Needs Assessment by J976r4


									                                        Needs Assessment

       A report published by SRI: Stanford Research Institute (2007) found that, where visual

and performing arts education had not been eliminated at the elementary level in California

schools, it was most often delivered by generalist teachers with inadequate training in the arts.i

The ArtsCore: K-2 project was designed to address this problem. In 2005-06ii, the ArtsCore: K-2

pilot project provided K-2 teachers in high-poverty schools with the professional development

needed to integrate visual and performing arts instruction with the language arts curriculum.

       Preliminary findings from a quasi-experimental study carried out in a representative

sample of ArtsCore: K-2 classrooms (using the OWLSiii and DIBELSiv assessments) suggest

that students of the teachers in the experimental group outperformed controls on all measures.

These results indicate that integration of the arts into language arts instruction may provide

powerful support for young English language learners who struggle with language-based lessons.

       The proposed ArtsCore: K-2 project would provide professional development workshops

for 340 teachers in high-poverty schools in the San Diego Unified School District and in Orange

County. Teachers would also be provided with in-class assistance from professional teaching

artists during the initial phase of implementation. Through the workshops, teachers would learn

how to deliver standards-based visual and performing arts instruction to children in kindergarten

through second grade. Classroom delivery of arts instruction would take place in two ways:

through a weekly one-hour standards-based visual and performing arts lesson (initially given

with the assistance of a teaching artist) and through integration of the arts into English language

arts and social studies lessons, as well as into daily shared literacy periods. A special component

on ethics would be included, using narrative to heighten awareness of others’ needs and

encourage pro-social behavior in the classroom and schoolyard.

       San Diego City Schools. The second largest school district in California, San Diego

schools serve 133,000 students; 28% are English Learners; 61% receive free or reduced price

meals. According to federal census datav, there were 31,252 children living in poverty within San

Diegovi in 2004. Many of these children reside in the southeastern quadrant of the district. The

ArtsCore workshops would be based in this area and would serve five schools each year of the

program, for a total of 15 high-poverty schools over the three years of the program. Descriptive

statistics on these 15 schools are provided in the attached chart. Approximately 60 teachers are

expected to participate in the San Diego program (and 40 in Orange County) the first year.

       All of the participating sites are Title 1 schools and many of these schools have been

designated for improvement. As a result, professional development efforts at these schools have

been targeted at raising standardized test scores. The ArtsCore program will provide teachers

with the knowledge and skills to: 1) provide a weekly visual and performing arts lesson to their

pupils and 2) integrate the arts into other aspects of the curriculum. Since classroom teachers

often have little prior experience in delivering arts instruction, a teaching artist will come to each

teacher’s classroom for one hour per week for 36 weeks to assist in delivering the arts lessons.

       Orange County. Despite its reputation for affluence, Orange County has significant

pockets of poverty. The workshop format in Orange County would be similar to San Diego

except that instead of focusing on just one school district, the workshops would recruit teams of

K-2 teachers from high-poverty schools where administrative support for the ArtsCore project is

strong. A county-wide arts education needs assessment is now being carried out by the Orange

County Department of Education and will be used as a basis for choosing participants. As a

result of the need to recruit across school districts, the Orange County segment of the program

will serve a slightly smaller cohort (40) the first year. However cohorts of 60 teachers will be

recruited for the second and third years of the program. The focus will be on recruiting whole

schools, so that grade level teams can work together to implement the program.

                                       Project Goals and Outcomes

       In 2006-07, for the first time since passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, California took a

historic step toward recognizing the contribution the visual and performing arts can make to the

education of students in the state’s public schools. A modest amount of one-time and continuing

funding was allocated to K-12 schools, on a per-pupil basis, in the arts and physical education in

an attempt to jump-start components of the public school curriculum that had long languished

because of lack of funding. The danger is that the arts funding made available will have little

long-term effect at the elementary level without meaningful teacher professional development.

       During spring 2007, elementary schools throughout the San Diego City School District

put together school-level needs assessments in the arts, along with a plan for spending one-time

arts funding that, in San Diego, was expected to come to $41.50 per student. As these requests

came in, it became clear that many elementary teachers were struggling to envision how a new

set of visual and performing arts lessons might be fit into an already tightly scheduled school

day. Aware of the importance of continuing to accelerate gains in student performance in content

areas such as language arts and mathematics, they were unwilling to cut back on time dedicated

to instruction in these areas. As a result, the arts were seen by many to be a peripheral activity.

       For this reason, a major goal of the program would be to show teachers how to create a

bridge between the art and the language arts aspects of the curriculum, so that integration of the

arts amplifies learning in the language arts. This would provide additional support for English

language learners by enriching the curriculum with visual images, physical gestures, and

memorable rhythms, rhymes and patterns. Such support would accelerate the learning of children

who are not yet fluent in English and therefore struggle with the language-based explanations

they encounter in English immersion classrooms. A significant increase in standardized test

scores (CELDT, CST, CAT/6) in English language arts is expected as a result.

       To reach as many teachers as possible, the ArtsCore: K-2 project would provide—and

rigorously evaluate--an intensive professional development program to 80 teachers each year (40

in San Diego, 40 in Orange County) for a total of 240 teachers over the three years of the

program. The program would provide K-2 teachers in high-poverty San Diego and Orange

County schools with the content knowledge and pedagogical skills necessary to:

          Engage their students in standards-based instruction in the visual and performing arts

           for at least one hour per week during the school year;

          Utilize arts-based teaching techniques that engage English language learners;

          Make use of arts integration strategies to help children build both social-emotional

           and academic competencies, while also learning about diverse cultural traditionsvii;

          Implement well-designed, integrated lessons that concurrently address content

           standards in the arts, language arts, and social studies, so that each area is enhanced;

          Look collaboratively, with grade-level colleagues, at student work that is generated

           by integrated lessons to diagnose learning deficits and plan corrective interventions;

          Use poetry reading and the writing of simple poems to encourage a love of language;

          Employ questioning techniques during a daily shared literacy period to enhance

           children’s vocabulary, oral language, and critical thinking skills;

          Foster constructive dialogues with children concerning ethical issues, ranging from

           prejudice against members of minority groups to school violence;

          Enable a majority of students in their classroom to score at the proficient or advanced

           level on the CST in language arts by the time that they are in third grade.

                                             Action Plan

       Design of the ArtsCore: K-2 project had to take account of concerns on multiple levels.

On the state level, there was a need to provide K-2 teachers with the professional development

they would require to effectively utilize the new visual and performing arts funding provided by

the State of California in the manner intended. On the district level, there was a need to assist

high-poverty schools that had shown an interest in integrating visual and performing arts

instruction into the core curriculum. On the school level, there was a need to involve grade-level

teams in collaborative planning. On the classroom level, there was a need to integrate arts

instruction as a means to amplify student learning in multiple content areas.

       On the state level, program design took into account concerns expressed in the draft of

the California Preschool Learning Foundations circulated for review in spring 2007. The report

shows that K-2 teachers are under pressure to press ahead academically and that kindergarten

classrooms increasingly resemble first grade classrooms in their emphasis on formal reading and

math instruction, rather than play and socialization.viii Yet, if all children are to have an equal

chance to succeed in school, K-2 teachers must help children develop social-emotional

competencies that they may not have had an opportunity to acquire before entering kindergarten.

       Integration of the visual and performing arts allows social-emotional, academic, and

social issues to be addressed in the same lesson. Critical Links, ix a research compendium

published by the Arts Education Partnership (AEP), reviewed 62 arts education studies and

found important relationships between learning in the arts and cognitive capacities, as well as the

motivations that underlie academic achievement and constructive social behavior. The arts--

especially creative dramatics in the early grades--were associated with improved literacy skills,

as was shown by increased achievement in reading, language development, and writing skills.

          The effectiveness of arts integration in amplifying student learning, especially for English

language learners, would appear to be supported by an on-going project carried out through the

UCI Center for Learning through the Arts. Working at El Sol Academy of Arts and Sciences, a

K-5 bilingual school in Santa Ana, CA, the UCI Poetry Academy developed an intensive arts-

and-poetry program that appears to have affected student standardized test scores. In 2003 and

2004, no El Sol student who would, in 2005, be in grade 4 had scored at the advanced level in

English language arts on the California Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) tests. In

2003 (as second graders) 29% of this group scored far below basic. Yet, in 2005, only 3% of this

group of students scored below basic; 22% tested at the advanced level in English language arts,

22% scored proficient, and 43% scored in the basic range (20% had jumped from below basic to


          The National Endowment for the Arts treats creative writing—both prose and poetry—as

art forms, along with visual art, music, theatre and dance. Moreover, creative writing provides an

excellent way of building connections between the visual and performing arts and other content

areas, especially language arts. For this reason creative writing, oral storytelling, and creative

dramatics would all be important aspects of the proposed ArtsCore: K-2 program.

          On the district level, the San Diego City Schoolsx had compiled a needs assessment in

which all schools have been asked to assess their needs in regard to instruction in the visual and

performing arts. This made it possible to identify four high-poverty schools that had shown

interest in integrating arts instruction into the existing curriculum. At Freese Elementary, which

has had a cultural arts magnet program for six years, but has not experienced the jump in test

scores that had been hoped for, there is a strong interest in taking on a leadership role in making

use of the arts to enhance learning. Therefore Freese will host the ArtsCore: K-2 workshops.

       In 2005-07, Orange County Department of Education (OCDE) arts coordinator Jim

Thomas (who also acted as co-director of the ArtsCore: K-2 pilot project) conducted an arts

education needs assessment in partnership with the non-profit arts council, Arts Orange County.

This needs assessment would make it possible to identify high-poverty schools with an interest in

professional development in the arts. Now the fifth most populous county in the United States,

Orange County has become much more diverse in recent years. In 2005, according to Census

bureau estimates, Latinos constituted 32.5% of the population. Addressing the needs of English

language learners would be a major goal of the Orange County segment of ArtsCore: K-2.

       The ArtsCore: K-2 project would operate from two separate sites—one in San Diego and

one in Orange County—and serve 60 teachers at each site each year (except that 40 will be

served in first year in Orange County). Each teacher will participate for two years. In the first

year they will both attend workshops and have classroom assistance from teaching artists. In the

second year, they will continue to attend support workshops but will teach the arts lessons

themselves. Over a three-year period, 320 teachers and 12,800 children (assuming a classroom

size of 20 per class) to 16,000 children (assuming a classroom size of 25) would be served.

       Building on what was learned from the 2005-06 ArtsCore: K-2 pilot project, we have

found that teachers found it easier to remember and implement arts integration strategies if: 1) a

limited number of strategies were presented at a time; 2) classroom implementation was carried

out relatively soon after the strategies were demonstrated. Therefore, the proposed year-long

series of workshops would begin with a one-day institute just before teachers report back to

school in August. This institute would provide an introduction to the visual and performing arts

standards, as well as the initial visual art teaching strategies workshop. Teachers will be

introduced to lesson plans developed by resource teachers, which are designed to provide the

foundation for a year-long, classroom-based visual and performing arts curriculum.

       A half-day workshop would be held in October, where teachers would evaluate

implementation efforts and explore new instructional strategies. A month later, in November, a

new art discipline will be introduced. This pattern would be followed through the remainder of

the year. After each arts discipline is introduced, teachers implementing the strategies will return

for a half-day workshop in which implementation challenges and successes will be discussed.

       On the school level, the San Diego segment of the ArtsCore: K-2 program would focus

on involving all K-2 teachers at participating schools in the program, with a teacher-coach

recruited at each school to coordinate professional development activities at that school and also

provide on-site mentoring for teachers who have difficulty implementing the arts integration

strategies. Each year, five elementary schools would participate, with a total of 15 high-need

schools in the southeast corner of San Diego being served. In Orange County the focus would be

on recruiting grade-level teams of teachers, since in Orange County recruitment would rely less

on local school districts and more on existing professional networks.

       Since the teachers would be recruited in school-wide teams, this would allow an

experienced teacher-coach to be appointed at each school to assist with implementation. The

presence of these teacher-coaches at the school site would allow teachers to get assistance

between formal workshops. Where appropriate, the teacher-coach may invite other teachers to

observe an example lesson in her/his classroom or even teach a particular lesson in the classroom

of another teacher. In cases where one teacher has a specific arts-related talent, such as dance or

music, that teacher might be recruited to teach an arts lesson to all children in that grade level.

       During the ArtsCore: K-2 pilot program, it not only became clear that teachers who had

attended the institute in grade-level teams found implementation easier, but that integration of

the arts and language arts was most effective when careful attention was paid to which literacy

activities were appropriate to a specific developmental level. The integration of the arts with

language arts instruction would thus have a different character for each arts discipline and at

each grade level (kindergarten, 1st grade, 2nd grade). For example, at the kindergarten level, a

visual art lesson might encourage children to experiment with color and texture. Using paint and

colored paper, children may create hand-painted papers. A variety of visual art techniques could

be utilized to represent scenes from stories read aloud during the shared literacy period.

       Early in the teachers' collaborative meetings, teacher-coaches would lead a discussion on

how to “anchor” an arts lesson to a story or other work of literature. The teachers would develop

a rubric (probably on a four-point scale). Using this rubric, the teachers would evaluate the

students' current skills and also their growth in the basic elements of the art discipline being

used. This would allow for the flexibility that is needed in K-2 classrooms, but would also help

teachers to monitor their students’ progress toward meeting the learning objectives they had set.

       Implementation may vary, however, as the ArtsCore: K-2 curriculum was designed to be

flexible enough to allow teachers to adjust to the developmental needs of their children, while

also tying the arts strategies to the district-mandated language arts and social studies curriculum.

This is why the ongoing support of expert teacher-coaches would be of pivotal importance.

       In Orange County, whole school participation will be encouraged. For example, the

Orange County Educational Arts Academy (OCEAA), a K-8 school in Santa Ana Elementary

(488 students; 75% Latino; 49% eligible for free/reduced lunch; 45% English language learners),

has committed to participate in the ArtsCore workshops if they are funded.xi However, it is

anticipated that whole-school participation will not be possible in all cases. Therefore on-line and

in-person support from ArtsCore: K-2 staff members will also be provided where appropriate.

       On the classroom level, in addition to professional development relating to the visual and

performing arts, the ArtsCore: K-2 workshops would show teachers how to make effective use of

stories and classroom dialogue as a way to amplify student learning in the visual and performing

arts. This would be done through introduction of specific cognitive toolsxii that can be used to

anchor instruction, creating a bridge between the art and language arts aspects of the curriculum.

Classroom dialogues focused on arts projects, stories, and poems not only enhance academic

skills but they also help to build social-emotional competencies. This leads to the concluding

component of the program, designed to test whether arts can be used to effectively improve how

children treat other children and also minimize prejudice.

       Stories that address issues concerning the treatment of others – from minority group

issues to issues of bullying and violence in class and on the playground – would be among those

that teachers would be encouraged to read aloud and discuss during the daily shared reading

period. This program builds on a successful program, using narratives to encourage ethics and

tolerance in older children, developed by faculty at the Center for the Scientific Study of Ethics

at UCI. The portion of the grant dealing with ethical issues will focus on six related components:

      selecting existing stories that address general issues of ethics, defined for the purpose of

       this project as how we treat others;

      choosing existing stories to include in the curriculum that show students the

       consequences of their choices;

      developing new stories that involve decision-points where students choose the action and

       then see the consequences that follow from these choices;

      exploring the possibility of producing computerized versions of these stories;

      including stories in the curriculum that highlight moral courage, whether in the form of

       heroes – such as those who risk their lives to save strangers – or perform daily acts of

       quiet moral courage, such as those who refuse to lie, cheat, dissemble, etc.;

      including stories in the curriculum that show favorable portraits of those who are

       “different” and of individuals who accept people who are “different,” showing tolerance,

       understanding, and empathy toward members of groups frequently discriminated against.

       Some of this literature already exists, e.g., Dr. Seuss’s The Lorax or The Sneetches and

Other Stories. Others can be developed using stories of moral courage, during the Holocaust or

in everyday life, provided by Ethics Center Director Kristen Monroe. An attempt will be made to

find stories that also involve humor, as Seuss does in his works. Recent scientific work

supporting the approach, including work in cognitive psychology by Amos Tversky, Daniel

Kahnemann, Paul Slovic and their colleagues. suggests that emotions are not separated from

cognitive skills. The best recent work finds that learning that is accompanied by emotional input

may have a more lasting effect. Other work (by Drew Westin inter alia) suggests the kind of

representations that we find in a good story have a much stronger impact on learning and on

shifting critical political attitudes than do the more traditionally conceptualized cognitive

computational models of the human mind.

       This suggests that those of us concerned with ethics and their application for young

children should pursue instruction via the arts, especially using narratives and interactive

drawing that involves the children’s direct participation.xiii Hence, the emphasis on developing a

program in practical ethics that is highly personalized and interactive, attempting to develop the

moral imagination so that children can see other options that include more peaceful resolution of

playground or classroom conflicts.xiv The impact of this program will be measured by shifts in

bullying and violence in the schoolyard and classroom as measured by disciplinary referrals.

       Changes in Teachers’ Academic Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Skills. The

ArtsCore: K-2 program would use two approaches to enhancing teachers’ content knowledge and

imparting the pedagogical skills needed to integrate the arts into the K-2 curriculum. First,

teachers would attend professional development workshops where they will learn the Visual and

Performing Arts Content Standards, participate in demonstration lessons, and create lessons of

their own under the supervision of teacher-leaders. Participating teachers will provide one hour

of standards-based arts instruction to their students each week. Second, teachers would learn

strategies for integrating the arts into language arts lessons during a shared literacy period.

       English Language Learners. Integration of the arts with the language arts is especially

helpful to English language learners because their performance in activities such as visual art and

dance is not limited by their command of the English language. Among the means of showing

comprehension suggested by the beginning level California English Language Development

standards are drawing pictures and retelling stories by using appropriate gestures, expressions,

and illustrative objects. Both visual art activities and the retelling of stories (as part of shared

literacy) are integral aspects of the ArtsCore: K-2 teacher professional development program.

       Dissemination. Informal dissemination, from teacher to teacher, is expected to take place

within school districts. Wider dissemination is planned through the UCI Center for Learning

through the Arts (CLTA),xv which provides research and on-line publishing services for the

ArtsBridge America network of 22 research universities.xvi The CLTA eScholarship Repository,

supported by the University of California Library System, allows materials to be uploaded into a

easily searchable collection accessible to arts educators throughout the world.

       Scholarly articles will be published and papers given at conferences such as the American

Educational Research Association (AERA). Both a research paperxvii and a symposiumxviii were

presented at AERA in connection with the 2001-04 ArtsCore: High School project.

                                   Partnerships with Schools

       In the last seven years, the UCI Center for Learning through the Arts has housed four

large grant-funded partnerships with K-12 schools. The first, in 2001-04, was a three-year grant

of $846,528 from the U.S. Department of Education Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary

Education (FIPSE). This grant funded evaluation of the UC ArtsBridge program (founded at UCI

in 1996) which sends advanced UC arts students to work in partnership with teachers in K-12

schools) and dissemination of ArtsBridgexix to universities outside the UC system.xx

       The second was ArtsCore: High School, a $704,000 state-administered Eisenhower grant

that provided teacher professional development institutes and follow-up workshops for high

school arts teachers who faced the challenge of designing courses that complied with the new

UC visual and performing arts admission requirement. The third was the ArtsCore: K-2 teacher

professional development pilot program in 2005-06, which is described elsewhere in this

proposal and was funded by a $100,000 ITQ dissemination grant. For both ArtsCore programs,

the Orange County Department of Education served as partnering LEA. In this proposal, OCDE

serves as an additional partner, but will play a major role in recruiting Orange County teachers.

       Most recently, the UCI Center for Learning through the Arts has housed a multi-campus

partnership between the National Geographic Education Foundationxxi and six universities (UCI,

UCLA, UC San Diego, Cal State Long Beach, Michigan State, Oklahoma State, and Lawrence

University) that are involved in creating a music-and-geography curriculum to complement the

5th grade United States history curriculum. Funded by a $250,000 grant from the National

Geographic Education Foundation and contributions from local donors, this three-year project

focuses on the music soundtrack that accompanied western expansion of the pre-Civil War U.S.

Freese Elementary School, which will host the San Diego workshops, piloted Mapping the Beat.

       In addition to large grant-funded projects, CLtA also supports on-going projects such as

the UCI Poetry Academyxxii, which has worked intensively with students at El Sol Academy of

the Arts and Science (a K-5 English-Spanish dual immersion school where over 90% of students

qualify for free or reduced lunch) in the Santa Ana Unified School District. Arts and poetry

lessons at El Sol have contributed to a rise in language arts scores on the STAR test.

       The other higher education partner in this proposal, the UCI Interdisciplinary Center for

the Scientific Study of Ethics and Morality in the School of Social Sciences, uses research to

explore the quintessential question at the heart of ethics: "What causes moral behavior?" The

Center is developing effective curricula to be used at both the K-12 and undergraduate levels to

help young people to escape on-going cycles of violence, abuse, prejudice, and discrimination.

Faculty associated with the Center have brought together scientific findings on the drive toward

moral behavior and developed tools, such as role-playing games, that encourage the kinds of

empathic involvement that have been found to foster moral treatment of others.

       In the proposed project, teacher recruitment will be carried out by Karen Childress-Evans

in SDUSD and by Jim Thomas in OCDE. School district and school site facilities will be used

for workshops. Teachers in all participating districts will benefit from workshops on standards-

based K-2 arts integration, from working with teaching artists during initial implementation, and

from attending support workshops during the second year of implementing standards-based arts

lessons. UCI will bring to the project the educational expertise gleaned from past ArtsCore

projects and from research on fostering empathic involvement among children. What UCI will

gain from the project is an enhanced understanding of how the arts can amplify student learning.

                                                    Research Design

        We describe our plan below with reference to SDUSD. However, we will implement a

similar plan in Orange County where teachers will be drawn from multiple school districts.

        Our research evaluation plan for the ArtsCore: K-2 project will measure project success

at three levels: extent of teacher implementation, teacher growth, and student achievement. To do

this, we propose a combined research design comprised of: 1) classroom observations and

monthly reports from teachers attending workshops; 2) “pre-post” assessments of changes in

teachers’ performances; 3) a controlled experimental design (non-randomized) to assess the

effect of this intervention at the student level.

        The first component would assess the extent to which the program has actually been

implemented by teachers in the manner intended. The second component would measure

changes in teachers’ knowledge of arts standards and in their ability to integrate arts content into

their classroom curriculum. The third component of the evaluation design would examine

changes in achievement levels for the students of teachers who received the intervention by

utilizing student-level scores from district and state mandated tests, and include both

comparisons within the treatment group and comparisons to matched control groups over time.

We would expand upon these comparisons for English language learners.

1. Extent of Teacher Implementation

One goal of the program is that teachers engage their students in standards-based instruction in

the visual and performing arts for at least one hour per week during the school year. At each of

the six follow-up workshops, teachers would fill out a form on which they report the arts

activities they had implemented. The same form would be used for reporting teacher use of arts-

based teaching techniques that engaged English language learners. Teacher-coaches at the school

site would report on school-level meetings during which teachers looked collaboratively, with

grade-level colleagues, at student work generated by integrated lessons to evaluate the quality of

student work, to identify learning deficits and to plan interventions

       Another ArtsCore: K-2 objective is to ensure that teachers integrate the arts-based lessons

into their existing curriculum. To assess changes in this area, at each workshop during the year

(beginning with the second meeting) we will ask teachers to report which of 36 arts-based

lessons across 4 disciplines (5 if include literature?) they have used in their classroom and

provide feedback on how the lesson went (e.g., what worked, what didn’t work). This will not

only provide data on each teacher’s classroom progress, but will also provide useful information

to help us identify recurring problems that need to be addressed in the workshops. At the first

workshop we will survey teachers about the frequency and type of arts instruction provided the

year before. We will also ask teachers to bring a copy of their arts curriculum (lesson plans?)

from the previous year to our first workshop; then, at the end of the year-long workshop series,

we will ask teachers to describe how they plan to integrate the arts during the following school

year. To assess long-term sustainability of the project at the teacher level, in subsequent years

(after a cohort of teachers had finished the program) we would ask each teacher to report which

of the 36 arts lessons they had used during the year and what problems they had faced. Also add

classroom observations in 2nd -3rd years.

2. Teacher Growth

       Another objective of the ArtCore: K-2 project is to ensure that teachers who receive this

intervention increase their knowledge of K-2 visual and performing arts standards. These

standards will be reviewed multiple times throughout the year-long intervention. To evaluate

teacher knowledge at the beginning of the initial workshop, we will develop a questionnaire that

will be administered to all teachers at the first meeting; the same or a similar questionnaire will

be administered at the last meeting.

       Additional information collected at the first meeting would include demographic

information such as years of teaching experience, level of educational attainment, types of

teaching credentials and authorizations, special arts coursework or interests, etc. Because the arts

content standards are similar across grades K-2, we may not need to develop separate

questionnaires for each grade level. We expect that variations in teachers’ fidelity to the program

and growth, along with demographic indicators, would have a mediating effect on their students’

level of achievement.

3. Student Achievement

       To the extent that our intervention is successful at the teacher level, we would expect that

what teachers have learned from teaching the arts would be incorporated into curricula and used

to amplify their instructional programs. This should result in increased levels of student

achievement relative to the years prior to this intervention. In addition, within the treatment

group, we would expect the highest gains in achievement from those students who are taught

each year (through kindergarten, first, and second grade) by teachers who received the ArtsCore:

K-2 intervention. Based upon the results of our pilot study, we would also expect higher gains in

language arts achievement from English language learners. Furthermore, treatment group

students should outperform comparable control group students whose teachers did not receive

the intervention.

       Control Group. Starting in the project’s first year, teachers receiving this intervention

(and their students) will not be selected by a random process. This means that control group

students in grades K-2 need to be selected so as to ensure that they are very closely matched to

the treatment group students on variables such as prior test scores, student and teacher

demographics,,and the time period in which they are studied, One way to do this would be to

select the elementary school(s) in the district that are most similar to the control schools on these

same variables. An alternative way to do this, which would help to mitigate the effects of student

(and possibly teacher) transiency, would be to use the grade K-2 profiles (performance,

demographics, location, etc.) of the schools receiving the intervention to randomly select a

comparable set of reference control students from across the district.

       In both cases, transiency during the intervention would need to be monitored to prevent

accidental mixing of treatment and control groups. Given the size of SDUSD and the number of

students in our targeted schools in year 1, our student achievement evaluation plan remains

feasible in light of current student transiency rates (around 13% across all elementary schools

since 2000-2001 school year; latest transiency data (2004-2005): Nye 8.7%, Lee 10.2%, Freese

11.5%, Rosa Parks 12.9%).

       Proposed Measures

       In our pilot study, we used the OWLS and DIBELS tests to measure achievement for a

sample of students. However, we found the extra human subjects requirements to be highly

problematic, because we needed a separate parental consent for each student we tested. Potential

systematic differences between the students whose parents consented to the research versus those

that did not was of further concern. Although the costs of administering our own tests are not

included in the proposed budget, we would consider this option again for a truly random sample

of treatment and control students, but only as part of a broader evaluation plan.

       Obtaining more complete data on student achievement from mandated tests for students

in K-2 also poses some unique challenges. This is especially true given the fact that California

standards- based testing will now start in grade 3 instead of grade 2. However, because the

research project would run for four years, and because we will be working in schools with high

numbers of English language learners, there are a number of potential district and state mandated

tests that can be utilized for our evaluation of the ArtsCore: K-2 project at the student level.

       SDUSD conducts some progress monitoring in grades K-3 that is relevant to our

evaluation. The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), and its Spanish-language

equivalent, the Evaluación del Desarrollo de la Lectura (EDL), are individually administered

reading assessments. Teachers administer these tests three to four times a year to determine

reading level and to document progress. Students are determined to be near, at, or above grade

level, below grade level, or significantly below grade level based on their performance on the

assessment relative to their grade level status. This data has been collected for the last eight

years, providing us with a rich baseline from which to examine changes in reading progress for

both English speakers and English learners due to this intervention. In addition, during the

intervention, individual student progress can be followed over the course of each year, and year

over year, and rates of reclassification can be monitored.

       SDUSD also administers the state mandated California English Language Development

Test (CELDT). The CELDT has been given every year since 2001 to students who are identified

English learners, to determine their level of English proficiency, and to annually assess their

progress toward becoming English proficient. The CELDT covers four skill areas: listening,

speaking, reading and writing in English and it is administered in grades K-12. Grades K-1 are

tested only on listening and speaking. This test provides us with about five years of critical

baseline data on English Learners in the district. In addition, during the intervention, individual

student progress can be followed year over year, and rates of reclassification to proficient status

can be monitored.

       The evaluation of treatment and control student achievement will use two additional state

mandated tests - the California Standards Test in English – Language Arts (CST –ELA), and the

California Achievement Test, Sixth Edition (CAT/6). The CST-ELA is a standards-based test

that looks at student performance across several clusters (subscales) of relevance to our

evaluation, including word analysis and vocabulary development, reading comprehension,

literary response and analysis, written conventions, and writing strategies. The CST-ELA had,

through 2006-07, been administered beginning in grade 2. Beginning with the 2007-2008 school

year, the CSTs will not be administered until grade 3. The (CAT/6) is a norm-referenced test that

has been administered to SDUSD students in grade 3 since the spring of 2005. It tests students in

four areas: reading, language, spelling, and mathematics. Although only third-grade students will

take these two tests, they can still be used to support whether achievement differences occurred

and are sustained year over year for treatment groups.

       Using these multiple measures of student achievement, if the ArtsCore: K-2 program has

the predicted effect, the difference within the treatment group and between the treatment and

control groups should increase each year. We also expect that English language learners, for

whom we have additional measures of achievement, will exhibit the highest relative gains in

achievement. Because we are able to look at these differences for each of four years with

reference to baseline data, we will be able to see whether there is a continuing—or a delayed—

effect associated with the treatment.

   To view the SRI: Stanford Research Institute report, An Unfinished Canvas, please visit:
    The dissemination grant that funded the week-long ArtsCore: K-2 summer workshop ended in
September, 2005. However, such was teacher enthusiasm for the program that a core group of
about 16 teachers continued to attend follow-up workshops through the spring of 2006.
     For information see:
    For information see:
    For information see:
    In 2005, the percentage of SDUSD classes in core academic subjects taught by NCLB-
compliant teachers was 55.7%.
     Duncan, Yeung, Brooks-Gunn, and Smith 1998; Entwisle, Alexander, and Olsen 1997; Lee
and Burkam 2002; National Center for Education Statistics 2000.
      Elkind 1986; Hatch & Freeman 1988; Plevyak & Morris 2002; Shepard & Smith 1988; Walsh
    Catterall, J. S., Hetland, L., Winner, E. (2002). Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student
Social and Academic Development. Richard J. Deasy (ed.) Washington, DC: Arts Education
    “San Diego City Schools” is the term often used in San Diego to differentiate the San Diego
Unified School District from the San Diego County Office of Education.
    Please see attached letter from OCEAA for more information.
     Vygotsky, 1978; Vygotsky, 1986; Egan, 1996.
      The approach might be likened to the Socratic method instead of lecturing. The emphasis on
stories also may simply reflect the fact that social science has caught up with what many school
teachers have long known, that children love stories and use them to organize their reality. See
Robert Coles, The Call of Stories for other illustrations.
      See Kristen Monroe’s The Heart of Altruism (1996) or The Hand of Compassion (2004) for
the development of the idea that moral choices are the result of seeing the option on a cognitive
menu, much as we find options on a restaurant’s menu or a computer menu.
      Brouillette, L. (April, 2004). University of California ArtsCore: The Arts within the Core
           Curriculum. Paper given at annual meeting of the American Educational Research
           Association in San Diego, CA.
       Brouillette, L. (April, 2003). University of California ArtsCore: Arts and literacy educators
           share responsibility for improving student achievement. Symposium organized for and
           chaired at annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in Chicago,

   The ArtsBridge America network will provide an important venue for dissemination.


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