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					Improving Ocean Literacy
    By Teaching the
 Geology of Lake Huron
                 David P. Lusch, Ph.D., GISP
                    Dept. of Geography
                  Michigan State University


   NSTA Northern/Midwestern Area Conference, Detroit, MI
                     October , 2007


                    David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               1/26
                         lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Ocean Literacy Concept Map, Grades 3 – 5
  Subset that are covered using
   Geology of Lake Huron
     2. The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features
     of the earth
        2.1 Some landforms we see today were once
            underwater
        2.2 Movement of water erodes and deposits materials
            (sediments)




                      David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               2/26
                           lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Ocean Literacy Concept Map, Grades 3 – 5
  2.1 Some landforms we see today were once
       underwater

      2.1.1 Forces underneath landmasses and the sea floor
             (tectonics) can change the shape of the earth’s
             surface
      2.1.2 Changes in sea level shape the earth’s surface

            2.1.2.1 During ice ages, sea level falls; during periods of
                     warm climates, sea level rises




                          David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                   3/26
                               lusch@msu.edu                Michigan State University
Ocean Literacy Concept Map Grades, 3 – 5
  2.1 Some landforms we see today were once
       underwater
      2.1.3 Some rocks found on land were formed in the
             ocean
            2.1.3.1 Sedimentary rocks form when ocean sediments are
                     compressed
            2.1.3.2 Organisms embedded in sedimentary rocks become
                     fossils
               2.1.3.2.1 Marine fossils can be found in various types of
                    sedimentary rocks, especially shale and
                    limestone



                        David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                  4/26
                             lusch@msu.edu               Michigan State University
Ocean Literacy Concept Map Grades, 3 – 5
  2.2 Movement of water erodes and deposits
      materials (sediments)
      2.2.1 Rivers carry sediments downstream to the oceans
            (clastic sediments)
      2.2.2 The facies concept explains lateral variations in
             the lithologic characteristics of sediments of the
             same geological age
            2.2.2.1 Wave energy in the shore zone keeps the finer
                     clastic sediments in suspension
            2.2.2.2 Fine clastic sediments settle out in the off-shore
                      clastic zone
            2.2.2.3 Carbonate-rich sediments are deposited in the
                     deeper off-shore, non-clastic zone
                          David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                 5/26
                               lusch@msu.edu              Michigan State University
     Canadian
      Shield



 Michigan
Sedimentary
   Basin


     David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               6/26
          lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Michigan Sedimentary Basin
   Michigan Basin was inundated numerous times
     by oceans, which eventually filled it with
     sedimentary deposits
   Four general sedimentary rock types fill the
    Michigan Basin:
      Sandstones

      Carbonates (limestone and dolostone)
      Shales
      Evaporites (halite and gypsum)


                     David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               7/26
                          lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Michigan Sedimentary Basin
   Younger rocks (542 – 145 million years old)
   All sedimentary (mostly marine deposits)
      Sandstone
      Shale
      Carbonates (Limestone and Dolostone)

   Variably resistant to erosion
      Sandstone and carbonates resist physical erosion
      Shale is soft, thinly bedded and easily eroded


                        David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               8/26
                             lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Cambrian 500 Ma

                        N




                  X




              David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               9/26
                   lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
What a difference 20 million years makes!


                                           N
     N



         Mississippian                         Mississippian
            345 Ma                                325 Ma




             David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                      10/26
                  lusch@msu.edu                   Michigan State University
Facies Concept
   Lateral variations in the lithologic characteristics
    of a volume of sediments of the same geologic
    age
                                                                No wave energy -
            Wave energy                 No wave energy -           no clastics
          keeps fine clastic               fine clastic       non-clastic sediments
       sediments in suspension         sediments settle out         settle out




               Near-shore
                 zone                      Off-shore               Off-shore
                                          clastic zone          non-clastic zone


               Becomes                    Becomes                     Becomes
               sandstone                   shale                     limestone/
                                                                     dolostone

                            David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                   11/26
                                 lusch@msu.edu                Michigan State University
Differential erosion
   Sedimentary rock types are of unequal
     resistance to physical erosion:
      Sandstones and Carbonates are stronger and tend
          to support highlands
      Shales are weaker and tend to underlie lowlands




                     David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               12/26
                          lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Michigan Sedimentary Basin
   Structural basin – like nested bowls
   Oldest rocks at the bottom, youngest at the top




                    David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               13/26
                         lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Niagaran Escarpment
   Major resistant-rock (dolomite) landform in the
    Michigan Structural Basin




                    David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               14/26
                         lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Niagaran Escarpment
               Bruce Peninsula, Ontario




       Scarp
       slope




      N



                  David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               15/26
                       lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Bedrock of the Lake Huron Basin




               David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               16/26
                    lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Bathymetry of the Lake Huron Basin




               David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               17/26
                    lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Bathymetry of the
Lake Huron Basin




               David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               18/26
                    lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
 Origin of the Great Lakes
   Distal causes
      For Lake Superior - plate tectonics and rifting
      For the lower Great Lakes - development of the Michigan
            sedimentary basin
   Proximal causes
      Glacial sculpting of bedrock, mediated by differences
            in resistance to erosion
      Isostatic uplift of the region shifting the watershed
            outlet



                       David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               19/26
                            lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
 Beginning about 15,500 C14 years ago, the
     melting Ice Sheet began uncovering Lower
     Michigan.
 A series of proglacial lakes formed at the margin
of the retreating Ice Sheet wherever the land
sloped towards the ice       front.




                  David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               20/26
                       lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
Glacial Lake Elkton
 12,400 C14 yrs ago




                                   Glacial
                                    Lake
                                   Elkton
                                   (Lundy)




   David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               21/26
        lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
 Lake levels in the Great Lakes Basin
    progressively fell as new outlets were
    uncovered and down-cut.
 Eventually, the water levels in the Huron Basin
    reached their lowest elevation when
    drainage shifted to the final outlet at North
    Bay, Ontario, which flowed eastward along
    the Ottawa River Valley.




                  David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               22/26
                       lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               23/26
     lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
ISOSTATIC REBOUND




   David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               24/26
        lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University
   Isostatic rebound evidence
Algonquin 11,000 C14 yrs
184.4 m                           51.8 m rise in 6500 yrs.           Algonquin wave cliffs

Nipissing 4500 C14 yrs
184.4 m




           Nipissing wave cliff
                                                                        Nipissing wave cliff

                                       David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                                    25/26
                                            lusch@msu.edu                 Michigan State University
     The                     End
http://www.rsgis.msu.edu/



         David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP.                               26/26
              lusch@msu.edu            Michigan State University

				
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