Biol 412 Lab
Apr 28, 2006
I. Anatomy Lab
II. Biology, Peter H. Raven, George B. Johnson, Jonathan B. Losos, Susan Singer
Investigating Biology, J. Morgan and M. E. Carter, 1993, pp 642-644
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.
Due: Apr 28, 2006
III. Unlike our previous labs, this lab did not intend for us to improve our field
observations by sketching samples readily available in nature. Instead, we took the time
to dissect and observe large Animalia specimens. We will focus on the internal organs in
our sketches rather than the outer phenotype. It is important for us to learn how to
visualize the subject at hand to fully understand these organisms. There is a wide variety
of animals to study and these first-hand accounts can help us see beyond the textbook.
The random selection of specimens simulated the experience of data collecting in the
field. We were also under a time constraint to let us realize the fast-paced world of
Four Animal Specimens
A small schooling shark with irregular white spots on the upper part of its body.
No anal fin or subterminal notch on caudal fin. Cartilaginous with narrow anterior
nasal flaps and spines in front of each dorsal fin.
Small omniverous rodent with long furless tail and exposed incisors. Typically,
known to carry disease and bred for animal testing.
A freshwater bony fish belonging to the family osteichthyes. Usually dark green
with red fins. Perch have ctenoid scales and an upper maxilla and lower mandible
on the dorsal side of the fish.
Stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. Also
known as the feral rock dove. Produce two white eggs which are incubated by
All four specimens belong to the Animalia kingdom and Chordata Phylum.
Beyond this, each takes on its own class. The Dogfish us in the class Chondrichthyes.
The Perch belongs to the class Osteichthyes . The Rat is class Mammalia and the Pigeon
is class Aves. Placed in order of evolutionary growth, the line should go: Dogfish, Perch,
Rat, and Pigeon. The Chondrichthyes have a cartilaginous endoskeleton, internal
fertilization and no swim bladders. The Osteichthyes have bone skeletons and external
fertilization. From the fish sprang forth the first amphibians, and soon, reptiles. The
reptiles branched off into the mammals and birds. The class Mammalia grew hair to keep
warm in colder climates and also mammary glands. The Aves, descendants of reptiles,
specialized their scales into wings and feathers.