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Currently, climate change has become a national and international issue. The government had
already started was keen to publicize and inform about climate change conditions in full the whole
of Indonesia. mitigation and adaptation efforts were already underway in some parts of Indonesia,
such as Jakarta, every Saturday and Sunday are encouraged "car-free day". This is done to reduce
the impact of air pollution and suppress the increase of greenhouse gases caused by motor vehicles.
Public enthusiasm was evident from the increasing number who participate in the event. This
activity was then developed and performed in several cities in other parts of Indonesia. Need the
participation of all parties in the prevention as well as adjustments to current conditions.
To support efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, the need for the data supporting climate
information. On the other hand even this climate information can be used by people in their daily
activities and their activities. For example, information about weather and climate, such as rainfall,
wind speed, weather prakiran, and to the ocean waves for fishermen; prakiran monthly rainfall and
prakiran season for farmers, or the weather aviator. Information about these matters can be found
and accessed through the Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG). Because BMKG is a
performance special government agency specifically informed about meteorology, climatology, air
quality and geophysics.
Climate and Rainfall Patterns Indonesia
Indonesia has a unique climate, is attributed to the region in the form of islands and is located in the
tropics, the unique climate of Indonesia is also affected by it lies between two oceans and two
continents. In Indonesia there are three types of climate patterns that affect the climate in
Indonesia, the monsoonal climate, equatorial climate, climate and local systems.
Elements interesting to study climate in Indonesia is rainfall, because not all parts of Indonesia have
the same pattern of rainfall and rainfall are climatic parameters that most influence the pattern of
community life. The pattern of rainfall in Indonesia is influenced by several factors, such as the
monsoon, the Inter-tropical Convergene Zone (ITCZ), IODM, ENSO and other regional circulation
contained in the Pacific and Indian oceans. According Aldrian and Susanto (2003), rainfall patterns
Indonesia is divided into three major regions with a transition region, namely:
1. Monsoonal regions (zone A) is the dominant pattern in Indonesia, because it covers almost the
whole of Indonesia. The area has a peak in November-March (NDJFM) is affected by the wet
northwest monsoon and a trough in the month from May to September (MJJAS) is affected by the
dry southeast monsoon, so it can be distinguished between the dry season and the rainy season
Apart A region that is strongly correlated to changes in SPL.
2. Equatorial region (zone B) has two peaks in October-November (ON) and in March-May (MAM).
This pattern is influenced by a shift to the north and south of the ITCZ or equinox point (culmination)
of the sun.
3. Local climatic zones (zone C) has a peak in June-July (JJ) and a trough in Novenber-February
(NDJF). This pattern is the opposite of the pattern of A.

Associated with rainfall patterns in Indonesia, note also about understanding the rainy season and
dry season. The dry season is the season with rainfall <50 mm / dasarian dasarian followed by the
next, while the rainy season is the opposite with rainfall> 50 mm / dasarian and followed by
subsequent dasarian. Substitution between rainy season and dry season when rainfall occurs in
three dasarian exceeds or is less than 50 mm followed by two subsequent dasarian. Wet Dry is a
term that describes a lot of rain during the dry season.


• Open website, look for data and information on the Early Season Rain Map
Prospects 2011/2012 on September 2011. Do you think the area where the zone of Borneo's rainy
• Find out also which areas in Indonesia which has a high rainfall in July 2011.

Global warming affect climate, including the climate in Indonesia. This can be seen in the presence
1. Changes in rainfall
2. Shifting seasons
3. Changes in temperature

It takes 3.2 grams of fossil fuels to make a cup of styrofoam. By reducing the styrofoam container as
much as 10%, we can save the atmosphere as much as 600 kg of CO2 per year. (Green Journey-

1. Rainfall Changes
Climate change can be seen with the change in extreme rainfall events opportunities in various areas
in Indonesia. In West Java, Banten, and Jakarta, the chances of extreme rainfall intensity of 500 mm
/ month during the period from 1970 to 1999 increased by 13%. In fact, during the period 1900 -
1929, the chances of extreme rainfall events in these three areas is only 3%.
Climate change also resulted in a decrease in annual rainfall. In Bengkulu region, annual
precipitation has decreased approximately by 82.55 mm / year for the period from 1968 to 1996.
Similarly in the Ketapang (West Kalimantan), the same observation period (years 1968 to 1996) of
annual rainfall has decreased approximately by 58.64 mm / year.
2. Shifting Seasons
Climate change occurs can also be seen from the shift of seasons. In Indonesia, the shift both in the
early season and long season. Such shifts occur in the dry season and the rainy season, either
forward or backward. Shifting seasons in Indonesia has been observed in several regions such as
Sumatra, Java, and South Sulawesi based on observational data for 30 years ie the period 1971-2000
and the period 2001-2010.
For example, in Java, a shift occurs in both the wet season and dry season. Based on the
observations of 30-year period 1971-2000, the rainy season has shifted in Java as shown in Figure
19. The pattern of the rainy season in West Java and Central Java largely shifted forward 3-4
dasarian, in Tangerang-Banten and surrounding ahead 1-2 dasarian and the eastern part of East Java
has shifted forward 1-2 dasarian. While the shifting monsoon patterns retreat occurred in Banten
and Jakarta where the shift varies between 1-2 to 3-4 dasarian dasarian. Then East Java 1-2 dasarian
shift backwards.

In addition to the rainy season, a shift also occurred in the dry season as shown in Figure 20. Shifting
the dry season in Java majority have retreated 1-2 dasarian (Banten, Jakarta, West Java and East
Java) and some retreat locations dasarian 3-4. While at Zom 1, 21, 25, 27, 33, 73, 45, 50 and 63
during the dry season patterns shifted forward 1-2 dasarian. Then Zom 60 season 3-4 dasarian
moved forward.
3. Changes in Temperature
Based on the observations, the Earth's surface temperature has increased since the industrial
revolution took place. In Indonesia, the observation of temperature changes have been made in
several places, such as in Jakarta, Makassar, and the whole area Indonesia.Di Jakarta, according to
data observation period 1956-2001, the average air temperature has increased, both trends and
changes. On average, temperatures in Jakarta has increased by 0.7 ° C / year. It shows that the
temperature increase is not just happening globally but also in specific locations such as Jakarta.

• Do you think is it true that there is a change in rainfall, shifting seasons, and temperature changes?
Look for data and information to support your opinion.

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