Anatomy Paper

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					                                                                            Philip Godbout
                                                                              Biol 412 Lab
                                                                              Apr 28, 2006

I.                                    Anatomy Lab

II.    Biology, Peter H. Raven, George B. Johnson, Jonathan B. Losos, Susan Singer

       Investigating Biology, J. Morgan and M. E. Carter, 1993, pp 642-644

       Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia,

               Due: Apr 28, 2006

III.   Unlike our previous labs, this lab did not intend for us to improve our field

observations by sketching samples readily available in nature. Instead, we took the time

to dissect and observe large Animalia specimens. We will focus on the internal organs in

our sketches rather than the outer phenotype. It is important for us to learn how to

visualize the subject at hand to fully understand these organisms. There is a wide variety

of animals to study and these first-hand accounts can help us see beyond the textbook.

The random selection of specimens simulated the experience of data collecting in the

field. We were also under a time constraint to let us realize the fast-paced world of

laboratory documentation.

                                 Four Animal Specimens


Squalus acanthias

       A small schooling shark with irregular white spots on the upper part of its body.

       No anal fin or subterminal notch on caudal fin. Cartilaginous with narrow anterior

       nasal flaps and spines in front of each dorsal fin.

Rattus rattus

         Small omniverous rodent with long furless tail and exposed incisors. Typically,

         known to carry disease and bred for animal testing.


Perca fluviatilis

         A freshwater bony fish belonging to the family osteichthyes. Usually dark green

         with red fins. Perch have ctenoid scales and an upper maxilla and lower mandible

         on the dorsal side of the fish.



         Stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. Also

         known as the feral rock dove. Produce two white eggs which are incubated by

         both parents.


         All four specimens belong to the Animalia kingdom and Chordata Phylum.

Beyond this, each takes on its own class. The Dogfish us in the class Chondrichthyes.

The Perch belongs to the class Osteichthyes . The Rat is class Mammalia and the Pigeon

is class Aves. Placed in order of evolutionary growth, the line should go: Dogfish, Perch,

Rat, and Pigeon. The Chondrichthyes have a cartilaginous endoskeleton, internal

fertilization and no swim bladders. The Osteichthyes have bone skeletons and external

fertilization. From the fish sprang forth the first amphibians, and soon, reptiles. The

reptiles branched off into the mammals and birds. The class Mammalia grew hair to keep
warm in colder climates and also mammary glands. The Aves, descendants of reptiles,

specialized their scales into wings and feathers.


Description: I hated this class in High school. We had to dissect dead pigeons and rats and write a short lab report about it.