimond star da
sxva. amasTan, ukanasknel xans Seqmnilia erToblivi manqanTmSenebeli firmebi: honda, nisani,
toiota, mazda, micubiSi da sxva. amerikuli satvirTo avtomobilebi mcire gamonaklisis garda gaTvlil
arian didi moculobis tvirTebze maRali kategoriis gzebze da maRali oqtanebis ricxvis mqone
sawvavze, aseTi pirobebi saqarTveloSi naklebad aris samwuxarod, amitom amerikuli manqanebis
Semoyvana saqarTveloSi sakmaod mniSvnelovan problemebs Seuqmnis satransporto firmebs
sawarmoo da teqnikuri eqsploatacii TvalsazrisiT.
   zemoT aRniSnuli qveynebis manqanaTmSenebeli firmebis bazaze ukanasknel xans Seiqmna
mravali erToblivi manqanaTmSenebeli firmebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi: argentinaSi - avtolaTina,

                                                                                                     8
reno, seveli; avstraliaSi - fordi, holdeni, toiota, micubiSi; belgiaSi - fordi, opeli, reno, folksvageni,
volvo. braziliaSi - fiati, folksvageni, fordi, Sevrole, indoeTSi - mahindra, hindustani, maruti,
premieri; kanadaSi - jiemi, fordi, kraisleri, volvo, honda, toiota, suzuki, hiundai; meqsikaSi -
kraisleri, fordi, jiemi, nisani, folksvageni; holandiaSi - volvo; avstriaSi - staier-daimler-puC;
portugaliaSi - reno, sitroeni, opeli; rumineTSi - daCia, olstiti, aro; slovakiaSi - folksvagen-
bratislava; espaneTSi - peJo-talboti, sitroeni, reno, fordi, seati, folksvageni, jiemi; samxreT afrikis
respublikaSi - bmv, mersedes-benci, folksvageni, audi, opeli, fordi, mazda-micubiSi, honda, nisani,
toiota, fiati; CexiaSi - Skoda, tatra; TurqeTSi - aiveko, fordi, reno, fiati, peJo, britiS-lailend, opeli.
   amJamad Cvens qvyanaSi dagrovda mravali firmis satvirTo avtomobilebi, romelmac gamoiwvia
teqnikuri servisis centrebis iZulebiTi mravalprofilianoba agreTve garTulda maTi servisi da
Seiqmna maragnawilebis deficiti, ramac sagrZnobi uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina transportis
gamoyenebis ekonomikur efeqturebaze. amitom SemdgomSi aqcentis aReba umjobesia moxdes
erTi romelime firmis satransporto saSualebebze rac momsaxure personalis daspecialebis garda
mkveTrad Seamcirebs Semoziduli maragnawilebis raodenobas da aqedan gamomdinare
sagrZnoblad Seamcirebs fuladi da sxva materialuri resursebis danaxarjebs satransporto
saSualebebis servisze.
   sabazro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis pirobebSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda saSualo da mcire
tvirTamweobis satransporto saSualebebis wili saerTo satransporto kompleqsSi. mcire meqanizaciis
satransporto saSualebebi yvelaze moxerxebulia mokle manZilebze mcire masis tvirTebis
gadasatanad, vinaidan nakveTebTan misasvleli gzebi xSirad imdenad viwroa, rom mZlavri
satransporto saSualebebis gavla SeuZlebelia, amasTan umetes SemTxvevaSi garda mosavlisa da
organuli sasuqebisa, mcire masis arian. magaliTad - saTesi da sargavi masalebi, Sxamqimikatebi,
mineraluri sasuqebi da sxva. aseT pirobebSi satransporto saSualebis teqnologiuri moculobis
datvirTvis koeficienti sagrZnoblad ufro maRalia didi samZlavris satransporto saSualebasTan
SedarebiT / /. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve isic, rom aseTi tipis nakveTebTan misasvleli gzebis
safari imdenad cudia, rom praqtikulad gamoricxulia didi siCqareebiT moZraoba, rac mZlavri
satransporto saSualebis did upiratesobas warmoadgens.
  amJamad mcire tvirTamweobis satransporto saSualebebs TiTqmis yvela zemoT moyvanili
maqanaTmSenebeli firma uSvebs. maTgan Cvens qveyanaSi ukve warmatebiT gamoiyeneba
ruseTis, belorusiis, iaponiis, italiis, germaniis, safrangeTis, CineTis da sxva qveynebis mier
gamoSvebuli motoblokuri da minitraqtoruli satransporto saSualebebi. ukve aRar aris problema
nebismieri firmis satransporto saSualebis SeZena, amitom aucilebelia Camoyalibdes meTodika,
romelic uzrunvelyofs optimaluri satransporto saSualebis SerCevas tvirTzidvis moculobis da
adgilobrivi bunebriv-sawarmoo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. satransporto saSualebebis SerCevis
meTodiis damuSaveba unda wavides Semdegi mimarTulebiT: unda SeirCes satransporto
saSualebebis mwarmoebeli prioritetuli firmebi, romelTa nawarmic SedarebiT iafia da sxvaze ufro
advilia adgilobrivi pirobebisTvis morgeba. amasTan farTod unda iqnas danergili e.w. naxmari
teqnikis gamyidveli firmebis Zieba da maTi Sesyidva, vinaidan uaxlesi teqnikis saerTaSoriso
sabazaro fasebi umetes SemTxvevaSi Cveni qveynis teqnikis momxmareblebisTvis TiTqmis
miuwvdomelia. amitom mcire fermerul meurneobebSi, romelTa wili Zalzed mniSvnelovania
CvenTan, yvelaze mosaxerxebelia motoblokuri satransporto saSualebebi.
   sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvisas satransporto saSualebebs xSirad uxdebaT moZraoba gruntis
gzebze, romlebic Tavisi SemadgenlobiT da simkvriviT sagrZnoblad gansxvavdebian
erTmaneTisgn. xSiria SemTxveva, roca satransporto saSualebis buqsaoba mniSvnelovnad
aWarbebs dasaSveb sazRvrebs da zogjer ki, gansakuTrebiT aRmarTebze moZraobisas misi
mniSvneloba aRwevs 100%-s. unda iTqvas, rom mocemul monakveTze buqsaobis Semcirebis
yvelaze martiv saSualebas wamyvan TvlebSi wnevis Semcireba warmoadgens. zemoaRniSnuli
movlenis aRmosafxvrelad mniSvnelovani samuSaoebi aris Catarebuli saqarTvelos saxelmwifo
agrarul universitetSi akad. r. maxarobliZis xelmZRvanelobiT. damzadebulia mobiluri da mcire
meqanizaciis saatransporto saSualebebis weva-CaWidebis Tvisebebis gasaumjobesebeli sxvadasxva
tipis da daniSnulebis mowyobilobebi. kerZod, Tvlian traqtorebis wamyvan Tvlebze dasamagrebeli
unagiris tipis Camocurebis da buqsaobis sawinaaRmdego mowyobiloba, motoblokebze

                                                                                                        9
dasamagrebeli jalambris principze momuSave mowyobilobebi, Seqmnilia muxluxa da naxevrad
muxluxa motoblokuri agregatebi, motoblokebze dayenebulia damatebiTi Tvlebi da a.S. Seqmnili
konstruqciebis daxvewis procesi amJamad intensiurad mimdinareobs.




    1.2. sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebis klasifikacia
    sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebis klasifikacia warmoebs Semdegi niSnebis mixedviT: fiziko-
meqanikuri Tvisebebis, satransporto saSualebebis tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis xarisxis, datvirTva-
gadmotvirTvis SesaZlo meqanizaciis, sezonurobis, periodulobis, da masiurobis mixedviT./1, 2/
   fiziko-meqanikuri Tvisebebis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa Semdegnairad: myari, romelsac
miekuTvneba SefuTvis gareSe gadasazidi tvirTebi (bostneuli, SeSa, kartofili, saamSeneblo
masalebi), fxvieri (sila, qviSa, organo-mineraluri sasuqebi, marcvleuli da sxva), Txevadi (rZe,
sawvav-sazeTi masalebi, Txevadi mineraluri sasuqebi, Semzadebuli Sxamqimikatebi da sxva),
gaziseburi.
    saSiSroebis xarisxis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa 7 jgufad: 1. usafrTxo, 2. saSiSi-wvadi (benzini,
dizelis sawvavi, navTi da sxva), 3. saSiSi-gamomwvavi (mJavebi, kaustika, Txevadi qimikatebi da
sxva), 4. saSiSi-mtvriani (cementi, gaji da sxva),5. saSiSi-feTqebadi (balonebi daWirxnili gaziT da
sxva), 6.saSiSi gabarituli zomebiT 7. gansakuTrebiT saSiSi (momwamlavi gazebi, feTqebadi
masalebi). zomebis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa gabaritul, didi gabaritebis mqone (2.5...3,8 m-mde
simaRleSi, 2...2,5 m siganeSi, 5 m-mde sigrZeSi) da aragabaritul tvirTebad (romelTa zomebic
aRematebian zemoT naCvenebs). masis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa normalur, mZimewonovan (Tu
Sexveuli 1 c. tvirTis masa aRemateba 250 kg-s, xolo mgoravi 1 c tvirTis masa Remateba 500 kg-s)
da mcirewonovan (romelTac mcire kuTri wona gaaCniaT) tvirTebad.
  satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis xarisxis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa 5 jgufad : 1.
tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis koeficienti = 1,0; 2. - 0,99...0,71; 3. - 0,70...0,51; 4. - 0,50...0,41; 5.
0,40-ze naklebi. swored es maCvenebeli warmoadgens erTerT ZiriTad maCvenebels tvirTzidvis
tarifebis dadgenisas.
    rodesac cnobilia tvirTis simkvrive (t/m3), tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis koeficienti gamoiTvleba
formuliT

                   Fh
                                       (1.1)
                   Q

sadac  aris tvirTis simkvrive,t/m3; F - Zaris farTi,m2; h-Zaraze tvirTis simaRle, m; Q-satransporto
saSualebis nominaluri tvirTamweoba, t.
  datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis wesis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa calobiT, dasayrel, Camosasxmel, tarian
da taris gareSe tvirTebad. sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebis daaxloebiT 70...80% miekuTvnebian
dasayrel tvirTebs.
  gadazidvis siCqaris da periodulobis mixedviT tvirTebs yofen or jgufad: tvirTebi, romlebic unda
gadaizidos SemWidroebul kalendarul vadebSi. magaliTad, mosavali, rZe, Semzadebuli
Sxamqimikatebi, malefuWebadi produqcia da tvirTebi, romelTa gadazidvis vadebis koreqtireba
SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovan sazRvrebSi.
  erTdroulad gadasazidi tvirTebis raodenobis mixedviT tvirTebi iyofa or jgufad: masiur da mcire
raodenobis tvirTebad.
  masiuri tvirTebis gadazidva, rogorc wesi warmoebs didi partiebiT xangrZlivi periodis
ganmavlobaSi. aseT tvirTebs miekuTvnebian aRebuli mosavali, organo-mineraluri sasuqebi,
samSeneblo masalebi. aseTi tvirTebis umravlesobis gadazidvis vadebi sezonur xasiaTs atarebs.
  mcire partiebiT warmoebs tvirTebis gadzidva ufro xSirad periodulad. (rZe, manqanebi, sawvav-
sazeTi masalebi, saTesi masala da sxva).

                                                                                                  10
   sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebis SesafuTad iyeneben mkvriv (yuTebs, kasrebs,) naxevrad mkvriv
(kalaTebs, cxaurebs) da rbil (tomrebs, parkebs, badurebs) taras. amJamad masiurad Semovida
plastmasisgan damzadebuli tara, romelsac calobiTi SesafuTi tvirTisTvis iyeneben.
   tara unda iyos iafi, msubuqi, mtkice, kompaqturi da mosaxerxebeli transportirebisTvis. taram
unda uzrunvelyos satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweobis racionaluri gamoyeneba. datvirTvisas
tvirTi Tanabrad unda ganawildes Zaraze da damagrdes ise, rom moZraobisas ar gadaadgildes, an ar
gadmovardes. gzidan tvirTis simaRle ar unda aRematebodes 4 metrs, xolo sigane 2,6 metrs.



      1.3. sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis marSrutebis
         daxasiaTeba
   satransporto saSualebebis moZraobis marSrutebi sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvisas SeiZleba
moicavdnen: saavtomobilo gzebs, sarkinigzo magistralebs, sahaero, sazRvao da samdinaro trasebs
da a.S. amaTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovan wils warmoadgens saavtomobilo gzebi.
   saavtomobilo gzebis udidesi qselia msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi. magaliTisTvis sakmarisia
davasaxeloT aSS, sadac saavtomobilo gzebis saerTo sigrZe Seadgens 6 420 000 km-s; indoeTSi - 2
060 000 km-s; CineTSi - 1 526 400 km-s; iaponiaSi - 1 444 400 km-s da a.S. saqarTveloSi
saavtomobilo gzebis saerTo sigrZe amJamad Seadgens 20200 km-s.
   saavtomobilo gzebis yvelaze mWidro qselis mixedviT (km. gza teritoriis 1 kv. km-ze) lideroben
Semdegi qveynebi:
singapuri - 4,71; belgia - 4,69; bahreini 4,36; barbadosi - 3,84.
   yvelaze datvirTuli gzebis mixedviT (manqanebis raodenoba 1 km-ze) lideroben Semdegi
qveynebi: honkongi -276; taivani - 241; libani - 205; singapuri - 168. saqarTveloSi saorientaciod 1
km gzis sigrZeze modis 40...45 manqana.
   gzebis gamoyenebis intensiurobis TvalsazrisiT (aTasi manqana . km / weliwadSi gzis erT
kilometrze) lideroben Semdegi qveynebi: honkongi - 59739; israeli - 20617; tailandi - 15464.
   rkinigzis sigrZis mixedviT (1000 km) msoflios wamyvan qveynebs Soris liderobs aSS - 243,3;
ruseTi - 87,1; indoeTi - 62,9; CineTi - 56,7; germania - 40,8. xolo erTerT ukanasknel adgilebzea:
indonezia - 4,2 da kongo - 4,1. saqarTveloSi rkinigzis sigrZem amJamad 1586 km-s miaRwia.
masze modis mTeli tvirTbrunvis 1/3-ze meti.
 saavtomobio gzebis klasifikacia saerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviT efuZneba moZraobis
dasaSveb intensivobas da satransporto saSualebis saangariSo siCqares /1, 3/. satransporto
moZraobis intensivoba xasiaTdeba satransporto saSualebebis raodenobiT, romelic gaivlis gzis
ganivkveTSi drois erTeulSi. gzis samoZrao gani ganisazRvreba moZraobis zolebis raodenobiT da
TiToeuli zolis ganiT. arsebobs zolis siganis standarti, romelic icvleba zRvrebSi 3,0...3,75m, /4/.
   saavtomobilo gzebze saangariSo siCqareSi igulisxmeba is zRvruli siCqare, romelic SeiZleba
ganaviTaros avtomobilma swor, mSral safarze kargi xilvadobis pirobebSi, roca gzaze sxva
winaaRmdegobebi ar arseboben.
   saerTaSoriso standartiT saavtomobilo gzebi iyofa 5 kategoriad, romlis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi
mocemulia 1.1. cxrilSi /3, 4, /.




 saavtomobilo gzebis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi
                              cxrili1.1.
maCveneblebi               gzebis kategoriebi
             1     2      3      4       5
moZraobis intensivoba 7000 3000...7000 1000...3000 200...1000 200 dReRameSi
moZraobis zolebis    4    2       2       2  1

                                                                                                11
raodenoba
moZraobis zolebis
  gani, m.       3,75 3,75   3,75    3,75     3
 savali nawilis
  sigane, m.       15 7,5    7,5    6     4,5
saangariSo siCqare
swor gzaze km/sT     160 120     100    80      60
gadamkveT adgilebSi 120 100        80     60     40
samTo pirobebSi      80   60    50    40     30


 imisaTvis, rom gza ar daziandes, dadgenilia satransporto saSualebis yovel RerZze datvirTvis da
saerTo masis normebi sxvadasxva kategoriis gzebze moZraobisas. 1 da 2 kategoriis gzebze
moZraoba akrZaluli aqvT orRerZian avtomobilebs, romelTa masa tvirTiTurT aWarbebs 17,5 t-s,
xolo samReZianebs, romelTa masa metia 25 t-ze, oTxRerZianebisTvis - 33 t, xuTRerZianebisTvis
40 t. danarCeni kategoriis gzebze orRerZiani avtomobilis zRvruli masa aris 10,5 t.
samRerZianisTvis - 15 t, oTxRerZianisTvis - 20 t, xuTRerZianisTvis - 30 t. dauSvebelia agreTve
normaze grZeli avtomatareblebis moZraoba, vinaidan isini saSiSroebas qmnian gaswrebisas da
manevrirebisas. erTmisabmeliani avtomatareblis zRvruli sigrZe Seadgens 20 m-s, xolo ramodenime
misabmelianisTvis - 24 m-s.
  sasoflo raionebis adgilobrivi gzebis qselSi Sedis gzebi, romlebic akavSireben meurneobis centrs
mindvrebTan, sasoflo-sameurneo sawarmoebTan da raionul centrTan.
   satraqtoro-satransporto samuSaoebis normirebis mizniT sasoflo gzebs yofen 3 kategoriad:
   1. gruntis gzebi mSral, karg mdgomareobaSi, Tovlis datkepnili gza da gzebi myari safariT;
   2. moxreSili, uswormasworo, gruntis da sasoflo gza wvimis Semdgom, gamdnar Tovliani gza,
nawverali da sxva aseTi tipis gzebi;
   3. dangreuli gzebi Rrma kvlebiT, gamdnar Tovliani yamiri, ugzooba gazafxulis da Semodgomis
wvimebis Semdgom.
   samTo pirobebSi satransporto saSualebebis gmoyenebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes kidev
erTi kategoria, romelic Seicavs mcire simrudis radiusis da mniSvnelovani aRmarTebis Semcvel
gzis monakveTebs, rac mniSvnelovan uaryofiT gavlenas axdens satranspotro saSualebis
saeqsploatacio maCveneblebze. garda aRniSnulisa aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT adamianis faqtori,
vinaidan Tu vakeze avtomobilis marTvisas adamiani saaTSi xarjavs 30...40 kaloria energias, is
samTo pirobebSi xarjavs - 50...60 kalorias; satraqtoro agregatis marTvisas - 70...100kalorias, xolo
mcire meqanizaciis saSualebebis marTvisas saSualod -180...300 kalorias./8, 12, 17/.




           1.4. gzebis teqnikuri daxasiaTeba
  saavtomobilo gzebi iseTi gegmis da profilis unda aigos, rom usafrTxo iyos moZraobisTvis,
mosaxerxebeli mZRolisa da mgzavrebisaTvis, tviTzidvis TviTRirebuleba iyos minimaluri, romelic
praqtikulad teqnikuri saCqaris ukuproporciulia. magram, rogorc cnobilia /1, 4/ sagzao mSeneblobis
gamocdilebidan, dasaSvebi siCqaris zrdasTan erTad mkveTrad izrdeba gzaTa mSeneblobis xarjebi.
amgvarad saWiroa optimaluri variantis SerCeva ekonomikuri kriteriumiT ise, rom gzis
mSeneblobis xarjebi anazRaurdes tvirTzidvis TviTRirebulebis SemcirebiT. avtomobilis usafrTxo
moZraobisTvis da gzis SenarCunebisTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba gzis ganivi

                                                                                                12
profilis formas, romelic standartebi mixedviT unda iyos SuaSi odnav amaRlebuli da orTave mxares
daxrili imisTvis, rom wvimisas SuaSi wyali ar dadges da ar Seiqmnas marcxniv mabruni momenti
avtomobilis moZraobisas. gzis aseTi profilis gamo marjvena Tvlebze datvirTva ufro metia, vidre
marcxenaze tvirTis Tanabari ganawilebis SemTxvevaSic ki. 1 kategoriis gzebisTvis, romelTa
simrudis raiusi 3000 metrze metia, dasaSvebia TiToeuli mimarTulebis gzis ormxrivi daxra im
pirobiT, rom SuaSi unda arsebobdes sadrenaJe arxi.
   satransporto saSualebis mrudwiruli moZraobisas centridanuli Zalis arsebobis gamo
warmoiqmneba mocurebis da gadabrunebis saSiSroeba. xSir da mkveTr mosaxvevebian gzebze
moZraobisas izrdeba satransporto saSualebebis sawvavis xarji, Tvlebis cveTa, arasasiamovno
SegrZneba aqvT mgzavrebs. aseTi movlenebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT simrudis radiuss iReben
sagrZnoblad mets, vidre es avtomobilebis mdgradi moZraobisTvis aris saWiro. iseT pirobebSi
sadac es SesaZlebelia rekomendirebulia, rom mosaxvevis simrudis radiusi ar iyos 3000 metrze
naklebi. gamonaklisis saxiT ekonomikur kriteriumebze dayrdnobiT, rac iTvaliswinebs eqstremalur
pirobebSi gzis mSeneblobaze danaxarjebis, SesaZlebelia mosaxvevis simrudis radiusi Sesabamisad
iyos 1 kategoriis gzebze - 1000 m, 2 kategoriis gzebze - 600 m., 3 kategoriis gzebze -400 m, 4
kategoriis gzebze-250 m., 5 kategoriis gzebze - 125m,. /1, 4/
   rodesac avtomobili Sedis mosaxvevSi da mZRoli iwyebs manevrirebas saWiT, warmoiqmneba
centridanuli Zala, romlis zrdis Sesaneleblad awyoben gardamavali simrudis radiusis mqone gzis
monakveTebs.
   maRali kategoriis gzebze, agreTve Cqarosnul trasebze mkveTr mosaxvevebSi gzis siganes
adideben ise, rom mZRols siCqaris rac SeiZleba naklebi Semcireba daWirdes. amasTan gzas
amaRleben simrudis centris sawinaaRmdego mxares ise, rom minimumamde davides avtomobilis
mosaxvevSi Sesvlisas warmoqmnili centridanuli Zalis gavlena moZraobis mdgradobaze. aseTi
profilis mqone gzis monakveTebs viraJebi ewodeba. viraJis daxris kuTxe ZiriTadad damokidebulia
gzis simrudis radiusze.
   gzis grZivi profilis dadgenisas ZiriTadi yuradReba unda mieqces aRmarTebis daxris sidides,
romelic warmoadgens misi simaRlis Sefardebas sigrZesTan. gzis grZivi daxris sidide warmoadgens
erTerT umniSvnelovanes maxasiaTebels avtomobilis daproeqtebisas, romelic aucilebelia
konstruqtorisTvis dinamikuri angariSis Casatareblad. saerTaSoriso standartiT saavtomobilo gzebis
daproeqtebisas da mSeneblobisTvis dadgenilia /2, 4/ gzis grZivi profilis Semdegi dasaSvebi
daxrebi 1 kategoriisTvis - 2,5, me-2 kategoriisTvis - 4, me-3 kategoriisTvis - 5, me-4
kategoriiTvis - 6, me-5 kategoriisTvis - 7.
   gansakuTrebiT rTul pirobebSi gzaTa mSeneblobisas, sadac materialuri resursebis danaxarjebi
Zalian didia, dasaSvebia yvela kategoriis gzis daxras daematos araumetes 2-sa. saerTaSoriso
standartiT dadgenilia gzis gaswvrivi RerZis minimaluri simrudis radiusi gzaTa kategoriis mixedviT:
1 kategoriisTvis - 8000 m, me-2 kategoriisTvis - 5000 m, me-3 kategoriisTvis - 3000 m, me-4
kategoriisTvis - 2000 m, me-5 kategoriis gzebisTvis - 1500 m.
   sagzao safari warmoadgens savali gzis nawils, romelic specialurad gasworebulia, gamagrebulia
da gaaCnia xaoiani zedapiri savali Tvlebis CaWidebis Zalis gazrdis mizniT. gzis safari SeiZleba
Sedgebodes erT, an ramodenime fenisagan. misi mdgomareoba mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens
satransporto saSualebis siCqareze, sxvadasxva kvanZebze, sawvavis xarjze, Tvlebis cveTaze,
agreTve mZRolis da mgzavrebis daRlis xarisxze. satransporto saSualebis maRali siCqaris
ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli gzis zedapiris sisworeze. safaris
sisworis maCvenebeli, romelsac sisworis koeficienti ewodeba, warmoadgens satransporto
saSualebis vertikalur gadaadgilebaTa jams santimetrebSi 1 km manZilze. SeniSvnis saxiT unda
iTqvas, rom es koeficienti srulyofilad ver axasiaTebs gzis uswormasworo zedapiris gavlenas
avtomobilis moZraobis procesze.
   sxvadasxva tipis safars karg mdgomareobaSi yofnisas gaaCnia sisworis koeficientis Semdegi
mniSvnelobebi: srulyofili safari - 0...200 sm/km; gardamavali safari - 200...600 sm/km;
arasrulyofili safari - 600 sm/km-ze meti.
   kvlevebiT dadgenilia /2/, rom sxvadasxva tipis avtomobilis siCqare gzis safaris gavleniT
mniSvnelovan sazRvrebSi icvleba, magram sazogadod erTi da igive kanons emorCileba.

                                                                                               13
avtomobilis siCqare uswormasworo zedapiris mqone gzebze moZraobisas ganisazRvreba ara misi
wevis Zalis mixedviT, aramed svlis simdovris mixedviT. gzis zedapiris mdgomareobis
Sesabamisad mZRoli, cdilobs ra SeinarCunos avtomobilis mdgradi moZraoba, amcirebs siCqares,
raTa vertikalurma aCqarebam ar gadaaWarbos dasaSveb mniSvnelobas: sajdomebze 10...15
m/wm2, xolo CarCoze - 50 m/wm2.



  1.2. cxrilSi moyvanilia avtomobilis saeqsploatacio maCveneblebis damokidebuleba gzis
zedapiris uswormasworobaze.
                           cxrili - 1.2.

uswormasw. teqnikuri sawvavis garbena sabur. avtmob. tvirTz.
koefic siCqare xarji kap.rem. garbena mwarmoeb. TviTRir.
         %      %      %    %      %      %
 0...200   100    100     100    100     100   100
200...600 75...80 125...130 75...80 75...80      90    120
> 600-ze 60      160...180 55...60   55..60   65    160

   1.3. cxrilSi mocemulia satransporto saSualebis SedarebiTi saeqsploatacio maCveneblebi
sxvadasxava safarisTvis moasfaltebul safarTan SedarebiT.
 rogorc cxrilidan Cans, betonirebuli Sose saburavebis cveTis intensivobis mixedviT uaresia
moasfaltebul gzasTan SedarebiT, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom mas mniSvnelovani
upiratesoba aqvs RamiT moZraobisas. amasTan unda SevniSnoT rom gruntian gzaze moZraobisas
saburavebi SedarebiT naklebad cvTeba, magram vinaidan didia amowverili basri qvebis raodenoba,
isini azianeben saburavis kords. gansakuTrebiT Zlier ziandeba am dros kapronis saburavis kordi,
amitom aris, rom soflis pirobebSi mZRolebi umetes SemTxvevaSi amjobineben rezinis saburavebs.

     satransporto saSualebebis SedarebiTi saeqsploatacio maCveneblebi gzis safaris mixedviT
                              cxrili 1.3.
safaris gadagileb. maqs. sawvavis sabur. remontis saeqspl.
tipi      winaaRmd. siCq. xarji cveTa vada danaxarj.
         koefic.
              km/sT % % %                 %
asfaltir. 0,015 120 100 100 100 100
betonireb. 0,020 120 101 135 100 103
moxr.fisi 0,030 100 104 126                94 130
moxreS.       0,035 80 111 128             83 145
qviSiani     0,040 50 112 142             83 160
qvafenili 0,050 40 117           -      83   180
gruntiani 0,03..0,06 20..40 103 70 64 200




   1.5. sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis procesebis                                klasifikacia.
  daniSnulebis mixedviT arCeven tvirTzidvis Semdeg saxeebs:

                                           Sidasakarmidamo tvirTzidva, romelsac umTavresad
transportiorebis, milgayvanilobebis, TviTmavali urikebis, eleqtrokarebis da saWapane transportis


                                                                                                14
saSualebebiT warmoebs, xolo nawilobriv traqtorebis saSualebiT. tvirTzidvis manZili aseT
SemTxvevaSi GCveulebriv 0,1...3 km-is farglebSi icvleba.
   Sidasameurneo tvirTzidva rogorc wesi mcire manZilebze 5...10 km-ze warmoebs. mas
awarmoeben ZiriTadad satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebi, romelTac ZiriTadad mindvris gzebze,
xnulebSi, nawveralze xorcieldeba (70...90%) /2, 3, 8/. Sidasameurneo gadazidvebi Seadgens mTeli
sasoflo-sameurneo gadazidvebis moculobis 60...70%-s, tvirTbrunvis mixedviT ki 25...30%-s.
   garesameurneo tvirTzidva Cveulebriv dakavSirebulia tvirTebis gadazidvasTan meurneobis
gareT. ZiriTadad meurneobaSi Semoizideba mineraluri sasuqebi, Sxamqimikatebi, samSeneblo
masalebi da sxva, xolo meurneobis gareT gadaizideba mza produqcia. aseTi gadazidvebi
Cveulebriv avtomobilebiT warmoebs, magram agreTve SesaZlebelia didi tvirTamweobis
satraqtoro- satranporto agregatebis gamoyeneba.
   sawarmoo tvirTzidva uSualod aris dakavSirebuli teqnologiur procesebTan. maT miekuTvnebian
organo-mineraluri sasuqebis, Semzadebuli Sxamqimikatebis da sxva masalebis mitana nakveTTan,
mosavlis aRebis Tanamdevi satransporto procesebi, aRebuli mosavlis gadazidva da sxva. aseTi tipis
gadazidvebi ZiriTadd traqtorebiT warmoebs, ufro iSviaTad ki avtomobilebiT.
   damoukidebeli tvirTzidva uSalod sawarmoo procesebTan ar aris dakavSirebuli. aseTi saxis
tvirTzidva warmoebs rogorc wesi, maRali tvirTamweobis traqtorebiT da avtomobilebiT.




           1.6. sagzao moZraobis organizacia
   Cveni qveynis pirobebSi tvirTzidvisas satransporto saSualebis moZraobis marSrutebze xSirad
gvxvdeba mixveul-moxveuli, SesamCnevi aRmarTebis da cudi safaris mqone, zogjer ki TiTqmis
gauvali gzis monakveTebi, amasTan mosaxvevebis gamo gzis xilvadobis manZili mniSvnelovnad
aris Semcirebuli. gzaze, gansakuTrebiT ki mTaSi moZraobisas nislis gamo zogjer xilvadobis
manZili ramodenime metrs ar aRemateba. aseT pirobebs uwodeben gazrdili saSiSroebis pirobebs.
am dros mZRolebs moeTxovebaT gansakuTrebuli sifrTxile, raTa maT ise SearCion siCqareebi,
rom uecari dabrkolebis warmoqmnisas droulad moaswron damuxruWeba da siCqaris nulze
dayvana.
   aRniSnul sakiTxebze mravali kvlevebia Catarebuli /1, 2, 8, 12/ sadac dadgenilia satransporto
saSualebis samuxruWe manZili swor, horizontalur mowyobili safaris mqone gzaze moZraobisas
gzis mSral, svel da moyinul mdgomareobaSi yofnisas. maT samuxruWe manZili dayofili aqvT sam
nawilad:
manZili, romelsac gadis satransporto saSualeba mZRolis mier dabrkolebis danaxvidan
damuxruWebis dawyebamde - Lr, damuxruWebis momentidan satransporto saSualebis srul
gaCerebamde gavlili manZili - Ldam, da manZili romelic aucileblad unda darCes satransporto
saSualebasa da dabrkolebas Soris misi gaCerebis momentSi - LdaS. e.i.
            Lsam= Lr + Ldam + LdaS               (1.2.)
   LLr iangariSeba formuliT
                L = Vtr                   (1.3)
sadac V0 - aris satransporto saSualebis sawyisi siCqare, m/wm; tr- mZRolis reaqciisTvis saWiro
dro, romelic saSualod icvleba - 0,3...0,4 wm          sazRvrebSi.
   rogorc Catarebuli kvlevebidan Cans, satransporto saSualebis damuxruWebis mizniT
damuxruWebis SemTxvevaSi igi moZraobs praqtikulad Tanabrad Senelebuli siCqariT, amitom
              Vt = V0 - atdam                  (1.4)

sadac Vt aris satransporto saSualebis sabolao siCqare, Cvens SemTxvevaSi Vt = 0; a - aCqarebis
moduli, m/wm2; tdam - damuxruWebis periodi, wm.
  damuxruWebis manZili iangariSeba formuliT


                                                                                              15
                           at 2
                    Ldam = Vot - ____            (1.5)
                                                  2

        Tu CavsvamT (1.4) formulas (1.5)-Si miviRebT


                         V02
                    Ldam = _______                           (1.6)
                                            2a

    aqedan sabolaod miviRebT
                      V02
               Lsam = V0 t + _____ + LdaS           (1.7)
                                             2a

  rogorc (1.8) formulidan Cans, Lsam damokidebulia
  miRebulia, rom LdaS = 2...4 m. satransporto saSualebis sawyis siCqareze, aCqarebis modulze,
romelic damuxruWebis SemTxvevaSi uaryofiT sidides warmoadgens da mZRolis reaqciaze aris
damokidebuli. aCqareba damokidebulia mraval faqtorze: gzis safaris tipze da mdgomareobaze,
Tvlebis proteqtoris formaze da simaRleze, samuxruWe sistemis mdgomareobaze, gzis gaswvriv da
gverdiT daxraze, wnevaze saburavebSi da sxva.
  ganvixiloT satransporto saSualeba, romelic moZraobs  kuTxis mqone daRmarTze, romlis
simrudis radiusi imdenad didia, rom gamoricxulia centridanuli Zalis gamo manqanis mocureba.
damuxruWebisas Tu gamovricxavT agreTve haeris winaaRmdegobis Zalas, maSin satransporto
saSualebis moZraobis gantoleba ase Caiwereba /3/

                   FCaW –    P
            a = ———————                         (1.8)
                     m

sadac m aris satransporto saSualebis masa, t; FCaW - satransporto saSualebis gzis safarTan
CaWidebis                                     Zala, kn;
            FCaW = m g                               (1.9)

      g - Tavisufali vardnis aCqareba, m/wm2  - savali Tvlebis gzis safarTan CaWidebis koeficienti
                                       (cx. 1.4)

   avtomobilis gzasTan CaWidebis saorientacio            mniSvnelobebi
                             cxrili 1.4
gzis, an mindvris            koeficientis
mdgomareoba                   mniSvnelobebi
 mSrali, asfaltiani gza         0,7...0,8
 sveli, sfaltiani gza         0,5...0,6
 mSrali grunti                0,6...0,7
 nawverali                   0,5...0,6
 axlad damuSavebuli mindori
  mSral amindSi                 0,4...0,5
 wvimis Semdgom                     0,2...0,3
 mSrali qviSa                0,25...0,35
 Rrma talaxi                0,15...0,25

                                                                                                16
datkepnili Tovliani gza        0,25...0,35


P - aRmarTis daZlevisTvis saWiro Zala, kn

               mg sin                             (1.10)

  aqedan gamomdinare
            mgmgsin
         a =  = g(sin                           (1.11)
                       m

maSasadame idealur pirobebSi
               V2
        L dam = _________                              (1.14)
                             2g(sin

praqtikul SemTxvevaSi aRniSnul gamosaxulebis mricxvels unda daematos prof. d.p. velikanovis
mier dadgenili koeficienti /2/, romlis mniSvneloba aris 1,4 da mas samuxruWe sistemis
saeqsploatacio mdgomareobis koeficienti ewodeba. aRniSnuli koeficienti qronometraJis saSualebiT
aris dadgenili. aqedan gamomdinare faqtiuri samuxruWe manZili gamoiTvleba formuliT

                 1,4 V2
       Lsam = V tr + __________ + LdaS       (1.15)
               2g ( sin 

 avtomobilebis dasaSvebi samuxruWe manZilebi horizontalur asfaltian gzebze moZraobisas safaris
sxvadasxva mdgomareobis mixedviT mocemulia 1.5. cxrilSi
saorientaciod saavtomobilo trasebze rigSi moZraobisas satransporto saSualebebs Soris manZili
mSrali gzis safaris pirobebSi unda iyos 1 m. yovel 1 km/sT siCqareze, svel gzaze es manZili unda
gaizardos 30%-iT, xolo moyinulze - 4-jer. /1,4/.                               cicabo daRmarTze
Zravis saSualebiT damuxruWebisas rekomendirebulia iseTi gadacemis CarTva, romelic unda
CarTuliyo im SemTxvevaSi roca avtomobili moZraobs imave daxrilobis aRmarTze. am dros
akrZalulia siCqaris regulireba gamorTuli quroTi.
 avtomobilis dasaSvebi samuxruWe manZilebi gzis sxvadasxva mdgomareobisTvis
mocemulia 1.5 cxrilSi avtomobilebis dasaSvebi samuxruWe manZilebi gzis sxvadasxva
mdgomareobisTvis
                                                          cxrili 1.5
moZraobis siCqare km/sT           gzis mdgomareoba
                 mSrali sveli        moyinuli
   20               3,5      5,25       10,5
   30               7,1      11,8       23,6
   40               12,6      21,0      42,0
   50               20       33        66
   60               28       47        94
   80               50       84        170
  100                79       131       262

 sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvisas satransporto saSualebebs xSirad uxdebaT moZraoba gruntis
gzebze, romlebic Tavisi SemadgenlobiT da simkvriviT sagrZnoblad gansxvavdebian
erTmaneTisgn. xSiria SemTxveva, roca satransporto saSualebis buqsaoba mniSvnelovnad

                                                                                             17
aWarbebs dasaSveb sazRvrebs da zogjer ki, gansakuTrebiT aRmarTebze moZraobisas misi
mniSvneloba aRwevs 100%-s. unda iTqvas, rom mocemul monakveTze buqsaobis Semcirebis
yvelaze martiv saSualebas wamyvan TvlebSi wnevis Semcireba warmoadgens.
 zemoaRniSnuli movlenis aRmosafxvrelad mniSvnelovani samuSaoebi aris Catarebuli saqarTvelos
saxelmwifo agrarul universitetSi akad. r. maxarobliZis xelmZRvanelobiT. damzadebulia mobiluri
da mcire meqanizaciis satransporto saSualebebis weva-CaWidebis Tvisebebis gasaumjobesebeli
sxvadasxva tipis da daniSnulebis mowyobilobebi. kerZod, Tvlian traqtorebis wamyvan Tvlebze
dasamagrebeli unagiris tipis Camocurebis da buqsaobis sawinaaRmdego mowyobiloba,
motoblokebze dasamagrebeli jalambris principze momuSave mowyobilobebi, Seqmnilia muxluxa
da naxevrad muxluxa motoblokuri agregatebi, motoblokebze dayenebulia damatebiTi Tvlebi da a.S.
Seqmnili konstruqciebis daxvewis procesi amJamad intensiurad mimdinareobs. /8,15/




    1.7. avtomobilis eqsploataciis Taviseburebani
             samTo pirobebSi
   saqarTveloSi saavtomobilo gzebis mniSvnelovani nawili samTo pirobebSi gadis. aaseTi gzebi
mniSvnelovan aRmarTebs Seicaven, romelTa grZivi daxra 7-mde arwevs, Tumca gvxvdeba iseTi
monakveTebic, romelTa daxra 12...140 -s Seadgens. samTo gzebze xSirad gvxvdeba mkveTri
mosaxvevebi, uReltexilTan miaxloebisas gzis grZivi daxra kidev ufro izrdeba. amis gamo aseT
trasebze aTmarTebis gadalaxvis mizniT awyoben specialur mixveul-moxveul gzebs, romelTac
serpantinebs uwodeben. mosaxvevebSi serpantinebis RerZuli xazebis simrudis radiusi mcirea da ar
aWarbebs 20...40 metrs, zogjer ki 10 metramde dadis, xolo moxvevis kuTxe 300 gradusamde
aRwevs. aseTi simrudis radiusis mqone mosaxvevbSi Sesvlisas usafrTxo moZraobis
SenarCunebisTvis mZRoli iZulebulia moZraobis siCqare daiyvanos 5...10 km/sT-mde. amis gamo
mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba saSualo teqnikuri siCqare.
   gza, romelic uReltexilze gadis, gadaseravs sxvadasxva klimatur zonebs. zRvis donidan gzis
mdebareobis zrdasTan erTad icvleba atmosferos ZiriTadi parametrebi: temperatura, simkvrive da
wneva. aqedan gamomdinare samTo pirobebSi avtomobilebis muSaoba damatebiTi
winaaRmdegobebiT xasiaTdeba. upirveles yovlisa SezRudulia moZraobis siCqare xSiri
mosaxvevebis da aRmarTebis gamo. samTo pirobebSi mowyobil trasebzedac ki satvirTo
avtomobilis maqsimaluri siCqare 40...50 km/sT-s Seadgens, xolo msubuqi avtomobilis siCqare -
50...60 km/sTs. mxolod calkeul ubnebze Tu aRwevs 70...80 km/sT-s. garda amisa avtomobilebs
xSirad uxdebaT dabali gadacemebiT moZraoba. unda iTqvas, rom ukanasknel xans samTo
pirobebSi CvenTanac aSenda saerTaSoriso standartebis dacviT samTo trasa (magaliTisTvis
rikoTis gadasasvleli), male ganxorcieldeba aWaris regionSi samTo gzebis mSeneblobis proeqti,
magram aseTi proeqtebi jerjerobiT Zalzed cotaa.
  grZel aRmarTebze moZraobisas xSiria Zravebis gadaxurebis SemTxvevebi, vinaidan isini
muSaoben forsirebul reJimebze. amasTan dabali gadacemebiT muSaobisas siCqaris simciris gamo
Semxvedri haeris nakadi sakmarisad ver aciebs radiators. zRvis donidan simaRlis zrdasTan erTad
haeris gaiSviaTebis gamo radiatorSi naklebi intensivobis haeri gadis. zRvis donidan did
simaRleebze moZraobisas haeris temperaturis dacema Zravas gaciebaze, rogorc amas kvlevebi
adastureben /2/, umniSvnelod moqmedeben. amasTan siTxis duRilis temperatura zRvis donidan
simaRlis zrdasTan erTad mcirdeba. kerZod 1500 metrze is mcirdeba 5 gradusiT. Zravas forsirebul
reJimze muSaobisas xSirad xdeba zeTis gadaxureba. kerZod yvelaze civ wertilSic ki (zeTis
CamosaRvrel sacobTan) misi temperatura 110...120 graduss aRwevs. atmosferuli pirobebis Secvla,
kerZod ki haeris simkvrivis Semcireba iwvevs haeris da benzinis narevis optimaluri Tanafardobis
darRvevas. rogorc kvlevebiT aris dadgenili /8/, zRvis donidan gzis mdebareobis yoveli 100 metriT
momatebisas saavtomobilo da satraqtoro rogorc benzinis aseve dizelis Zravebis efeqturi simZlavre


                                                                                             18
mcirdeba daaxloebiT 1%-iT. aqedan gamomdinare praqtikisTvis misaRebi sizustiT SeiZleba
Caiweros

            e,h = Ne,n(1 - h/10 -4 )                (1.16)

sadac h aris gzis mdebareobis simaRle zRvis donidan, m; Ne,n - Zravas nominaluri efeqturi
simZlavre zRvis doneze kvt; Ne,h - Zravas efeqturi simZlavre zRvis donidan h simaRleze
       kvt;
 imis gamo vinaidan daRmarTze moZraobisas mZRoli usafrTxoebis mizniT mosaxvevebSi
siCqares mkveTrad amcirebs muxruWebis saSualebiT grZel daRmarTebze xangrZlivi
damuxruWebisas xdeba xundebis gadaxureba. amis gamo mcirdeba xaxunis koeficienti da iwyeba
xundebis intensiuri cveTa aseT pirobebSi avtomobilis eqsploataciisas samuxruWe xundebis
muSaobis vada mcirdeba 7...12 jer vakis pirobebTan SedarebiT. muxruWebis muSaobis vadas
mniSvnelovnad zrdis bolo dros satvirTo avtomobilebze damontaJebuli specialuri mowyobilobebi,
romelTac Zravas muxruW Semaneleblebi hqviaT. saerTod mkveTr daRmarTze moZraobisas
satransporto saSualebam dabali gadacemebiT unda imoZraos. avtomobilis daRmarTze moZraobisas
mudmivi siCqaris SenarCunebisTvis saWiroa, rom Zravas mier ganviTarebuli damamuxruWebeli
momenti toli iyos avtomobilisTvis aucilebeli samuxruWe momentis transmisiaSi arsebuli xaxunis
gaTvaliswinebiT. ganvixiloT avtomobilis wevis balansis gantoleba, /2, 14/, romelic daRmarTze
moZraobis SemTxvevaSi ase Caiwereba



    Msam I 0 igad igam
    ____________ = Gavt sin - KFVa2 - Gavtfcos       (1.17)
       rTv

sadac Gavt aris avtomobilis wona srulad datvirTul mdgomareobaSi,kn; gzis grZivi daxra,
grad; F - avtomobilis ganivkveTis farTobi, m2; I - gadacemaTa ricxvi gamanawilebel kolofSi; K -
haeris winaaRmdegobis koeficienti, kg/m3 Vavt - avtomobilis moZraobis siCqare, m/wm; f -
avtomobilis gadagorebis koeficienti trtransmisiis margiqmedebis koeficienti; I0 - mTavari
gadacemis gadacemaTa ricxvi; I - gadacemaTa ricxvi gadacemaTa kolofSi; rTv - Tvlis gorvis
radiusi, m.
  aqedan ganisazRvreba Zravas mier ganviTarebuli damamuxruWebeli momentis saWiro
mniSvneloba. (1.17) formulis gamoyenebiT miviRebT

        (Gavt( sinf cosK F Va2) r Tvtr
    Msam = ______________________________          (1.18)
              I 0I k igam

   miRebuli gamosaxuleba saSualebas iZleva avtomobilis konstruqciuli parametrebis da gzebis
teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT ganisazRvros saWiro damamuxruWebeli momenti daRmarTze
moZraobisas ise, rom misi siCqare iyos mudmivi Tvlebis muxruWebis gamoyenebis gareSe. ZraviT
damuxruWebisas karburatorian da mfrqvevanian ZravebSi samuxruWe simZlavre aRwevs Zravis
simZlavris 35%-s, xolo dizelis ZravebSi - 45%-s.
   sakmaod didia daRmarTze avtomobilebis, an Camocurebis saSiSroeba. es upirveles yovlisa
exeba maqsimalurad datvirTul avtomobilebs da avtomatareblebs. avtomobilis dagoreba xdeba, roca
arasaimedod muSaobs xelis muxruWi, xolo Camocureba molipul gzaze maSinac ki roca avtomobili
damuxruWebulia. amasTan, roca avtomobili daRmarTze dgas da iwyebs dagorebas, mZRoli umetes
SemTxvevaSi axerxebs manevrirebas ise, rom Tavidan icilebs avarias. gansakuTrebiT saSiSia
aRmarTze mdgomi avtomobilis dagoreba an Camocureba. aseT SemTxvevaSi mZRoli uZluria
Caataros manevrireba da am dros ufro xSiria avariis da katastrofis SemTxvevebic ki.
                                                                                            19
   samTo pirobebSi avtomobilebis moZraobisas izrdeba Tvlebis cveTis intensivoba mimmarTvel
Tvlebze mabruni momentis warmoqmnis, xSiri damuxruWebis da saval nawilze kldis kenWebis
arsebobis gamo. mkveTr mosaxvevebSi Tvlebis mocurebis gamo izrdeba srialis xaxuni, rac iwvevs
saburavebis araTanabar cveTas da saerTod cveTis intensivobis momatebas. dadgenilia, /2, 9/, rom
swor, horizontalur gzasTan SedarebiT msubuqi avtomobilebis saburavis cveTis intensivoba izrdeba
50%-iT, xolo satvirTo avtomobilis - 30%-iT.
   samTo pirobebSi mgzavrobisas avtomobilis gverdiTi daxrebis gamo adamianebs uCndebaT
arasasiamovno SegrZneba, zogjer ki zRvis avadmyofoba.
   Cveulebriv avtomobilis saWis meqanizmi daproeqtebuliaa vakis pirobebisTvis, roca gzis
simrudis radiusi 125 metrze naklebi ar aris, xolo gzis xedvis are 75...100 metria /me-5 kategoriis
gzebisTvis/. amitom samTo pirobebSi mkveTr mosaxvevebSi avtomobilis mdgradobis
SenarCunebisTvis mZRoli iZulebulia saWe abrunos bevrad ufro didi siCqariT. magram satvirTo
avtomobilebis da didi avtobusebis marTvis SemTxvevaSi xSirad es fizikurad SeuZlebelia. amitom
mZRolebi iZulebulni arian ufro mkveTrad Seamciron siCqare, vidre es aris gaTvaliswinebulia
mdgradobis moTxovnebiT. amasTan, mZRolis samuSao pirobebi rTuldeba arasakmarisi xedvis
gamo, romelic samTo pirobebSi xandaxan 20...30 metramde. aRniSnul problemas sakmaod
efeqturad Wris saWis meqanizmze hidrogamaZliereblebis dayeneba. amasTan hidrogamaZlierebeli
mniSvnelovnad zrdis moZraobis usafrTxoebas im SemTxvevaSi, roca saburavSi swrafad ecema
wneva. am dros dros mcire monakveTSi warmoiqmneba mkveTri gverdcdena da mZrols Zalian
uWirs saWiro mimarTulebis SenarCuneba, hidrogamaZlierebeli ki mZRols aZlevs
TviTdarwmunebis saSualebas da Sesabamisad sagrZnoblad izrdeba moZraobis saSualo siCqare.
   samTo pirobebSi moiTxoveba gzis xedvis aris gazrda, vinaidan avtomobilis mciredma gadaxram
savali nawilisgan SeiZleba gamoiwvios katastrofa. radganac mosaxvevebSi da gansakuTrebiT
serpantinebze viwro trotuaris gamo erTi mxridan aris xrami, an Zalian mkveTrad daxrili ferdobi,
xolo meore mxridan - kldeebi. aseTi gzebis mosaxvevebSi Rame saWiro mimarTulebiT
mxedvelobis are TiTqmis nulamde dadis, radgan avtomobilis farebi Suqs afrqveven misi gaswvrivi
RerZis mimarTulebiT ganbnevis mcire kuTxiT. es ki mniSvnelovnad arTulebs usafrTxo
moZraobas. marTalia, ukanasknel xans mowinave avtomSenebeli firmebis mier montaJdeba
SekveTis safuZvelze e.w. avtomaturad regulirebadi farebi, romelTa mimarTuleba Tan xvdeba
Tvlis mimarTulebas moxvevis SemTxvevaSi, magram jerjerobiT aseTi mowyobilobebi Zalian
cotaa danergili seriuli warmoebis satvirTo avtomobilebSi.
   samTo pirobebSi avtomobilis sawvavis xarjis saxazo normis momateba xdeba rigi mizezebis
gamo. erTerTi ZiriTadi mizezi aris avtomobilis mier aRmarTze dagrovili potencialuri energiis
gamoyenebis SeuZlebloba. avtomobilis aRmarTze moZraobisas gadagorebis winaaRmdegobis
Zalas emateba simZimis Zalis mdgeneli, rac sagrZnoblad zrdis sawvavis xarjs. daRmarTze
daSvebisas usafrTxoebis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare Znelia maRali siCqaris ganviTareba da
mZRoli iZulebulia xSirad isargeblos muxruWebiT. amis gamo dagrovili potencialuri energiis
70...75% xundebSi gardaiqmneba siTbur energiad da mxolod 25...30% ixarjeba gadagorebis
winaaRmdegobis daZlevaze /2, 11/.
   sawvavis xarjis saxazo normas mniSvnelovnad zrdis haeris gaiSviaTeba, vinaidan am dros
irRveva sawvavis da haeris optimaluri Tanafardoba da warmoiqmneba mdidari narevi. am dros
sawvavis xarjis zrda, rogorc cnobilia
  / 12 / praqtikisTvis misaRebi sizustiT iangariSeba formuliT

          Qh = ( 1 + 0,065)Q0                            (1.19)

sadac Qh da Q0 Sesabamisad warmoadgenen sawvavis xarjis normas h m simaRleze da zRvis
doneze lit/100km.
  optimaluri Tanafardobis darRveva sawvavi narevis warmoqmnisas da mdidari nareviT
muSaobisas xdeba arasruli wva, rac iwvevs dauwvavi nawilis karterSi Casvlas da rogorc
avtomobilis eqsploataciisas Catarebuli kvlevebidan Cans /2 /, zogjer dauwvavi sawvavis masa
karterSi aRwevs zeTis masis 20...30% rac iwvevs zeTis siblantis Semcirebas 100 gradus

                                                                                               20
temperaturaze daaxloebiT 3...4 jer, es ki Tavis mxriv iwvevs dguS-cilindruli jgufis da muxlana
lilvis cveTis intensivobis mkveTr zrdas.
   imisaTvis, rom aRmofxvriliyo zemoaRniSnuli uaryofiTi movlena ZravebSi ukanasknel xans
dainerga specialuri koreqtorebi, romlebic aregulireben haeris miwodebas sawvavi aparaturisTvis
atmosferuli wnevis mixedviT.
   samTo pirobebSi moZraobisas gverdiTi centridanuli Zalebis gavleniT xSiria gverdmoqnevis
SemTxvevebi, romelic sakmaod saSiS movlenas warmoadgens. samTo gzebisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia gverdmoqnevis ori SemTxveva: Tvlebis blokirebisas damuxruWebis
SemTxvevaSi da mocurebisas, rodesac gzasTan Tvlebis araskmaris CaWidebas aqvs adgili da
umniSvnelo gverdiT Zalasac SeuZlia           avtomobilis gverdmoqneva.gverdmoqnevis Tavidan
asacileblad damuxruWeba unda daviwyoT ise, rom ar gavTiSoT gadabmula da Tvlebs blokireba ar
gavukeToT. gverdmoqnevis Tavidan asacileblad ukanasknel wlebSi Seiqmna Tvlebis
avtoblokirebis sistema (ABS) , romelic avtonomiurad moqmedebs Tvlebze mosuli
winaaRmdegobis Zalebis mixedviT.
   unda aRiniSnos, rom iseTi avtomobilebi, romlebic aRWurvilni arian avtomaturi gadacemaTa
kolofebiT, aseT pirobebSi ufro saSiSia, vinaidan damuxruWebisas isini myisierad gadadian dabal
gadacemebze, rac iwvevs mobuqsavebas, ikargeba gzasTan CaWideba da iwyeba gverdmoqneva.
  avtomobilebis maRalmwarmoebluri, ekonomiuri da usafrTxo muSaoba samTo pirobebSi
uzrunvelyofili iqneba, Tu siCqaris SezRudva satvirTo avtomobilisaTvis iqneba 60 km/sT, xolo
msaubuqi avtomobilisTvis 70..80km/sT.
   aqedan gamomdinare samTo pirobebSi momuSave avtomobilisTvis unda dakmayofildes
Semdegi moTxovnebi:
   imisaTvis, rom miRweuli iqnas Zravas muSaobis optimaluri reJimebi teqnikuri siCqaris maRali
mniSvnelobebi, gadacemaTa ricxvma siCqareTa kolofSi unda uzrunvelyos: pirdapirma gadacemam
6 gradusamde aRmarTis gadalaxva, pirdapiris wina gadacemam - 8...10 gradusamde, xolo dabalma
gdacemebma - 15 gradusamde aRmarTis gadalaxva. amasTan siCqareTa kolofi unda iqnas
gaangariSebuli Sualeduri gadacemebis xangZliv muSaobaze. unda gaZlierdes Zravis gaciebis
sistema, raTa gamoiricxos Zravis gadaxureba grZel aRmarTebze moZraobisas. Zravas kvebis
sistema unda aRiWrvos specialuri damWirxni mowyobilobiT, raTa haeris gaiSviaTebis pirobebSi
uzrunvelyofili iqnas ZravasTvis haeris saWiro raodenobis miwodeba;
   samuxruWe meqanizmi unda iqnas gaangariSebuli xangZliv damuxruWebaze grZel
daRmarTebze moZraobisas. samuxruWe sistema unda aRiiWurvos xundebis gaciebis sistemiT.
erTerT aseT mowyobilobas warmoadgens Tanamedrove avtomobilebis Tvlis fersos formebi,
romlebic brunvisas ventilatoris funqciasac asruleben. samTo pirobebSi momuSave satvirTo
avtomobilebi damatebiT unda aRiWurvon e.w. “samTo sabrjenis” tipis muruWebiT.
   samTo raionebisTvis gankuTvnil saburavebs CveulebrivTan SedarebiT unda hqondeT maRali
sixiste da cveTamedegoba. amasTan zamTris periodSi unda iqnan gamoyenebuli mocurebis
sawinaaRmdego porteqtorebiani da kotebiani saburavebi;
   samTo pirobebSi momuSave avtomobilebis dakidebas unda hqondes maRali kuTxuri sixiste
Cveulebriv avtomobilTan SedarebiT. es aucilebelia avtomobilis perioduli gverdiTi daxrebis
Sesamcireblad, romlebmac SeiZleba gamoiwvion mZRolis da mgzavrebis arasasiamovno
SegrZneba da xandaxan zRvis avadmyofobac;
   samTo avtomobilebs rac SeiZleba patara baza unda hqondeT, imisaTvis, rom maTTvis
mosaxerxebeli iyos mcire simrudis radiusis mqone Txemian da viwro gzebze, agreTve
mosaxvevebSi moZraoba. amasTan saWis meqanizmi unda aRiWurvos hidro gamaZlierebliT.
mZRolebisTvis uzrunvelyofili unda iqnas xedvis rac SeiZleba didi are mosaxvevebSi da
serpantinebze moZraobisas gzebze sarkeebis mowyobis, avtomobilebis teqnikuri da ergonomikuli
srulyofis gziT;




                                                                                           21
                    Tavi 2
         satransporto saSualebebis gamoyenebis
                Teoriuli safuZvlebi
 satransporto procesebis teqniko-ekonomikuri analizisTvis da satransporto parkis dagegmvisTvis
soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi miRebulia maCvenebelTa Semdegi sistema: satransporto
saSualebebis saSualo siobrivi Semadgenloba, tvirTamweoba da misi gamoyenebis xarisxi;
gadazidvis manZili da tvirTiT garbenis gamoyenebis xarisxi; moZraobis siCqare, satransporto
saSualebis mwarmoebloba; satransporto saSualebis sawvavis xarji; Sromis xarji satransporto
procesebis Catarebisas, fuladi saxsrebis saeqsploatacio da sawarmoo danaxarjebi satransporto
procesebze.


 2.1. satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis dakompleqteba
                       samTo
        pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT

   samTo pirobebSi satransporto agregati unda iyos moZraobaSi mdgradi, gaaCndes energetikuli
SesaZleblobebis sakmarisi maragi, gzasTan CaWidebis sakmarisi Zala da maRali manevrirebis
unari imisaTvis, rom mas SeeZlos moZraoba rogorc aRmarTebze, aseve ferdobis ganivi
mimarTulebiT Camocurebis da Camococebis gareSe, buqsaobis sidide iyos dasaSveb sazRvrebSi
da ar warmoiqmnas gadabrunebis saSiSroeba.
  satransporto saSualebis mwarmoebloba misi tvirTamweobis pirdapirproporciulia. amitom pirvel
rigSi unda dadgindes misi tvirTamweoba samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT /6,7,9/, romelSic
igulisxmeba moZraobis marSrutebze mixveul-moxveuli, sagrZnobi aRmarTebis Semcveli, zRvis
donidan did simaRleebze gamavali da mouwyobeli safaris mqone gzis monakveTebis arseboba.
 satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis tvirTamweobis         gansazRvrisaTvis samTo pirobebis
gaTvaliswinebiT ganvixiloT misi wevis balansis gantoleba

     Pmx - Psal - PasW - Pasd = Pf + P + Pj + Pha + R   (2.1)

sadac Pmx aris traqtoris nominaluri mxebi wevis Zala sakmarisi CaWidebis SemTxvevaSi, kn;

             e I tr tr
          Pmx =                                 (2.2)
                              rtr nn

   Ne aris traqtoris nominaluri efeqturi simZlavre, kvt;
 I - transmisiis gadacemaTa ricxvi; tr - transmisiis margiqmedebis koeficienti; rTv - Tvlis, an
varskvlavas muSa diametri, m; nn - Zravas muxlana lilvis nominaluri sixSire, 1/wm; Psal -
simZlavris amrTmevi lilvis aZvraze daxarjuli, Zala kn;
P asC - traqtoris nominaluri mxebi wevis Zalis danakargi niadagTan arasakmarisi CaWidebis gamo,
kn

           PasC = Pmx - Fmam                  (2.3)

  Fmam - satraqtoro Zravas mixedviT nominaluri mamoZravebeli Zala, kn;
  radganac arsebobs mamoZravebeli Zalis ori mniSvneloba CaWidebis Zalisa da satraqtoro Zravas
mixedviT, limitirebuli unda iqnas maTgan umciresi da miRebuli iqneba rogorc mxebi wevis Zala.
  Pf aris traqtoris TviTgadagorebaze daxarjuli simZlavre
       kvt;


                                                                                             22
          Pf = Gtr f tr + Gmis fmis            (2.4)

   Gtr - traqtoris wona, kn; ftr - traqtoris gadagorebis winaaRmdegobis koeficienti; Gmis -
satransporto, an sxva saxis misabmelis wona, kn; f mis - misabmelis gadagorebis winaaRmdegobis
koeficienti;
   wevis Zalis danakargebi aRmarTis daZlevaze ase iangariSeba
       P = Gagr sinGtr + Gmis + Gtv ) sin

agregatis inerciis Zalis daZlevaze daxarjuli Zala iangariSeba formuliT

       Pj = magr a = 0,1 Gagrday a = Gagr j

sadac m agr aris agregatis masa, romelic modis traqtoris                          wamyvan Tvelebze, t; a -
wrfivi moZraobis aCqareba, m/wm2; -                              masaTa dayvanis koeficienti, wm2/m,
(j - agregatis inertulobis koeficienti; Pha - haeris winaaRmdegobis
Zala, romelic satraqtoro agregatisTvis praqtikulad nulis tolia da SeiZleba misi ugulvebelyofa; / 3 /
         R warmoadgens samuSao manqanis srul winaaRmdegobas

              R=kB + Gf                            (2.7)
saadac k aris niadagis xvedriTi winaaRmdegoba, kn/m; B - agregatis modebis gani, m; G -
manqanis wona, kn; f - manqanis gadagorebis winaaRmdegobis koeficienti.
  satransporto agregatis dakompleqtebisas

                   k=0
aqedan

         R = fmis(Gmis + Gtv) = Pf + ftr Gtr       (2.8)

                Ph = P0 (1-10 -4 );                         (2.9)

        Tu (2.1) formulaSi SevitanT sidideebis Sesabamis mniSvnelobebs, miviRebT satraqtoro-
satransporto agregatis faqtiuri tvirTamweobis saangariSo formulas samTo pirobebis
gaTvaliswinebiT

          Pmx ( 1 - h 10 -4 ) - Gtr (ftr + sin + a )
 Gtv =  - Gmis (2.10)
                           fm + a + sin

   rogorc (2.10) formulidan Cans, masSi gaTvaliswinebulia zRvis donidan simaRlis, aRmarTebis da
aCqarebisa da Senelebisas warmoqmnili inerciis Zalebis gavlena satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis
tvirTamweobaze. rogorc formulidan Cans, maqsimaluri tvirTamweoba miiRweva vakeze, Tanabari
siCqariT moZraobisas e.i. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sin = 0 da a = 0, magram realur sawarmoo
pirobebSi aseTi SemTxveva iSviaT gamonakliss warmoadgens, amitom Cvens mier gamoyvanili
(2.10) formula arsebulisgan gansxvavebiT saSualebas iZleva dadgindes wevis Zalis is maragi,
romliTac unda imoZraos satrqtoro-satransporto agregatma realur sawarmoo pirobebSi.
   im SemTxvevaSi, roca satraqtoro-satransporto agregati moZraobs vakeze damyarebuli reJimiT,
e.i. roca sin = 0 da a = 0, miviRebT tvirTamweobis saangariSo cnobil formulas

             Pmx - Gtrftr
         G0 =  - Gmis                          (2.11)
                          fman

                                                                                                       23
   rogorc vxedavT (2.11) formula warmoadgens Cvens mier miRebuli (2.10) formulis kerZo
SemTxvevas.
magaliTi. vipovoT satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis faqtiuri tvirTamweoba Semdeg pirobebSi Pmx
= 14 kn; h = 1000 m; Gtr = 35 kn; ftr = 0,025;  = 5 grad; a = 0,12; f m = 0,015.
   (2.10) da (2.11) formulaSi Sesabamisi monacemebis CasmiT miviRebT: Gkn; da G0 = 45
kn.
   rogorc ganxiluli magaliTidan Cans, samTo pirobebis gavlena satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis
tvirTamweobaze mniSvnelovania (Cveni magaliTis SemTxvevaSi tvirTamweoba mcirdeba
daaxloebiT 35%-iT) da misi gaTvaliswineba sawarmoo pirobebSi aucilebelia.



     2.2 satvirTo avtomobilebis tvirTamweobis gansazRvra samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT
 satvirTo avtomobilebis faqtiuri tvirTamweobis gansazRvrisaTvis gamoviyenoT avtomobilis
wevis balansis gantoleba, romelic aseTi saxiT Caiwereba /3, 8/

                Pmx = Pf + P + Pj + Pha              (2.12)

  avtomobilis mxebis wevis Zala warmoiqmneba Zravas mier ganviTarebuli mabruni momentis
saxiT, romlis gadacema avtomobilis Tvlebze transmisiis saSualebiT xorcieldeba. Tvlebze miyvanili
mabruni momenti iangariSeba formuliT

        MTv= MZr kol dif ikol idif = MTv idif idif tr       (2.13)


sadac MZr warmoadgens avtomobilis Zravas muxlana lilvze ganviTarebuli mabrun moments
kn.m; kol da dif         arian Sesabamisad gadacemaTa kolofis da ukanaskneli gadacemis
(diferencialis) margiqmedebis koeficientebi; ikol da i dif - gadacemaTa kolofis da ukanaskneli
gadacemis (diferencialis) gadacemaTa ricxvi.


tr = kol dif        (2.14)


 da mas ewodeba transmisiis meqanikuri margi qmedebis koeficienti.
  rodesac avtomobili moZraobs aCqarebiT e.i. Zravas brunvis sixSire aCqarebulia, maSin
avtomobilis wamyvan Tvlebze mosuli mabruni momenti iangariSeba formuliT
                      d
            MTv = ( MZr - IZr___) ikol idifhtr      (2.15))
                      dt


sadac I aris mqnevaras inerciis momenti kg.m2; ddt - muxlana lilvis kuTxuri aCqareba, rad/wm.
  avtomobilis transmisiis meqanikuri margiqmedebis koeficienti iangariSeba formuliT


                    tr = NTv/Ne = 1 - Ntr/Ne                           (2.16)

  avtomobilis transmisiaSi danakargs iwvevs gadamcem meqanizmze xaxunis Zalebi, romelic
damokidebulia avtomobilis transmisiis nawilebis damuSavebis da awyobis sizusteze, zeTis
raodenobasa da xarisxze da agreTve maTi nawilebis gamosaxmarisebaze. mravalricxovani

                                                                                             24
dakvirvebebiT dadgenilia, rom / 7 / transmisiis meqanikuri margiqmedebis koeficienti izrdeba
mabruni momentis gadidebiT, mcirdeba brunTa sixSiris gadidebiT, mcirdeba agreTve karterSi
zeTis donisa da siblantis gadidebiT; mabruni momentis da brunvebis sixSiris udidesi rxeva
sxvadasxva gadacemebis CarTvis SemTxvevaSi iwvevs mqk-s cvalebadobas 5...6%-is farglebSi,
amitom avtomobilis samuSao reJimze htr yvela safexurisTvis TiTqmis erTnairia da misi
mniSvneloba praqtikuli gaangariSebisas SeiZleba mudmiv sidided CaiTvalos. Tanamedrove
avtomobilebisTvis transmisiis mqk icvleba sazRvrebSi 0,8...0,95. mcire mniSvnelobebs irCeven
mZime satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis, romelTac ormagi, an Wiaxraxnuli mTavari gadacema aqvs.
  avtomobilis mxebi wevis Zala Zravas energetikuli SesaZleblobis mixedviT iangariSeba formuliT

        MZr ikol i diftr 1                        dv
Pmx = _____________ - __ ( Imq i2dif i2kol tr + 2ITv) __     (2.17)
         rTv       r2                      dt


sadac rTv warmoadgens Tvlis radiuss, m; I mq - mqnevaras inerciis momenti;
I Tv - wamyvani Tvlis inerciis momenti; V-avtomobilis moZraobis siCqare, m/wm.
im SemTxvevaSi, roca avtomobili moZraobs Tanabari siCqariT (dv/dt =0) miviRebT


                               MZr ikol i diftr
                        Pmx = _____________                 (2.18)
                 rTv

  Tu mxebi wevis Zalas gamovaklebT wamyvani Tvlebis gorvis winaaRmdegobis Zalas ( Pf =Zf ),
miviRebT Tavisufali wevis Zalis mniSvnelobas


                  Pa = Pmx - Pf                                   (2.19)

   avtomobilis Tavisufali wevis Zala Zravas simZlavris garda damokidebulia Tvlebis gzasTan
CaWidebaze. im SemTxvevaSi, roca Pa CaWidebis Zalaze metia, misi Semdgomi zrda ar iwvevs
sasargeblo wevis Zalis zrdas, aramed amcirebs mas, radganac am SemTxvevaSi iwyeba Tvlis
buqsaoba. buqsaobis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa, rom udidesi Tavisufali wevis Zala Pa ar
aRematebodes avtomobilis gzasTan CaWidebis Zalas


                           Pmx  PCaW                    (2.20)


sadac PCaW aris avtomobilis wamyvani Tvlebis gzasTan CaWidebis Zala
                        PCaW = Zwam 

   sadac Zwam warmoadgens wamyvan Tvlebze gzis normaluri reaqciis Zalas,kn; wamyvani
Tvlebis gzasTan CaWidebis koeficienti.
  aqedan gamomdinare, maqsimaluri mxebi wevis Zala gzasTan CaWidebis mixedviT
gamoiTvleba formuliT


                                                                                           25
              Pmax = Z(f)                                             (2.22)

    imisTvis, rom avtomobili moZraobdes buqsaobis gareSe, daculi unda iyos Semdegi piroba

               Pmax  Z(f)                                            (2.23)

   aqedan Cans, rom CaWidebis koeficienti Zalian axlos iqneba srialis xaxunis koeficientTan, Tu
avtomobili dgas myar zedapirze (magaliTad, asfaltis mSral gzaze). sxva SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
saburavis figurul Sverilebs gzis zedapiris CaRrmavebis saSualeba aqvs, Tvlebis gzasTan
CaWidebas garda srialis xaxunisa, gzis zedapiris horizontaluri deformaciis winaaRmdegobac
gamoiwvevs. amrigad CaWidebis koeficienti srialis xaxunze rTuli bunebisaa. is aerTianebs gzasTan
xaxunisa da gzis horizontaluri deformaciis winaaRmdegobas.
   mravalricxovani eqsperimentis safuZvelze dadgenilia, rom Tvalze mosuli vertikaluri datvirTvis
cvalebadoba mcire gavlenas axdens CaWidebis koeficientze. amis gamo praqtikuli
gaangariSebisTvis SeiZleba miviRoT, rom CaWidebis koeficienti vertikalur datvirTvaze ar aris
 damokidebuli; CaWidebis koeficientis mniSvneloba damokidebuli aris Tvlidan gzaze gadacemul
kuTr wnevaze; kuTri wnevis Semcireba iwvevs CaWidebis koeficientis gazrdas. amis gamo iwvevs
saburavebSi wnevis Semcireba CaWidebis koeficientis gadidebas; es daskvna ar ewinaaRmdegeba
pirvel daskvnas, radgan vertikaluri datvirTvis zrda (Tu saburavSi wneva mudmivia), iwvevs Tvlis
gzasTan kontaqtis farTobis TiTqmis datvirTvis proporciul zrdas. amis gamo kuTri wneva
praqtikulad mudmivi rCeba. CaWidebis koeficienti svel gzaze naklebia, vidre mSral, vinaidan
saburavsa da gzas Soris warmoSobili siTxis afski SesamCnevad amcirebs xaxuns; magari safaris
mqone svel gzaze kuTri wnevis gazrdiT izrdeba CaWidebis koeficientis mniSvneloba. amas iwvevs
is garemoeba, rom didi kuTri wnevisas saburavisa da gzis Sexebis zedapirTan xdeba siTxis
gamowreta; gzis zedapirze Tvlis buqsaobis, an srialis siCqaris zrda CaWidebis koeficientis klebas
iwvevs. es gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia svel gzaze; Tvlebis gzasTan CaWidebaze did gavlenas
axdens saburavis proteqtoris forma. gluvi profili iZleva gzasTan ufro nakleb CaWidebas, vidre
figuruli;
   7. masiur saburavs sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, 20...30%-iT naklebi CaWidebis koeficienti aqvs,
vidre figuruls;


   CaWidebis koeficientis saSualo mniSvnelobebi mocemulia cxrilSi
                             cxrili 2.1.
   gzis tipi                                   mSrali        sveli
asfalti                                       0,7...0,8     0,3...0,4
RorRiani gzatkecili                           0,6...0,7     0,3...0,4
xis torsebi                                   0,5...0,7     0,3...0,4
grunti                                        0,5...0,6     0,3...0,4
Tixa                                          0,5...0,6     0,3...0,4
sila                                          0,5...0,6     0,4...0,5
moyinuli                                      0,2...0,3
Tovli                                         0,2...0,4

    avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis Zala iangariSeba formuliT:

            Pf = f G cos f m g cos

     avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis Zala damokidebulia wina Tvlebis sakisrebSi xaxunis
sidideze, saburavis deformaciaze da gzis zedapiris deformaciaze. rac Seexeba ukana Tvlebis

                                                                                              26
sakisrebSi xaxunis Zalis daZlevaze danakargebs is ukve gaTvaliswinebulia meqanikuri
margiqmedebis koeficientSi da gorvis winaaRmdegobis ZalaSi ar Sedis.
   Tvlis sakisrebSi xaxunis Zala damokidebulia sakisrebis konstruqciaze, moxaxune zedapirebis
mdgomareobaze, SezeTvis xarisxze, moZraobis siCqareze, saburavebis zomaze, saburavis profilze,
misi masalis xarisxze, elastiurobaze da haeris wnevaze saburavebSi.
   gzis zedapiris deformacia damokidebulia mis tipsa da mdgomareobaze, avtomobilis masaze,
Tvlis zomaze da saburavis xarisxze.
   aRniSnuli faqtorebidan umravlesoba ar inaeCunebs mudmiv mniSvnelobas da moZraobis
pirobebis mixedviT did sazRvrebSi icvleba, amasTan magari safaris mqone gzaze gorvis
winaaRmdegobis koeficienti izrdeba Tvlebze mosul datvirTvis zrdasTan erTad da wnevis
SemcirebiT saburavebSi. xolo vinaidan rbili safaris mqone gzaze moZraobisas gorvis
winaaRmdegobis daZlevaze danakargebi gamowveulia ZiriTadad gzis zedapiris deformaciiT, xolo
niadagis deformacia klebulobs saburavebSi wnevis SemcirebiT, amitom saburavSi wnevis
Semcireba iwvevs gorvis winaaRmdegobis Semcirebas.
   TvlebTan miyvanili mabruni momenti gavlenas axdens avtomobilis gorvis koeficientze, romelic
momentis zrdiT odnav izrdeba. avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis koeficientze garkveul gavlenas
axdens saburavis masala da konstruqcia. magaliTad eqsperimentebiT dadgenilia, rom eqvsSrian
saburavs 14 m/wm siCqariT moZraobisas 7%-iT meti aqvs gorvis winaRobis koeficienti, vidre
oTxSrians. aseve bambis kordis Secvla xelovnuri abreSumis kordiT 13%-iT amcirebs gorvis
winaRobis koeficients. vinaidan gorvis winaRobis koeficientze sxvadasxva faqtorebis gavlenis
sididis zustad dadgena SeuZlebelia, praqtikuli gaangariSebebisas gorvis winaRobis koeficients
ganixilaven, rogorc mudmivs, Tu siCqare ar aRemateba 20 m/wm-s. vinaidan vidre siCqare ar
miaRwevs 20 m/wm-s, siCqaris cvliT gorvis winaaRmdegobis koeficienti TiTqmis ar icvleba.
siCqaris Semdgomi zrdisas gzis safarTan kontaqtis zonaSi saburavi veRar aswrebs gasworebas da
amis gamo Tvals ubrundeba imaze naklebi energia, rac daixarja saburavis deformirebaze. garda
amisa am dros deformaciis siCqaris gadidebiT izrdeba saburavis Siga xaxunis Zalebi.
   avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis koeficientis gansazRvra xdeba eqsperimentulad. gorvis
winaaRmdegobis koeficientsa da siCqares Soris daaxloebiTi damokidebulebis dasamyareblad
gamoyvanilia Semdegi empiriuli formula /3 /
                     13 v2
                      f = f 0 { 1 + ______ }           (2.25)
                  20000

sadac f 0 aris avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis koeficienti im SemTxvevaSi, roca misi siCqare
ar aRemateba 20 m/wm-s; V avtomobilis moZraobis siCqare m/wm.
   avtomobilis gorvis winaaRmdegobis koeficientis saSualo mniSvnelobebi zogierTi tipis gzis
safarisTvis mocemulia cxrilSi

                      cxrili 2.2.
 gzis safaris tipi                     gorvis                                winaRobis
                                      koeficienti
betonis gzatkecili karg mdgomareobaSi       0,012 ... 0,015
betonis safari ormoebiT                    0,015 ... 0,020
asfaltis gzatkecili                         0,020 ... 0,025
yamiris gzatkecili                          0,025 ... 0,030
Tixa da sila siRrmis da mdgomareobis        0,03 ... 0,05
mixedviT




                                                                                           27
  avtomobilis moZraobisas Zravas simZlavris garkveuli nawili haeris winaaRmdegobis daZlevaze
ixarjeba. haeris winaaRmdegobas iwvevs Semxvedri haeris nawilakebis wneva avtomobilis wina
zedapirze, haeris gaiSviaTeba avtomobilis ukan da haeris xaxuni avtomobilis zedapirTan.
  SemoviRoT Semdegi aRniSvnebi:
PP1 - haeris wneva haeris Sublis farTobze ; es Zala ixarjeba haeris nawilakebisTvis gansazRvruli
siCqaris miniWebaze; P2 - Zala, romelic moqmedebs avtomobilze mis ukan haeris gaiSviaTebis
gamo; P3 - Zala, romelic gamowveulia avtomobilis zedapirTan haeris xaxuniT.
  maSasadame haeris sruli winaaRmdegobis Zala ase gamoisaxeba


          Pha = P1 + P2 + P3                                (2.26)

  haeris sruli winaaRmdegobis TiToeuli mdgeneli rTuli bunebisaa da maTi mniSvnelobebis
dadgena mxolod eqsperimentebis safuZvelze SeiZleba. aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT haerSi moZrav
sxeulze Catarebuli cdebis safuZvelze gansazRvruli iqna haeris winaaRmdegobis Zala, romelic ase
gamoisaxeba

                         Pha = c p F V2                              (2.27)

 sadac F aris avtomobilis Sublis farTobi, romelic warmoadgens avtomobilis ganivi kveTis farTobs
da aseTi saxiT gamoiTvleba
              F=BHn                                    (2.28)

sadac B aris avtomobilis Tvlebs Soris manZili, m; H - maqsimaluri simaRle, m; n - koeficienti,
romlis mniSvnelobebi msubuqi avtomobilebisTvis icvleba sazRvrebSi - 0,93...0,95, xolo satvirTo
avtomobilebisTvis - 0,95....0,97. Tanamedrove avtomobilebis Sublis farTobi F icvleba sazRvrebSi:
msubuqi avtomobilebisTvis - 1,4... 2.8 m2, avtobusebisTvis - 4,5 ... 5,6 m2, didi tvirTamweobis
avtomobilebisTvis - 3,5 ... 5,0 m2, mcire da saSualo tvirTamweobis avtomobilebisTvis - 2,8 ... 3,5
m2, sarboli avtomobilebisTvis - 1,0 ... 1,3 m2.
p - haeris simkvrive kg/m3; c - koeficienti, romelic sxeulis formaze, zedapiris xarisxsa da
mdgomareobaze aris damokidebuli, V - avtomobilis moZraobis siCqare m/wm.
   avtomobilis eqsploataciis pirobebSi haeris simkvrive SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc mudmivi sidide
( im SemTxvevaSi, Tu avtomobilis moZraobis marSrutebi ar gadis zRvis donidan sxvadasxva
simaRleebze. amitom c p sidideebs aerTianeben erTi K koeficientis saxiT, romelsac haeris
winaaRmdegobis koeficienti ewodeba. am SemTxvevaSi
               Pha = K F V2                          (2.29)

 aRniSnuli gamosaxulebis Tanaxmad K warmoadgens haeris wnevas niutonebSi 1 m2-ze, rodesac
avtomobilis siCqare aris 1 m/wm. misi gansazRvra SesaZlebelia eqsperimentis saSualebiT. K F
sidides avtomobilis garsedinobis moduls uwodeben. imis gamo, vinaidan haeris winaaRmdegobis
Zala Pha avtomobilis siCqaris pirdapirproporciulia, konstruqtorebi cdiloben SeZlebisdagvarad
Seamciron garsedinobis modulis mniSvneloba, rac SesaZlebelia Sublis farTobis da haeris
winaaRmdegobis koeficientis SemcirebiT.
   haeris winaaRmdegobis koeficientis Semcirebis miRweva SesaZlebelia avtomobilisTvis
garsedini formis micemiT. mdovre gadasvlebiT Zaris calkeul elementebs Soris, gamoSverili
nawilebis mospobiT, Zaris simaRlis, siganis da sigrZes Soris xelsayreli Tanafardobis SerCeviT da
sxva.
   speciluri gamokvlevebiT dadgenilia, rom K koeficientis mniSvneloba damokidebulia ara marto
Sublos nawilis, aramed ukana nawilis formazedac. amJamad ukana nawilis formebi kvlevis sagans
waroadgens.


                                                                                               28
  Tanamedrove avtomobilebisTvis K koeficientis saorientacio                      mniSvnelobebi mocemulia cxrilSi
                        cxrili 2.3
    avtomobilebis tipebi                                                                   K
normaluri tipis msubuqi avtomobilebi                                             0,2...0,35
normaluri tipis satvirTo avtomobilebi                                            0,6...0,7
avtobusebi                                                                       0,25...0,4
sarboli avtomobilebi                                                             0,13...0,18

  (2.29) formula marTebulia uqaro amindSi. im SemTxvevaSi, roca qari uberavs avtomobilis
moZraobis, an moZraobis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT, haeris winaaRmdegobis Zala
gamoiTvleba formuliT

                  Pha = KF(V V1)2                                      (2.30)

sadac V1 aris qaris siCqare m/wm.
  im SemTxvevaSi, roca satransporto saSualebis siCqare km/sT-Si aris gamosaxuli (2.30) formula
ase Caiwereba /12/
                                   KF V2
                            Pha = ______          (2.31)
                   13

  avtomobilis daumyarebeli reJimiT moZraobisas (magaliTad aCqarebiT moZraobisas) unda
ganvixiloT gadataniT moZraobaSi myofi avtomobilebis nawilebis inerciis Zalebis tolqmedi,
romelic modebulia avtomobilis simZimis centrSi da tolia

                        dV
                   Pj1 = m ___                            (2.32)
                        dt

sadac m aris avtomobilis masa, kg; dV/dt - avtomobilis wrfivi aCqareba.
   inerciis Zala mimarTulia avtomobilis wrfivi aCqarebis sawinaaRmdegod da misi sidide sakmaod
did mniSvnelobas aRwevs avtomobilis daZvrisas da mkveTrad gaCerebisas.
   inerciis Zalis ganxiluli gamosaxuleba sakmarisi iqneboda avtomobilis gaqanebis
winaaRmdegobis Sesafaseblad avtomobils rom ar hqondes mbrunavi nawilebi. am nawilebis
araTanabari brunvis SemTxvevaSi inerciis Zalebis momentebis jami mniSvnelovan gavlenas
axdens avtomobilis gaqanebis winaaRmdegobaze da is mxedveobaSi unda iqnas miRebuli.
   aqedan gamomdinare mxebi wevis Zalis nawili ixarjeba avtomobilis m masis aCqarebasa da
amyoli Tvlebis brunvis aCqarebaze, romelic iangariSeba formuliT

                              d
Pj1 =I ___            (2.33)
                              dt

sadac I aris amyoli Tvlebis inerciis momenti misi RerZis mimarT;

    d
 ___ - Tvlis kuTxuri aCqareba.
    dt

    wriuli Zala, romelic am moments Seesabameba, ase gamoisaxeba


                                                                                                               29
               1          d
                          Pj2 = ___ I1 ___                  (2.34)
               r          dt

sadac r aris Tvlis gorvis radiusi, m.
  Tu Tvlis kuTxur aCqarebas avtomobilis wrfivi acqarebiT SevcvliT (V =  r)

           ddV
           __ = __ __                     (2.35)
           dt r       dt

aqedan gamomdinare

               1 dV
           Pj2 = 2__ __ I1                                  (2.36)
                                 2
                                r    dt

amrigad, avtomobilis inerciis Zala (transmisiis mbrunavi nawilebis da wamyvani Tvlebis
araTanabari brunvebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe) ase gamoisaxeba

                      1     dV
                    Pj = Pj1 + Pj2 = ( m + 2 __ I1) ___              (2.37)
                      r2    dt

  Catarebuli analizis Sedegad sabolaod avtomobilis wevis balansis gantoleba aseTi saxiT SeiZleba
CavweroT

 Mm ik I0 m     1                     dV
_________ - ___ (Im i0 ik m +2Ik) ___ = f G + KF V2 +
                      2 2

  r           r2                    dt

               1     dV
+ Gi( m + 2 Ik __ ) ___                            (2.38)
       r2     dt

 im Zalebis gaerTianebiT, rolebic ixarjeba avtomobilis moZraobisas masisa da mbrunavi nawilebis
aCqarebaze, miviRebT

 Mm ik I0 m                      i02ik2m        1   dV
_______ = f G + KF V2 + ( m + Im _____ + 4Ik __ ) ___ (2.39)
  r                               r2            r2   dt

am gantolebis marjvena nawilis ukanaskneli wevri warmoadgens Zalas, romelic ixarrjeba
avtomobilis aCqarebaze

                   i02ik2m       1     dV
                  Pj= ( m + Im ______ + 4Ik __ ) ___ (2.40)
                                 r2          r2     dt

  am gantolebaSi 4Ik niSnavs ganxilulia oTxTvliani avtomobili, romelsac Sewyvilebuli Tvlebi ar
aqvs. im SemTxvevaSi, roca avtomobils Sewyvilebuli Tvlebi gaaCnia, maSin 6 Ik. aqedan
gamomdinare zogadi saxiT inerciis Zalis saangariSo formula ase Caiwereba

                                                                                             30
                                       i02ik2m        1     dV
                      Pj= ( m + Im     _____ + n Ik __ ) ___ (2.41)
                                         r2           r2    dt

sadac n aris avtomobilis Tvlebis raodenoba.
(2.41) gantolebis FfrCxilebSi moTavsebuli gamosaxulebis meore da mesame wevri SeiZleba
gnxiluli iqnas, rogorc gadataniT moZraobaSi mrofi avtomobilis masis nazrdi, romelic avtomobilis
daumyarebeli moZraobis procesze iseTsave gavlenas axdens, rogorc mqnevaras da Tvlebis inerciuli
momentebi amnawilebis araTanabari brunvisas. amitom am sidideebs mqnevras da Tvlebis
dayvanil masebs uwodeben, xolo frCxilebSi moTavsebul mTel gamosaxulebas - avtomobilis
dayvanil masas.
   (2.41) gantoleba gviCvenebs, rom avtomobilis daumyarebeli siCqariT moZraobisas mbrunavi
nawilebis gavlena SeiZleba avtomobilis gadataniT moZraobaSi myofi masis gadidebiT iqnas
gaTvaliswinebuli. am mosazrebidan gamomdinare, SemoRebulia m koeficienti, romelic
avtomobilis mbrunavi masebis gavlenas iTvaliswinebs

                               Im i02ik2m          1
                         = 1+ ___ ______ + n Ik __                   (2.42)
                               m     r2           m r2

aqedan inerciis Zalis gamosaTvlelad gveqneba

                                       dV
              Pj = m ___               (2.43)
                   dt

  koeficienti da aqedaan gamomdinare avtomobilis masis fiqciuri nazrdi damokidebuli yofila
imaze, Tu romeli gadacema aris CarTuli.
   Zravas mbrunavi nawilebis inerciis momenti saSualod mdebareobs Semdeg sazRvrebSi: msubuqi
avtomobilebisTvis - 0,2...0,7 kg.m2; satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis - 0,4...4 kg.m2; am sidideebis
65...80%-s Seadgens sakuTriv mqnevaras inerciis momenti. awyobili Tvlis (saburaviT, samuxruWe
doliT da sataciT) inerciis momenti icvleba SemDeg sazRvrebSi: msubuqi avtomobilebisTvis -
1,0...3,0 kg.m2; satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis - 7...25 kg.m2;
   wina gantolebaSi Tu aRvniSnavT

                     Im i02ik2m
                                       _________                      (2.45)
                                                m r2

da
                                       1
                         n Ik __                     (2.46)
                                    m r2

miviRebT
                          ik2

am tolobidan Cans, rom avtomobilis m dayvanili masa SeiZleba ramdenjerme aRematebodes
gadataniT moZraobaSi myof avtomobilis masas.



                                                                                            31
  im SemTxveviTi, roca mbrunavi nawilebis inerciis momenti ar aris cnobili,  koeficientis
miaxloebiTi mniSvneloba SeiZleba viangariSoT Semdegi formuliT

                ik2               (2.48)

sadac s mniSvnelobebi aRebuli unda iqnas 0,04...0,09 sazRvrebSi.
  rodesac Im da Ik inerciis momentebis zusti mniSvnelobebi ar aris cnobili, SeiZleba Semdegi
empiriuli formulis gamoyeneba/12/

           Im =  N emax;   Ik = 600( rk - 0,1)4             (2.49)

sadac N emax aris Zravas maqsimaluri efeqturi simZlavre, kvt; proporciulobis koeficienti,
romelic benzinis ZravebisTvis 0,0071 -is tolia, xolo dizelis ZravebisTvis - 0,018-is.
  inerciis Zalis miRebul gamosaxulebas (74) Tu CavsvamT wevis balansis gantolebaSi, miviRebT

           Mm ik I0 m                                     dV
     _________ = f G + KF V2 + G  + m ___             (2.50)
       r                                   dt

am gantolebis marcxena nawili warmoadgens damyarebuli siCqariT moZravi avtomobilis Pmx mxeb
wevis Zalas.
  rodesac avtomobili moZraobs Tanabari siCqariT, maSin wevis balansi Rebulobs aseT saxes.

                     Pmx = Gf + GKF V2                            (2.51)

   im SemTxvevSi, roca gaTvaliswinebulia zRvis donidan simaRlis gavlena avtomobilis mxeb
wevis Zalaze / 2 /
e.i.
          Ph = P0( 1 - h 10-4 )                        (2.52)

sadac Ph da P0 Sesabamisad warmoadgenen avtomobilis mxeb wevis Zalas h simaRleze da zRvis
doneze, kn; avtomobilis wevis balansis gantoleba aseTi saxiT SeiZleba Caiweros
      dV           1                                       dV
  ___ = ___( P0( 1 - h 10-4 ) - Pf - P - Pha); ___ = a;    (2.53)
      dtm                                       dt

   aRniSnuli gantoleba warmoadgens avtomobilis moZraobis diferencialur gantolebas samTo
pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
   zemoT Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze satvirTo avtomobilis faqtiuri TvirTamweoba moZraobis
daumyarebeli reJimis, aRmarTebiani da zRvis donidan did simaRleebze gamavali marSrutebis
gaTvaliswinebiT ase Caiwereba

             Pmx ( 1 - h 10-4 ) - KFV2
   m tv   = ___________________ - mavt              (2.54)
           g f + g sin  +  V a




            2.3. avtomobilis simZlavris balansi
  avtomobilis Zravas mier ganviTarebuli simZlavre ixarjeba transmisiis Siga winaaRmdegobisa da
avtomobilis moZraobisas warmoSobil garregan winaaRmdegobaTa daZlevaze.
                                                                                           32
  avtomobilis simZlavris balansi aseTi saxiT Caiwereba

       Ne = Ntr + Nf + Nha + N + Nj                       (2.55)

sadac Ntr, Nf , Nha, N da Nj Sesabamisad warmoadgenen transmisiaSi dakargul, gorvis
winaaRmdegobis gadasalaxavad, Haeris winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad, aRmarTis winaRobis
dasaZlevad da gaqanebisTvis (inerciis Zalebis dasaZlevad) saWiro simZlavreebs, kvt;
  ganxiluli danakargebidan Ntr, Nf da Nha nebismier SemTxvevaSi dadebiTia da xaxunis Zalis
daZlevaze ixarjeba. NaRmarTze moZraobisa dadebiTia da daRmarTze moZraobisas uaryofiTi,
xolo horizonTalur gzaze moZraobisas 0-is tolia; Nj aCqarebuli moZraobisas dadebiTia, Tanabari
moZraobisas nulis tolia, xolo Senelebuli moZraobisas uaryofiTi.
  Zravas Ne simZlavres Tu transmisiaSi dakargul Ntr simZlavres gamovaklebT, miviRebT
avtomobilis TvlebTan miyvanil simZlavres

         Ntv = Ne - Ntr                 (2.56)

viciT, rom
          Ntv = Ne tr                 (2.57)

aqedan gamomdinare

           Ne ( 1 - tr ) = Nf + Nha + N + Nj                     (2.58)

gorvis winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad saWiro simZlavre kvt-Si iangariSeba formuliT

                 Nf = Gf V = mgfV                                    (2.59)

sadac m aris avtomobilis masa, t; G - avtomobilis wona, kn; g - simZimis Zalis aCqareba m/wm2;
V - avtomobilis siCqare m/wm.
  haeris winaaRmdegobis Zalis dasaZlevad saWiro simZlavre
         Nha = KFV2 . V = KFV3                           (2.60)

aRmarTis winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad saWiro simZlavre

         N= G sin V                                  (2.61)

avtomobilis gaqanebaze (inerciis Zalis dasaZlevad ) daxarjuli simZlavre
                dV
         Nj = mV . ____                 (2.62)
                dt


sabolaod miviRebT
                                        dV
  Ne ( 1 -       tr ) = mgfV          + KFV3 + G sin V + mV . __                   (2.63)
                                                            dt

  satvirTo avtomobilebis faqtiuri tvirTamweobis gansasazRvravad viyenebT isev (2.1) gantolebas,
romelic avtomobilebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi ase Caiwereba /3, 8/

       Ph -PasC = Pf + PPj + Pha             (2.64)


                                                                                            33
/avtomobilisTvis Psal = 0; Pasd  0; R = 0/
sadac Ph aris avtomobilis mxebi wevis Zala h simaRleze zRvis donidan;

         Ph = P0 (1-h 10 -4 )                                  (2.65)

  avtomobilis mier gzis safarTan arasakmaris CaWidebaze daxarjuli Zala

          PasC mxmam                     (2.66)

avtomobilis TviTgadagorebaze daxarjuli Zala

              Pf = Gmax f avt = (Gavt + Gtv)favt           (2.67)

sadac Gmax warmoadgens maqsimalurad datvirTuli avtomobilis wonas kn.
  avtomobilis mier inerciis Zalis daZlevaze daxarjuli Zala satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis
msgavsad gamoiTvleba formuliT

   Pj = m max . j = 0,1 Gmax . j = j ( Gtv + Gavt)       (2.68)

  haeris winaaRmdegobis Zala Pha satvirTo avtomobilebis moZraobis                SemTxvevaSi
mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens mis wevis balansze da aseTi saxiT gamoiTvleba

        Pha = Cgars V2sam F                                   (2.69)

 sadac FF aris avtomobilis ganivkveTis farTobi; m2; Vsam - avtomobilis samuSao siCqare, m/wm;
Cgars - avtomobilis garsedinobis moduli, kg/m3
   zemoaRniSnuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT avtomobilis faqtiuri tvirTamweoba gamoiTvleba
formuliT
          Pmx (1 - h10 -4 ) - PasC - Pha
     Gtv = ____________________ - Gavt         (2.70)
             a + sin + favt

  (2.18) formulidan naTlad Cans aRmarTis daxris kuTxis, zRvis donidan simaRlis da gzis safarTan
CaWidebis xarisxis gavlena avtomobilis tvirTamweobaze.




  2.4. satransporto saSualebebis tvirTzidvis maCveneblebi
    satransporto saSualebis tvirTzidvis maCveneblebs miekuTvnebian:
- satransporto parkis jamuri tonaJi;
- moZravi Semadgenlobis erTeulis jamuri tvirTamweoba;
- tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri da dinamikuri koeficientebi.
    meurneobis satransporto parkis jamuri tonaJi ganisazRvreba formuliT

G=M1 G1 + M2 G2 +....+Mn Gn                  (2.71)

 sadac M1,M2,...Mn mocemuli markis satransporto saSualebebis raodenoba parkSi; G1,G2....Gn -
mocemuli markis satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweoba, t.



                                                                                            34
   magaliTi. ganvsazRvroT satransporto parkis jamuri tonaJi, Tu mis siobriv SemadgenlobaSi
iricxeba 8 satransporto saSualeba 2,5 t. tvirTamweobiT, 6 - 4 t. tvirTamweobiT, 11 - 5 t.
tvirTamweobiT da 22 - 0,5 t. tvirTamweobiT

        G = 8.2.5.+5.4+11.5+22.0,5 = 110 avtotona

   satransporto saSualebis erTeulis saSualo tvirTamweoba ganisazRvreba formuliT

               m1 G1 + m2 G2 + ....+mn Gn
               G saS = ____________________                                   (2.72)
                  m1 + m2 + .... + mn

    magaliTi. ganvsazRvroT 2.1 magaliTSi mocemuli moZravi Semadgenlobis saSualo
tvirTamweoba

           8.2,5 + 6.4 + 11.5 + 22.0,5
     GsaS = ________________________ = 2,34 t.
            8 + 6 + 11 + 22

   satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweobis gazrdis erTerT ZiriTad saSualebas warmoadgens
satransporto parkis aRWurva misabmelebiT.
   satransporto saSualebebi da misabmelebi xasiaTdebian nominaluri tvirTamweobiT, magram
maTi faqtiuri datvirTva ar Seesabameba xSirad am maCvenebels tvirTis saxis, simkvrivis,
dawyobis xasiaTis, savali gzis da klimaturi piobebis sxvadasxvaobis gamo. amitom satransporto
saSualebis datvirTvis SefasebisTvis iyeneben tvirTamweobis statikur da dinamikur koeficientebs.
   tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri koeficienti warmoadgens faqtiurad gadaziuli tvirTebis
raodenobis Sefardebas satransporto saSualebi nominalur tvirTamweobasTan, t
                Qf
           st _____                 (2.73)
                n Gn

sadac n aris reisebis raodenoba, n = 1...k; Gn - satransporto saSualebis nominaluri tvirTamweoba, t.
  Tu winaswar cnobilia tvirTis simkvrive - , maSin tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri
koeficienti SeiZleba ganisazRvros formuliT
                l b h 
st = ______
                                          Gn

sadac l, b, h Sesabamisad aris Zaris /bunkeris/ sigrZe, sigane da simaRle, m.
  tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis dinamikuri koeficienti din warmoadgens faqtiuri tvirTzidvis
moculobis Qf L-is fardobas tvirTzidvis SesaZlo moculobasTan
               Qf L
                        ______                  (2.75)
               Gn m

sadac L aris tvirTiT moZraobis saSualo manZili, km;
    m - satransporto saSualebebis inventaruli raodenoba.
  magaliTi. ganvsazRvroT satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri da
dinamikuri koeficientebi Semdeg pirobebSi: G = 8 t. l = 4 m. b = 1 m.  t/m3. L = 10 km. m =
5


                                                                                                      35
               4 . 2 . 1 . 0,
         st = _____________ = 0,6
                                  8

                                 8 . 0,6 . 10.
                     din = ____________ = 0,06
                8 . 5 . 20


  2.5 satransporto saSualebebis garbenis
       maCveneblebi
  satransporto saSualebis garbenis maCvenebels miekuTvneba tvirTiT moZraobis saSualo manZili
da garbenis gamoyenebis koeficienti.
  tvirTiT moZraobis saSualo manZili ganisazRvreba formuliT
                 l mT
          lsaS = _______ km              (2.76)
                 nr

sadac l mT aris moZravi Semadgenlobis mTliani garbena tvirTiT, xolo n r reisebis raodenoba.
  1 t. tvirTis gadazidvis saSualo manZili ganisazRvreba formuliT
                  Q
                        l t = _______             (2.77)
                                  m tv

sadac Q aris tvirTbrunva, t.km; m - gadasazidi tvirTis masa, t.
magaliTi: ganvsazRvroT tvirTiT moZraobis da 1 t. tvirTis gadatanis saSualo manZili Semdeg
pirobebSi: lmT = 350 km; nr = 74 m = 5 t.

                350
         l saS = _____ = 4,73 km;
                74

               5 . 350
         l t = _________ = 4,73
                370

  garbenis gamoyenebis koeficienti axasiaTebs datvirTuli satransporto saSualebis gamoyenebis
xarisxs saerTo garbenasTan fardobas drois garkveul SualedSi

               Ltv
           _______                (2.78)
               Ls

sadac Ltv da Ls Sesabamisad warmoadgens drois raRac SualedSi satrasporto saSualebis tvirTiT da
saerTo garbenas, km.
  garbenis gamoyenebis koeficientis saSualo mniSvneloba gansazRvruli raodenobis svlebisas
gamoiTvleba, rogorc saSualo mniSvneloba
         l1 m1 n1 + .... + lk mk nk
           saS = ___________________          (2.79)
         L1 m1 n1 + ....+ Lk mk nk



                                                                                              36
sadac l1,..., lk warmoadgens tvirTiT svlis sigrZes marSrutebis mixedviT, km. L1,...Lk saerTo
garbena yoveli svlisas, km; m1...mk satransporto saSualebebis raodenoba; n1...nk TiToeul marSrutze
Catarebuli reisebis raodenoba.
  magaliTi. vipovoT garbenis gamoyenebis koeficienti Semdeg pirobebSi: 5-ma avtomobilma
gaakeTa 3 svla, TiToeuli 15 km sigrZis da tvirTiT garbena - 8 km; 4-ma avtomobilma gaakeTa 7
svla, sadac erTi svlis sigrZe iyo 10 km da garbena tvirTiT 5 km; 2-ma avtomobilma - 6 svla. erTi
svlis manZili iyo 20km da tvirTiT moZraobis manZili -10 km. vipovoT garbenis gamoyenebis
koeficientis saSualo mniSvneloba

         8 . 5 . 3 + 5 . 7 . 4 + 10 . 6 . 2
   saS = ______________________________ = 0,51
        15 . 5 . 3 + 10 . 7 . 4 + 20 . 6 . 2


   2.6 satransporto saSualebis droiTi maCveneblebi
   satransporto saSualebis droiT maCveneblebs miekuTvneba: xazze gamoyvanis koeficienti,
teqnikuri mzadyofnis koeficienti, datvirTva-gadmotvirTvaze mocdenebis xangrZlivoba da cvlis
drois gamoyenebis koeficienti./ 1, 2, 5/.
   xazze gamoyvanis koeficientis gansazRvrisas saWiroa gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas satransporto
saSualebebis normirebuli mocdenebi, e.i. mocdenebi remontebis da teqnikuri momsaxurebebis
Catarebaze. zonaluri pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT amas SeiZleba daematos mocdenebi Tovliani
dReebis da sagazafxulo-saSemodgomo wvimebis gamo. maTi dadgena SeiZleba mravalwliani
monacemebis sistematizaciis safuZvelze. satransporto saSualebis xazze gamoyvanis koeficienti
ganisazRvreba formuliT
               md
          g = ______                      (2.80)
               mD
sadac d da D Sesabamisad warmoadgenen transport-dReebis raodenobas eqsploataciaSi da
satransporto parkSi.
   teqnikuri mzadyofnis koeficienti warmoadgens gamarTul mdgomareobaSi myofi satransporto
saSualebebis da maTi samuSaod gamoyenebis dReebis raodenobis namravlis Sefardebas parkSi
myofi satransporto saSualebebis saerTo raodenobis da parkSi yofnis xangrZlivobis namravlze
                md
                    mz = _____                    (2.81)
               mD
   sadac d da D Sesabamisad warmoadgenen gamarTul mdgomareobaSi da parkSi yofnis
transport.dReebis raodenobas. SeniSvnis saxiT unda iTqvas, rom satransporto saSualebebis xazze
gamoyvanis koeficientis maqsimaluri mniSvneloba teqnikuri mzadyofnis koeficientis tolia.
   datvirTva gadmotvirTvaze mocdenebis normatiuli mniSvnelobis dasadgenad gansazRvraven
yoveli markis satransporto saSualebisTvis mocdenebis saSualo dros gadazidvis da samuSaos
moculobis struqturis mixedviT datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoebis Sesrulebis wesis
/meqanizebuli, xeliT/ gaTvaliswinebiT
            m1 n1 t1 + m2 n2 t2 +... + mk nk tk
      tsaS = ______________________               (2.82)
            m1 n1 + m2 n2 + .... + mk nk
sadac m1, m2,... mk warmoadgens satransporto saSualebebis raodenobas markebis mixedviT, n1,
n2... nk - tvirTiT svlebis raodenoba, t1,t2...tk satransporto saSualebebis mocdenebis drois
xangrZlivoba yovel svlaSi, wT.
   magaliTi. ganvsazRvroT satransporto saSualebebis datvirTva-gadmotvirTvaze mocdenebis
xagrZlivoba Seadgenda 0,6 saaTs; 15 avtomobilma 15 svla 0,5 sT mocdenis droiT, 8 avtomobilma -
10 svla 0,7 saaTi mocdenis droiT.


                                                                                               37
       20 . 7 . 0,6 + 15 . 15 . 0,5 + 8 . 10 . 0,7
  tsaS = _______________________________ = 0,6 sT
         20 . 7 + 15 . 15 + 8 . 10

   datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis garda satransporto saSualebebis mocdenebi SeiZleba ganpirobebuli
iyos gadasazidi tvirTis saxis da teqnologiuri procesis sqemiT / awonva, sinjis aReba analizisTvis,
sabuTebis gaformeba da sxva/. maTi saerTo xangrZlivoba erT analizisTvis, sabuTebis gaformeba
da sxva/. maTi saerTo xangrZlivoba erT siobriv satransporto saSualebaze gamoiTvleba formuliT
              m Tg - mTmoZ
        T moc = __________                 (2.82)
                ms
sadac mTg warmoadgens transport-saaTis raodenobas ganawesSi,
mTmoZ -transport-saaTebis raodenoba moZraobaSi, m s satransporto saSualebebis saSualo siobrivi
raodenoba
   cvlis drois gamoyenebis maCveneblebi.
satransporto saSualebis ganawesSi yofnis xangrZlivoba tolia
          Tg = Tc + Tdam                  (2.83)
sadac Tc da Tdam aris Sesabamisad ciklis da damatebiTi dro, sT;
   satransporto saSualebis ganawesSi yofnis xangrZlivoba saangariSo periodSi SeiZleba
ganisazRvros formuliT
                   m T gan
             T saS = _______            (2.84)
                   md e

an kidev aseTi saxiT

                           m1 T1 + m2 T2 + ....+ mTk
             TsaS = ____________________             (2.85)
            m1 + m2 + .... + mk

   magaliTi. ganvsazRvroT satransporto saSualebis ganawesSi yofnis saSualo xangrZlivoba, Tu
cnobilia, rom 5 satransporto saSualeba ganawesSi imyofeboda 8 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, 7
satransporto saSualeba - 10 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, xolo 6 satransporto saSualeba - 7 saaTis
ganmavlobaSi.

              5 .8 +7 . 10 + 6 . 7
         TsaS = __________________ = 8,5 sT
                5+6+7
satransporto saSualebis ganawesSi yofnis drois gazrdis umTavres faqtors warmoadgens dReRamis
ganmavlobaSi cvlebis ricxvis gazrda. satransporto saSualebis cvlis drois struqtura mocemulia
2.1 cxrilSi
   satransporto saSualebis ganawesSi yofnis dReRamuri drois gamoyenebis kkoeficienti
gamoiTvleba formuliT
                  Tgan
            gan = ______                   (2.86)
                  24
                                  cxrili 2.1
satransporto                        reglamentirebul aracikluroperaciebze aranormirebul
saSualebis mier                     daxarjuli dro                          mocdenebze
erTi ciklis ganmavlobaSi               Taracikl.                           daxarjuli dro T dan
daxarjuli        dro       ciklur
operaciebze Tcikl

                                                                                               38
tvirTiT moZraobis sasargeblo    mosamzadebeli operaciebi satrasporto     aramwarmoebl-uri
dro T0                          saSualebebis gawyoba saTbob-sazeTi       danaxarjebi
uqmi svla - Tuq                 masalebiT.                               organizaciuli
damxmare dro Tdamxm.            sagzao furclebis aReba da gacema;        mizeziT;
(datvirTva-gadmotvi-            instrumentebis aReb-micema;              teqnikuri mizeziT;
rTva, gadsvlebi teq-            satransporto saSualebis daTvaliereba     meteorologi-uri
nologiuri momsaxu-              da      Semowmeba,        satransporto   mizeziT.
rebisTvis da sxva               saSualebis      garaJSi     dayeneba;
reglamentirebuli                avtomatareblis formireba.
cikluri momsaxure-              damatebiTi dro - Tdam.
bebi, nulovani                  teqnikuri momsaxureba, garecxva da
garbenebi)                      dasufTaveba,          reglamentirebuli
                                Sesveneba
                                /saWmlis miReba da sxva/

  ganawesSi satransporto ciklis gamoyenebis koeficienti gamoiTvleba formuliT
              Tc
          c = _____                (2.87)
              Tg

  satransporto saSualebis dReRamuri drois gamoyenebis jamuri koeficienti ganisazRvreba aseTi
saxiT

        j = gan cik Zir          (2.88)




    2.7 satransporto saSualebis siCqaruli                         maCveneblebi
                                                           satransporto  saSualebis ZiriTad
maCveneblebs miekuTvnebian:saSualo teqnikuri siCqare da saSualo saeqsploatacio siCqare.
saSualo teqnikuri siCqare iangariSeba formuliT /3, 4, 15/.

               LmT
         Tteq = ____                (2.89)
              m TmoZ

  saSualo saeqsploatacio siCqare iangariSeba formuliT
                L mT
        Vsaeqs = _______              (2.90)
               mT gan

sadac m aris xazze myofi satransporto saSualebebis raodenoba LmT - satransporto saSualebis
mTliani garbena, km TmoZ - satransporto saSualebis moZraobis dro, sT; Tgan-satransporto saSualebis
ganawesSi yofnis dro,sT.
   teqnikuri siCqaris angariSisas moZraobis droSi Sedis yvela SemTxveviTi gaCereba gzaze /
SlagbaumTan, gadasasvlelebze da sxva/. xolo saeqsploatacio saCqaris gamoTvlisas aucilebelia
gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas damatebiT normirebuli mocdenebi /datvirTva-gadmotvirTvaze, awonvaze,
sinjis aRebaze da sxva/.
   teqnikuri da saeqsploatacio siCqareebis Sefardeba gansazRvravs satransporto saSualebis
moZraobisTvis gamoyofili drois gamoyenebis koeficients

                                                                                               39
               Vsaeq
           moZ = _____                 (2.91)
               Vteq

   moZraobis teqnikuri siCqare damokidebulia satransporto saSualebis teqnikur maxasiaTeblebze
maqsimaluri sapasporto siCqare, Zravas simZlavre da sxva da sagzao pirobebze, xolo
saeqsploatacio siCqare amaT garda damokidebulia tvirTzidvis manZilze, tvirTamweobaze da misi
gamoyenebis koeficientze, garbenis gamoyenebis koeficientze, datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis
operaciebis Sesrulebis xerxebze da sxva.
   satransporto saSualebis saeqsploatacio siCqaris cvlilebis analizisas aucilebelia dawvrilebiT iqnas
Seswavlili sakiTxi, Tu saxeldobr ra faqtoris gamo Seicvala is. amasTan, yvela SemTxvevaSi
saeqsploatacio siCqaris gazrda ar aris sasurveli. ase, magaliTad, saeqsploatacio siCqare izrdeba
tvirTzidvis manZilis zrdisas, garbenis gamoyenebis koeficientis Semcirebisas, satransporto
saSualebis tvirTamweobis cvlilebisas da misi gamoyenebis xarisxis Semcirebisas /am dros
datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis operaciebze mocdenebis Semcirebis gamo/. yvela zemoTCamoTvlil
SemTxvevaSi saeqsploatacio siCqaris zrda warmoadgens uaryofiT faqtors da asabuTebs ara parkis
muSaobis gaumjobesebas, aramed gauaresebas.
   aqedan gamomdinare, saeqsploatacio siCqaris maCveneblebis gamoyeneba sxva maCveneblebis
gauTvaliswineblad satransporto parkis muSaobis analizisas SeuZlebelia. amisgan gansvavebiT
teqnikuri siCqaris maCvenebeli saSualebas iZleva gakeTdes sruliad gansazRvruli daskvna rogorc
satransporto saSualebaze, aseve sagzao pirobebze.
   satransporto saSualebis moZraobis saSualo teqnikuri siCqare /an saeqsploatacio siCqre /
ganisazRvreba formuliT
                  t1 v1 + t2 v2 + ....+ tk vk
                       Vteq = _________________               (2.92)
                                         t1 + t2 + ......+ tk
sadac t1, t2,..., tk aris satransporto saSualebis moZraobis xangrZlivoba, sT; v1,...vk -Sesabamisi
moZraobis siCqareebi, km/sT.
   magaliTi. ganisazRvros avtomobilis saSualo teqniuri saCqare marcvlis gadazidvisas kalodan
elevatorze da ukan, Tu cnobilia, rom 0,5 saaTs is moZraobs 18 km/sT siCqariT, 1,2 saaTs - 40
km/sT siCqariT da 0,7 saaTs - 50 km/sT siCqariT
            0,5 . 18 + 1,2 . 40 + 0,7 . 50
     V teq = ____________________________ = 38,4 km/sT
                 0,5 + 1,2 + 0,7
  analogiurad SeiZleba ganisazRvros saSualo teqnikuri / an saeqsploatacio/ siCqare yvela sxva
drois SualedSi /Tve, sezoni, weliwadi/.



    2.8 satransporto saSualebis mwarmoebloba
 satraqtoro-satransporto saSualebis mwarmoebloba warmoadgens mis mier Sesrulebul samuSaos
moculobas drois erTeulSi. samuSaos moculobis erTeuls satransporto procesebis warmoebisas
warmoadgens tona . kilometrze, /zogjer tonebSi/. xolo drois erTeulad miRebulia saaTi. saaTuri
mwarmoebloba /t.km/sT/ ganisazRvreba formuliT

             Gh,tv st Ltv
        W sT = _____________                (2.93)
                tr

sadac Gh,tv aris satraqtoro-satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweoba samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT
kn da is (2.18) formuliT gamoiTvleba/; st - satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis

                                                                                                  40
statikuri koeficienti; L tv - satransporto saSualebis tvirTiT moZraobis marSrutis sigrZe, km; t   r   -
reisis dro, sT.
   reisis dro iangariSeba formuliT

           Gh,tv      L tv L uq
      t r = ____ + tgad + _____ + _____        (2.94)
           W dam       V sam V uq

sadac W dam aris damtvirTavi saSualebis mwarmoebloba, t/sT; tgad - tvirTis gadmotvirTvis dro, sT;
L uq - uqmi svlis manZili, km; Vsam da V uq - Sesabamisad samuSao da uqmi svlis siCqare, km/sT.
rogorc (2.42, 2.43) formulidan Cans, samTo pirobebSi momuSave satransporto saSualebis
mwarmoeblobis ganmsazaRvrel ZiriTad parametrebs warmoadgenen tvirTamweoba, moZraobis
siCqare da daamtvirTavi meqanizmis mwarmoebloba, romelTagan pirveli ori sagrZnoblad
mcirdeba samTo pirobebSi tvirTzidvisas, es ki mniSvnelovnad amcirebs agregatis saaTur
mwarmoeblobas, risi gaTvaliswinebac aucilebelia agregatis saeqsploatacio maCveneblebis
gamoTvlisas. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT satrqtoro-satransporto agregati, romelsac tvirTi gadaaqvs
15 km manZilze da asrulebs maqosebur moZraobas. mocemul sagzao pirobebSi misi saSualo
siCqare Seadgens Vsam = V uq = 6 km/sT, rodesac vakeze mowyobil gzaze mas SeuZlia 15 km/sT
siCqariT tvirTzidva. vinaidan mocemuli gzis marSruti Seicavs mniSvnelovan aRmarTebs, misi
faqtiuri tvirTamweoba Seadgens Gh = 4,3 t-s, rodesac misi nominaluri tvirTamweoba vakeze swor
gzaze Seadgens 5 t-s. damtvirTavi meqanizmis saaTuri mwarmoebloba - WsT = 20 t/sT.
tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri koeficienti st = 0,8; tvirTis gadmotvirTvis dro t gad = 0,2 sT-
s. viangariSoT mocemuli satransporto saSualebis saaTuri mwarmoebloba mocemul da idealur
pirobebSi.
  (2.42) formulaSi Sesabamisi mniSvnelobebis CasmiT miviRebT: idealur pirobebSi W0 = 24,5
t.km/sT; xolo mocemul sawarmoo pirobebSi W= 9,5 t.km/sT.
   SeniSvnis saxiT unda iTqvas, rom zemoaRniSnuli formuliT SeiZleba ganisazRvros satvirTo
avtomobilis da motoblokuri satransporto saSualebis saaTuri mwarmoebloba.


     2.9 satransporto saSualebis sawvavis xarji
   samTo pirobebSi moZraobisas avtomobilebis msgavsad satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebic
araTanabari siCqariT moZraoben da maTi diapazoni umetes SemTxvevaSi Sors aris
optimalurisgan, amasTan maTi teqnologiuri moculobebis datvirTvis xarisxi dabalia, amitom Zrava
xan gadatvirTviT muSaobs, xan kidev dautvirTavia. garda aRniSnulisa satransporto agregatebs
xSirad uxdebaT iZulebiTi gaCerebebi, Semdgom adgilidan daZvra da gaqaneba. Zravas aseTi
datvirTva iwvevs sawvavis sagrZnob gadaxarjvas, rogorc amas mravalricxovani gamokvlevebi
gviCveneben /6 ,8/, da misi gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia agregatebis sawvaviT
uzrunvelyofisas.satrqtoro-satransporto agregatis sawvavis xvedriTi xarji kg/t.km - Si gamoiTvleba
formuliT
            G samTsam + G uqTuq + G 0T0
                 g = _____________________              (2.95)
                  Wcv
sadac Gsam Guq daG0 Sesabamisad warmoadgenen satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis sawvavis
normatiul saaTur xarjs muSa svlaze, uqm svlaze da gaCerebebisas. Wcv aris agregatis cvlis
mwarmoebloba Wcv = WsT Tcv. Tcv - cvlis dro, sT. Tsam, Tuq. da T0 Sesabamisad warmoadgenen
drois im periodebs cvlis ganmavlobaSi, rodesac warmoebs muSa svla, uqmi svla da gaCerebebi. Tu
am formulaSi CavsvamT (2.43) formulidan Sesabamis mniSvnelobebs da Tu davuSvebT, rom
samuSao da uqmi svlis manZilebi tolia, advilad miviRebT.


   (G samTsam + G uqTuq + G0 T0)( t d.g. / Ltv + 1/Vsam + 1/Vuq)

                                                                                                  41
gxv = _________________________________________ (2.96)
                Gh st
   rogorc (2.45) formulis analizi gviCvenebs, vinaidan samuSao da uqmi svlis siCqareebi samTo
pirobebSi mniSvnelovnad dabalia optimalur siCqareebTan SedarebiT, agreTve SedarebiT naklebia
tvirTamweoba da misi gamoyenebis koeficienti, sawvavis xvedriTi xarji samTo pirobebSi
sagrZnoblad izrdeba.
   samTo pirobebSi satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebis muSaobasTan SedarebiT avtomobilis
Zravas datvirTvis reJimis uTanabrobis xarisxi bevrad didia, romelic amitom sawvavis xarjis saxazo
norma /lit/100km/ mniSvnelovnad metia vakesTan SedarebiT.
   normirebis sadgurebis mier damuSavebulia cvlis droSi sawvavis xarjis saxazo normis dadgenis
meTodika /2 /, romelSic Sedis cvlis ganmavlobaSi sawvavis xarji uqm svlaze - gkm, tvirTzidvisas -
gt.km, gaCerebebisas - ggaC, da datvirTva-gadmotvirTvaze - g d.g. da damatebiTi sawvavis xarji,
romelic iTvaliswinebs zamTris da cud sagzao pirobebs - gdam. swored aq unda iqnas
gaTvaliswinebuli samTo pirobebi, vinaidan avtomobilis moZraobis TvalsazrisiT cud sagzao
pirobebs warmoadgens mixveul-mixveuli, mniSvnelovani aRmarTebis Semcveli, did simaRleebze
gamavali da mouwyobeli safaris mqone gzis monakveTebi.
   zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT adgilobrivi bunebriv-sawarmoo pirobebSi cvlis normatiuli
sawvavis xarji ase gamoisaxeba
       Gcv = gkmL/100 + gt.kmQt.km + gdgnr + gdam (2.97)
sadac nr - aris reisebis raodenobas cvlaSi.
   normirebis sadgurebis mier /3, 6, 12, 17/ Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze sawvavis damatebiTi
xarjisTvis dadgenilia Semdegi normativebi: karbiuratoriani da Semfrqvevi mowyobilobiT
aRWurvili benzinis Zraviani avtomobilisTvis sawvavis xarjis saxazo norma cud sagzao pirobebSi
izrdeba daaxloebiT 2,5 litriT 100 km manZilze, xolo dizelis Zraviani avtomobilebisTvis - 1,5
l/100km-ze sakuTari wonis yovel1 tonaze. analogiurad izrdeba sawvavis xarji cud sagzao pirobebSi
gamwevi da specialur Zariani avtomobilebisTvis /2, 16, 19/. motoblokuri satransporto
saSualebisTvis sawvavis xarji umniSvnelod izrdeba /14, 16 /, da praqtikulad misi ugulvebelyofa
SesaZlebelia.
    qarTvel da somex mecnierTa mier Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze dadgenilia, / 8, 9, 13, 15, 19/
rom samTo gzebze, romelTac gaaCniaT mixveul-moxveuli da aRmarTebis Semcveli monakveTebi,
sadac avtomobilebs dabali siCqareebiT uxdebaT moZraoba da Zrava xSirad gamodis optimaluri
reJimis sazRvrebidan, sawvav-sazeTi masalebis xarjis nazrdi 30...35%-s aRwevs. zemoT
CamoTvlili Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT sawvavis xvedriTi xarji ganisazRvreba aseTi saxiT.
                    Gcv
           g kg/t.km = _______              (2.98)
                    W cv,h
sadac Wcv,h warmoadgens satvirTo avtomobilis mwarmoeblobas samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT,
t.km/sT;



  2.10 tvirTis masis gavlena satransporto saSualebis sawvavis xarjze
 satransporto saSualebis sawvavis xarjze tvirTis masis gavlenis dasabuTebisaTvis visargebloT
satransporto saSualebis wevis balansis gantoebiT /7, 8 9 /

      Ne = Ntr + Nf + NNj + Nha            (2.99)

sadac Ne, Ntr, Nf, N Nj Nha Sesabamisad warmoadgenen saransporto saSualebis nominaluri,
transmisiaSi dakarguli, TviTgadagorebaze, aRmarTis daZlevaze, aCqarebaze da haeris
winaaRmdegobis Zalis daZlevaze daxarjuli simZlavreebs kvt.


                                                                                                42
  vinaidan samTo pirobebSi tvirTzidva xorcieldeba ZiriTadad dabali siCqareebiT. amitom
sawvavis xarjis nazrdi haeris winaaRmdegobis daZlevaze umniSvneloa da SeiZleba misi
ugulvebelyofa. amitom /2.49/ formula aseTi saxiT SeiZleba Caiweros

Ne - Ntr = Vgf(mavt+mtv)+Vgsinm avt+mtv)+(mavt+mtv)          (2.100)

aqedan

           Ne - Ntr - mavt ( Vgf + Vgsin Va)
             mtv = ______________________________ (2.101)
                       Vgf + Vgsin + Va

magram rogorc cnobilia, avtomobilisTvis carieli ZariT

      mavtVgf = Nfavt da mavtVgsin Navt           (2.102)

aqedan gamomdinare (2.50) formula aseTi saxiT Caiwereba

         Ne - Ntr - Nfavt - Navt - Njavt
   mtv = ___________________________                  (2.103)
            V(gf + gsin + a)

aqedan miiReba is damatebiTi simZlavre, romelic uSualod tvirTis gadatanaze ixarjeba

    Ndam = Ne - Ntr - Nfavt - Navt - Njavt = mV(gf + gsin + a)    (2.104)

   yoveli avtomobilisTvis sawvavis sakontrolo xarji, romelic modis 1 kvt.sT energiis
gamomuSavebaze, winaswar cnobilia da moicema misi sapasporto monacemebSi /2/ da is
iangariSeba formuliT
             Q           Q          Q
         q = _____ = ______ = _____    (2.105)
            AA           Nt       N L/V

sadac Q aris sawvavis faqtiuri xarji, kg/km; A - avtomobilis mier gamomuSavebuli energia, kvt.sT;
V - avtomobilis saSualo teqnikuri siCqare, km/sT.
  Tu CavsvamT (2.55)-s (2.54)-Si miviRebT sawvavis damatebiTi xarjis im mniSvnelobas,
romelic modis uSualod tvirTis gadatanaze garkveul L manZilze kilogramebSi

         Ndam L/V    mL( gf + gsin + a)                       (2.106)
          Qdam = ________ = _______________
                   36 36 

  im SemTxvevaSi, roca L = 100 km, miviRebT sawvavis xarjis im damatebiT saxazo normas,
romelic mxolod tvirTis masaze aris damokidebuli. maSin sawvavis faqtiuri xarji datvirTuli
avtomobilis moZraobisas 100 km. manZilis dafarvaze, an rac igivea sawvavis faqtiuri saxazo
norma, iangariSeba formuliT

              100m ( gf + gsina)
              Qf = Quq + _________________               (2.107)
                  36 



                                                                                              43
sadac Qf da Quq Sesabamisad warmoadgenen sawvavis xarjis saxazo normas tvirTiT da uqmi svlisas
lit/100 km.  - sawvavis kuTr wonas kg/lit.
    magaliTi: ganisazRvros gazelis markis nominalurad datvirTuli avtomobilis sawvavis xarjis
faqtiuri saxazo norma Semdeg pirobebSi: Quq = 14,2 lit/100 km; Gtv = 2,5 t; f = 0,1;
 kg/kvt.sT;  kg/lit; a = 0,4 m/wm2. (2.57) formulis safuZvelze miviRebT
Qf =14,2 + 3,04 = 17,24 litri.


  2.11 fuladi saxsrebis saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi satransporto          procesebze
  satransporto procesebis warmoebisas pirdapir saeqsploatacio danaxarjebSi Sedis fuladi saxsrebis
danaxarjebi satransporto saSualebis amortizaciaze, sawvav-sazeT masalebze da samuSao Zalaze.
daqiravebuli satransporto saSualebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi samuSaos mwarmoebel firmas
damkveTidan damatebiT ericxeba Tanxa kapitaldabandebis amogebis saxiT, romlis dadgena xdeba
urTierTSoris dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze.
  satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebiT tvirTzidvisas fuladi saxsrebis xvedriT-dayvanili danaxarjebi
gamoiTvleba formuliT

   Btratr Bmisamis       Btr Bmis 1
Sxv=(______ + ______+GsTKZrCsaw+ftr+EK(___ + ___)) __ (2.108)
   100Ttr 100Tmis           Ttr Tmis Wmis

sadac Btr da Bmis aris Sesabamisad traqtoris da misabmelis sabalanso Rirebuleba, lr; atr da amis -
koeficienti, romelic iTvaliswinebs traqtoris da misabmelis cveTaze, teqnikur momsaxurebaze da
remontze wliur saamortizacio danaricxebs maTi sabalanso Rirebulebidan procentebSi. Ttr da Tmis
traqtoris da misabmelis normatiuli wliuri datvirTva, Zr.sT; GsT - sawvavis saaTuri xarji satraqtoro
Zravas nominalur reJimze muSaobisas, kg/sT; KZr - Zravas datvirTvis xarisxi mocemul pirobebSi
satransporto procesebis warmoebisas; Csaw - sawvavis kompleqsuri sabazro Rirebuleba, lr; ftr -
traqtorist-memanqanis saaTuri anazRaureba lr/sT. EK - kapitaldabandebis amogebis koeficienti,
romlis mniSvneloba dgindeba samuSaos damkveTsa da mwarmoebels Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebis
safuZvelze. motoblokuri satransporto saSualebiT tvirTzidvisas fuladi saxsrebis xvedriT-dayvanili
danaxarjebi analogiuri meTodikiT iangariSeba
  satvirTo avtomobilebiT tvirTzidvisas fuladi saxsrebis xvedriT-dayvanili danaxarjebi vakis
pirobebSi gamoiTvleba formuliT

           Ba aavtVn    gs Cs   Ba Vn 1
  Savt=( ________ + f mZ+ _____ + EK_____ ) ___        (2.109)
       100 Lw        100      Lw WsT

sadac Ba aris avtomobilis sabalanso Rirebuleba, lr; a avt - koeficienti, romelic iTvaliswinebs wliur
saamortizacio danaricxebs avtomobilis sabalanso Rirebulebidan cveTaze, teqnikur momsaxurebaze
da remontze erTad procentebSi; Vn- avtomobilis normatiuli saxazo siCqare vakis pirobebSi km/sT;
Lw - avtomobilis normatiuli wliuri garbena, km; f mZ - mZRolis saaTuri anazRaureba, lr/sT; Csaw -
sawvavis kompleqsueri fasi bazarze, lr/lit; gsaw - avtomobilis sawvavis xarjis saxazo norma vakis
pirobebSi optimaluri siCqareebiT moZraobisas, lit/100 km.
   rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli saqarTveloSi sagzao pirobebi Zalzed rTulia, rac mniSvnelovnad
moqmedebs avtomobilis mwarmoeblobaze, sawvavis xarjze da samuSao Zalis danaxarjebze.
amasTan mniSvnelovnad izrdeba avtomobilis ZiriTadi detalebis cveTis intensivoba araTanabari
datvirTvis gamo. yovelive es zrdis fuladi saxsrebis saeqsploatacio danaxarjebs. zemoT CamoTvlili
faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT fuladi saxsrebis xvedriT-dayvanili danaxarjebi avtomobilisTvis samTo
pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT gamoiTvleba formuliT
     BaaVn      Cs(gs+g)        BaVn 1
   S = ( _______ + f mZ + _______ + EK ___ ) ___       (2.110)

                                                                                                 44
     100 Lwl       100      Lwl W
sadac a aris wliuri saamortizacio danaricxebi avtomaqanis sabalanso Rirebulebidan cveTaze,
teqnikur momsaxurebaze da remontze samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT procentebSi; g sawvavis
damatebiTi xarji gzebis sirTulis gaTvaliswinebiT lit./100km; WsatvirTo avtomobilis saaTuri
mwarmoebloba samTo pirobebis gaTvaliwinebiT


  2.12 optimaluri satransporto saSualebis SerCeva                                 tvirTzidvis
TviTRirebulebis saangariSo meTodikebs axasiaTebT erTi saerTo naklovaneba - saangariSo
formulebSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli tvirTzidvaze moqmedi faqtorebis stoqastikuri xasiaTi.
marTalia specialuri sagamocdo sadgurebis mier /3, 4, 8/ dadgenilia tvirTzidvis TviTRirebulebis
Semsworebeli koeficientebi zonebis mixedviT, magram, rogorc amas praqtika gviCvenebs,
Sigasaraiono tvirTzidvis procesebzedac mniSvnelovan sazRvrebSi cvalebadi garegani faqtorebi
moqmedeben, ris gamoc satransporto saSualebis mwarmoebloba, sawvavis xarji da fuladi saxsrebis
xvedriTi saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi SemTxveviTobis mniSvnelovan elements Seicaven. amitom
gzis sirTulis xarisxi unda dagindes konkretuli marSrutisTvis satransporto saSualebis im parametris
mixedviT, romelic yvelaze metad aris damokidebuli satransporto procesze moqmed garegan
faqtorebze da misi ricxobrivi mniSvnelobis dadgena unda moxdes SemTxveviTi sidideebis albaTur-
statistikuri analizis safuZvelze. tvirTzidvis procesSi satransporto saSualebis ZiriTad parametrebs
warmoadgenen simZlavre, tvirTamweoba da saSualo teqnikuri siCqare. CamoTvlili parametrebidan
tvirTzidvis mocemuli procesisTvis garegan faqtorebze, romelSic sagzao pirobebi igulisxmeba,
yvelaze metad aris damokidebuli satransporto saSualebis samuSao da uqmi svlis siCqare, romlebic
moZraobis procesSi mniSvnelovan sazRvrebSi cvalebad SemTxveviT sidideebs warmoadgenen.
siCqaris uTanabrobis gamo SemTxveviT sidides warmoadgens agreTve sawvavis xarji (lit./100km).
amitom unda ganisazRvros mocemul marSrutze sagzao pirobebis mixedviT saSualo teqnikuri
siCqare, Sevides is fuladi saxsrebis xvedriTi danaxarjebis saangariSo formulaSi, romlis gamoTvlis
Sedegi Sedardes optimalur sawarmoo pirobebSi momuSave imave satransporto saSualebis xvedriT
saeqsploatacio danaxarjebTan. optimalur sawarmoo pirobebSi igulisxmeba swori, mowesrigebuli
mSrali gza, romelic gadis zRvis donesTan axlos, ise, rom SesaZlebelia optimaluri saCqariT
moZraoba. amisaTvis SemoviRoT koeficienti, romelic warmoadgens mocemul da optimalur
sawarmoo pirobebSi tvirTzidvaze xvedriTi saeqsploatacio danaxarjebis fardobas da vuwodoT mas
sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficienti, romelic ase iangariSeba
                   Smoc
                Kgz = ______               (2.111)
                   Sopt
sadac Smoc da Sopt Sesabamisad warmoadgenen xvedriT saeqsploatacio danaxarjebs lr/t.km
mocemul da optimalur sawarmoo pirobebSi, romlebic (2.59) da(2.60) formulebiT gamoiTvleba.
vinaidan satransporto saSualebis xvedriTi saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi SemTxveviT sidides
warmoadgens, saWiroa Catardes misi albaTur-statistikuri analizi. kerZod unda ganisazRvros misi
maTematikuri lodini, dispersia, standarti, sarwmuno intervali mocemli sarwmuno albaTobiT. Cvens
mier damuSavebuli meTodikis mixedviT dadgenili iqna savali gzis sirTulis koeficientis
maTematikuri lodini da sarwmuno intervali dasaSvebi saeqsploatacio siCqareebis mixedviT kamaz-
5320, maz-504 da gazelis markis satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis, romelic mocemulia 2.10 cxrilSi
                              cxrili 2.10
Vkm/sT 20..2 25..2 30..3 35..3 40..4 45..49                       50..54      55..59    60..65
             4       9       4        9      4
gazel        2,04    1,74    1,56     1,43   1,31     1,21        1,13        1,07      1,01
 K gz
 IK          1,96. 1,68.. 1,52        1,39   1,29     1,19        1,11        1,05      1,0
             2,12    1,80    1,58     1,47   1,33     1,23        1,15        1,09      1,02
maz          2,16    1,82    1,59     1,45   1,41     1,21        1,14        1,07      1,02
 Kgz

                                                                                               45
IK         2,08.   1,74..     1,52..   1,39..   1,36..   1,17...   1,11...   1,05...   1,01...
           2,25    1,90       .        .        .        1,25      1,16      1,09      1,03
                              1,66     1,51     1,46
kamaz      2,24    1,88       1,64     1,48     1,37     1,27      1,17      1,11      1,05
 Kgz
 IK        2,15.   1,8..      1,59..   1,45..   1,35..   1,25...   1,16...   1,1...    1.04...
           2,33    1,96       .        .        .        1,29      1,18      1,12      1.06
                              1,69     1,51     1,39


   rogorc cxrilidan Cans, dabali dasaSvebi siCqareebisTvis sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis
cvlilebis sawmuno intervalis sigrZe didia yvela tipis satvirTo avtomobilisTvis. amasTan didia
TiTon koeficientis mniSvnelobac. dabal siCqareebze ganskuTrebiT intensiurad izrdeba Kgz - is
sarwmuno intervalis sigrZe didi tvirTamweobis avtomobilebisTvis. xolo roca maTi siCqare 20
km/sT-ze naklebia, sarwmuno intervalis sigrZis prognozireba saerTod SeuZlebelia. dasaSvebi
siCqaris zrdasTan erTad mcirdeba rogorc sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis mniSvneloba, aseve
misi cvlilebis sarwmuno intervalis sigrZe. amasTan am sidideebis mniSvnelobebi ufro intensiurad
mcirdeba maRali tvirTamweobis avtomobilebisTvis, xolo maRali siCqareebiT moZraobisas sagzao
pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis mniSvnelobebi sxvadasxva tipis da tvirTamweobis
avtomobilebisTvis praqtikulad erTmaneTisgan ar gansxvavdebian, xolo koeficientis cvlilebis
sarwmuno intervals umniSvnelo sigrZe gaaCnia.
   zemoT naTqvami praqtikulad ase SeiZleba Camoyalibdes: dabali dasaSvebi siCqareebiT
moZraobisas TvirTzidvaze fuladi saxsrebis xvedriTi saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi arastabiluria, maTi
cvlileba SesaZlebelia Zalian did sazRvrebSi. dasaSvebi siCqaris zrdasTan erTad xvedriTi
saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi TandaTan stabiluri xdeba. amasTan sagzao pirobebis sirTulis
koeficientis mniSvnelobebi sxvadasxva tvirTamweobis satvirTo avtomobilisTvis erTmaneTisgan
Zalzed mcired gansxvavdebian.
aqedan gamomdinare saerTod satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis Sedgenili iqna praqtikuli
gamoyenebisTvis vargisi cxrili, sadac mocemulia sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis cvlilebis
diapazoni dasaSvebi siCqareebis mixedviT
   cxrilSi mocemuli dasaSvebi siCqarisTvis sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis cvlilebis
diapazonidan didi tvirTamweobis satvirTo avtomobilebisTvis koeficientis maRali mniSvneloba
unda SeirCes, xolo dabali tvirTamweobis avtomobilebisTvis - dabali.
 sagzao pirobebis sirTulis koeficientis mniSvnelobaTa diapazoni satvirTo avtomobilebis dasaSvebi
siCqaris mixedviT
                                cxrili 2. 11
   V      20...24 25...29 30...34 35...39 40...44 45...49 50...54 55...59 60...64
km/sT
Kgz       2,24-     1,96-     1,68-       1,51-   1,38-    1,28-      1,18-    1,10-   1,04-
          1,97      1,69      1,52        1,39    1,29     1,19       1,11     1,05    1,0

   dadgenil koeficients aqvs sakmaod didi praqtikuli mniSvneloba tvirTzidvis procesebis
dagegmvisas, vinaidan sakmarisia gamoTvlili iqnas mocemuli satransporto saSualebisTvis fuladi
saxsrebis xvedriTi saeqsploataci danaxarjebi optimalur sawarmoo pirobebSi, misi gamravlebiT Kgz
mniSvnelobaze, romelic SeirCeva mocemuli tvirTzidvis marSrutze saSualo teqnikuri siCqaris
mixedviT miiReba fuladi saxsrebis xvedriTi danaxarjebis mniSvneloba mocemul sawarmoo
pirobebSi praqtikisTvis sakmarisi sizustiT.

            Smoc = Sopt Kgz                (2.112)

sadac Kgz-s mniSvneloba dasaSvebi saSualo siCqaris mixedviT aiReba /2.2/ cxrilidan.


                                                                                                 46
   konkretul sawarmoo pirobebSi ismis aseTi amocana: gadasatani aris garkveuli saxeobis da masis
tvirTi raRac manZilze winaswar cnobili sirTulis mqone gzaze. tvirTis mflobels sakuTrebaSi aqvs
raRac satransporto saSualeba. aris agreTve sxva satransporto saSualebis daqiravebis SesaZlebloba.
ismis kiTxva: mocemul sawarmoo pirobebSi SesaZlebel sakuTar da daqiravebul satransporto
saSualebaTa simravlidan rogor SevarCioT iseTi, romlis gamoyenebisas miiRweva tvirTzidvaze
fuladi saxsrebis danaxarjebis minimaluri mniSvneloba.
   cxadia, rom aseT pirobebSi tvirTzidvisTvis SerCeuli unda iqnas is satransporto saSualeba,
romlisTvisac Sesruldeba piroba
            Sopt = min ( Ssak, Sdaq (i) )           (2.113)

sadac Sopt S sak da Sdaq i Sesabamisad warmoadgenen optimaluri, sakuTari da i markis daqiravebuli
satransporto saSualebiT tvirTzidvaze xvedriT-dayvanil saeqsploatacio danaxarjebs (ix formula
2.59, 2.60) lr/t.km-Si. i = 1....n , n aris SesaZlebel dasaqiravebel satransporto saSualebaTa
markebis raodeniba.
   magaliTi: gadasatani aris 30 t. masis tvirTi 50 km manZilze erT mxares mocemul sagzao
pirobebSi. tvirTis mepatrones gaaCnia sakuTari satvirTo avtomobili gazeli. amasTan aris kamaz-
5230 markis satvirTo avtomobilis daqiravebis SesaZlebloba. ganisazRvros mocemul sawarmoo
pirobebSi optimaluri satransporto saSualeba, Tu saSualo faqtiuri siCqare V=30km/sT; dizelis
sawvavis fasi Cdiz = 0,65
lr/lit.; benzinis fasi Cben=0,90 lr/lit; Qgaz = 2,5 t.; Qkamaz=10t.; Lwl = 40000km/w EK=0,3 akamaz =
35%; agaz = 30%           g kamaz.sam = 36lt/100km; g kamaz.uq = 32lt/100km; g gaz.sam= 17,2 lt/100km; g
gaz.uq= 14,3 lt/100km;  = 1; Kgz=1,07; Bkamaz = 12500 lr; Bgaz = 4800 lr; f mZ=2lr/sT.
   Tu aRniSnul monacemebs SevitanT (2.63) formulaSi, miviRebT Sgaz = 0,185 lr/t.km; Skamaz =
0,0747 lr/t.km;
e.i. mocemul sawarmoo pirobebSi umjobesia kamazis markis satvirTo avtomobilis daqiraveba
tvirTis gadasazidd, miuxedavad imisa, rom sakuTari satransporto saSualebis gamoyenebisas
kapitaldabandebis amogebis koeficienti nulis tolia.




                       Tavi 3
         datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa meqanizacia
   datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa organizaciaze mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli
satransporto saSualebebis gamoyenebis efeqturoba, vinaidan misi swori organizacia sagrZnoblad
amcirebs satransporto saSualebebis mocdenebs, zrdis maT mwarmoeblobas, aumjobesebs Sromis
pirobebs, amcirebs moTxovnas samuSao Zalaze da Sesabamisad amcirebs tvirTzidvis
TviTRirebulebas.
   damtvirTavi meqanizebuli saSualebebis gamoyenebis efeqturoba gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia
mcire manZilebze tvirTzidvisas. am dros maTi gamoyeneba satransorto saSualebis mwarmoeblobas
xSirad orjer da ufro metadac ki zrdis.
   damtvirTavi saSualebis SerCeva damokidebulia Semdeg faqtorebze: tvirTis saxeze / dasayreli,
calobiTi, Camosasxmeli/, mis fizikur Tvisebebze, zomebze, tvirTbrunvis moculobaze da
gamoyenebul satransporto saSualebebze.
   soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi damtvirTavi saSualebebis gamoyenebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda
iyos sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis Semdegi Taviseburebani: tvirTebis mravalsaxeoba, gadazidvis

                                                                                                     47
vadebis koreqtirebis SesaZleblobebi, tvirTebis gamcemi da mimRebi punqtebis did teritoriaze
gafantuloba, cudi sagzao pirobebi, zogierTi masalis an produqciis Cqari gadazidvis aucilebloba.
yvelive zemoaRniSnulis gamo soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi moiTxoveba universaluri damtviTavi
saSualebis gamoyeneba

  3.1 datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis teqnikuri saSualebebi
   soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli damtvirTavi meqanizmebis nomenklatura sakmaod
mravalferovania da maTi klasifikacia warmoebs Semdegi niSnebis mixedviT /3,5/:
   moqmedebis principis mixedviT - peroduli da uwyveti. peroduli moqmedebis damtvirTavi
manqanebi samuSao process asruleben ciklurad, xolo uwyveti moqmedebis damtvirTavi
saSualebebis muSaobis procesi mimdinareobs wyvetis gareSe.
gadaadgilebis xarisxis mixedviT - mobiluri, stacionaluri da SezRudulad moZravi. es niSani
gansazRvravs damtvirTavebis gamoyenebis sferos /mindvris pirobebSi, sawyobebSi da sxva/.
   gadasazidi tvirTis saxis mixedviT - fxvieri masis, calobiTi tvirTis /avtoamwe, damtvirTavi
telferebi da sxva/ dasayreli tvirTebis /eqskavatorebi, mravalcicxviani damtvirTavebi da sxva/
marcvleuli tvirTebis / marcvaldamtvirTi, pnevmaturi damtvirTi da sxva/ sxvadasxva saxis tvirTebis
/sacvlel muSa organoebiani universaluri damtvirTavebi magaliTad - marcvleulis, Warxlis,
kartofilis, Zirxvenebis, Sxamqimikatebis, sasuqebis, silosis, Calis da sxva/.
   agregatirebis wesis mixedviT - TviTmavali specialur Sasze, sakidi - avtomobilebze da
traqtorebze, misabmeli da moZravi.
   amZravis saxis mixedviT - sakuTari, eleqtro da Tburi Zrava, traqtoris,an avtomobilis Zrava.




      3.2 damtvirTavi saSualebebis mwarmoebloba
   damtvirTavi saSualebis teqnikuri mwarmoeblobis qveS igulisxmeba tvirTis raodenoba, romelic
gadaitvirTeba cikluri drois erT saaTSi mocemul pirobebSi misi teqnikuri parametrebis faqtiuri
gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi.
   sxvadasxva moqmedebis principis mqone damtvirTavi meqnizmis faqtiuri mwarmoebloba
sxvadasxvanairad iangariSeba /3,5/. magaliTad lenturi transportioris mwarmoebloba iangariSeba
formuliT

         Wlen = 3,6 gtv V kg/sT                         (3.1)

sadac gtv aris transportioris 1 metr sigrZeze datvirTuli tvirTis masa kg/m; V lentis moZraobis
siCqare, m/wm;
  calobiTi tvirTis datvirTvisas

             Gtv
         gtv = ____                             (3.2)
              a

  fxvieri da dasayreli tvirTebis gadatvirTvisas

          gtv = 1000 F 

sadac Gtv aris erTeuli tvirTis masa, kg; a - tvirTebs Soris manZili, m; F - gadasatvirTi tvirTis
ganivi fenis maqsimaluri farTobi, m2;  - transportioris lentis Sevsebis koeficienti /WarlisTvis,

                                                                                              48
torfisTvis, wiaRiseulisTvis  = 0,3...0,6; xorblisTvis, qerisTvis SvriisTvis, qviSisTvis  =
0,3...0,5;/  - tvirTis simkvrive t/m3
      cxrilSi mocemulia transportioris lentis siCqaris cvlilebis diapazoni tvirTis saxisgan
damokidebulebiT
                               cxrili - 3.1
tvirTis saxe                                 lentis siCqare m/wm
xorbali, qeri, Svria                               2,5...4,0
mzesumzira, fetvi                                  2,5...3,5
torfi, naxSiri, wiaRiseuli                         1,0...1,6
fqvili, cementi, apatiti                           0,8...1,0
marili, cementi, grafiti, qviSa                    1,0...2,5

   xvetia transportioris mwarmoebloba
        Wxv = 3600 F V t/sT                  (3.4)
                                                 2
sadac F aris Raris horizontaluri kveTa, m ; V - xvetiebis moZraobis siCqare, /0,5...1,0 m/wm/;
koeficienti, romelic iTvaliswinebs transportioris daxris kuTxes /cxrili - 3.2/  - Raris Sevsebis
koeficienti /cxrili - 3.2/ tvirTis kuTri wona, t/m3.
        da  koeficientebis mniSvnelobebi
                                   cxrili 3.2
tvirTi                                      transportioris daxris kuTxe, grad.
metad fxvieri                   0,55          1,0           0.85       0,65         0,5
naklebad fxvieri                0,75          1,0           0,85       0,65         0,5


  xraxnuli konveirebis /Snekebis/ mwarmoebloba

           WS = 60 S n D/4 t/sT              (3.5)

sadac D aris xraxnis diametri, m; n - xraxnis brunTa ricxvi br/wT;(n = 50...100); S - xraxnis biji, m;
 - xraxnis Sevebis koeficienti;  - koeficienti, romlis mniSvneloba damokidebulia xraxnis daxris
kuTxeze.
   xraxnis bijad sxvadasxva saxis tvirTebisTvis miiReba: marcvleulis da sxva fxvieri tvirTebisTvis
S = 0,8...1,0 ; did naWrebiani da mZime tvirTebisTvis S = 0,5...0,7;
   Sevsebis koeficienti damokidebulia tvirTis saxeze. abraziuli tvirTebisTvis - 0,4...0,8; naxevrad
abraziuli, mcire naWrebiani tvirTebisTvis - 0,64...1,2; mZime, naklebad abraziuli - 0,25; mZime,
araabraziuli da blanti - 0,125daxris kuTxis mixedviT koeficientis mniSvnelobebi Sesabamisad
tolia 5 gradusze - 0,90; 10 gradusze - 0,8; 15 gradusze - 0,7; 20 gradusze - 0,65.
   cicxvebiani elevatoris mwarmoebloba:

        Wcic = 3,6 V qa t/sT               (3.6)

sadac q aris cicxvis tevadoba, t; a cicxvebs Soris manZili, m; V - cicxvebis moZraobis siCqare,
m/wm; cicxvebis tvirTiT Sevsebis koeficienti;  - tvirTebis simkvrive, t/m3.
  cicxvebis tvirTiT Sevsebis koeficienti sxvadasxva tipis tvirTebisTvis cvlilebis sazRvrebi
mocemulia cxilSi
                           cxrili - 3.3
marcvleuli kulturebi                                    0,75...0,9
dafqvili produqtebi                                     0,8...1,0
qviSa da miwa                                           0,7...0,8
saSual zomis naxSiris natexebi                          0,6...0,7
mZime da didnaWrebiani tvirTebi                         0,5...0,6
                                                                                                   49
  xetyis gamomtani jaWvuri konveiris mwarmoebloba

          Wt = V . 3600 / l c/sT             (3.7)

sadac l aris manZili kakvebs Soris, m; V - jaWvis gadaadgilebis siCqare, m/wm;
  pnevmaturi danadgarebis mwarmoebloba

         WpnV t/sT                (3.8)

sadac  aris atmosferuli haeris wneva. miRebulia, rom  = 1,2 kg/m2; V - haeris xarji m3/wm; -
narevis woniTi koncentracia, /gadasatani tvirTis wonis Sefardeba daxarjuli haeris wonasTan drois
erTeulSi/.
                 d2 V
                          Wpn = _____ m3/wm            (3.9)
                  4

sadac d aris milgamtaris Siga diametri, m; V - haeris samuSao siCqare; da V sidideebis
mniSvnelobebi sxvadasxva tvirTebisaTvis mocemulia cxrilSi

                             cxrili 3.4
tvirTebis dasaxeleba                                               V
marcvleuli                               5...25                      22...26
cementi                                 20...100                      9...25
naxSiris mtveri                         20...100                      9...25
qviSa                                    3...20                      30...70

  bunkeruli danadgarebis mwarmoebloba /gamtarunarianoba/
             Wbun = 3600 F0 V t/sT,      (3.10)
sadac F0 aris gamomSvebi xvrelis farTobi, m2 ; V - xvrelSi tvirTis gatarebis siCqare, m/wm; V -s
maRali mniSvnelobebi Seesabameba kargad gafxvierebul tvirTebs.
  perioduli damtvirTavebis da gadmomtvirTavebis mwarmoebloba t/sT
               Wper = Gtv nc        (3.11)

sadac Gtv aris tvirTis wona, romelic gadaadgileba erTi samuSao ciklis ganmavlobaSi, t/cik; nc -
samuSao ciklebis raodenoba erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi; Tcik - samuSao ciklis xangrZlivoba, wT.
   kiduri gzis mwarmoebloba
                       Wkid = m Gtv ncv t/sT        (3.12)
sadac m aris urikebis, an telferebis raodenoba; Gtv - tvirTis wona, romelic gadaizideba erTi ciklis
ganmavlobaSi; ncv - erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi Sesrulbuli ciklebis raodenoba.


  3.3 gamtarunarianoba, damtvirTavi punqtebis                 raodenodenoba da samuSao
frontis sigrZe
   damtvirTav-gadmomtvirTavi punqtebis gamtarunarianobis qveS igulisxmeba im satransporto
erTeulis raodenoba, romlebic emsaxurebian mocemul posts gansazRvruli drois SualedSi /1,5/
                24d
             Mp = ______              (3.13)
                td au

sadac d aris dReRamuri drois gamoyenebis koeficienti, t d - erTi satransporto saSualebis datvirTvis
xangrZlivoba, sT;a uT - uTanabrobis koeficienti, romelic tolia satransporto saSualebebis im
                                                                                                 50
raodenobis, romlebic mocemul posts emsaxurebian maTi uwyvetad dasatvirTad mosvlis pirobebSi,
Sefardebuli satransporto saSualebis faqtiur raodenobasTan, romlebic modian dasatvirTad.
    damtvirTavi, an gadmomtvirTavi postebis mwarmoebloba tolia
            Wpos pos gsaS saS t/d    (3.14)
sadac gsaS aris dasatvirTi, an gadmosatvirTi satransporto saSualebis tvirTamweoba, t; saS -
satranporto saSualebebis gamoyenebis saSualo koeficienti. 
    damtvirTavi, an gadmomtvirTavi postebis raodenobas gansazRvraven formuliT
                 Qp       Qp
            np = _____ = __________         (3.15)
                 Wc Mp gsaS saS

  sadac Qp aris damtvirTavi, an gadmomtvirTavi punqtebis dReRamuri tvirTbrunva, t/dR;
    damtvirTav-gadmomtvirTavi postebis ganlagebis xazs ewodeba fronti. frontis sigrZe - L
damokidebulia postebis raodenobaze - np, satransporto saSualebis dayenebis wesze (gverdiTi, Subla
da sxva), mis gabaritul zomebze (sigrZeze, an siganeze) - ba, mezobel satransporto saSualebebs
Soris manZilze - a, Tu es parametrebi cnibilia, maSin damtvirTav-gadmomtvirTavi postebis frontis
sigrZe tolia

        Lf = b np + a (np - 1 )                           (3.16)



 3.4. datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa TviTRirebulebis
               angariSi
  damtvirTav-gadmomtvirTavi samuSaoebis TviTRirebuleba tolia /1, 5, 8/

                Cdg
            Sdg = _____              (3.17)
                 Qdg

sadac Cdg aris mTliani saeqsploatacio danaxarjebi wlis ganmavlobaSi,lr; Qdg - gadatvirTuli
tvirTebis saerTo moculoba, t.
  saeqsploatacio danaxarjebSi Sedis damtvirTavi teqnikuri saSualebebis operatorebis Sromis
anazRaureba, agreTve danaxarjebi maT teqnikur momsaxurebaze, remontze, saeqsploatacio
masalebze da energiaze:

    C dg = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 + C5 + C6                    (3.18)

    sadac C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 da C6 Sesabamisad warmoadgenen damtvirTavi teqnikuri saSualebebis
operatorebis Sromis anazRaurebas, danaxarjebs saeqsploatacio masalebze da eleqtro energize,
kapitalur remontze da amortizaciaze, teqnikur momsaxurebaze da mimdinare remontze,
administraciuli personalis xelfasze, Sromis dacvis RonisZiebebze da sxva. Sromis anazRaurebaze
danaxarjebis dadgena xdeba urTierT Soris winaswar dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, rogorc
wesi namuSevari saaTebis mixedviT.
   energiaze danaxarjebi damtvirTavi meqanizmebisTvis, romlebic aRiZvrebian Sigawvis Zravidan,
tolia

         C2 = Csaw gsaw Tdg            (3.19)

sadac Csaw aris sawvavis Rirebuleba, lr/lit; gsaw - damtvirTavi saSualebis sawvavis saSualo saaTuri
xarji, lit/sT; Tdg - damtvirTavi saSualebis muSaobis wliuri xangrZlivoba, sT.


                                                                                                51
  iseTi damtvirTavebis, romelTa aZvra xdeba eleqtroZrvidan, energiis Rirebuleba SeZleba
ganisazRvros formuliT

          C2 = Cel  N Tdg                 (3.20)

sadac Cel aris eleqtroenergiis Rirebuleba lr/kvt.sT; N eleqtro Zravis simZlavre, kvt; eleqtro
Zravis simZlavris gamoyenebis koeficienti( = 0,3...0,6).
  saamortizacio danaricxebi da danaxarjebi kapitalur remontze damtvirTavebisTvis tolia

               Sdam aam
             C3 = _______                  (3.21)
                100

sadac Sdam aris manqanis, an danadgaris sawyisi fasi, lr; aam - saamortizacio danaricxebis normebi (
perioduli moqmedebis damtvirTavebisTvis aam = 8...14%, xolo uwyveti moqmedebis
damtvirTavebisTvis - 14 ... 23%).
  miaxloebiTi angariSisas SeiZleba miviRoT, rom wliuri danaxarjebi damtvirTavebis teqnikur
momsaxurebaze da mimdinare remontze erTcicxviani damtvirTavi meqanizmebisTvis Seadgens
misi sawyisi fasis Sesabamisad 0,5 da 5%-s, lentiani da xvetia transportiorebisTvis 2 da 4%-s,
Cangliani avto damtvirTavebisTvis - 2 da 10%-s; zednadebi danaxarjebi administrciuli personalis
Senaxvaze, teqnikur momsaurebaze, Sromis dacvaze da sxva daaxloebiT Seadgens mTliani
saeqsploatacio danaxarjebis 10...15%-s.




   3.5. optimaluri damtvirTavi saSualebis SerCea                              mocemul
sawarmoo pirobebSi optimaluri damtvirTavi saSualebis SerCevisas kriterumad miRebuli unda
iqnas fuladi saxsrebis xvedriT-dayvanili danaxarjebi, romelic yoveli j SesaZlebeli variantisTvis
ganisazRvreba formuliT

           S j = C j + K j E nor                  (3.22)

sadac K j aris xvedriTi kapitaldabandeba, lr; Cj - datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoTa
TviTRirebuleba, lr; Enor- kapitaldabandebis amogebis koeficienti.
  optimaluri damtvirTavi meqanizmis danergviT miRebuli ekonomikuri efeqti tolia

      Eopt = (Ssab - Sopt) + (Ksab - Kopt) Enor     (3.23)


sadac indeqsebiT “sab” da “opt” aRniSnulia maCveneblebi Sesabamisad sabazo da optimaluri
variantebisTvis.
   kerZo SemTxvevebSi, roca xdeba damtvirTavi meqanizmis ara umetes ori variantis
erTmaneTTan Sedareba da Sesadarebeli variantis xvedriTi kapitadabandeba, vidre sabazosi, maSin
maT Soris saukeTesos SerCevisTvis SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuliiqnas damatebiTi
kapitaldabandebis amogebis vadis kriteriumi, an maTi efeqturobis normatiuli koeficienti. am
SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTTan unda Sedardes kapitaldabandebis sidide da datvirTvis
TviTRirebuleba. cxadia, is varianti, romlis gamoyenebis drosac kapitaldabandeba da
TviTRirebuleba minimaluria, CaiTvleba optimalurad. Tu Sesadarebeli variantidan erTs gaaCnia
mcire TviTRirebuleba, magram iTxovs did kapitaldabandebas, unda Catardes orTave am
maCveneblis angariSi da yuradReba mieqces kapitaldabandebis amogebis vadas - t, an misi
efeqturobis normatiul koeficients - En,

                                                                                                 52
          K1 - K2                        S1 - S2
               t = ___________ weli; En = _______         (3.24)
          S2 - S1                         K1 - K2

sadac K1 da K2 warmoadgenen Sesabamisad Sesadarebeli variantebis xvedriT kapitaldabandebebs.
damtvirTavi manqanebisTvis zemoxsenebuli kriteriumebis mniSvnelobebad SesaZlebelia aseTi
sidideebis gamoyeneba: t = 8,3 ... 8,4 weli Enor = 0,12
   magaliTi: ori damtvirTavi meqanizmidan SevarCioT saukeTeso, Tu pirvelisTvis xvedriTi
kapitaldabandeba da TviTRirebuleba Seadgens K1 = 25 TeT/t; S1 = 10 TeT/t, xolo meorisTvis - K2
= 15 TeT/t da S2 = 12TeT/t.
   mocemul pirobebSi kapitaldabandebis amogebis vada Seadgens



                25 - 15
           t1n = __________ = 5 weli
                 12 - 10

xolo kapitaldabandebis efeqturobis normatiuli koeficienti

            E nor = 1/5 = 0,2

  imis gamo, vinaidan t1t       da E1E, ganxiluli variantebidan pirveli, romlisTvisac
kapitaldabandeba metia, xolo samuSaos TviTRirebuleba naklebi, ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT ufro
xelsayrelia, vidre meore.



                      Tavi - 4
       satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri eqsploatacia

  4.1. satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri momsaxurebis

                      perioduloba da grafikebis Sedgena
   traqtorebis da avtomobilebis teqnikuri momsaxurebis sistemaSi Sedis gamosaxmariseba,
teqnikuri daTvaliereba, yoveli cvlis, perioduli da sezonuri teqnikuri momsaxureba / 2 /. 4.1. cxrilSi
mocemulia traqtorebis teqnikuri momsaxurebis saxeebi, perioduloba (safexurebs Soris intervali) da
maTi Catarebis pirobebi.

   traqtorebis teqnikuri momsaxurebis saxeebi, perioduloba
                        da                                       Catarebis pirobebi
                               cxrili 4.1.
teqnikuri momsaxurebis saxe               teqnikuri momsaxurebis perioduoba(Zrav.sT) da
                                          pirobebi
         1                                          2
gamosaxmarisebis. teq.momsaxureba         gamosaxmarisebisdawyebamde,
                                          gamosaxmarisebis periodSi da damTavrebis
                                          Semdgom
yoveli cvlis teqmomsaxureba               8 ...10 sT
pirveli teqmomsaxureba                    yoveli 125 Zr.sT Semdgom
meore teqmomsaxureba                      yoveli 500 Zr.sT Semdgom

                                                                                                  53
mesame teqmomsaxureba              yoveli 1000 Zrav.sT Semdgom
sezonuri, gazafxul-zafxulis        roca haeris temperatura 
sezonuri, Semodgoma-zamTris        roca haeris temperatura 
                                   trqtorebis, avtomobilebis da mcire meqanizaciis
eqsploataciis gansakuTrebul pirobebSi
                                   satranspor-
                                   to saSualebebis rTul pirobeb-Si muSaoba
                                   (xangrZliv siciveSi, qvian, Waobian niadagebSi,
                                   samTo pirobebSi.
xangrZlivad SenaxvisTvis momzadeba ara ugvianes 10 dReSi samuSaos damTavrebidan.
xangrZlivi Senaxvis periodSi       TveSi erTxel - Ria moedanze
                                   2 TveSi erTxel - daxurul SenobaSi
xangrZlivi Senaxvidan moxsnis      15 dRiT adre eqsploataciis dawyebamde

  praqtikaSi cxrilSi mocemuli maCveneblebi cvalebadobs adgilobrivi sawarmoo pirobebis mixedviT
daaxloebiT -is farglebSi.
    satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri daTvaliereba warmoebs wlis ganmavlobaSi periodulad
markebis da daniSnulebis mixedviT da is mimdinareobs Semdegi sqemis mixedviT: moqmedi
kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze upirveles yovlisa xdeba Zaris, Sasis, Zravis da sanomre niSnebis
sabuTebTan Sesabamisobis Semowmeba. Semdgom xdeba satransporto saSualebis sdeq-signalis,
gabarituli maSuqebis, moxvevis maCveneblebis, axlo naTebis farebis mdgomareobis, saqare minis
mdgomareobis, kabinis Siga da garegani ukana xedvis sarkeebis mdgomareobis, saWis Tavisufali
svlis, mimmarTveli Tvlebis gverdcdenis da daxrilobis Semowmeba, saburavebSi wnevis,
proteqtorebis     tipis da cveTis xarisxis, xelis muxruWis Tavisufali svlis da mdgomareobis,
usafrTxoebis Rvedebis (usafrTxoebis sahaero baliSebis uqonlobis SemTxvevaSi), minebis Caburvis
sididis, samuxruWe sistemis, CaWidebis quros muSaunarianobis, gamonabolqvi airebSi
momwamlavi nivTierebebis Semcvelobis, gabaritul maSuqebze, saqare da ukana minebze, gabaritul
farebze da sdeq signalze sanomre niSnebi, saxanZro usafrTxoebis da samedicino afTiaqis
Semowmeba.. samuxruWe vakuumis, saWis meqanizmis hidro gamaZlliereblis, avtoblokirebis
sistemis da a.S. dauSvebelia satransporto saSualebaze specialuri signalebis, antenebis, damatebiTi
farebis da sxva spec. daniSnulebis xelsawyo-danadgarebis dayeneba saTanado nebarTvis gareSe.
satvirTo avtomobilebis , avtobusebis, TviTmclelebis gamwevi da sxva specialuri daaniSnulebis
avtomobilze damatebiT mowmdeba yvela is mowyobiloba, romliTac aRWurvilia avtomobili (Zaris
Camketebis, amwevi hidrocilindrebis, gadasabmeli mowyobilobis, isrebis, bagirebis, gadamcemi
meqanizmis da sxva specialuri danadgarebis mdgomareoba).
   teqnikuri momsaxurebis periodulobis dadgena umjobesia daxarjuli sawvavis mixedviT, vinaidan
es maCvenebeli ufro zustad asaxavs muSaobis faqtiur pirobebebs da misi aRricxvac SedarebiT
iolia. Tu viciT mocemuli markis traqtoris sawvavis saaTuri xarji misi saSualo datvirTvisas (cxrili
4.2) da teqmomsaxurebis perioduloba Zr.sT-Si, maSin SeiZleba viangariSoT teqnikuri
momsaxurebis perioduloba.
   magaliTi: davadginoT teqmomsaxurebis perioduloba T-150K markis traqtorisTvis daxarjuli
sawvavis raodenobis mixedviT. vinaidan cnobilia, rom aRniSnuli markis traqtoris pirveli teqnikuri
momsaxureba tardeba 125 Zrv.sT-is Semdeg, 4.2 cxrilidan vRebulobT GsaS = 22kg/sT, aqedan
pirveli teqnikuri momsaxureba unda Catardes 125 . 22 = 2750 kg sawvavis daxarjvis Semdeg;
analogiurad SeiZleba iqnas gaangariSebuli meore da mesame teqnikuri momsaxurebs perioduloba
daxarjuli sawvavis mixedviT; tm2 -11000kg; tm3 - 22000 kg.
   sawvavis saaTuri xarji satraqtoro Zravas sxvadasxva reJimze muSaobisas
                              cxrili 4.2.
traqtoris marka          samuSao reJ - Gsam        uqm svlaze-Guq          gaCer-G0
K-700, K-701M            27,0........37,0          13,0..........18,3      3,2
MTZ -80, MTZ-82          11,8........14,9          8,5.............8,9     1,2
T-150K                   20,0........25,5          10,5...........15,6     1,6

                                                                                               54
MTZ-100, MTZ-102
T-40AM, T-40ANM        5,0.........7,6            3,5............5,0     1,0
T-30, T-30A
T-16M, T-25A           2,5.........4,3            1,5............2,6     0,8

4.3. cxrilSi mocemulia traqtorebis teqnikuri momsaxurebisa da remontebis periodulobis
saorientacio maCveneblebi daxarjuli sawvavis mixedviT.
                            cxrili 4.3.
traqtorebis marka   pirveli          meore     mesame  mimd.     kapit.
                    t.m.             t.m       t.m     remonti   remonti
K-700               1600 kg          6400      25600   51200     143600
K-701K              2700             10800     43200   86400     259200
T-150k              1400             5600      22600   44800     134400
MTZ-80, MTZ-82      600              2400      9600    19200     57000
T-40AM, T-ANM       500              2000      8000    16000     48000
T-25A, T-16M        160              640       2560    5120      15360

   satvirTo avtomobilebs utardebaT yoveli cvlis, pirveli da meore teqnikuri momsaxureba,
mimdinare da kapitaluri remonti. am SemTxvevaSi intervalis zomad Zrav.saaTebis magivrad
miRebuilia garbenili manZili kilometrebSi. aqac gaTvaliswinebulia avtomobilebis muSaobis
pirobebi. misi normativebi mocemulia 4.4 cxrilSi /2, 3, 4/.
   teqnikuri momsaxurebebis da remontebis raodenoba garbenili manZilis mixedviT kilometrebSi
                             cxrili 4.4.
avtomobilebi          t.m - 1            t.m - 2        mimd. rem kap. rem.
satv. avtomob.        1500...2000        7500...10000   50000     100000
avtobusebi            2000...3000        10000...15000     -        -




  4.2. teqnikuri momsaxurebebis da remontebis raodenobis
                 angariSi
   daxarjuli sawvavis mixedviT perioduli teqnikuri momsaxurebebis da mimdinare remontebis
raodenoba raRac garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi ( sezoni, weli da aS) ganisazRvreba formuliT
              Q        Q     Q
          n = ________ - _______ - ______       (4.1)                                  Ik
Ik+1          I k+2
sadac Q aris sawvavis xarji aRniSnul periodSi, Ik, Ik+1, Ik+2 - k, k+1, k + 2 nomris teqnikuri
momsaxurebis perioduloba daxarjuli sawvavis mixedviT (ix cxrili 4.3.) SeniSvnis saxiT unda
iTqvas, rom vinaidan teqnikuri momsaxurebebis raodenoba mTeli ricxvi unda iyos, Sedegi unda
damrgvaldes mTel ricxvamde.
   magaliTi: t-150k markis traqtori weliwadSi saSulod xarjavs 12500 kg sawvavs ( ix cxrili 4.3 ),
viangariSoT wlis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli teqnikuri momsaxurebebis raodenoba nomrebis
mixedviT
             12500       12500
         n1 = _________ - _______ = 9 - 2 = 7
             1400       1400

           12500     12500
       n2 = ________ - ________ = 2      n3 = 1
           5600     22600

                                                                                              55
   sezonuri teqnikuri momsaxureba traqtorebs, rogorc wesi utardebaT weliwadSi orjer. yoveli cvlis
teqnikuri momsaxureba ki, cvlis damTavrebis Semdgom. aqedan, Tu miviRebT, rom weliwadSi
samuSao dReebis raodenoba Seadgens D = 250 dRes, xolo cvlianobis koeficienti cv = 1,3, maSin
miviRebT wlis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli yoveli cvlis teqmomsaxurebis raodenobas nwl = D  = 250
. 1,3 = 325.
   mimdinare da kapitaluri remontebis gegmis mixedviT Catareba ar aris savaldebulo. remontebis
Catarebis aucilebloba dgindeba satransporto saSualebis specialuri eqspertizis Catarebis Sedegad
satransporto saSualebis faqtiuri teqnikuri mdgomareobis mixedviT. amasTan sasurvelia, rom
remontebis Catareba ar daigegmos satransporto saSualebebis muSaobis daZabul periodSi. me-2 da
me-3 teqnikuri momsaxureba aseve sakmaod Sromatevadia, amitom aRniSnuli teqnikuri
momsaxurebebi ar unda daigegmos erT da imave dros satransporto saSualebebis didi
raodenobisTvis.



   4.3. satrnsporto saSualebebis teqnikuri dignostika
   satransporto saSualebis teqnikuri diagnostika warmoadgens misi ZiriTadi kvanZebis
mdgomareobis dauSlelad gansazRvris process.
   satransporto saSualebebis diagnostikis ZiriTad amocanebs warmoadgens:
- satransporto saSualebebis teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebis da regulirebebis Semowmeba;
- agregatebis, kvanZebis, da mTlianad manqanis mdgomareobis Seswavla, dadgena da klasifikacia;
   satransporto saSualebebs diagnostika utardebaT Semdegi maCveneblebis dadgenis mizniT:1.
manqanis (meqanizmis) muSaunarianoba; 2. manqanis (meqanizmis) uwesivroba; 3. manqanis
umtyuvno muSaobis narCeni resursis da Semdgomi eqsploataciisTvis vargisianobis prognozireba.
   manqanis uwesivrobis Sesaxeb diagnozis dasma warmoadgens informaciebis miRebis da
damuSavebis logikur process. informaciebs vRebulobT garegani simptomebis (xmauri, vibracia,
temperatura, wneva, gamonabolqvis feri, sawvavis xarji, simZlavre, brunvis sixSire da sxva) saxiT
da parametrebis gazomvis Sedegad.
   parametrs, romelic izomeba xelsawyoebis saSualebiT da axasiaTebs kvanZis, agregatis, sistemis,
elementis teqnikur mdgomareobas - ewodeba diagnostikuri parametri. maT miekuTvnebian:
simZlavre, wneva, temperatura, xmauri, gamonabolqvi, karteriSi gaparuli airebi.
   arCeven ori jgufis parametrebs - Semaval ( wevis winaRoba, reliefi, wneva, zRvis donidan
simaRle da sxva) da gamomaval parametrebs ( simZlavre, brunvis sixSire, bolva, temperatura da
sxva).Semavali da gamomavali parametrebi aris sistemis Tvisebebis da zemoqmedebis zoma.
   sistemis parametrebis mniSvneloba SeiZleba iyos: nominaluri, dasaSvebi normaluri da zRvruli.
   nominaluri aris parametris is mniSvneloba, roca uzrunvelyofilia elementis eqsploataciis
maqsimaluri efeqturobi. dasaSvebi, roca uzrunvelyofilia elementis mtyuvnebis gareSe muSaoba;
normaluri, parametris is mniSvnelobaa, romelic ar gamodis dasaSvebi sazRvrebis gareT; zRvruli,
roca elementis ( manqanis, kvanZis) Semdgom eqsploatacia dauSvebelia.
   narCeni resursi aris manqanis (kvanZis, SeuRlebis) muSaobis xangrZlivoba kontrolis
momentidan mis zRvrul mdgomareobamde, romelic xasiaTdeba zRvruli kveTiT, samuSaos xarisxis
dauSvebeli gauaresebiT, ekonomikurobis daqveiTebiT da sxva. elementis narCeni resursis
gansazRvrisTvis aucilebelia vicodeT: muSaobisas sakontrolo parametris cvalebadobis
kanonzomiereba da parametris sawyisi normaluri mniSvneloba - Pn, mniSvneloba gazomvis
momentSi - Pg da zRvruli mniSvneloba PzR.
   Zravas dguS-cilindruli jgufis teqnikur mdgomareobas (cveTas) adgenen karterSi gaparuli airebis
raodenobis (lit/wT) gazomvis saSualebiT. narCeni resursi saaTebSi ganisazRvreba formuliT:
                  _______
                  zRn
                 Pn = Pt (  _______ - 1)           (4.2)
                  gn

                                                                                              56
sadac aris funqciis xarisxis maCvenebeli (4.5. cxrili).
 -s miaxloebiTi mniSvnelobebi traqtorebis da s.s. manqanebis saxvadasxva kvanZebisa
mocemulia cxril 4.5 - Si

                                                                     cxrili 4.5
kvanZebis, detalebis, SeuRlebebis  kvkvanZebis, detalebis, SeuRlebebis 
teqnikuri mdgomareobis parametri        teqnikuri          mdgomareobis
                                        parametri
Zravas simZlavre                    1,7 gamanawilebeli lilvis muStas 1,1
                                        cveTa simaRleze
zeTis wva karterSi                  2,0 plunJeruli wyvilis cveTa              1,1
karterSigaparuli airebis raodenoba: 1,3 RerZebis, TiTebis, gorgolaWebis 1,4
                                        cveTa
dguSis rgolebis Secvlamde           1,3 Slicebiani RerZis cveTa               1,0
dguSis rgolebis Secvlis Semdeg      1,5 kbilanebis kbilebis cveTa sisqeSi 1,5
RreCo dguS-barbcas meqanizmSi       1,4 korpusis datalebis       budeebis 1,0
                                        cveTa
RreCo sarqvelebSi                   1,1 gorvis sakisrebSi radialuri cveTa 1,5
blokis saxuravis da sar-qvelebis 1,6
budeebis cveTa


   magaliTi: mtz-80 markis traqtorma bolo kapitaluri remontidan imuSava Pgam = 2000 Zr.sT.
gazomvisas aRmoCnda, rom karterSi gaparuli airebis raodenoba gaz = 64 lit/wT, parametris
zRvruli sidide mocemuli markis ZravasTvis Seadgens zR = 90 lit/wT;  = 1,3 (ix. cxrili 4,5).
vipovoT narCeni resursi Zrav.saaTebSi
            90 - 28 -1,3
    Pnar = 2000 (  ) - 1  Zr.sT
            64 - 28
   Tu winaswar ar aris cnobili axali, an garemontebuli kvanZis namuSevari Zrav.saaTebis
raodenoba misi eqsploataciis dawyebidan, magram cnobilia wina sakontrolo gamocdis Sedegebi da
Sesabamisi gamomuSaveba, aseT SemTxvevaSi kvanZis (an meqanizmis) narCeni resursi
iangariSeba iangariSeba formuliT:
             Pn = R P1n                  (4.3)
sadac koeficienti
                  1
           R = __________ + 1                 (4.4)
                         - 
              (U2/U1 - 1)
sadac U1 = gaz - saw aris pirveli sakontrolo gazomviT miRebuli parametris cvalebadobis sidide.
U2 = saw, parametris mniSvnelobis cvlilebis sidide meore gazomvisas.

    magaliTi: mtz-80 markis traqtoris Zravas pirveli Semowmebisas cilindridan karterSi gaparuli
airebis sidide iyo gaz = 58 lit/wT, meore gazomvisas - gaz = 78 lit/wT. gazomvebs Soris
namuSevari Zrav.saaTebis raodenoba Pg= 1000 Zr/sT. parametris zRvruli mniSvneloba - zR = 90
lit/wT, nominaluri(sawyisi) mniSvneloba-n =28 l/wT; 

                            1
                    R = ___________ + 1 = 3,08
             78 - 28 1/1,3
           ( ______ )

                                                                                              57

1/1,3
              P1n = 1000 ( _______ ) - 1 = 180
                          78 - 28
              Pn = 3,08 . 180  550 sT.




               4.4. samanqano ezo
   sasoflo-sameurneo teqnika da satransporto saSualebebi avtomobilebis garda gamoiyenebian
SedarebiT mcire periodis ganmavlobaSi danarCeni dro saWiroa maTi dayeneba Senaxvaze.
arsebobs Senaxvis sami wesi: Ria Senaxva, daxuruli Senaxva da kombinirebuli Senaxva. Senaxvis
Ria wesis gamoyenebisas saTanado standartis dacviT ifareba saRebaviT malefuWebadi nawilebi da
kvanZebi imisaTvis rom naklebi gavlena moaxdinon bunebriv-klimaturma faqtorbma da manqanebi
yendeba specialur sadgarebze. unda iTqvas, rom Senaxvis Ria wesis gamoyenebisas garemo
bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebi mainc axdenen mniSvnelovnad uaryofiT gavlenas satranasporto
saSualebebis ZiriTadi kvanZebis da meqanizmebis mdgomareobaze. Senaxvis daxuruli wesi
gamoyenebisas manqanebi yendeba daxurul SenobebSi da maTze bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebi
Zalzed mcire gavlenas axdenen. im SemTxvevaSi, roca ar aris yvela teqnikuri saSualebis daxurul
SenobaSi Senaxvis SesaZlebloba, gamoiyeneba Senaxvis daxuruli wesi, romelic iTvaliswinebs
malefuWebadi nawilebis da kvanZebis moxsnas agregatidan da maT Senaxvas daxurul SenobaSi.
   samanqano ezo, rogorc wesi, ewyoba teqnikuri momsaxurebis punqtTan, an saxelosnosTan
erTad. ezoSi unda iyos sadarajo jixuri, Senoba mosaxsneli kvanZebis da detalebis, agreTve
specialuri mowyobilobebis Sesanaxad, farduli teqnikuri saSualebebis dasayeneblad, Ria
betonirebuli moedani, xanZarsawinaaRmdego jixuri Sesabamisi inventariT, misasvleli gzebi,
gamwvanebis zoli da sareguliacio moednebi. ezos gareT, SesasvlelTan ewyoba manqanebis sarecxi
da sawmendi moednebi.
   samanqano ezos farTobi gamoiTvleba formuliT:
     F = ( F1(1 + F2) 1/K + F3 + F4 + F5                (4.4)
sadac F1 aris traqtorebis, misabmelebis, teqnologiuri manqanebis, motoblokebis, satransporto
saSualebebis da sxva specialuri teqnikuri saSualebebis dasayenebeli mowyobil safariani
(moasfaltebuli, betonirebuli, qvafeniliani) moedani;  koeficienti procentebSi, romelic
iTvaliswinebs sarezervo moednis farTobs; Cveulebriv, Tu specialuri mowyobilobebi ar dgeba
xangrZliv Senaxvaze, = 0,1F1, F2 - damatebiTi moedani teqnikuri momsaxurebis
moxerxebulobisTvis, agreTve usafrTxoebis wesebis dacvis mizniT; K - moednis gamoyenebis
koeficienti, K = 0,7...0,8; F3 - manqanebis dasayenebel moednebs Soris misasvleli gzebis mier
dakavebuli farTobi, m2, F4 - Robis da gamwvanebis zolis mier dakavebuli farTobi m2; F5 - farTobi
Senoba-nagebobebis da xanZarsawinaaRmdego saSualebebis mosaTavseblad, m2;
   moednis farTobi iangariSeba formuliT:
                 F1 =  l j bj n1                        (4.5)
sadac lj da bj aris Sesabamisad j markis teqnikuri saSualebis sigrZe da sigane, nj - Senaxvaze
dayenebulli j markis teqnikuri saSualebis raodenoba.
   moednis gamoyenebs saSualo koeficienti - K gamoiTvleba formuliT:
                 K = F1/ SB                              (4.6)
sadac S aris moednis sigrZe, m; B - yvela rigebis jamuri gani, m. K -s mniSvneloba rigebSi
SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxva da is icvleba sazRvrebSi - 0,7...0,85.
   SeniSvna: samanqano ezo, rogorc wesi unda moewyos gamoyenebis adgilTan rac SeiZleba axlos
trasis piras ise, rom advili iyos klienturisTvis masTan miRweva.
    F2-is farTobs gansazRvraven formuliT:
               F2 = a nj (l + b + a)                      (4.7)
sadac a aris manqanebs Soris manZili, m; (aiReba 0,4...0,8 m)

                                                                                             58
 lsaS da bsaS ganisazRvrebian Sesabamisad formulebiT:
           lsaS = lj / nj ; bsaS = bj / nj                (4.8)
    manqanebis dasayenebeli moednis rigis sigrZe, m, iangariSeba formuliT:
                       F1 + F2
                   S = _______               (4.9)
                       bsaS
    manqanebis dasayenebeli moednis rigebis raodenoba, Tu cnobilia rigis saSualo sigrZe l0
(damokidebulia SerCeuli adgilis sigrZeze) iqneba:
                     I = S / l0                        (4.10)
    manqanebis dasayenebeli moednis maqsimaluri gani bmax gamoiTvleba formuliT
                         F1 + F2
                                      bmax = _______           (4.11)
                         S K saS
    manqanebis dasayenebel moednebs Soris misasvleli gzebis mier dakavebuli farTobi, m2
                 F3 = ( I - 1) b1 + l0                     (4.12)
     sadac b1 aris manZili manqanebis dasayenebel rigebs Soris (aiReba 6...8 m-s farglebSi);
    Robis da gamwvanebis zolis mier dakavebuli farTobi, m2 gamoiTvleba formuliT
     F4 = 2C ((S + 2,4bman + 2C) + 2C ( bmax + bsaS (I + 1))       (4.13)
    samanqano ezoSi unda iyos damxmare nagebobebi, sawyobi, sadarajo jixuri,
xanZarsawinaaRmdego rezervuari, saregulacio moednebi (2...3 cali) maT mier dakavebuli farTobi
m2 iqneba:
            F5 = Fs + Fy + Fx + Fsar            (4.14)
    aqedan gamomdinare, samanqano ezos mTliani farTobi tolia:
              F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 + F5                      (4.15)
    Tu samanqano ezos sigrZe aris L, m; maSin ezos gani M iangariSeba formuliT:
                   M=F/L                                 (4.16)
    sarecxi moedani rogorc wesi ewyoba samanqano ezosSesasvlelSi. misi farTobi Seadgens
saSualod Seadgens 6X12 m-s. is dakompleqtebulia wylis satumbi da naxmari wylis sawreti da
safiltri danadgarebisgan.



   4.5. sawvav-sazeT masalebze moTxovnilebis angariSi
   sasoflo-sameurneo da satransporto procesebis warmoebis sanavTobo meurneobis samsaxurs
evaleba: navTobproduqtebis wliuri saWiro raodenobis prognozireba da navTobiT mommaragebeli
firmebis bazebidan navTbproduqtebis miReba; sawarmoo margis Senaxva, aRricxva, xarisxis da
xarjis kontroli, danadgarebis da mowyobilobebis teqnikuri momsaxureba da remonti; specialuri
RonisZiebis gatareba navTobproduqtebis danakargebis SemcirebisaTvis; usafrTxoebis teqnikis da
saxanZro dacvis RonisZiebebis gatareba.
   meurneobaSi sawvavis saWiro raodenobas adgenen sami ZiriTadi elementis mixedviT: 1.
sawvav-sazeTi masalebis danaxarjebi teqnologgiur procesebze; 2. sawvav-sazeTi masalebis
danaxarjebi satransporto procesebze; 3. sawvav-sazeT masalebis danaxarjebi damxmare procesebze
(agregatebis uqm svlebze, teqnikur momsaxurebaze, gamosaxmarisebaze da sxva).
   teqnologiuri procesebis Sesasruleblad saWiro sawvav-sazeTi masalebis wliur raodenobas
adgenen formulebiT:
                 etqet
            Q wl = ________              (4.18)
                   103

                Tj Gj nJ
           Qwl = _______             (4.19)
                103

                                                                                           59
                   Fj qj
             Qwl = ________              (4.20)
                   103
sadac  aris meqanizebul samuSaoTa wliuri moculoba, et.ha; q et.ha - sawvavis xarjis norma
kg/et.ha; n j j-uri markis traqtorebis, an TviTmavali Sasebis raodenoba; Gj j - markis traqtoria an
TviTmavali Sasis sawvavis saaTuri xarji nominalur datvirTvaze ( kg/sT); Tj - samuSao saaTebis
jamuri raodenoba, sT; Fj j-uri saxis meqanizebul samuSaoTa moculoba fizikur erTeulebSi(ha); qj -
j-uri markis traqtoris mier erT ha-ze daxarjuli sawvavis norma (kg/ha);
   zemoT CamoTvlil formulebSi mocemuli sidideebi: meqanizebul samuSaoTa wliuri moculoba,
traqtorebis raodenoba, samuSao saaTebis raodenoba, calkeuli meqanizebuli samuSaos moculoba
fizikur erTeulebSi da sawvavis xarji farTobis erTeulze aiReba teqnologiuri rukebidan, danarCeni
maCveneblebi ki sacnobaro literaturidan. /2, 4, 7/.
   traqtorebis sawvavis moTxovnileba SeiZleba davadginoT sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis movla-
moyvanis teqnologiuri rukebidan. konkretuli dasaproeqtebeli sasoflo-sameurneo firmisaTvis
SeiZleba winaswar ganisazRvros sawvav-sazeTi masalebis saWiro wliuri raodenoba da Semdeg
Camoyalibdes misi materialur-teqnikuri uzrunvelyofis saTanado samsaxuri.
   avtomobilebisTvis sazeTi masalebis norma damokidebulia Zravis simZlavreze, avtomobilis
daniSnulebaze, (saerTo, specialuri) eqsploataciis pirobebze da TiTon sazeTi masalebis xarisxze da
is moicema avtomobilis sapasporto monacemebSi garkveuli Semsworebeli koeficientebis
gaTvaliswinebiT /1, 2, 4/.




                      Tavi 5

                                                                                                60
             satransporto parkis dagegmva

        5.1 tvirTzidvis angariSi
   soflis meurneobaSi satransporto procesebma miiRo rTuli dinamikuri sistemis xasiaTi, radganac
sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidva gansakuTrebuli mravalferovnebiT xasiaTdeba. sasoflo-sameurneo
tvirTzidvaze gavlenas axdens mravali faqtori: firmis simZlavre, tvirTebis da kulturebis saxeebi,
miwis savargulebis daSoreba produqciis realzaciis da Sesanax adgilebamde, maTi zRvis donidan
simaRle, daxriloba, misasvleli gzebis mdgomareoba, teqnologiuri procesebis Catarebis vadebi,
firmis satransporto saSualebebiT uzrunvelyofa saamSeneblo samuSaoebi, firmis finansuri
mdgomareoba da a.S. yovelive es unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli tvirTzidvis samuSaoTa gegmaSi,
romelic dgeba firmis sawarmoo-safinanso gegmis da sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis movla-moyvanis
teqnologiuri rukebis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze da masSi mocemulia tvirTzidvis moculoba,
Catarebis kalendaruli vadebi satransporto saSualebebis da misabmelebis markebi, momsaxure
personalis Semadgenloba da raodenoba, gadzidvis manZilebi, gzebis kategoriebi, tvirTzidvis
gamoyenebis maCveneblebi klimaturi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT damtvirTavi saSualebebiT
uzrunveyofa, agreTve satransporto saSualebebis ZiriTadi saeqsploatacio maCveneblebi:
mwarmoebloba, sawvavis xarji, samuSao Zalis danaxarjebi, tvirTzidvis TviTRirebuleba,
satransporto saSualebebis saWiro struqturuli da raodenobrivi Semadgenloba da tvirTbrunva
tona.kilometrebSi.
rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis erTerT yvelaze mniSvnelovan
Taviseburebas warmoadgens didi moculobis tvirTebis SemWidroebul vadebSi gadazidvis xSiri
aucilebloba mosavlis asaRebi samuSaoebis periodSi. am dros tvirTzidvis vadebis koreqtireba
praqtikulad gamoricxulia. amasTan erTad gasaTvaliswinebelia sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis
sezonuri xasiaTi.
   aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT qvemoT mocemuli aris damoukidebeli da teqnologiur procesebze
damokidebuli tvirTzidvis angariSi.
   damoukidebeli tvirTzidva. vTqvaT gadasazidia A tona tvirTi D samuSao dRis ganmavlobaSi L,
km manZilze.
   1. erT dReSi gadaziduli tvirTebis raodenoba iangariSeba formuliT
                           A
                                         QdR = ____     (5.1)
                           D
    2. erTi reisisTvis saWiro dro iangariSeba formuliT (ix. formula 2.51).
             tr = td + ttv + tuq + tg + t0          (5.2)
sadac td ,ttv , tuq, tg da to Sesabamisad warmoadgenen datvirTvis, tvirTiT moZraobis, uqmi svlis,
gadmotvirTvis da sabuTebi gaformebaze daxarjuli dro, sT
                Ltv                       Luq
                           t tv = ___ ; tuq = ____  (5.3)
                    Vtv                       Vuq


Tu miviRebT, rom Vtv = Vuq , maSin

                   2L
                         ttv + tuq = ______         (5.4)
                   Vtv

  mokle manZilebze tvirTzidvisas (100 km-mde) teqnikuri momsaxureba tardeba transportis
gaCerebis periodSi, roca datvirTva-gadmotvirTva warmoebs.
  datvirTva-gadmotvirTvaze daxarjul dros angariSoben damtvirTavi saSualebebis mwarmoeblobis
mixedviT.


                                                                                              61
   3. erTi cvlis ganmavlobaSi satransporto saSualebis mier Sesrulebuli reisebis raodenoba
iangariSeba formuliT
                 Tcv - T0
             nr = _______              (5.5)
                   ttv
sadac Tcv aris cvlis dro (rogorc wesi, 8 saaTi);  - satransporto saSualebis jamuri gacdena cvlis
ganmavlobaSi. praqtikuli gamoTvlebisTvis miRebulia, rom  = 1 sT.
   4. erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi gadaziduli tvirTis moculoba tonebSi iangariSeba formuliT
               QdR = nr Qtv cv         (5.6)
sadac cv aris cvlaTa raodenoba dReRameSi.
   5. satransporto saSualebis saWiro raodenoba, romelic sWiroa erT dReSi gadasazidi tvirTebis
transportirebisTvis iangariSeba formuliT
                 QdR    QdR
            n sat= ___ = _________           (5.7)
                 G nr Qtv cv

  satransporto saSualebis cvlis mwarmoebloba (t.km/cv) iangariSeba formuliT

            Wcv = nr Qtv cvL                     (5.8)

   teqnologiur procesebze damokidebuli tvirTzidva.
   aseTi tvirTzidvis angariSi umjobesia warmovadginoT konkretuli magaliTis saxiT. kerZod
vTqvaT gadasazidia silosis masa, romelsac iRebs silosis amRebi kombaini. kombainis samuSao
siCqare Vsam = 1,2 m/wm; modebis gani Bsam=2,4 m; aqedan gamomdinare misi saaTuri
mwarmoebloba WsT = 0,7 ha/sT. sasilose simidis mosavlianoba U =20 t/ha, manZili sasilose
ormomde L = 3 km; ganvsazRvroT satransporto saSualebis saWiro raodenoba, Tu misi
tvirTamweoba Qtv = 5,0 t.; Zaris moculoba - M = 12 m3 silosis masis simkvrive -  = 0,4 t/m3 .
   pirvel rigSi ganvsazRvroT Zaraze moTavsebuli silosis maqsimaluri masa:
              m = M = 12 0,4 = 4,8 t.
   e.i. tvirTamweobis gamoyenebis statikuri koeficienti
                   4,8
              st = ___ = 0,95
                   5
rac gruntis gzebis da ugzobis pirobebSi normaluria.
   3. manZili, romelic unda gaiaros avtomobilma silosis amRebi kombainis paralelurad Zaris
mTlianad gavsebamde, iangariSeba formuliT

             g 10 4       4,8 10 4
          I = _______ = ______ = 1000.      (5.9)
                         Bsam U        2,4 20

Zaris gavsebis dro (wT) iangariSeba formuliT

             Igav 60 1000 60
       tgav = ______ = ________ = 15         (5.10)
             Vsam 103 4,0 1000

  4. satransporto saSualebis erTi reisisTvis saWiro dro (wT) iangariSeba formuliT
          tr = td + ttv + tuq + tgac       (5.11)
roca satransporto saSualebis siCqare Vsam = Vuq = 20km/sT, maSin
                 tsam = tuq = 2L/20 = 2.3/20 0,3 sT = 20 wT;


                                                                                                62
avtomobilis gaclaze daxarjuli dro normativis mixedviT /3, 7/ saWiroa yovel tonaze 1 wT, e.i. 5
tonaze 5 wT. maSin erTi reisisTvis saWiro dro ase gamoiTvleba:
        tr = 15 + 20 + 5 = 40 wT = 0,66 sT
  5. reisebis raodenoba cvlaSi
              8-1
         nr = _______ = 10
               0,66
  6. silosis amRebi erTi agregatis momsaxure satransporto saSualebis raodenoba iqneba
                  tr        40
           navt = _________ = ______ = 3          (5.12)
                  td        15
  7. avtomobilis dRiuri garbena
            LdR= nr . 2 . 3 = 10 . 2 . 3 = 60 km
  8. avtomobilis dRiuri mwarmoebloba tkm./dReSi
                         WdR = nr g L = 10 4,8 3 = 144
       9. avtomobilis dRiuri mwarmoebloba t/dReSi
           WdR = nr g = 10 4,8 = 48
      10. sawvavis xarji erTi tona tvirTis gadazidvaze
            qL               36 . 60
         G = ______ = _______ = 0,5
           100 Wt       100 . 48
sadac q aris benzinis xarjis saxazo norma q = 36 lit/100 km
  analogiuri wesiT iangariSeba datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoebis saeqsploatacio
maCveneblebi.




    5.2 sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis optimizacia
   rogorc aRiniSna, sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidva gansakuTrebuli mravalferovnebiT xasiaTdeba:
tvirTzidvis marrutebi Seicaven rogorc mowyobil trasebs, aseve uswormasworo, mixveul-moxveul
da mniSvnelovani aRmarTebis mqone gzis monakveTebs, zogjer ki mobiluri satransporto
saSualebebisTvis gauval adgilebs. amasTan, sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTebi aris mravalgvari, romelTa
gadatana zogjer specialuri teqnologiuri moculobiT aRWurvil satransporto saSualebis gamoyenebas
moiTxovs. zogierTi satransporto procesis Catareba aucilebelia teqnologiur procesTan erTad
(Semzadebuli sasuqebis da Sxamqimikatebis Sezidva nakveTSi, marcvleulis aReba, aRebuli
mosavlis gadazidva da sxva.). aseTi satransporto procesebis Catarebis vadebis koreqtireba
praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. amgvarad satransporto parkis dagegmarebis amocana sazogadod didi
moculobis mqone mravalfaqtorian amocanas warmoadgens.
   amJamad damuSavebulia satransporto parkis dagegmarebis mravali meTodi, romelTa Soris
prioriteti unda mieniWos ekonomikuri meTodebis maTematikuri modelirebis meTodebs, vinaidan
am dros efeqturad gamoiyeneba kompiuteruli teqnika da SesaZlebelia satransporto procesebze
moqmedi faqtorebis yvelaze didi raodenobis gaTvaliswineba.
   satransporto parkis dagegmvis amocana sazogadod ase Camoyalibdeba - ganisazRvros
satransporto parkis is Semadgenloba da SeirCes moZraobis marSrutebi ise, rom uzrunvelyofili
iqnas tvirTzidvis dasaxuli gegmis Sesruleba raRac winaswar cnobili periodis ganmavlobaSi da
amasTan erTad miRweuli iqnas tvirTzidvaze mTliani sawarmoo danaxarjebis, an energiis xarjis, an
kapitaldabandebis, an sawvavis xarjis, an samuSao Zalis danaxarjebis da a.S. minimaluri
mniSvneloba. Camoyalibebul amocanas sxvanairad satransporto parkis optimizaciis amocana
ewodeba.

                                                                                            63
   zemoT CamoTvlil parametrebs, romlis mixedviTac warmoebs satransporto parkis optimizacia,
optimalurobis kriteriumebi ewodebaT. maTi SerCeva xdeba imis mixedviT, Tu ra mizans isaxavs
amocana. sxvadasxva avtors /8, 12, 13/ optimalurobis kriteriumad miRebuli aqvs sxvadasxva
parametri, an maTi erToblioba, romelTac isini kompleqsur kriteriums uwodeben. maTgan Cven
SevirCieT tvirTzidvaze fuladi saxrebis xvedriT-sawarmoo danaxarjebi, romelic Seicavs
danaxarjebs satransporto saSualebis amortizaciaze, sawvav-sazeT masalebze, samuSao Zalaze,
kapitaldabandebis amogebaze da agromasalebze da is faqtiurad kompleqsur kriteriums
warmoadgens. (ix. zeviT danaxarjebis formulebi).
   praqtikul aspeqtSi es amocana satransporto formis mdgomareobis mixedvis mixedviT sami
variantad SeiZleba Camoyalibdes:
   1. rodesac satransporto firma Tavidan yalibdeba. am SemTxvevaSi ismis aseTi amocana -
ganisazRvros satransporto saSualebebis is SesaZeni raodenobrivi Semadgenloba daniSnulebis
mixedviT, romelic uzrunvelyofs gegmiT wlis ganmavlobaSi dasaxuli samuSoebis Sesrulebas da
amasTan fulad saxsrebis mTliani danaxarjebi satransporto saSualebebis SeZenaze da satransporto
samuSaoebis Sesrulebaze miaRwevs minimalur mniSvnelobas.
   2. satransporto firmas gaaCnia satransporto saSualebebis raRac raodenoba da SesaZlebloba aqvs
misi ganaxlebis. am dros ismis aseTi amocana - ganisazRvros firmis satransporto saSualebebis is
Semadgenloba daniSnulebis da markebis mixedviT, sadac gaTvaliswinebulia axali satransporto
saSualebebis SeZena da moralurad moZvelebuli satransporto saSualebebis Camowera, ise, rom
Sesrulebuli iqnas wlis ganmavlobaSi gegmiT dasaxuli yvela satransporto samuSao, amasTan
satransporto saSualebebis SeZenaze da tvirTzidvis porcesebze mTliani danaxarjebi aRwevdes
minimalur mniSvnelobas.
  3. satransporto firmas gaaCnia satrnsporto saSualebebis garkveuli raodenoba daniSnulebis da
markebis mixedviT da misi ganaxlebis saSualeba ar aqvs. am dros ismis aseTi amocana - arsebuli
satransporto saSualebebi ganawildes samuSaoebis da marSrutebis mixedviT ise, rom miRweuli
iqnas mTliani sawarmoo danaxarjebis minimaluri mniSvneloba.
   Cveni qveynis pirobebSi satransporto parkis dagegmvis amocanis Sezudvebs unda daematos
samTo pirobebSi tvirTzidvis Taviseburebebi, romelic ZiriTadad aisaxeba satransporto saSualebis
mwarmoeblobaSi da sagzao pirobebSi, romelic aseTi saxiT SeiZleba dajgufdes:
   1. tvirTebis mimwodebeli punqtebidan dniSnulebis punqtebamde sagzao pirobebi iseTia, rom
yvelgan SesaZlebelia saerTo daniSnulebis satransporto saSualebebis gamoyeneba. am
SemTxvevaSi samTo pirobebSi tvirTzidvis Taviseburebani ZiriTadad aisaxeba satransporto
saSualebis mwarmoeblobaSi;
   2. tvirTebis mimwodebeli punqtebidan daniSnulebis punqtebamde saval gzaze gvxvdeba iseTi
monakveTebi, sadac saerTo daniSnulebis satransporto saSualebebs tvirTzidva ar SeuZliaT da
aucilebelia gadidebuli gamavlobis satransporto saSualebebis gamoyeneba. aseT gzebze
moZraobisas SeuZlebelia optimaluri satransporto siCqaris SenarCuneba, mcirdeba faqtiuri
tvirTamweoba, izrdeba energiis da sawvavis xveriTi xarji. amitom samTo pirobebis gavlena parkis
raodenobriv da struqturul Semagenlobaze mniSvnelovania da misi gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia.
   3. tvirTebis mimwodebeli punqtebidan daniSnulebis adgilamde saval gazaze gvxvdeba iseTi
monakveTebi, romelic mobiluri satransporto saSualebebisTvis gauvalia. aseT pirobebSi aucilebelia
specialuri satransporto saSualebebis gamoyeneba (sabagiro weva, pnevmotransportiori da a.S.)
    zemoxsenebuli SezRudvebis gaTvaliswinebiT samTo pirobebSi satransporto parkis dagegmvis
amocana aseTi saxiT Camoyalibdeba - ganisazRvros saerTo daniSnulebis, gadidebuli gamavlobis
da specialuri satransporto saSualebebis raodenoba markebis mixedviT, romlebic uzrunvelyofen
samTo pirobebSi gamavali gzis marSrutebze tvirTzidvas ise, rom mTliani danaxarjebi tvirTzidvaze
aRwevs minimalur mniSvnelobas.




                                                                                             64
 5.3 satransporto parkis optimizaciis amocanis
        gadawyveta kerZo pirobebSi
   im SemTxvevaSi, roca unda Sedges tvirTzidvis gegma sameurneo wlis romelime daZabul
periodSi, xSirad sakmarisia wrfivi programirebis gamartivebuli amocanis amoxsna, romelic aseTi
saxiT Camoyalibdeba: gvaqvs erTgvarovani tvirTebis
mimwodebeli punqtebis raRac m raodenoba (j = 1...m), da tvirTebis mimRebi punqtebis n
raodenoba - ( k = 1 ...n) tvirTebis mimwodebel j punqtSi arsebuli tvirTis masa aRvniSnoT Aj - iT,
xolo tvirTebis mimReb k punqtSi tvirTebze moTxovnileba Bk - Ti; 1 t. tvirTis gadazidvis
manZilebi j punqtidan k punqtSi - Ljk - Ti; tvirTebis saZiebeli raodenoba marSrutebis mixedviT
aRvniSnoT Xjk-Ti. unda Sedges tvirTzidvis samuSaoTa iseTi gegma, romelic uzrunvelyofs
mocemul periodSi tvirTzidvis samuSaoTa mTliani moculobis Sesrulebas ise, rom saerTo gavlili
manZili tviirTzidvis samuSaoebis mTliani moculobis Sesrulebisas aRwevdes minimalur
mniSvnelobas. rogorc vxedavT am SemTxvevaSi optimalurobis kriteriums warmoadgens gavlili
manZili.
   amocanis ekonomikur-maTematikuri modeli aseTi saxis iqneba:
 vipovoT miznis funqciis minimumi:
                mn
         Lmin  bjk jk                        (5.22)
                                 j
     Semdeg pirobebSi:1. tvirTebis mimwodebeli punqtebis mier miwodebuli tvirTebis saerTo masa
toli unda iyos mimRebi punqtebis mier miRebuli tvirTissaerTo masis;
             jk                              (5.23)
2. mimwodebel punqtebsa da tvirTebis mimReb punqtebs Soris manZilebi metia, an toli nulze
              ljk                                 (5.24)
3. mimwodebeli punqtebis mier miwodebuli tvirTebis saerTo raodenoba toli unda iyos punqtSi
myofi tvirTebis saerTo masis;
            n
            jk = Aj (j = 1 ...m);                  (5.25)
                       k
4. mimReb punqtebSi Seziduli tvirTebis saerTo masa toli unda iyos moTxovnili tvirTebis saerTo
masis
            m
            jk = Bk (k = 1...n)                   (5.26)
                           j
5. yoveli miwodebuli tvirTis masa unda iyos arauaryofiTi
                                   Xjk                       (5.27)
   vinaidan satransporto procesebis optimizaciis amocana warmoadgens wrfivi programirebis
amocanebis kerZo SemTxvevas, mis amosaxsnelad SegviZlia gamoviyenoT modificirebuli
ganawilebis, an rac igvea potencialTa meTodi, romelic saSualebas iZleva martivi gaangariSebebis
Sedegad sawyisi gegmidan TandaTanobiT gadavideT optimalur gegmze.
   ganvixiloT satransporto amocanis gadawyvetis potencialTa meTodi konkretul magaliTze:
vTqvaT 7 mimwodebelma punqtma unda miawodos 6 mimReb punqts 2000 tona tvirTi.
mimwodebel punqtebSi tvirTebi ganawilebulia Semdegnairad: A1 - 200 t; A2 - 300; A3 - 300; A -
300; A4 = 300; A5 - 200; A6 - 200; A 7- 600 t; tvirTebis mimRebi punqtebis moTxovnileba aseTia:
B1 - 320; B2 - 250; B3 - 180; B4 - 470; B5 - 450; B6 - 350 t; unda dadgindes tvirTzidvis is

                                                                                              65
marSrutebi, risTvisac tvirTzidvis mTliani masis gadazidvisas gadazidvis manZilebis saerTo jami
aRwevs minimalur mniSvnelobas.
     tvirTzidvis ganawilebis sawyisi gegma
                                 cxrili 5.1
            B1          B2     B3        B4        B5         BB6      Qk   k   ak
               40         12     19         47           31     18
A1                                                 100                 100  3    0
                  24      18     17         34        80            11
A2          170                                               130      300  6    -11
                  14      16     20         18           10      6
A3          150                                    150                 300  4    -21
              30          32
A4                             180 8        48       14
                                                              120 12   300  4    -10
               16         13     20         18           11      23
A5                                                 200                 200  2    -20
               41         24     27
A6                                       200 5-      18       + 13
                                                                       200  8    -2
               30            8   32            12    20             18
A7                      230              270                  100      600  10   -4
Qj          320         230    180       470 +     450        - 350    2000
j            3           4      6         7         1          2
bj          35          12     18        16        31        22
     5.1 cxrilSi ujris zeda marjvena nawilSi moTavsebulia manZili punqtebs Soris. vuwodoT maT
ujraTa Sefasebebi, romlebic am SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuli amocanis optimalurobis kriteriums
warmoadgens.
     ujrebis Sevseba daviwyoT aseTi wesiT: veZebT yovel striqonSi da svetSi or ujras, romelTac
sxva ujrebze naklebi Sefaseba gaaCniaT (magaliTad, pirvel striqonSi - ujrebi SefasebiT 12 da 9) da
j svetSi da k striqonSi Segvaqvs ( mag sxvaoba - 3) Semdgom virCevT miRebuli sxvaobebidan
maqsimalurs ( A7 striqoni, Sefaseba 10 )da im striqonidan,an svetidan, romlisTvisac es sxvaoba
maqsimaluria, Segvaqvs maqsimalurad SesaZlebeli tvirTis masa. ( A3B6 ujraSi - 250t.). Semdgom
analogiuri xerxiT SevavsoT darCenili ujrebi. aseTi saxiT Sedgenili gegma warmoadgens sawyis
gegmas, romelic unda Semowmdes optimalurobaze.
     gegmis Semowmebas vawarmoebT potencialTa meTodiT. potencialebi nebismieri ricxvebia,
romelTa Sefaseba Sevsebuli ujrebis Sefasebis tolia.                                 cjk = ak + bj;
(5.28)
 imis gamo, vinaidan Sevsebuli ujrebis raodenoba erTiT naklebia cxrilis striqonebis da svetebis
jamze, gantolebaTa sistemis amonaxsnis arsebobis da erTaderTobis Teoremis safuZvelze /8/
erTerTi striqonis, an svetis potencials SeiZleba mivaniWoT nebismieri mniSvneloba.
garkveulobisTvis pirveli striqonis koeficients mivaniWoT 0. danarCeni potenciali Sevsebuli ujrebis
Sefasebebis saSualebiT gamoiTvleba.
     imisaTvis, rom tvirTzidvis gegma iyos optimaluri, saWiroa Seuvsebeli ujrebisTvis (im
ujrebisTvis, sadac tvirTebi ar aris Setanili) adgili hqondes utolobas
                 cjk  ak + bj                              (5.29)
     rogorc Semowmebidan Cans C66 ar akmayofilebs aRniSnul pirobas. e.i. Cvens mier Sedgenili
gegma ar aris optimaluri
     imisaTvis, rom gegma gavaumjobesoT visargebloT e.w. wriuli gadasvlis wesiT. ujrebidan,
romelic ar akmayofilebs (4.47) pirobas, virCevT ujras minimaluri SefasebiT da viwyebT konturis
gavlebas striqonis, an svetis mimarTulebiT. konturs SeuZlia mobruneba marTi kuTxiT mxolod
Sevsebul ujrebSi. aseTi wesiT konturs vavlebT ise, rom is daubrundes imave ujras saidanac
daviwyeT misi gavleba. Semdgom sawyis ujraSi vwerT niSans +, da morigeobiT Sevsebul ujrebSi
mobrunebis wertilebSi vsvamT niSans -, Semdgom + da a.S. amis Semdgom im ujrebidan,
romelsac gaaCnia - Sefaseba virCevT ujras, romelSic tvirTis minimaluri masaa moTavsebuli da
vumatebT tvirTebis masebs im ujrebSi, romelTac + niSani uweriaT da vaklebT im ujrebSi
moTavsebul tvirTebis masebs, romelTac - niSani uweriaT. aseTi operciis Catarebis Sedegad tvirTis
Cvens mier SerCeuli minimaluri masa gadmodis im ujraSi, romelic optimalurobis pirobas ar
akmayofilebs. gegmas isev vamowmebT optimalurobaze potencialTa meTodiT. Tu gegma ar
aRmoCnda optimaluri, isev vsargeblobT wriuli gadasvlis wesiT da ase nabij-nabij vuaxlovdebiT


                                                                                               66
iseT gegmas, romlis yvela Seuvsebeli ujra (4.47) pirobas ar daakmayofilebs. miRebuli gegma
optimalur gegmas warmoadgens. Cvens SemTxvevaSi aseTi gegma mocemulia (5.2) cxrilSi.
                            cxrili 5.2
         B1      B2       B3         B4       B5      BB6      Qk    k       ak
           40      12       14          47      31           8
A1                                                    100      100    0
A2       170 24     18      17          34      80
                                                      130 11 300      3
              14    16      20          18         10     6
A3       150                                  150              300   -7
           30       32         8        48      14          12
A4                        180                         120      300   4
           16       15      20        18
A5                                            200 11     13
                                                               200    -6
           23       24      27              5      18    19
A6                                   100      100              200   1
           30          8    32             12   20       18
A7               230                 370                       600    8
Qj       320     230      180        470      450     350      2000
j        21     0        4          4        17       8
j




¸                       Tavi - 6
             satransporto firmis biznes-gegma
           6.1. biznes-gegmis zogadi struqtura
   konkretuli firmis sawarmoo saqmianobis biznes-gegmis funqcias warmoadgens Semdegi
amocanebis gadawyveta:
- firmis saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis gansazRvra da mis mier gamoSvebuli produqciis,
Catarebuli samuSaoebis da momsaxurebebis potenciuri momxmareblebis dadgena;
- firmis taqtikuri da strategiuli miznebis formulireba da maTi miRwevis gzebis Zieba;
- im produqciis, momsaxurebebis da samuSaoebis gansazRvra, romelic SeiZleba SesTavazos
firmam momxmarebels;
- firmis funqcionirebisas sawarmoo danaxarjebis da wminda mogebis dadgena;



                                                                                       67
- firmis efeqturi funqcionirebisTvis saWiro specialistebis mozidva da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi
maTi kvalifikaciis amaRlebisTvis, an SecvlisTvis garkveuli RonisZiebebis Catareba;
- firmis arsebuli finansuri da materialuri mdgomareobis Sefaseba da firmis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli da
garedan moziduli resursebis Sesabamisoba dasaxuli miznebis misaRwevad saWiro resursebTan;
   firmis sawarmoo saqmianobis biznes-gegma gviCvenebs misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivas da
pasuxobs yvelaze mTavar kiTxvas - Rirs Tu ara firmis dafuZnebisTvis materialuri d finansuri
resursebis Cadeba da moitans Tu ara misi funqcionireba fulad Semosavals iseTi raodnobiT, rom
amogebuli iqneba misi SeqmnisTvis daxarjuli materialuri da fuladi resursebi. biznes-gegmis zogadi
struqtura aseTi saxisaa;

          I. biznes-gegmis mokle anotacia
          1. biznes-gegmis miznebi;
          2. biznesis aRwera da misi amocanebi;
          3. produqtebi da momsaxurebebi;
          4. bazari da saqmiani SesaZleblobebi;
          5. ZiriTadi finansuri maCveneblebi;
          6. riski da garantiebi.
   I.firma (kompania); misi warsuli da amJamindeli                  mdgomareoba.
   1. firmis sruli saxelwodeba, dafuZnebis TariRi, saTao ofisis da filialebis adgilmdebareoba,
safosto indeqsi, faqsi, telefonis nomeri, licenziis nomeri da TariRi, bankis dasaxeleba, angariSis
nomeri; Seicavs, Tu ara firmis funqcionirbis elementebi (teqnologiebi, gamSvebuli produqcia da
a.S.) saidumlo masalebs da a.S.
   2. firmis mflobelebis saxeli, gvari, mamis saxelebi, pasportis nomrebis, sacxovrebeli adgilis,
sakontrolo paketis mflobelis da Tanamflobelebis Sesabamisi wilebis CvenebiT da a.S.
   3. firmis ZiriTadi biznesi: produqciis, samuSaoebis da momsaxurebebis sruli CamonaTvalis da
warmoebis saerTo gegmaSi maTi wilis CvenebiT.
   4. finansuri mdgomareoba da wina periodebSi funqcionirebis maCveneblebi Semdegi sqemis
mixedviT: a. produqciis (samuSaoebis, momsaxurebebis) realizaciis moculoba; b. mogebebi:
produqciis       (samuSaoebis,     momsaxurebebis)      realizaciidan;   g.    jamuri     aqtivebi:
produqciis(samuSaoebis, momsaxurebebis) realizaciidan; d. finansuri valdebulebebi Sesabamisi
subieqtebis CvenebiT; e. finansuri dinamikis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi (wlebis, kvartlebis an Tveebis
mixedviT);
5. mocemuli biznesis amocanebi ( saWiroa amocanebis zusti formulireba).

    II. produqtebi (samuSaoebi, momsaxurebebi).
   1. produqtebis (samuSaoebis, momsaxurebebis) aRwera (dasaxeleba, Semadgenloba,
xarisxobrivi, ekologiuri da a.S. parametrebis CvenebiT);
   2. rogor pasuxoben produqtebi (samuSaoebi, momsaxurebebi) bazris moTxovnebs: a. rogoria
bazris moTxovnebi; b. produqti(samuSaoebi, momsaxurebebi) rogor Seesabameba moTxovnebs; g.
produqtebis (samuSaoebis, momsaxurebebis) ZiriTadi upiratesoba;
   3. produqtebis (samuSaoebis, momsaxurebebis) aRwera da misi komponentebi: a.zogadi aRwera;
b. ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi; g. ZiriTadi komponentebi; d. warmoebis (Sesrulebis) wesebi.
   4. danaxarjebi produqtebis warmoebaze: a. Sroma; b. masalebi; g. finansuri saxsrebi da sxva.
   5. konkurentuli produqtebi: Semadgenlobis, moTxovnebis, damzadebis (Sesrulebis) Rirebulebis
da sxva parametrebis mixedviT.
            III. bazris analizi.
   1. ganisazRvros firmis miznobrivi bazari da moxdes dasegmenteba Semdegi niSnebis mixedviT:
a. geografiuli principT, b. momxmareblis tipebis mixedviT, g. produqtis gamoyenebis mixedviT.
   2. Sefasdes bazris masStabebi da maTi cvlilebis dinamika segmentebis mixedviT. (analizis
Sedegebi rekomendirebulia gaformdes cxrilis saxiT).



                                                                                                68
  3. aRiweros firmis ZiriTadi konkurentebi Semdegi sqemis mixedviT: a. vin warmoadgens
ZiriTadad konkurentebs; b. ra siZlierisa aris maTi poziciebi bazarze; g. rogoria maT mier
realizebuli produqciis wili bazarze; d. rogoria produqciis gavrcelebis maTi arxebi.
   4. aRiweros firmis produqciis ZiriTadi Semsyidvelebi (momxmareblebi) Semdegi sqemis
mixedviT: a. TviT Semsyidvelebis mokle aRwera; b. bazarze maTi qmedebebis (qcevebis) mokle
aRwera.
   5. aRiweros saqmiani viTareba bazarze da is rogor aisaxeba bazris subieqtebis qmedebebze.
       IV. marketingis strategia da gegma.
   1. marketingis strategia da miznebi: a. momgebianobis miRwevisTvis saWiro gzebis Zieba; b.
miznobrivi bazari da misi sementacia; g. realizaciis moculobis zrdis gzebis Zieba; d. bazarze
produqciis realizaciis wilis zrdis gzebis Zieba; e. produqtis adgili bazarze.
   2. marketingis da realizaciis sferoSi mimdinare da dagegmili saqmianoba (qmedebebi), romelic
Seicavs: a. marketingis organizaciul struqturas; b. gasarebis arxebs; g. marketingis da realizaciis
sferoSi gasatarebel ZiriTad RonisZiebebs.
   3. fasebis politika da firmis produqtze (momsaxurebaze) SemoTavazebuli fasebi.
   4. saqonlis gatana bazarze da misi reklama;
   5. strategiuli mokavSireebi;
   6. konkurentebis misamarTobrivi aRwera;
   7. marketingis samsaxuris organizaciuli struqtura;
   8. realizaciis gegma, romelSic Sedis moculoba, fasebi da Semosavali;
   9. marketingze gamoyofili biujeti.
             V. organizacia da marTva
   1. ZiriTadi xelmZRvaneli personalis sia da mokle daxasiaTeba semdegi sqemis mixedviT: a.
Tanamdeboba; b. ganaTleba
g. muSaobis gamocdileba.
   2. organizaciuli struqturis sqema da ZiriTadi qvedanayofebis ( saamqroebis, ganyofilebebis,
sawarmoo xazebis) mokle aRwera.
   3. sawarmoo procesis aRwera (mxolod warmoebis sferoSi Sedgenili biznes-gegmebisTvis),
romelSic Sedis: a. sawarmoo struqtura, b. specialuri sawarmoo procesebi; g. specialuri
mowyobilobebi da danagarebi, d. ZiriTadi qvemoijareebi; e. masalebis ZiriTadi mimwodeblebi.
            VI aRWurvis gegma.
   1. aRiweros investiciis gegma ZiriTad fondebSi, romelic Seicavs: a. mowyobilobebisTvis da
danadgarebisTvis saWiro investiciis CamonaTvals; b. samontaJo samuSaoebis Casatareblad saWiro
investiciis odenobas; g. mowyobilobebis da danadgarebis dayenebis, regulirebis da
gamosaxmarisebis xangrZlivobas.
         VII finansuri gegma
   1. is ZiriTadi elementebi, romlebic unda iqnen warmodgenili finansur gegmaSi, Semdegia: a.
realizaciis da Semosavlis gegmiuri moculoba; b. gegmiuri wminda migeba; g. gegmiuri naRdi
saxsrebi; d. wonasworuli analizi; e. amogebis periodi; v. mgrZnobiarobis analizi; z. ZiriTadi
finansuri moTxovnebi.
   2. winaswari angariSebi unda iqnan warmodgenili uaxloesi xuTi wlisTvis Semdegi
mimarTulebiT: a. mogebebi da wagebebi (zarali); b. firmis mflobelobaSi arsebuli qoneba; g.
sabalanso cxrilebi; e. mimdinare biujeti.
   3. aucileblad unda iqnan warmodgenili is ZiriTadi finansuri winadadebebi, romelsac efuZneba
finansuri gegma
            VI riski da garantiebi
   sainvesticio proeqtis realizaciis procesze sakmaod mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens inflacia,
gasaRebis moculobis Semcireba, dabegvris ganakveTebi da politikuri situacia qveyanaSi. amaTgan
yvelaze mniSvnelovania qveynis politikuri stabiluroba, rac aris garkveuli garantia ekonomikuri
stabilizaciisTvis.
  riskis da garantiis ZiriTadi faqtorebia:
1. gare faqtorebi

                                                                                                69
a. politikuri, (formaciis cvlileba, revoluciebi, saxelmwifo gadatrialeba), romelic ar aris
damokidebuli mewarmeze; b. ekonomikuri (inflacia, energomatareblebis mniSvnelovani gaZvireba
da a.S.), agreTve ar aris damokidebuli mewarmeze; g. sagadasaxado d. konkurentuli
2. Sida faqtorebia.
 a. teqnologiuri b. socialuri


¸         6.2. satransporto firmis biznes-gegma
             I. firmis ZiriTadi rekvizitebi
   satransporto firma ”aliansi” Camoyalibda 1995 wels avtokolona N 2663-is bazaze.
licenziis nomeri - ASS-0013335
angariSis nomeri bankSi - Tbilkreditbankis mcxeTis filiali- 000775688
safosto indeqsi 384286
faqsi (899532) 61515
ofisis telefoni 6 33 44
misamarTi: mcxeTis raioni, s. nataxtris teritoria
firmis ZiriTad bizness warmoadgens sasoflo-sameurneo produqtebis, agromasalebis da sxva saxis
tvirTzidvis operaciebis warmoeba.
   firmis aqciebis mflobelebs warmoadgenen satransporto sawarmos yofili TanamSromlebi (40%)
aqciebis 60%-s flobs biznesmeni k. gelaSvili firmis sawarmoo operaciebi saidumlo masalebs ar
Seicavs.

         II. firmis finansuri mdgomareoba
   firmis tvirTzidvis samuSaoTa wliuri gegma mocemulia 6.1 cxrilSi
                                cxrili 6.1
 procesebis ganz. mocul. tvirTzidvis satr. saS. tvirTamw.
dasaxeleba            t.km      vadebi       marka       t.
 min.sasuq.gadaz. t.km 12000           15.03...25.03 kamaz-5513          4
 min.sasuq. datv. t 1500           15.03...25.03 t-16m+pg-02        0,2
 org.sas. gadaz. t.km 50000         10.10...10.11 kamaz-5513          10
 org.sas. datv. t 10000          10.10...1011 t-16m+pg-02         0,2
 saTesi mas.gad. t.km 3000           30.11...10.12 mtz-82+2pts-6       6
 saTesi mas.datv. t 300           30.11...10.12 t-16m+pg-02        0,2
 xorblis gadaz. t.km 30000         10.08...20.08 kamaz-5513         10
 xorblis datv. t 3000          10.08...20.08 t-16m+pg-02        0,2
 xexilis gadaz. t.km 3200         20.08...10.09 kamaz-5513         10
 xexilis datv. t 400          20.08...10.09     xeliT       -
 yurZnis datv. t 5000           10.09...30.09     xeliT       -
 yurZnis gadaz. t.km 50000           10,09...30.09 kamaz-5513         10
 mos.gamot.rigeb. t.km 1000           10.09...30.09 sup.610+misabm.         0.5
 saamSen.mas.gad. t.km 160000 1.03...30.12              kamaz-5513         10
 saamS.mas. datv. t 8000            1.03...30.12    t-16m+pg-02     0,2
   sul     309200 t.km; 28200 t.

    satransporto procesebze daxarjuli saerTo Tanxa iangariSeba formuliT
                          S sat =  Si Qi                     (6.10)

sadac Si aris i markis satransporto saSualebiT gadaziduli tvirTis TviTrirebuleba lari/t.km; Qi i
markis satransporto saSualebiT gadasazidi tvirTis moculoba t.km. (cx. 6.2). satransporto

                                                                                             70
saSualebebis markebis mixedviT 1 tona.kilometri samuSaos moculobis TviTRirebulebebi da
gaqiravebis fasebi dolarebSi Semdegia:

                              cxrili 6.2
, satransporto saSualebis      TviTRirebuleba gaqiravebis fasi
      tipebi              dol/tkm        dol/tkm
   saerTo daniSnulebis:
    kamaz-53212 -                 0,055           0,082
    zil- 4331 -              0,072           0,11
   ss daniSnulebis;
    gaz-saz-3507 -               0,082          0,12
    kamaz-5513 -                 0,056           0,083
    gaz-saz-4509 -               0,078          0,11
    kaz-4540 -                 0,069           0,098
    super-610 -                 11           1,42

  datviTvaze ixarjeba: 14 kn damtviTaviT 0,1 dol/t.
               6 kn damtviTaviT 0,1 dol/t.

   zemoaRniSnuli meTodikiT Catarebuli angariSis Sedegebi
aseTia;
              S sat= 21600 dol; S datv= 7900 dol.
satransporto procesebis da datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad saWiro Tanxa
Seadgens 29500 dolars. zemoT naCvenebi Tanxa SesaZlebelia gamotanili iqnas “Tbilkreditbankis”
mcxeTis filialidan 1 wlis vadiT 12% saprocento ganakveTiT.


          III. bazris analizi da marketingi
   marketingis samsaxuris funqcias warmoadgens firma “aliansisTvis” teqnikuri saSualebebis,
maragnawilebis da sawvav-sazeTi masalebis sarealizacio firmebTan drouli, momgebiani
xelSekrulebebis dadeba, fermerebis mozidva, rogorc raionis teritoriidan, aseve mosazRvre
raionebidan da sxva ufro zRvis donidan maRali zonebidan teqnikis SeZlebisdagvarad maqsimaluri
datvirTvis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. amasTan tvirTzidvis procesebis da datvirTvis samuSaoebis
potenciuri klienturis mozidvisTvis organizaciuli, sareklamo da sxva saxis samuSaoebis Catareba,
axali adgilobrivi pirobebisTvis advilad adaptirebadi satransporto saSualebebis Zieba da maTi
warmoebaSi danergvisTvis sxvadasxva organizaciuli da sameurneo RonisZiebebSi monawileoba.
   firma “aliansisTvis” ZiriTad konkuretebs warmoadgenen qarTl-kaxeTis raionebSi arsebuli
satransporto firmebi, romlebic analogiur samuSaoebis awarmoeben.
   marketingis strategiaSi Sedis tvirTebis momwodebeli da mimReb sawarmoebTan axali
xelSekruelbebis dadeba, specialuri daniSnulebis satransporto saSualebebis SeZena da maTi
saSualebiT zemoT aRniSnuli firmebis daintereseba, risTvisac winaswari samarketingo saqmianobis
Catareba aris aucilebeli. am dros gonivrulad daxarjuli finansuri saxsrebi yovelTvis anazRaurdeba.
   marketingis samsaxurma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda miaqcios satransporto saSualebebiT
momsaxurebebis axali arxebis Ziebas, vinaidan qveyanaSi arsebuli krizisuli mdgomareobidan
gamomdinare SesaZlebelia momxmareblebis uecari Semcireba finansuri problemebidan
gamomdinare. amis garda marketingis samsaxuri mudmivad unda flobdes informacias satransporto
bazris masStbebze, mis klienturaze, bazarze maTi qmedebebis Sesaxeb (ramdenad asruleben
pirobas da sxva).



                                                                                              71
             IV. organizacia da marTva
   . tvirTzidvis operaciebis marTvas. awarmoebs organizaciul da sameurneo RonisZiebebs
sanavTobo meurneobis da samanqano ezos da teqnikuri momsaxurebis punqtis normaluri
funqcionirebisTvis. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi akeTebs ganacxadebs maragnawilebis, sawvav-
sazeTi masalebis da axali teqnikuri saSualebebis SeZenaze aRniSnuli monacemebis safuZvelze
buRalteri akeTebs Sesabamis sabanko operaciebs firmis finansuri SesaZleblobebis mixedviT. garda
aRniSnulisa is axdens fuladi saxrebis xvedriTi, dayvanili da sawarmoo danaxarjebis prognozirebas.
    saerTo zedamxedvelobas zemoxsenebuli samuSaoebis Sesrulebaze sxva funqciasTan erTad
awarmoebs firmis menejeri da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Seaqvs koreqtivebi mimdinare procesebSi
   marketingis samsaxuris swori organizaciis SemTxvevaSi mosaldnelia miRebuli produqtis
realizacia zemoT prognozirebul fasebSi.
produqciis realizaciis mosalodneli.Sedegebi mocemulia 6.3 cxrilSi
                               cxrili 6.3
produqciis farTobi mosavlianoba t/ha            Rirebuleba dol.
dasaxeleba ha          arsebuli perspeqt ars. perspeqt.
simindi      200        3,5     5         105000 150000
xili       300        8     10         384000 480000
yurZeni Savi 200          7      9         700000 900000
yurZeni TeTri 500         8     10          760000 950000
sul       1200                       1949000 2480000

            V. proeqtis finansuri gegma
  proeqtis finansuri uzrunvelyofis ZiriTadi maCveneblebi:
  ZiriTadi valuta Siga bazarze - lari;
  ZiriTadi valuta gare bazarze - dolari;
  proeqtis funqcionirebis dawyebisas 1 dolari = 175 lr
  fulis kursis saorientacio yovelwliuri vardna 1%;
  yovelwliuri inflacia:
  pirdapiri danaxarjebis - 1%;
  saerTo danaxarjebis - 1%
  xelfasis - 1%;

            sagadasaxado ganakveTebi:
  1. damatebiTi Rirebulebis (dRg)- 16.67% ( mogebis );
  2. saSemosavlo -             - 12% (Semosavlebidan);
  4. qonebis -            - 0,1% (qonebis Rirebulebidan);
  7. mogebis                 - 20% (mogebidan)
  9. miwis renta: 38l.-sarwyavi; 27l.-urwyavi; 20l.-mwiri;
firmis              danaxarjebi        da      Semosavlebi      mocemulia        6.4      cxrilSi




                                                  cxrili 6.4
                arsebuli         perspeqtiuli


                                                                                              72
           satransp. sas. prod. satransp. sas. prod.
Semosavlebi:      38400     1949000     80000 2480000
danaxarjebi:     29500     1108500     55000 1280000
mogebebi:         8900     840500     25000 1200000
sul:           849400             1225000

      kreditis procentis gadasaxadi
       Ssak = 1138000  0,12 = 136560 dol;
arasawarmoo gadasaxadebi mocemulia me-6.5 cxrilSi
gadasaxadis saxe                  arsebuli teqn.dol.           perspeqtiuli teqn.dol.
1.dRg.                            169880                       245000
2.saSemosavlo                     30805                        20693.
4.qonebis                         5120                         8780 @
6.soc. anaric.                    17639                        2070
7miwis renta                      45600                        57000
9.mogebis gadasaxadi              76870                        99780
mogeba kreditis momsaxurebis 384352                            493893
gareSe



          safinanso gegma
                            cxrili 6.

  maCveneblebis;         maCveneblebis mniSvnelobebi
  dasaxeleba          arseb.teqnol. persp. teqnol.
                    dol.        dol.

 samuSaoTa moculoba       1949384           2560000
 pirdapiri danaxarjebi  1138000           1335000
 kreditebis momsaxureba    136560            153600
 kreditebis gadasaxadi   1138000           1335000
 arasaw. gadasax. sul    384352           493893

      wminda mogeba          290472        577507


               6.6. riski da garantiebi
   sainvesticio proeqtis realizaciis procesze sakmaod mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens inflacia,
gasaRebis moculobis Semcireba, dabegvris ganakveTebi da politikuri situacia qveyanaSi. amaTgan
yvelaze mniSvnelovania qveynis politikuri stabiluroba, rac aris garkveuli garantia ekonomikuri
stabilizaciis.


                     Tavi 7
     ekologiuri da Sromis usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi
      satransporto procesebis warmoebisas



                                                                                           73
  ekologiuri da Sromis usafrTxoebis ZiriTadi wesebi satransporto procesebis warmoebisas
gaTvaliswinebulia debulebiT, romelic damtkicebulia saTando zemdgomi instanciebis mier.
debulebis Sesabamisad satransporto da datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis operaciebis warmoebisas
ekologiuri da Sromis usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebis dacvaze pasuxismgebloba ekisreba firmis
xelmZRvanelebs, ekologiis da Sromis dacvis samsaxurs. es samsaxurebi valdebuli arian
warmoebaSi miRebisTanave Cautaros specialuri instruqtaJi mZRolebs, traqtorist-memanqaneebs,
operatorebs da damxmare muSebs im wesebis da RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb, romlis gatarebac
aucilebelia tvirTzidvis operaciebis xalxis gadayvanis da datvirTva-gadmotvirTvis operaciebis
warmoebisas.

      7.1 transportis muSaobis ekologizacia
   transportis muSaobisas ekologiuri TvalsazrisiT yvelaze did saSiSroebas warmoadgens maT mier
atmosferoSi gafrqveuli mavne nivTierebebis zemoqmedeba bunebaze da adamianTa
janmrTelobaze.
   7.1. cxrili naTel warmodgenas gviqmnis am arajansaR tendenciaze.

atmosferoSi avtotransportis mier gafrqveuli mavne nivTierebebi saxeobebis mixedviT /aTasi tona/
                              cxrili 7.1
mavne nivTierebebis
  dasaxeleba                     1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
gogirdovani anhidridi            693,6 4,0       6,0     7,1      8,4    2,1     1,3
naxSirorJangi                    -       187,7 229,2 239,2 273,3 142,5 86,5
azotis Jangi                     66,8    15,2    20,1    22,2     25,8   10,2    6,2
naxSirwyalbadi                   123,8 39,4      49,9    53,4     61,6   28,6    17,3
Wvartli                          10,2    2,7     4,1     4,9      5,8    1,3     0,8
sul                              894,4 248,9 309,2 326,8 374,9 184,7 112,2

   gansakuTrebiT saSiS gavlenas axdens sawvavSi tyviis Semagenloba adamianis janmrTelobaze,
romelic neirotoqsikur nivTierebas warmoadgens, vinaidan is moqmedebs nerviul sistemaze, iwvevs
gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebebs. gansakuTrebiT SemaSfoTebelia tyviis mavne gavlena garemoze.
rogorc cnobilia, benzinis wvisas gamoiyofa tyviis sxvadasxvanairi SenaerTebi, romelic didi
qalaqebis centralur quCebSi, sadac uamravi avtomanqana moZraobs, gareubnebTan SedarebiT,
haerSi tyviis Semadgenloba sicocxlisTvis saxifaTo zRvars aRwevs, rac bunebrivia, safrTxes
uqmnis cocxali organizmebis janmrTelobas. sxvadasxva samrewvelo procesebi, agreTve
eleqtrosadgurebSi sxvadasxva saxis sawvavis, maTSoris qvanaxSiris wva, nagvis damwveli
danadgarebi xels uwyobs haerSi tyviis gamofrqvevas, rac udidesi zianis momtania mTlianad
cocxali bunebisadmi, romlis dacva erTerT udides problemas warmoadgens Tanamedrove etapze.
unda aRiniSnos, rom tyviaSemcveli benzinis xmarebidan amoReba rTulia aramarto teqnologiuri,
aramed ekonomikuri da politikuri TvalsazrisiTac, vinaidan tyviaSeucveli benzinis warmoeba
mniSvnelovan damatebiT danaxarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli.
   Tumca alternatiuli gzis Ziebac SesaZlebelia, Tu navTobgadamamuSavebel qarxnebSi tyvias
Secvlis aromatuli nivTierebebi, magaliTad benzoli, romlis haerSi gafrqvevis Semcireba
SesaZlebelia 80%-iT eTilis damWeri filtrebis gamoyenebiT
   saqarTveloSi atmosferos dabinZureba satransporto saSualebebis mier gamowveulia Semdegi
ZiriTadi mizezebiT:
   - satransporto saSualebaTa udides nawils Seadgens sabWoTa warmoebis moZvelebuli
manqanebi da traqtorebi, agreTve ucxoeTidan stiqiurad Semoyvanili amortizebuli (saSualod 10...15
wlis) avtomobilebi, romelTa kvebis sistema ver uzrunvelyofs sawvavis sruli wvis reJims, ris gamoc
maT mier gamonabolqvi mavne nivTierebebis raodenoba mniSvnelovnad aRemateba dasaSveb
normas. aseT avtomobilTa umravlesobas ar gaaCniaT katalizuri gardamqmnelebi. amasTan bolo
wlebSi sazogadoebrivi transportis Semcireba xels uwyobs mcire tevadobis satransporto


                                                                                              74
saSualebebis intensiur gamoyenebas, rac zrdis erTeul satransporto saSualebaze gamonabolqvis
zrdas (kaci/km; t/km);
   - satransporto saSualebebisTvis gamoiyeneba dabali xarisxis sawvavi, rac iwvevs mavne
nivTierebata maRali koncentraciiT emisias;
   - gzebis dabali xarisxi da satransporto sacobebi iwvevs satransporto saSualebebis cvalebadi
datvirTviTmuSaobas, am dros ver xdeba Zravas muSaobis optimaluri reJimebis SenarCuneba,
amitom am dros ZravaSi wvis procesi srulyofilad ar mimdinareobs, rac iwvevs gamonabolqv
airebSi mavne nivTierebebis Semcvelobis mniSvnelovan zrdas;
   - saqarTvelo TandaTan iZens satrnzito qveynis imijs. saxmeleTo gzebi gamoiyeneba
tvirTzidvisTvis CrdiloeTidan samxreTisken da aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisken. amasTan am
gzebis umravlesoba gadis qalaqebSi da sxva mWidrod dasaxlebul punqtebSi, rac iwvevs atmosferos
dabinZurebas;
   - sustia saxelmwifo kontrolis sistema satransorto saSualebebis gamonabolqv airebze;
   - saqarTvelo, rogorc satransporto arteria, ekuTvnis samTo zonas. aq gzebis mniSvnelovani nawili
mixveul-moxveulia, Seicaven sagrZnob aRmarTebs da aqvT uswormasworo safari, rac iwvevs
Zravas datvirTvis optimaluri reJimidan amovardnas, aRmarTebze datvirTuli manqanis Zrava
muSaobs xSirad sagrZnobi gadatvirTviT, rac arRvevs sawvavis sruli wvis reJims. es
gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans dizelis Zraviani satvirTo avtomonilebis da avtobusebis aRmarTze
moZraobisas, rodesac gamonabolqv airebSi Wvartlis Semcveloba TvalisTvisac SesamCnevia
sakmaod did manZilze. daRmarTze moZrabisas ki mZRoli iZulebulia dabal gadacemebze
gadavides da manqana gadabmulaTi daamuxruWos. am dros Zrava muSaobs Zalian Rarib narevze,
rac iwvevs gamonabolqv airebSi mavne nivTierebebSi mavne nivTierebebis Semcvelobis
mniSvnelovan zrdas.
    yovelive zemoTmoyvanil mizezTa gamo saqarTvelos satransporto arteriebis siaxloves haeris
gaWuWyianebam ukve standartiT dauSvebel masStabebs miaRwia. Sromis dacvis institutis mier
Catarebuli monacemebidan Cans, rom Tbilisis zogierT raionSi haeris gaWuWyianeba dasaSveb
normas ramodenimejer aRemateba. /23, 24/ mag. daviT aRmaSeneblis gamzirze 4 - jer. TiTqmis
aseTive mdgomareoba aris quTaisSi, baTumSi, rusTavSi, gorSi da a.S. amis garda Zalzed savalalo
mdgomareoba aris mniSvnelovani aRmarTebis zonaSi: Tbilisi - beTania - kojori - oqroyana -
mTawmindis gzis monakveTebze; Tbilisi - quTaisis avtomagistralis goris da rikoTis monakveTebze
da a.S..
    avtomagistralebze, dasaxlebul punqtebSi da qalaqebSi atmosferos xaisxobrivi maCveneblebis
gasaumjobeseblad aucilebelia ganxorcieldes Semdegi proeqtebi, romelTagan zogierTis
gnxorcieleba investiciis gziT ukve dawyebulia:
   - eleqtrotransportis xvedriTi wilis zrda da misi muSaobis gaumjobeseba;
   - satransporto saSualebebidan gamonabolqvi airebis Semadgenlobis ganmsazRvreli,
STanmrqmeli da sawvavis xarisxis sakontrolo mowyobilobaTa SeZena, sawvavis xarisxis
monitoringis da kontrolis Catareba rogorc sazRvarze Semotanisas, aseve gadmoclis punqtebSi;
   - sawvavze unda dawesdes iseTi garemosdacviTi gadasaxadebi, romlebic mwarmoebels,
importiors da momxmarebels miscems ekonomikur stimuls ekologiurad ufro sufTa sawvavis
warmoebis, Semotanisa da moxmarebisTvis.
   2000 wlis 1 ianvridan saqarTveloSi akrZalulia tyviis Semcveli benzinis importi da moxmareba,
magram garda amisa saWiroa axali normebis daweseba sawvavis xarisxze da gamonabolqv airebSi
mavne nivTierebebis dasaSveb Semcvelobaze.

 7.2. usafrTxoebis RonisZiebebi avtotransportiT                tvirTzidvisas.
   vinaidan sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvis Taviseburebebs warmoadgens cudi sagzao pirobebi da
tvirTebis Zalze did diapazonSi cvalebadi xvedriTi masa satransporto saSualebis xSirad uxdebaT
forsirebul reJimSi muSaoba, amitom avtomobilebis da satransporto missabmelebis xazze
gaSvebamde specialistis mier unda Semowmdes misi teqnikuri mdgomareoba: kerZod, gabarituli
farebi, moxvevis maCveneblebi, samuxruWe signali, samuxruWe xundebis cveTis xarisxi da
samuxruWe meqanizmis hermetuloba. saWis meqanizmi uqm svlaze, samuxruWe siTxis done

                                                                                               75
mTavar avzSi, gadabmis quro buqsaobaze, axlo da Sors xedvis farebi, gverdiTi da Sua sarkis
mdgomareoba, usafrTxoebis Rvedebis, an aerobaliSebis mdgomareoba, saqare minis
mdgomareoba, proteqtori saburavebze, romlis minimaluri simaRle unda iyos aranaklebi 1,6 mm-isa.
xelis muxruWis mdgomareoba da svlis sigrZe, salonis xelsawyo-maCvneblebi. sanomre niSnebis
mdgomareoba, wina da ukana dakidebis sistemis gamarTuloba, teqnologiuri moculobis (Zaris)
damagrebis da simkvidris xarisxianoba, saburavebSi wneva, amis garda aucilebelia avtomobili
aRWurvili iyos erTi da igive markis da zomebis saburavebiT. rogorc gamonaklisi, SesaZlebelia
sxvadasxva markis saburavebis gamoyeneba, mxolod erT RerZze unda iyos aucileblad erTnairi
saburavebi. avtomobilebi aRWurvili unda iqnan cecxlmaqri mowyobilobebiT da pirveladi
samedicino daxmarebis afTiaqiT. avtomatareblebze daSvebulia mxolod xisti gadabma. uwesivro
avtomobilis buqsireba dasaSvebia mxolod buqsirebis wesebis dacviT, romelic mocemulia amJamad
moqmed “gzebze moZraobis wesebSi”. aucileblad unda Semowmdes mZRoli alkoholis,
narkotikebis da sxva saxis avtomobilis marTvisTvis saSiSi sxva movlenebis zemoqmedebaze.
amasTan gansakuTrebiT saSiS sagzao pirobebSi moZraobisas, an aragabarituli, feTqebad saSiSi da
momwamvleli tvirTebis gadatanisas mZRols unda Cautardes damatebiTi instruqtaJi moqmedi
debulebis gaTvaliswinebiT. garda amisa zemoxsenebul pirobebSi tvirTzidvisas unda iqnes SerCeuli
SedarebiT gamocdili da Sesabamisi marSrutebis kargad mcodne mZRolebi.
  ramodenime satvirTo avtomobilis kolonis saxiT moZraobisas aRmarTze maT Soris intevali ar
unda iyos 20 m-ze naklebi, xolo daRmarTze moZraobisas - 50 m-ze naklebi.
  xidTan, an kaSxalTan miaxloebisas Tu ar aris miTiTebuli maqsimaluri simZimis, an avtomobilis
RerZze datvirTvis maCveneblebi, winaswar unda davrwmundeT gadasvlis SesaZleblobaSi.
  cicabo daRmarTze datvirTuli avtomobilebiT da avtomatarebliT moZraobisas unda gadavideT
dabal gadacemebze da maqsimalurad SevmciroT moZraobis siCqare sagzao pirobebisgan
damokidebulebiT ise, rom rac SeiZleba naklebad dagvWirdes muxruWis gamoyeneba, vinaidan
xundebis gadaxureba iwvevs cveTis intensivobis mniSvnelovan zrdas da xaxunis Zalis saSiS
donemde Semcirebas. mosaxvevebSi moZraobisas mniSvnelovnad unda Semcirdes moZraobis
siCqare, rac aucilebelia centridanuli Zalis Sesamcireblad. mosaxvevSi dasaSvebi siCqareebi
simrudis radiusis mixedviT mocemulia specialur cnobarebSi /2, 4, 19/.

 7.3. usafrTxoebis teqnikis sakiTxebi satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebiT tvirTzidvisas.
  satraqtoro-satransporto agregatebiT tvirTzidvisas zemoT CamoTvlil RonisZiebebis garda
aucilebelia wina da ukana Tvlebis ganlageba maqsimalur nakvalevze (liandze), vinaidan
satraqtoro-satransporto agregats gaaCnia maRali klirensi rac mniSvnelovnad zrdis gadabrunebis
saSiSroebas. amis garda satransporto samuSaoebze gamoiyeneba iseTi satraqtoro misabmelebi,
romelTac aqvT sakuTari samuxruWe mowyobiloba. satraqtoro misabmelis samuxruWe
mowyobilobas unda hqondes damatebiTi mowyobiloba jaWvis, an gvarlis saxiT. romelic
uzrunvelyofs misabmelis arsebuli mdgomareobis SenarCunebas xisti misabmelis amovardnis, an
mowyvetis SemTxvevaSi da samuxruWe meqanizmma unda uzrunvelyos misabmelis gaCereba
mSral, dabetonebul       safarian gzaze traqtorisgan damoukideblad; mosaxvevSi satraqtoro-
satransporto agregatis siCqare ar unda aRematebodes 5 km/sT-s, xolo molipul gzaze - 2...3
km/sT.cicabo daRmarTze moZraobisas agreTve dasaSvebia misi siCqare 2...3 km/sT farglebSi
pirveli gadacemiT moZraobisas. amasTan vinaidan sasoflo-sameurneo tvirTzidvisas did safrTxes
warmoadgens gzebze arsebuli ormoebi. ormoebSi traqtoris, an misabmelis Cavardnisas sakmaod
xSiria gadabrunebis SemTxvevebiamitom aucilebelia im kritikuli kuTxeebis dadgena, romlisTvisac
xdeba Camocureba, grZivi da ganivi gadabruneba. specialuri sagamocdo sadgurebis mier dadgenilia
sxvadasxva markis traqtorebisTvis zemoxsenebuli kuTxeebis zRvruli mniSvnelobebi da mocemulia
cxrilSi 7.1.
   traqtorebis mdgradobis zRvruli kuTxeebi gradusebSi
                                cxrili 7.1
traqtorismarka       Camoc.     Camoc.      gadab.    gadabr.     ganivi    ganivi
                     armarT     daRmarT     aRmarT    daRmarT     Camoc.    gadab.
t-16m                35         24          29        60          36        47

                                                                                            76
t-16mmC                  35        24           25       48            34         37
t-16mg                   35        24           45       68            38         52
t-25.t-30                37        28           44       62            38         50
t-40am                   33        20           40       59            36         46
t-40anm                  35        28           45       68            38         53
t-70v                    -         -            46       62            42         47
mtz-100 mtz-102          30        20           38       58            33         44
mtz-82n                  35        24           45       48            38         52
mtz-82k                  37        28           38       58            42         55
dt-75                    -         -            46       42            47         58
t-4a                     -         -            58       56            47         58
t-150k                   -         -            45       44            42         52
t-130                    -         -            53       52            -          55
traqtorebis grZivi mdgradobis gazrda SeiZleba Semdegi RonisZiebebis CatarebiT: wina Tvlebze
damatebiTi tvirTebis dakideba; simZimis centris daweva; liandis gafarToeba; specialur, samTo
pirobebisTvis da Waobiani niadagebisTvis gankuTvnili TvlebiT aRWurva; gamasworebeli
avtomaturi meqanizmis gamoyeneba. mosaxvevSi satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis siCqare ar
unda aRematebodes 5 km/sT-s, xolo molipul gzaze - 2...3 km/sT-s cicabo daRmarTze moZraobisas
agreTve dasaSvebia misi siCqare 2...3 km/sT farglebSi pirveli gadacemiT moZraobisas.
   traqtoris kritikuli saCqareebi mkveTr mosaxvevSi moZraobisas, roca iwyeba ganivi gadabruneba
traeqtoriis simrudis centris sawinaaRmdego mxares, mocemulia cxrilSi 7.2.
 simrudis umciresi radiusis traeqtoriaze moxvevisas Tvlani traqtorebis kritikuli siCqareebi
                                     cxrili 7.2
traqtoris marka          satransp.     mosaxvevSi      siCqare mosaxvevSi siCqare
                         siCqare       umciresi                  udidesi
                         km/sT         liandisas km/sT           liandisas km/sT.
mtz-80,82,100,102           32               18                       23
t-25a, t-30                 28,5             16                       22
t-40m, t-40a                30               16                       25
t-40anm                     30               22                       27
mtz-82n                     32               20                       25
t-150k                      28               20,5                     22
t-16m                       25               15                       17
t-16mg                      27               18                       20
k-700, k-701                30               22                       24

  traqtoris satransporto misabmeliT reisSi gaSveba dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
sagzao furceli an ganawesi, xelmowerilia im pirebis mier, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian aseTi
sabuTebis gacemisaTvis. satraqtoro-satransporto agregatis Soreul reisSi gagzavnisas, Tu es
grZeldeba samuSao dReze mets, unda gamoiyos ori traqtorist-memanqane, imitom rom erTisTvis
samuSao cvlaze meti drois ganmavlobaSi traqtoris marTva ar SeiZleba.




                                    literatura

1& Uj,thvfy& D& F& Cghfdjxyr gj ‘rcgkfnfwbb nhfycgjhnf d ctkmcrjv
                              [jpzqcndt& Vjcrdf& Hjcctkm[jpbplfn&
1975&

                                                                                            77
2& Bjabyjd C& F& b lh Bcgjkmpjdfybt nhfrnjhjd b fdnjvj,bktq d
                                ctkmcrjv [jpzqcndt& Vjcrdf&RJKJC& 1982&
3& Vbhjy.r C& R& Bcgjkmpjdfybt nhfycgjhnf d ctkmcrjv [jpzqcndt
                 Vjcrdf RJKJC& 1982&
4& Ffnbitd B& B& Jhufybpfwbz b vt[fybpfwbz gjuhepjxyj-hfpuhepjxys[
                                        hf,jn& Hjcctkm[jpbplfn& Vjcrdf& 1976
5& {fhbnjyfidbkb D& F& Vtnjls b chtlcndf gjdsitybz paatrnbdyjcnb
                                gfhrf fdnjvj,bkmyjuj nhfycgjhnf& UNE N,bkbcb
1997
6& Igbkmrj F& D& b lh& “rjyjvbxtcrfz ‘aatrnbdyjcnm vt[fybpfwbb
ctkmcrj[jpzqcndtyyjuj ghjbpdjlcndf& Hjcbqcrfz Frfltvbz
ctkmcrj[jpzqcndtyys[ yfer^ Vjcrdf 2001;
7. qarCava o.a. manqana-traqtorTa parkis eqsploatacia samTo
         pirobebSi. saleqcio kursi. naw.1 saq. au Tbilisi 1992
8. mSvildaZe o. traqtorebi da avtomobilebi. saq. au. 2000 w.
9. xaritonaSvili v. moiswrafiSvili m. avtosatransporto                       saSualebis ekonomikuri
efeqturobis gansazRvris meTodika.                      Tbilis “mecniereba” 2000 w.
10. qarCava o. satransporto procesebis optimizacia samTo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. resp.
samecn. konf. moxs. Tezisebi saqmmeski, Tbilisi 1996.
11. qarCava o satraqtoro-satransporto da teqnologiuri agrgatebis zRvruli siCqareebis gansazRvra
ferdobis daxris kuTxis mixedviT. saq. au-s samecn. Sr. kreb.
                                Tbilisi 1997.
12. qarCava o. tvirTzidvis TviTRirebulebis prognozireba samTo                        pirobebSi
avtomobilebis muSaobisas. saq. au-s samecn. Sr.                      saiubileo krebuli, Tbilisi 1999.
13. qarCava o., makariZe z. satvirTo avtomobilebis sawvavis xarjis                   prognozireba
samTo pirobebSi sam. J “agraruli                                             mecnierebis
problemebi” sau, sssi, sszi, Tbilisi 1999.
14. qarCava o. ioseliani S. satransporto saSualebebis sawvavis       prognozireba tvirTis masis
gaTvaliswinebiT J. “agraruli mecnierebis problemebi”. az. mecn. akad. Tbilisi - baqo. 2000.
15. qarCava o. ioseliani S. manjgalaZe l. satransporto saSualebebis optimaluri siCqareebis SerCeva
samTo pirobebSi tvirTzidvisas J. “agraruli mecnierebis                       problemebi”. Tbilisi
2001.
16. a. jervaliZe. n. sarjvelaZe, Sromis dacva. gamomc.                               “ganaTleba”
         Tbilisi 1995.
17. n. qarqaSaZe, h. giorgaZe da sxv. bunebaTsargeblobis ekonomika. Tbilisi 2003.
18. liluaSvili a. qarCava o. teqnikuri saSualebebis servisi da usfrTxoeba. Tbilisi saq. au-s
gamomcemloba. Tbilisi 2003.




                   danarTi
               amortizaciis wliuri norma
                                   danarTi 1
 msubuqi avtomobilebi, avtosatraqtoro teqnika,
 kompiuterebi instrumentebi teqnoogiuri manqanebi---------------- 20%
 satvirTo avtomobilebi,
 avtosatraqtoro misabmelebi ------------------------------------------------------15%

                                                                                                   78
 sarkinigzo, sazRvao transporti,
 eleqtroZravebi dizelgeneratorebi
 eleqtrogadamcemebi -------------------------------------------------------------------- 8%
 Senoba nagebobebi-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7%
 amortizebuli aqtivebi,
 romlebic ar Sedian sxva jgufebSi--------------------------------------------10%

         inglisur-amerikuli da saerTaSoriso
    metruli sistemebis sazomi erTeulebis mniSvnelobebi
                                    danarTi 4
INCH - inCi(duimi) = 2,54 sm         FOOT - futi = 30,48 sm
YARD- iardi = 91,44 sm            ROOD - rodi = 5,03 m
CHAIN - Ceini = 20,117 m             FURLONG - farlongi = 201,17 m
MILE - Mmili = 1,6 km        NAUTICAL Mile - sazRvao mili=1,8532 km
PINT - pinti = 0,5683 lit.      QUART - kvarti = 1,1365 lit
galoni = 4,5461 lit..       amerikuli galoni = 3,78543 lit.
siTxis bareli = 119,24 lit.   sanavTobo bareli = 159,0 lt
graini = 64,7989 miligr.        uncia = 28,350 gr.
funti = 0,4536 kg            stouni = 6,3503 kg
handredveiti = 50,802 kg.        buSeli = 36.369 lit
     celsiusi _________________________ farengeiti
   1 C = 5/9 X (F - 32)                         1 F = 9/5 X ( C + 32)

          energiis erTeulebs Soris damokidebuleba
                                      danarTi 5
1 kkl = 427 kgm                1 kkl = 4,19 kj
1 kvt.sT = 3,6 mj              1 kkl = 1,163 vt.sT
1 mj = 0,034 kg pir. sawv.         1 kg pir.saw. = 29,33 mj
1kg pir.sawv. = 7000 kkl           1 cZ.sT = 2,65 mj
1 kgt.sT = 0,12 kg pir.saw.         1 mj = 0,278 kvt.sT
1kg diz.saw. = 1,45 kg. pir.saw.        1kg benz = 1,52 kg.pir.saw.
pirobiTi sawvavi warmoadgens im sawvavs, romlis dawvisas miRebulia siTbos raodenoba
29,35 mgj/kg (7000 kkl/kg).

       satransporto procesebis energetikuli eqvivalentebi
                                    danarTi 6
   maCvenebeli                                           energetikuli               produqtis
                                                         eqvivalenti                energoSemc
                                                         megaj/kg                   v megaj/ha
        sawvavi:
dizeli                                                   10                         42,7
saaviacio benzini                                        10,5                       44,5
saavtomobilo benzini                                     10,5                       43,9
satraqtoro navTi                                         10                         43,9
biogazi                                                                             36,2

eleqtro energia                                                8,7mj/kvt
siTburi energia                                                0,0055mj/kkl
traqtorebi, TviTnfrinavebi, vertmfrenebi                       120
teqnologiuri manqanebi, gadabmulebi                            104
manqanaTmSeneblobis produqcia (Carxebi da sxva)                144

                                                                                                  79
foladi                                                45,5
aliumini                                              343
spilenZi                                              83,7
cementi                                               7,0
aguri                                                 8,5
betonis konstruqcia                                   8,3
sacxovrebeli Senoba-nagebobebi                        4810 mj/kv.m
sawarmoo Senobebi                                     5025 mj/kvm
administraciuli da kulturul sayofacxovrebo Senobebi
damxmare nagebobebi                                   5662 mj/kvm
Robeebi                                               4810 mj/kvm
                                                      383 mj/kvm




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