Reportfromthe Norwegian NGO seminar2

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         September 6 and 7, 2007 at SEA-CLIFF HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM

0. Summary

The NGO-seminar for 2007 took place on September 6 and 7 at Sea Cliff Hotel in
Dar es Salaam. The title of the seminar was NGOs and Local Government –
Partners in Women’s Development. The main themes of the seminar were:
women’s access to land, cooperation between local governments and CSOs on
HIV/Aids, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and maternal health/maternal
mortality. Half a day of the seminar was spent on discussing the “partnership
relation” between Norwegian and Tanzanian organisations. The discussion was
based on a review carried out on behalf of the Norwegian Development Network
(Bistandstorget) in 2006/2007. In total 82 participants from Norway and Tanzania
attended the 2007 seminar.

1. The background for the seminar
It is the 4th time since 2002 that the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam arranges a NGO
seminar where Norwegian NGOS and their partners in Tanzania meet to discuss issues of
common concern . The seminars are forums where organisations can create networks, share
experience and discuss development issues.

As of September 2007 there are 18 Norwegian NGOs cooperating with 54 local organisations in
Tanzania. In addition there is cooperation between organisations through The Norwegian
Volunteer Service (Fredskorpset).

At the 2007 seminar there were representatives from 10 Norwegian organisations and 43 local
partner organisations. In total there were 82 participants most of whom were women. The local
organisations had a relative good geographical spread over Tanzania as there was participation
from Zanzibar, Mafia, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Singida, Mara, Iringa, Dodoma, Kigoma, Kagera and

2. The objectives of the seminar
The main objective of the 2007 seminar was to focus on the cooperation between civil society
organisations and local government in the field of women’s development. In addition the
“partnership” between Norwegian and Tanzanian NGOs was on the agenda.

The four main agenda themes were:
 Improving partnerships between Norwegian and Tanzanian NGOs In this session types of
   partnership, the impact of management practises, power-relations and value added of
   Norwegian CSOs, were discussed.

   Women’s access to land. How is women’s access to land dealt with in the formalisation
    program (Mkurabita)?

   The role of NGOs within local government In this session the principles of cooperation were
    discussed. The best practises on cooperation between local councils and women’s
    organisations, and the local councils view on the cooperation with NGOs, were some of the
    issues addressed.

   MDG 4 (reduce child mortality) and MDG 5 (improve maternal health)
    In this session work in various districts of Tanzania regarding MDG 4 & MDG 5 was

The seminar was faciltated by Japhet Makongo (Day 1) and Allan A.Nswilla from Hakikazi Catalyst (Day
2 ). An editorial committee consisting of Liss Schanke (KS) and Pius Wanzala (the Norwegian Embassy)
reported from the seminar.

A cartoonist produced his comments to the seminar , some of his cartoons are included in the report.


1. Opening, by Ambassador Mr. Jon Lomøy ...................................................................................... 4
2. Review of Norwegian and Tanzanian CSOs partnerships, by Ms. Dr. Senorina Wendoh. ............ 5
3. Comment to the review, by Ms. Gertrude Mugizi, NGO Policy Forum ......................................... 6
4. Comment to the review, by Ms. Agnete Strøm, Women's Front .................................................... 7
5. Women's access to land, by Mr. Salema, Mkurabita ...................................................................... 8
6. The gender perspective in the formalisation of land in Handeni, by Mr. Mark Waite, NPA ....... 10
7. Formalisation of land in Dar Es Salaam, by Ms.Tabita Siwale, WAT-HST ................................ 12
8. Group discussion reports and recommendations ........................................................................... 14

1. Opening, by Ambassador Mr. Jon Lomøy

There have been important changes in Tanzania since I first came here 29 years ago:
- There has been an enormous increase in the number and diversity of civil society organisations
- There has been an increase in groups' fighting and organizing for issues and rights – socially,
economically and politically, e.g. environmental issues, the rights of women and the rights to land

The main Norwegian partner is the Tanzanian government, but there is also a need to encourage
and support civil society organisations in different areas. When we look at different areas, e.g.
reduction of maternal and infant mortality, decentralisation or formalisation of land rights – we
would like the major part of the funding to be channelled to strengthen the government efforts,
but we want an important part of the funding to go to civil society.

We are trying to analyse how we best should support Tanzanian civil society organisations.
Traditionally there are three different methods:
   - Give direct support from the RNE
   - Give support through partnerships with Norwegian NGOs
   - Give support through establishing financing mechanisms, e.g. funds.

We are presently in process of assessing whether we have found the right balance between those
three methods, looking critically at our experience in the past. We will probably have this mixture
in the future, but we need to challenge ourselves and look at the way we operate.

Tanzania and Norway have been close partners for 40 years, and Tanzania will not need our
development assistance for ever. We would like the partnership to continue – even when
Tanzania no longer needs Norwegian assistance to specific issues like construction of roads or
development of education. Partnerships between Norwegian and Tanzanian civil society
organisations are one way for rich networks to be maintained and live on into a new area.

Even though the development assistance will not disappear during the next few years we should
be visionary and look beyond the next 5-10 years. In some areas we see the strengthening of
partnerships between Norwegian and Tanzanian CSOs as a preferred method. However, this
implies many challenges. During this work shop, we will be looking at some of them; later we
will look into some of the other areas. We will see how partnerships between Tanzanian and
Norwegian CSOs can be an integral part to decentralisation and other development issues. We see
great potential for better interaction, some work is already going on in this area, but we think we
could perform better.

One of the lessons from our development in Norway is that real development only takes place
when both men and women are benefiting, and this should be an important aspect in the
partnerships. This gives a right dimension to discussions on development in general as well as to
discussions on gender issues.

On behalf of the RNE, I wish you good luck with the work shop. We expect god advice and
useful input to our future work as a basis for improving our work.

2. Review of Norwegian and Tanzanian CSOs partnerships, by
Ms. Dr. Senorina Wendoh.

Summary of the presentation
Tanzania has a long history of development cooperation with Norway. There is presently a large
number of Norwegian CSOs, 16 (FEB07), with a total of 53 Tanzanian partners.

The review involved a 2 days participatory workshop in Tanzania and interviews in Tanzania
with Government, partner organisations, CSOs and networks as well as UN organisations. The
interviews in Norway included all 16 Norwegian partners, NORAD – supplemented by a work
shop in Norway. A key challenge was the need for confidentiality for some of the CSOs, the
limited time and the need to balance broad statistical data with an in depth process.

The findings from Tanzania are in line with findings from other studies in Tanzania & elsewhere
and were broadly validated by the Norwegian organisations who attended the workshop in

In Tanzania, Norwegian CSOs were seen among the better donor/partners. In Norway, informants
felt partnership was important and actively wanted to engage in ways to make it better. The
Tanzanian organisations underlined that an ideal partnership was a voluntary agreement based on
similar interests, full understanding of implications and agreement on the purpose of
collaboration. The Tanzanian partners underlined the need of sharing of contributions and
responsibilities with more appreciation of non monetary contributions, of equitable & acceptable
terms and trust & transparency.

The Norwegian partners underlined that an ideal partnership should be based on shared values &
purposes as well as commitment, mutuality, joint Accountability and joint decision-making.

Both the Norwegian and the Tanzanian organisations were aware of the potential constraints to
partnerships, e.g. political shifts, system and power issues. Political shifts may increase the push
to show impact or be more directives. Systems may represent constraints, e.g. late decisions &
disbursements, inflexible timeframes, strict rules against carry over of funds, auditing
requirements and reporting requirements. In addition, power issues may include donor
dependency, competition for resources & resource inequality, fear to speak openly & honestly
and that Tanzanian organisations feel distrusted.

These constraints take a lot of unproductive time, make Tanzanian organisations feel vulnerable
and undermine learning. The systems reinforce existing power issues & hence undermine true
partnership. The requirements regarding applications and reporting may lead to a bias to urban
elites while marginalising remote rural areas.

The general suggestions from the Tanzanian organisations include more knowledge on the
Norwegian partners, their policies, constraints, relationship to donors, more equitable partnership
agreements and timely release of funds as per agreements. It to have a workshop to discuss
partnership issues with participants from Tanzania and Norway, to diversify their funding base to
not depend on the Norwegian partner. The Norwegian organisations suggested to improving the
funding system trough working collectively to influence NORAD, address power issues,
strengthen accountability to all stakeholders and being clearer on their own role and added value.

3. Comment to the review, by Ms. Gertrude Mugizi, NGO
Policy Forum
I am happy to be here to talk about partnerships; I come from a network where we discuss this
issue all the time. In my opinion, the three key questions should be focusing on the reasons
behind the partnerships: - partnerships for what and for whom?
- Why are we doing this?
- What are we trying to achieve?

My answer is that we partner for progressive realisation of social and economic rights. As
Tanzanians we have a right to information, decision and action; we have a right to give feedback,
and to have our feedback taken seriously, for the authorities to listen, listen actively and look
seriously into the issues we raise. That is why we are in partnership – with governments, donors
and other groups. Now we are clear on why.

The next question is 'Partnerships for whom?' The aid relationship is not supposed to last for ever
– we are not supposed to receive money for ever. We will need the money less if we are doing a
good job. We have to establish a partnership that lives beyond the money, and money cannot be
the primary reason. We have a two way responsibility.

We should not see ourselves as marginalized and not accept to be marginalized. We should not sit
and complain that we are beggars – we should take the responsibility to do something. The US
billionaire Rockefeller said that one should never be ashamed to come and ask for money; money
should always be given for a good idea; it is good ideas that change the world. This means that
we are actually very strong in the partnership.

We have four main recommendations:
- The partnership should build stronger institutions on both sides. It is not a question of capacity
building, but capacity exchange. None of us comes to the table with nothing.
- Partnerships should build mutual trust – be open and transparent on both sides. Don't cover up
and hide – e-.g. that we are getting money from others
- Partnerships must be a joint responsibility of all the partners
- There should be a mutual recognition that the partnership is a long term process; both the
partner organisations and the funding agencies must understand this. If not, there will be a
constant uncertainty, and frantic plans to achieve something in one year. This is generally

The NGO Policy Forum was established four years ago. We started by developing a fund raising
strategy. We sent it to the donors – and asked to have a conversation with those who felt they
fitted our strategy. The donors did respond, not all but some. The fundraising strategy is based on
the following:
- We have a small secretariat.
- We have many members and collect money from our members – nationally and internationally.
- We approach donors, saying that we have this much – and need this much.

- We will not take more than one third form one single donor
- We want a core funding arrangement – a basket arrangement – not a project arrangement
- We elaborate only one report a year and send to all of them and to our members
- We elaborate one audit report a year which is sent to all donors
This has worked for us for three years, and we have had no real complaints so far.

4. Comment to the review, by Ms. Agnete Strøm, Women's

The presentation of the review of the partnerships was an eye opener in many ways, but we in
Women’s Front feel that the review does not challenge all of us enough. When speaking of us: we
are thinking of both the Norwegian NGOs and the Tanzanian. We in Women’s Front would like
to probe a little bit deeper, and perhaps in another direction than the review - as an addition.

First of all: the Norwegian NGOs are very different – as are the Tanzanian NGOs.
Women’s Front is a feminist organisation, we are a membership organisation, and the members
pay their fees every year. We all earn our living from our normal jobs, and in our free time -that is
after work, during the week ends etc - we concentrate to develop a feminist ideology and politics,
and we follow up the solidarity projects. Here in Tanzania we have partnership, solidarity
projects, with four different women’s NGOs.

We don’t have any office in Tanzania, we don’t have time to visit the projects regularly, and the
money sat aside for project visits we pool together and invite the four projects to take part in a
three days competence seminar: this we did in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and we have just finished
a 2 ½ days seminar in Zanzibar before joining up here.

We come with the money; they come with their own expertise. We come with the rules and dead
lines from NORAD, they have to cope. We in Women’s Front notice that NORAD was hardly
mentioned in the review. That is strange, because our link to NORAD gives us certain
o The money from NORAD is the money from the Norwegian taxpayers = 90% of the project
o The money from Women’s Front is the money from the members = 10 % of the project

We have to make sure that the money is used according to the contract and the rules given. If we
don’t do this, and NORAD thinks the grant has been misused, NORAD might ask Women’s
Front to pay back the grant. That is the terms we have with NORAD, and that is fair enough. This
we have taken time to explain and there is no misunderstanding or bad feelings of being overruled
or patronized.

We don’t know if this common understanding will qualify to the honourable word partnership.
After all, we have the money they need. We would rather call our relationship building a network
or building a social movement. This social movement has to confront many obstacles
We all have to understand what we are a part of, and that each of us constitutes a link that is part
of a chain. A network is like a chain, where one very important quality is solidarity.

We in Women’s Front have never picked our partners in Tanzania among the most outspoken
feminist, political, urban organisations, with the same vocabulary and ongoing debates as us. We
and our partners in Tanzania have stumbled over each other by chance, and over the years we
have built a partnership among us five organisations. They have become partners to each others.
And what Tanzania needs is a strong women’s solidarity network.
We in Women’s Front know that these women by forming their own NGO, by being
autonomous, not being affiliated to any religious community, being it a church or a mosque, or a
political party, or affiliated to any strong power, really is forming a strong base for a better

Tanzania. The leaders of the village branches of KIWAKKUKI fighting HIV/AIDS in their rural
communities, the leaders of Inter African Committee branches, fighting FGM in nearly 80-100
villages, among them you will find the future political leaders. And the women’s organisation on
the Mafia Island, they are confronting jealousy and patriarchy while caring for their community.

Being a women’s organisation, like the way these four organisations are, is to ask for trouble.
Women’s Front nagging about dead lines, mid term report, yearly report, book keeping etc, is
nothing compared to what they have to endure from their own. That is something we have to

To dig deep in their experience, to air it and speak it we have these seminars where we all meet,
and this year, we have just had our seminar in Zanzibar. For the first time the seminar was
conducted in Swahili, from start to end, no English translation to disturb and take precious time
from the participants.

One of the themes was actually: How to work with diversity: cultural differences, religious
differences, educational differences, class differences, tribal and racial differences

It is actually about how we view each other. And this is not only about Norwegian NGO versus
Tanzanian NGOs, but it is about learning from your very own misconception and contempt
towards others. The four Tanzanian organisations were asked to think about their own
experiences and how they have overcome some of their former misconception.

Let us take some classic examples:
- How does some one from the mainland Tanzanian regard the coastal population on Mafia?
- How to overcome the class structure that we have been born into, when we are organising?
- How to share our money from NORAD with women from our neighbouring islands or villages?
If we are building a network, we have to be willing to confront these and other difficult issues.

5. Women's access to land, by Mr. Salema, Mkurabita

Summary of the presentation
The Property and Business Formalization Program for Tanzania, popularly known in Kiswahili as
Mpango wa Kurasimisha Rasilimali na Biashara za Wanyonge Tanzania – MKURABITA, is a
Government initiative that seeks to empower the poor for self development within a unified
national socio – economic framework. The program started in October 2004. The Government
recognizes the existence of a dual system in the socio–economic arena, a large informal sector co-
existing with a small formal sector. The program targets property and business owners in the
extra-legal/informal sector seeking to facilitate the transformation of their informally held assets
into formal legally held and operated entities in the economy.

The Program further seeks to subsequently facilitate the beneficiaries to secure their assets and
capitalize them to attain higher economic values which can assist in poverty alleviation. While
formalization of assets is a fairly broad agenda the current Program targets real assets (Land and
buildings) and business assets for these are the possessions commonly owned by the majority of
the people.

The Government approved the use of the Institute of Liberty and Democracy (ILD) approach in
operational sing the Program, including the following four stages:
  i. Diagnosis of the extralegal (informal) sector to determine its size and value in the national
       economy as well as its modus operandi and the main reasons for its existence in tandem
       with the formal sector of the economy.

 ii.    Reforms design that are intended to create a national legal framework and institutional
        arrangements that are hybrids of the modern laws and social practices (Archetypes) that
        the majority of the people identify with when transacting real estate and business matters.
 iii.   Implementation of the reforms that will entailed changing or enacting new laws as well as
        creating new institutional arrangements at various levels of Government – Central and
 iv.    Capital formation and good governance which seeks to connect formalized properties and
        business to economic opportunities in the market. (This is indeed one of the main goals of
        the Program).

The Diagnosis is completed and the extralegal sector is sufficiently mapped out as well as the
obstacles to formalization. Reform design is in progress and set to be completed by end of March,
2008. Pilot assignments in Handeni, Hana Nasif, Kigoma and elsewhere are intended to provide
inputs to the design processes.

o There is an obvious need to educate the public on the provisions of the land laws and their
   relations to the customary practices in the context of property rights.
o The formalization processes will be evolutionary, needing appropriate targeting as well as
   intermediate interventions aimed at laying the ground work for fast track land titling.
o Equality of women in accessing land should not be treated in isolation but rather should be
   part of the wide agenda of empowering women towards fully participation in the social-
   economic development processes.
o Family ownership of land will remain pre-dominant for the foreseeable future thus
   capitalization of land has to take cognizance of that fact.
o Land is rightly perceived as a means for livelihoods; the eminent challenge is to make it as
   productive as possible and not to hold on undeveloped large tracks of land.
o Formalization appears to trigger growth of land markets even in the rural areas. Women are
   likely to benefit as direct or as indirect beneficiaries of the benefits that will accrue to their

  Issues that need to be addressed
o Whether the free hold land tenure system would be more appropriate for Tanzania as against
  the Right of Occupancy system now provided by the law i.e. ownership vis-à-vis access to
  land through user rights?
o Whether married women rights to land are sufficiently provided for through marriage and
  need not be specifically addressed in the Land Laws?
o Whether the use of the term Customary Right of Occupancy impacts negatively on the letter
  and spirit of the Village Land Act. 1999?
o Whether there are obvious and indispensable benefits in maintaining the two Land Laws when
  formalization is basically about unifying the current dual system on land?
o Whether women rights to land are better guaranteed or protected through a conflict free
  accessibility regime or on an ownership?

o Whether women rights to land as provided in the Land Laws are in harmony with other laws
  e.g. the Marriage Act of 1971, social capital (traditional practices) existing in most of our
  communities, various religious practices etc?

The way forward
The objectives, rationale and strategies for MKURABITA are responsive to the broad based
empowerment of the disadvantage majority including women. In formalizing land the need to
build on existing social capital accumulated over the years and good practices specifically
conceived or borrowed from elsewhere cannot be over emphasized.

The Reforms design now in progress will seek to create the necessary legal framework and
institutional arrangement for fast track land formalization (planning, demarcation, registering and
management including conflict resolutions).

Other empowerment programs will be considered to ensure harmony during the implementation
phase. MKURABITA is not and cannot be a “stand alone” initiative of economic empowerment
of the poor. It has to inevitably be underpinned by development in the key areas of environment
management, energy and water supply, infrastructure and agriculture development, small scale
industrialization and marketing, education and health delivery and the financial sector reforms
among others.

6. The gender perspective in the formalisation of land in
Handeni, by Mr. Mark Waite, NPA

Summary of the presentation
The current processes of land tenure reform are based on a Strategic Plan for Implementing the
Land Laws, funded by EU and the World Bank. The plan involves village demarcation, village
land-use planning, surveying of plots and certification of customary rights of occupancy. There is
a pilot in Mbozi and 3 other districts and plans for scaling up to 15 new districts with World Bank
funding. Review of the pilot is in process

There is presently an interest in making land easily available and secure for private investment
and lending; this is a burning issue for investor forums and attracting foreign direct investment in
agriculture. Tanzania Bankers Association wants to reduce the power of the village to approve

There are different approaches to registration of customary rights of occupancy.
Spot adjudication followed by registration – at occupier’s request can be done secretly in some
circumstances, but is expensive. Systematic adjudication – across a large area of village territory
– at request of village or collective or local government - followed by registration – is cheaper
and potentially more transparent, but can provoke conflicts and land grabbing in some

There are several factors that favour systematic registration interventions:
o Women and men know their rights; understand what the process is for.
o Well-established land rights – e.g. in long-settled farming communities
o Local land administration institutions are operating, disputes are resolved
o Village assembly works well. Village leadership is accountable.

There are several factors that can make systematic interventions difficult or inappropriate:
- Women and men do not know their rights or understand the process
- Women have little voice in household and community
- Shifting cultivation and changing land use
- Mix of livelihoods groups, e.g. farmers and pastoralists
- Disputes are complex and not easily resolved
- Poorly-implemented village demarcation
- Common land (rangeland, forest) is used across village boundaries
The main objective of MKURABITA’s pilot intervention in Handeni was to test a few
innovations on land use planning and registration in order to come up with a model for fast
tracking of land registration according to the Village Land Act No. 5 of 1999.
The pilot includes 7 villages - 3,656 households. Within 3 months (by December 2006):
2356 applications have been received for CCRO, 1022 plots surveyed and 899 certificates
prepared. This is faster and higher-volume than anywhere else in the country, but the impacts are
not yet clear.

A woman’s status affects her power in the process, whether she is a spouse, a spouse in
polygamous marriage, a non-legal spouse, a daughter or a head of household. Also her livelihood
group, whether she is a farmer, business woman or pastoralist. In addition, there are specific local
conditions that may be important, e.g. mixed land user (agricultural, pastoral), immigration and
land-use changes, witchcraft and the legacy of "villageisation".

The outcomes for women for women vary:
o From more positive….
o A significant proportion of title certificates include the names and photos of both wife and
o Women who are heads of household could register their land
o Some married women registered parcels of land under their individual control
o In some polygamous households, each wife is registered as joint occupant of one plot, with
   the husband being joint occupant on all of them
o Some men registered themselves as occupant, with their wife/wives and other family
   members having secondary rights of use
o Some men registered only themselves, or themselves and their sons, as occupants without
   registering their wife/wives or daughters
o Some women heads of household lost some of their land to neighbours in the process of
   adjudication. Some evidence of that pastoralist Women Heads of Household were doubly
o ….to more negative

Steps can be taken to improve formalisation processes for women?
o Get clearer evidence through ‘quick and dirty’ survey of women’s experiences so far
o Monitor women’s experiences during the Bagamoyo pilot
o Periodic survey of impact on women
o Integrate into impact monitoring under SPILL
o Input into MKURABITA reform design and the TNBC advisory group on land
o Consider village-level criteria for systematic registration intervention – preparedness,
   awareness, local institutions, who wants it, to what extent do women understand and want it?
o Consider dividing village intervention in two: appraisal (should it be done, if so how?) and
   implementation (do it – but not immediately)

7. Formalisation of land in Dar Es Salaam, by Ms.Tabita
Siwale, WAT-HST

Summary of the presentation
The Women's Advancement Trust – Human Settlement Trust was established in 1989.
Vision: To see a society living in improved settlements as a result of its activities by 2025
Mission: To promote adequate & affordable shelter with secure tenure of low & middle earners
particularly women
Overall Goal: To empower low income communities particularly women participate fully &
effectively in all aspects of Human Settlements Development

The guiding policies and laws are the Land Policy of 1995 clauses 4.2.5-4.2.6 and clauses 6.4.0,
Land Laws of 1999 clauses 56-60, the Human Settlements Development Policy of 2000 and the
MDGs Target 11.

Generally, about 60% of houses in Dar are in informal settlements characterized by houses which
do not conform to building regulations requirements on Security, Health, Building materials with
lack of basic services as water, sanitation, drainage, electricity, roads and have no secure tenure.
70% of population in Tanzania live in informal/unplanned settlements.

The Hanna Nassif informal settlement in Dar is a low income housing area, located 2.5 km from
City centre, between Kinondoni and Kawawa roads, located in Kinondoni Municipality.
It has a population of about 32,023 according to the population census of 2002, and 1130 house
The key issues addressed by WAT in Hanna Nassif are regularization of land and housing

Activity No 1
WAT received financial support from NBBL/NORAD and Rooftops Canada

Hired a consultant from UCLAS to conduct a needs assessment in 2003
The study revealed problems of poor housing conditions, insecure tenure of land, lack of pre
primary schools, Poor waste management,
A feedback meeting showed house owners' interest in the regularization process

Activity                                           No                                           2
Sensitization and awareness creation
o WAT used the following techniques
o Public sensitization meetings, drama, traditional dances
o Media such as TV Radio broadcastings, news papers
o Leaflets, posters, placards
- Awareness creation meetings
The issues emphasized included problems facing people living in unplanned settlements,
disadvantages of insecure tenure, benefits of having a right of occupancy, impacts of subdividing
and illegal selling of land etc.

Activity 3
Mobilization of funds from funding partners,
Participatory layout design,
Submission of layout to Municipal Council and to the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human
Settlement Development for approval
Surveying and submitting the same to the Ministry for approval
Identification of plot owners by names (just finished this exercise)

Roles of different stake holders
   - Roles: Hanna Nassif community: participated in meetings to provide information and in
       decision making and participated in the process of plot demarcation
   - Property owners: Involved in plot demarcation and lay out plans, contribution of survey
   - Ward and sub ward leaders: Coordination and organization of meetings, mobilization of
       the community
   - Kinondoni Municipal Council: Endorsed layout plans, provided professional and technical
   - UCLAS: Carried out needs assessment, prepared layout design
   - MKURABITA: Issued a credit facility to WAT
   - Ministry of Lands: Approval of layout plans
   - WAT Human Settlements: Organization of the community, Conducting meetings and
       mobilization of funds, Sensitization and awareness creation, Coordination and making
       follow ups, Identification of technical support

Activity 4
Mkuhana group in Hana Nassif
24 members, 10 women and 14 men
9 out of 24 houses have been upgraded.
Successful members are getting higher house rents
House owners will soon be using their houses as collateral when borrowing money from banks

Survey of plots completed and waiting for final approved by the Ministry of Lands
Verification of plots against names of plot owners

Contributionsby houses owners partly done
377men have paid, and 114 women and 3 co-ownership (spouses)
One husband has written a will for his two wives
Some houses have been upgraded

Community members need more technical support to facilitate effective regularization and
housing upgrading.
Financial support

Challenges for women
- Most women are still not aware of their rights in land
- There is lack of transparency at family level;
- Participation in decision making is still very minimal for most families.
- Discriminatory laws: laws of inheritance including laws and practices based on religion as
  well as traditional attitudes.

Way forward
- Letters of offer for those who have finished paying contributions
- WAT needs to scale up provision of its services using experience gained.
- Will start working in another area of informal settlement known as Midizini in Manzese area.
- More funding is needed
- Seek for guarantee fund for building capital formation and build capacity for lending to our

8. Group discussion reports and recommendations

Group 1: enhancing sustainability
Group discussed whether the theme focused on the sustainability of intervention or the
sustainability of the partnership. The group chose to focus on the sustainability of the partnership.

- Partnership is defined by the group as a two way relationship that cannot always be equal, but
have shared values. The partnership is working towards equality in the future

- Sustainability is defined by the group as "The relationship remains, even with minimal
economic support".

- Partners must know and agree on the terms of partnership and what sustainability really means
for the project/programme in question, including the exit.

- It is hard to be sustainable when you have received a lot of training, but have no capital.

Group 2: accountability issues
The issue of accountability has several levels:

Accountability at the recipient level

- The recipient NGO in the South is the accountable to their communities re. How the resource
from the North donor was used and how they benefited and reached the community.
- The recipient in the South is accountable to the donor from the North re. the sources that were
given to be used in implementing the projects outputs.

This can be done in several ways, like sharing quarterly or annual reports, as well as audit reports.
The NGOs should consider to combine the bottom-up and top-down approaches, especially at the
local level.

It is necessary to
     - involve communities in initial planning
     - be clear about different interests and power relations within communities
     - be aware that increased women's control of resources will generally be resisted by men

Capacity building and professionalism is a key to accountability and transparency.

Group 3: how can we make partnerships work for women and children?
This is a complicated question, with several answers:
- We must acknowledge the inequality of men and women
- Each NGO should take this into account in their own work, e.g. WAT that works for women's
access to land.

Lack of professionalism and low education among women makes it difficult for them to "show"
good results. The work they do is not shown in the reports, and the North partner does not
appreciate it.
Solutions are work shops, networking and information sharing

Women in rural areas receive fewer funds. Solutions are to have special funds to allocate to
women and children, and there should be voices in the partnership that advocate for funds to
women and children.

A hindrance is the competition for funds. A solution is information sharing and training local

Things are happening on this issue, e.g. this seminar.

FOKUS demands that women are in the leading positions in the projects. Their projects
strengthen women and create good role models – and thereby help in developing gender equity.

Are there too many seminars and too little action?
This conference is based on mutual learning, seeks to influence processes, build networks and
promote information sharing.

The Tanzanian NGOs see the impact of their work, see results from one year to another and this
pushes them to work harder.

Group 4: issues affecting partnerships
Partnerships are voluntary; both the partners have to be willing. The partnerships can be short or
long term, but there must always be a commitment for a long term process and an exit strategy.

Partnerships don't always have fixes rules and often depend on complex links between the
different actors.

The partnerships must be based on shared values, trust and confidence; building this is a
continuous process. There must be transparency on both sides, including information and
accountability along all links – and a clearness on what drives us to partnerships and how we
enter into the partnerships. All partners have agendas; sometimes the agendas are different and
need to be clarified and harmonized. We must consider both social and economic partnerships
and develop links between the different partnerships;
There is general need for cultural understanding.

The partnership should focus on the objectives-, on what they want to achieve together. The aim
of the partnership is change and transformation of society. All assessment of results must be
mutual and participatory. This would imply not only that the north partner being involved in the
assessment and auditing of the south organisation – but also the south partner being involved in
assessment and auditing of the north organisation.

Developing common standards and guidelines is complicated – due to the different nature of the
partnerships. One solution is to develop operational standards that focus on common operational

Group 5: what does participation mean?
- Exchange of capacities and need
- Dialogue, inter- and intra dependency
- Voluntary character
- Short or long term
- Symbiotic relationship – one has what the other needs
- Clear framework of rules
        North: up-down (rules from above)
        South: down up (needs from below)
- Continuous process
- Complex need depending on understanding

Links and relations
The Tanzanian Government NGO Policy sets the framework for the Tanzania NGOs, CSOs and
umbrella organisations. The organisations are accountable to their members as well as to the
beneficiary target groups and communities.
The Norwegian Parliament decides the use of the Norwegian tax payments and allocates it to the
different Ministries, among them the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, MFA. The MFA allocates the
funds to NORAD and the Embassies who allocates funds to Norwegian and local NGOs. The
local NGOS are accountable to their communities.

The presentations from the five groups and the discussion concluded with the following set of
- Revisit the idea of partnerships, examine it closer, look at the principles
- Allow a flexibility – in the cooperation Tanzania should have a say on the set Norwegian
    standards, some of them don't really make sense, lack flexibility
- Collaborate across the board – not only south-north, but also south-south and north-north

-   Fight for sustainability which is not easy; one of the participants expressed a fear that political
    plans and funding are going in other directions, to the governments and that funding for
    women's organisations is going down
-   Develop sustainability plans for the projects; develop local fund raising mechanisms
-   Have a right based approach – rights of women and children are human rights
-   Let women and children talk for themselves – give them the platforms and the arenas
-   Develop stands and guidelines, see minutes from one of the groups
-   Develop mechanisms for south partners to visit, monitor and evaluate projects in the north


SESSION 3        The role of NGOs within local government

1. Principles of cooperation, Act. Dir Local government Division, PMO-RALG
   Severine Kahitwa
2. Cooperation with LGAs on HIV/Aids Dafrosa Itemba, KIWAKUKKI (Women against
   Aids in Kilimajaro),
3. The NGO-coalition against FGM – Cooperation with LGAs Razia Mwawanga,
   Tanzania Media women
4. NGO Collaboration with the Local Government Authorities at Community Level
   This was a joint paper presented by Messrs Valerian Kidole, District Planning Officer,
    Kisarawe, and Omari Basiri, Community Development Officer, Dodoma.
5. The challenge on MDG 4 and MDG 5 in Tanzania, Dorcas Robinson, CARE/Tanzania
6. Cooperation and coordination in districts on maternal health, Siri Lange, Christian Michelsens
   Institute, Norway.
7. Work on MDG 4 and MDG 5 in Misungwi district, Dorcas Robinson, CARE/Tanzania

1. The role of NGOs within local government, Severin Kahitwa, acting
Director of Local Government in the PMO-RALG.

The presentation set off by providing the legal rationale for the establishment of Local
Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania. According to the presenter, LGAs are established
in accordance with Articles 145 and 146 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania.
These articles stipulate the existence of LGAs at different levels from district level up to the
village level. They also stipulate the functions of LGAs chiefly being keeping peace and security
of the people in their (LGAs) respective jurisdictions, and bringing about development in a
democratic manner.

The presenter then argued that the participation of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in the local
governance is also provided for in the laws governing the local government authorities. The paper
cited sections 32(1) (a) and (g) of Local Government Act No 7 of 1982 which refer to the need for
promoting collaboration and cooperation of different actors in development at the ward level. The
ward is considered by the government as the appropriate community level where development
can be coordinated.

Section 31(2) (d) of the act referred to above states categorically thus every ward shall consist of
“Any other person who may be invited by the committee who shall include persons from non-
governmental organizations and other civic groups involved in the promotion of development in
the ward but shall have no right to vote”.

The presenter, however, observed that before the 1990s the relationship between the CSOs and
the government was not harmonious apparently because of the single-party political system. The
environment has changed now and one can note that CSOs are increasingly being consulted, co-
opted or otherwise involved in most of the government policy processes. This can be used as an
indicator of the improved relationship between the government and the civil society.

Examples were given of the participation of some CSOs within the local government and these
included the maternal health improvement projects in Moshi, Serengeti, Misungwi and Ileje;
involvement of REPOA in the Public Expenditure Tracking Systems (PETS), and participation of
several NGOs in the Obstacles and Opportunities to Development (O&OD) processes. It was also
noted that there was room for CSO participation through the Council Reform Teams which
normally comprise 8-12 people including the council staff and the councillors.

On the flip side, the presentation argued that most of incidences of misunderstanding between
some CSO and the LGAs have occurred mainly because of lack of transparency on the part of the
CSOs, or LGAs not being well-informed of the work of the CSOs.

As a general recommendation to improving further the working relationship between the CSOs
and the government, the presenter, who represented the government, advised the CSOs to
familiarize themselves with the local environment, culture and context before they could actively
engage the communities they were interested in working in or draw conclusions about those
communities. “Any CSO that uses research based evidence is in a better position to influence
policy implementation and even formulation because it can identify and articulate policy
problems adequately,” he argued.

Finally, the presenter underscored the fact that the role of the government was to support the work
of the CSOs who would observe the law of the land, and asserted that the government encouraged
dialogue among the partners and stakeholders to ensure the harmonious working relations
between the LGAs and the CSOs.

After the presentation was ended participants took the floor asking for clarification or sharing
their experiences. Questions centred on issues of transparency (or lack of it), possibility of LGAs
ensuring sustainability of CSOs work, capacity and competence of elected local leaders especially
women representatives, accessing funds from district basket funds, possibility of giving CSOs the
right to vote in the council meetings, and ways of enabling more people to access public

For his part, the government representative clarified on a number of issues. On the issue of
transparency, it was affirmed that according to law, any person residing in a council has the right
to get any public information one may need providing one follows the right procedures and fora
including village assemblies and council meetings. As for the difficulties or misunderstanding
experienced in Public Expenditure Tracking (PET) it was observed that such misunderstanding
arose because both the concept (PET) and the system itself were new.

On the question of LGAs providing funds to the CSOs, it was stated that the government could
only disburse such funds according to the laid down and approved district council budgets. Unless
such monies had been budgeted for by the respective authorities it would be impossible for an
LGA to give funds to NGOs for their work. The government representative also stressed that the
CSOs should not forget the fact that their work was complementary to that of the government and
there was no way they could be given all the monies they needed since the government also
wanted to use some monies to maintain its role of service delivery.

One participant had observed that most of the women representatives lacked competence to
effectively represent their constituency and suggested that such women representatives should be
given special competence building training. For his part, the government representative reiterated
the fact that the election or nomination of women to the various representation bodies was
according to the law, and stressed that the issue of competence building for the elected leaders
should be addressed by the council executives. He also argued that training was usually done for
all representatives before they assumed their office and duties as a matter of government policy.

As to the suggestion that CSOs be given the right to vote in decision-making fora at the councils
(e.g. at full council meetings) the government clarified that the CSOs would not be given the
voting right because they were not elected by the people to represent them, and so that role would
remain to the elected representatives such as councillors.

CSOs were asked to continue working with, or assisting the government, to avail the public with
various information including such information about their constitutional rights.

2. Cooperation with LGAs on HIV/Aids - Dafrosa Itemba, KIWAKUKKI
(Women against Aids in Kilimanjaro)

Ms Dafrosa Itemba, Executive Director for KIWAKKUKI, shared the experience of her
organisation with regard to its work in Kilimanjaro. KIWAKKUKI is a Kiswahili acronym for
Women Against AIDS in Kilimanjaro.

The forum was told that KIWAKKUKI made it a point of departure to prepare the strategy that
was in line with the health reforms and that took cognisance of the government administrative

As a second step, KIWAKKUKI, through lobbying and advocacy, ensures that both the LGAs in
which it works and itself agree on a common strategy to be implemented jointly and/or using the
LGA structure.

The collaboration between KIWAKKUKI and the respective LGAs seems to be fairing and
KIWAKKUKI has been involved in capacity building programmes run by the LGAs, and
managed to get some office space for its work from at least one LGA.

As of now, KIWAKKUKI sit on the different HIV/AIDS committees from the village level
(Village Multisectoral AIDS Committee-VMAC) through the district (District Multisectoral
AIDS Committee-DMAC). KIWAKKUKI also enjoys an observer status in the full council. It is
however noteworthy that one KIWAKKUKI member is a councillor and deputy mayor in once of
the LGAs.

In general, KIWAKKUKI appeared pleased with their collaboration with the LGAs in which they
are operating.

On the downside, however, KIWAKKUKI opined that despite having a common agreed strategy,
presumably based on one vision, with the LGAs, sometimes the practice by the LGAs in relation
to the activities of KIWAKKUKI indicated that they (LGAs) had differing targets and visions.

KIWAKKUKI also felt that sometimes they had been left out of major national consultative
processes partly because of their being located outside Dar es Salaam.

KIWAKKUKI were also of the view that some communities were missing opportunities for not
being aware of their rights and government procedures which they could and should use to solve
their problems, and depended much on KIWAKKUKI to solve each and every problem.

KIWAKKUKI expressed dismay to the fact that there were incidences when some LGAs did not
use the funds allocated to them until those funds were returned to the treasury, while the NGOs
were in need of money to implement their activities. The organisation, however, acknowledged
that it had managed to secure ‘LGA funds’ from Hai, Rombo and Same district councils for its
project activities.

KIWAKKUKI also observed that some LGAs preferred to work with, and probably were more
cooperative to, the CSOs whose overall work or specific activities mainly benefited the LGA staff
such as health or education workers.

Finally, the presenter from KIWAKKUKI concluded with an observation on the need to nurture
the cooperation between the LGAs and the CSOs, and also the need for vibrant LGAs leadership
as a matter of urgency.

During the discussions it was observed that the background of the LGA executives was influential
in the type of projects each village proposed to implement as a result of the O&OD process. For
example, it was revealed that if the officials visiting a particular village had a health background
then it was most likely that eventually the village would come up with a health-related project
although that was not necessarily the felt and actual need of the village.

Based on the experience of KIWAKKUKI and its collaboration with respective LGAs,
participants concurred that CSOs need to be clear and strategic from the beginning, and that they
need to identify appropriate entry point.

3. The NGO-coalition against FGM – Cooperation with LGAs
Razia Mwawanga, Tanzania Media women

This presentation was done by Ms Razia Mwawanga from TAMWA. The coalition comprises 9
members including lawyers’ and faith-based organisations, seeking to increase awareness and
advocate for a Tanzania free from FGM by 2010. According to the coalition, there has been some
progress in the fight against the cultural practice as the current estimate in country prevalence was
15% down from 18% in 2000.

In general, the coalition felt it has had a good working relationship with community leaders
including religious leaders. They (the coalition) also felt that there was goodwill from the
government at all levels including from the presidency.

Considering that FGM was also practiced for economic reasons, the coalition had succeeded in
supporting some communities to establish alternative income-generating activities so that they
could stop the practice.

The coalition had managed to put FGM as an agenda on some national and international days
being celebrated in the country.

The representative from the anti-FGM coalition told the seminar that the coalition had
experienced some challenges in the course of its work. These included:
    The fact that some people linked FGM to religious requirement
    Inability to create, provide or supporting alternative income-generating activities that
       could be undertaken by those individuals willing to stop practising FGM on economic
    Some Councillors being insensitive to what they consider "women's issues".
    Mistrust among local government agencies on CSO agenda and objectives.
    Lack of appreciation of the work done by CSOs as signified by leaders who want to be
       paid by the NGOs working in their areas.

As a way forward, the coalition suggested the need for more involvement of the communities and
training on gender for various community and LGA leaders.

During the discussions it was observed that some political and/ or community leaders condone the
practice to maintain their clout within their constituency. Their fear is that by speaking against
FGM they could lose their popularity among the potential voters. This means, FGM is not only a
cultural issue but also an economic and political issue.

A representative from the Muslim Council of Tanzania, BAKWATA, told the seminar that
Tanzanian Muslim leaders and scholars (Ulaamas) had officially declared FGM as being a non-
faith issue as far as Islam was concerned. This meant that no Muslim (or anybody for that matter)
should associate the practice with Islamic faith.

There were some discussions on the impact of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act of
1998, which outlawed FGM at least for girls under 18. It was generally agreed that so far the law
has not become much of a deterrent. Some participants argued, with examples, that incidences of
FGM were still rampant in rural areas (e.g. in Singida), and others charged that both rape and
FGM, which are addressed by the said law, were among the leading criminal cases together with
armed robbery (e.g. in Moshi).

One challenge affecting the fight against FGM is the fact that following up court cases took a lot
of time (some cases up to 3 years) and financial resources on the part of witnesses and/or
complainants hence some of them being discouraged to pursue the matter further or regularly.
This reality has often led to acquittals.

The fact that most of the time the offenders and accused are members of the family (parents or
guardians of the circumcised girls) reporting them to the police becomes difficult considering that
in case they were jailed then the same family would suffer economically. This situation raises the
question of ‘which rat to bell the cat’.

The seminar was told of experiences whereby the village or ward authorities imposed fines and
extorted payment, e.g. in form of cattle, from the accused, which were actually higher than what a
convicted offender could be asked to pay by the court (maximum of TZS 300,000). Such cases
never reached the courts of law.

Participants concurred that more efforts in educating the people against the practice would in the
long run become more beneficial and effective than the use of law.

There was also an agreement that the issue of FGM is linked to poverty because most areas
performing FGM lacked reliable water services (water needed for ablution after a short call or
bathing) and were hardly accessible (need for improved road services) hence difficult to benefit
from social services offered by government or other development actors.

The presentation started with some definition of an NGO and recapitulation of the roles and types
of NGOs. It then reaffirmed the possibility for successful partnerships that may include the
Tanzanian government, foreign government donor agencies and civil society.

The paper then alluded to a study done by TANGO which concluded that there was still ‘gross
mistrust’ between the LGAs and CSOs. At the same time, the presentation argued that the CSOs
faced a number of challenges which affected their meaningful engagement with the LGAs. These

    The fact that ‘very few NGOs had skills needed to undertake comprehensive policy
     analysis and therefore failed to follow through the local government policy making and
     policy analysis.’
    Lack of presentation, lobbying and advocacy skills even when the NGOs/CSOs had
     genuine concerns which they wanted to promote or oppose at the district or municipal
    NGOs being financially weak, poor at strategic planning, with low technical capacity in
     the area of research and in most cases undertake the haphazard advocacy activities which
     are not ground rooted.
    Most of the NGOs/CSOs lacking a clear vision and mission and therefore the communities
     or people failing to identify with the work done by these NGOs at grass root level because
     they do not live with their set mission and vision.
    In Tanzania reduction of funding to service delivery has brought particular challenges to
     local NGOs that had traditionally filled the gap of service delivery.
    Shifts in donor priorities have affected the Tanzania CSOs/NGOs role at community level
     because normally the CSOs are funded to implement activities relating to the area of
     interest of the donors. A study by Action Aid and CARE International, whose findings
     were released last year (2006), indicates that the shift by donors to direct budgetary
     support to government has not just perceptibly changed the funding levels to NGOs but
     has also changed the types of activities funded.

The paper pointed out that, unlike the LGAs which publicly announce and publish their income
and expenditure statements in the press, most NGOs do not have such an organizational culture as
they lack transparency on funds from their donor sources.

The presentation challenged CSOs to be more innovative in identifying and addressing problems
in society, noting that at the moment most NGOs focused on same areas such as HIV/AIDS,
human rights especially those of women and children, and the environment.

As for the recommendations on improving the collaboration between the CSOs and LGAs, the
presenters urged holding regular roundtable talks between the CSOs and the respective LGAs.

They also advised the NGOs to submit their reports (quarter, mid-year and annual) in order and
on time to the respective LGAs as a way of winning government trust.

On the other hand, they urged the government to promote meaningful participation of NGOs at
the local level in the design and implementation of its development agenda including in the
budget allocation process.

Meanwhile, the presentation implored the central government and donor agencies to help build
capacity of the LGAs so that they can increase accountability among the LGA employees.

The presentation ended by posing the following questions to NGOs:
     Are NGOs clear about their roles and obligations to society?
     Can NGOs stand on their own feet without depending on donors?
     Are the NGOs prepared enough to weather the storms of dissatisfied donors?
     Are the NGOs equipped enough to understand how the government works?
     Are the NGOs ready to change the negative perception of the public towards them?

To answer the above questions, the paper advised participants to consider what Prof. Issa G.
Shivji called “soul searching” in his keynote address at the gender festival organized by TGNP
and FemAct back in September 2003. According to the paper, he requested NGOs to self-ask:
“What we are, what we are not, and what we ought to be.”

During the discussions representatives from the district councils mentioned coordinating NGOs in
their jurisdiction as one challenge they faced and observed that some times some NGOs operated
in their areas without having contact offices within the LGA. Furthermore, they were of the
opinion that some NGOs tended to sideline the technocrats within the LGA a situation they were
not pleased with and which could affect their morale and reciprocity.

Another point that emerged was whether the CSO needed to pay allowances to LGA employees
or elected leaders such as councillors when they were working in connection with CSO project
activities. According to the Acting Director of Local Government, the said staff should be paid in
accordance with government regulations, for instance, when they worked overtime (extra duty
allowance). As for the elected leaders the CSOs were advised to try and convince the leaders not
to expect or demand those allowances from CSOs. The advice was based on the consideration
that the elected leaders were not salaried and their allowances were minimal, by scrapping the
allowances; there was a risk that the leaders could become less cooperative which might in turn
affect the work of the CSOs in question. Otherwise, the CSOs could lobby the government to
come up with a clear policy stipulating that the elected leaders should not be paid allowances by
the CSOs when they worked for development (performed their duties) in their constituencies.

4. The challenge of MDG 4 and MD5 in Tanzania – Dorcas Robinson
( Dorcas stepped in for a presenter that was not able to attend and provided some statistics. The Embassy
has added some statistics.)

The fertility rate remains high despite some decline from 5.8 births per woman in the period 1992-96, to
5.6 births per woman for the period 1997-1999. For rural women, the birth rate is 6.5 per woman, which is
still very high compared to 3.2 per woman in urban areas (URT: 2003).

The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is currently 578/100,000 per live births; an increase from
529/100 000 in 2004. The MMR in Tanzania is much higher than in Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.
Reduction of MMR is a priority issues in both the MDGs and MKUKUTA. Goal five of the Millennium
Declaration and Development Goals aim to “improve maternal health”. Target six under this goal, “aims
to reduce by three quarters maternal mortality ratio by 2015”.

Furthermore, the two indicators under this specific target include reduction of maternal mortality ratio as
well as promotion of births attended by skilled health personnel. In the MKUKUTA, there are operational
target for improved survival, health and well-being of all children and women especially vulnerable
groups. Under the operational target for effective systems to ensure universal access to quality and
affordable public services, there are two indicators, which include: Access to health services by
geographical coverage within 5 km of health service units and 100 percent of eligible older persons
provided with free medical care and attended by specialized medical personnel by 2010.

5. Decentralisation & Gender: Coordination and Cooperation in LGA for
Maternal Health Siri Lange, CMI

The presentation by Siri Lange and Liss Schanke was about a project being implemented by
PMO-RALG with the support of Norwegian-based institutions, CMI and KS. The project is
financed by PMO-RALG and the Embassy of Norway. The project seeks to investigate how to
improve coordination and cooperation within LGA on maternal health.

The first phase of the project, which started in February 2007 and will end in May 2008, set out to
identify why some relatively poor districts (according to economic indicators) performed better
than others in terms of maternal health. It also identified best practices. Phase 2 will focus on
dissemination of best practices to other districts through regional workshops and exchange visits.

So far, the project has covered 4 LGAs namely Ileje, Misungwi, Serengeti, and Moshi. All these
LGAs were selected on some common characteristics such as having many donor-funded
projects. That the selected LGAs had relatively better maternal health has been attributed to the
following positive elements:

    There is some good cooperation and integration among the projects.
    Those projects have a good focus on village health workers who are given some
     incentives such as bicycles or being exempted from community work duties
    The projects use the well established village health committees
    There is some support to health facilities in terms of equipment and training

    Projects provide transport for pregnant women whether using ambulance or locally
     designed stretchers (e.g. in Ileje which is mountainous)
    The projects have communication facilities which include VHF radios (e.g. Serengeti)
    There are mobile clinics and outreach units

Phase 2 has identified potential partner LGAs and it is expected that Ileje would be compared
with Chunya and Sumbawanga; Misungwi against Kahama and Urambo, while Serengeti will
partner Bunda and Kiteto.

The researchers challenged participants to provide some ideas to the following questions:

   1.   How can good practices from phase 1 districts be replicated without donor support?
   2.   How can we motivate phase 2 districts to use their own resources?
   3.   How can we motivate NGOs/CBOs to collaborate?
   4.   How can we overcome the cultural barriers in the transfer of experience? (cultural, socio-

Participants asked whether the researchers did consider an exit strategy, and the response was that
they had not but would have to look into that issue. Participants also advised that the project
should involve CSOs in the planning, and should seek funds from the councils.

In as far as the selection criteria for the districts to be part of the study were concerned; the
researchers were counselled to identify more factors by, for instance, comparing the situation in
the other districts with similar factors as those used but which still had lower results.

It was also observed that there were some success stories within the country and in other
developing countries which needed to be shared first instead of investing in new but more or less
similar research. One such best practice mentioned related to a project in Chole, Mafia, which had
addressed maternal mortality by focusing on anaemia among pregnant women. According to
research, 80 per cent of maternal deaths in Tanzania are caused by direct obstetric factors
anaemia being one of them. Other causes are socio-economic.

6. The Experience of working on MDG 4 & 5 CARE in Misungwi district –
Dorcas Robinson

Dr Dorcas Robinson presented a paper on the experience of CARE in a project seeking to
promote maternal and newborn health in Misungwi district, Mwanza region. The project started
in 1996 and focused on increasing demand and supply of maternal and newborn health services.

The overall maternal health situation in Tanzania is one in which one woman or girl dies every
hour from pregnancy, childbirth or post-delivery complications. This sorry state of affairs has not
changed over the last decade. It is generally acknowledged that the main challenges for maternal
and newborn health lie in:

   •    Poor health infrastructure, insufficient staff, weak referral systems, and management and
        resources not focused on maternal and newborn lives

   •   Limited community involvement in planning and monitoring health systems, and gender
       inequality and poor health-seeking behaviour.

According to the presenter, the community-based reproductive health programme (CBRHP)
managed to train 299 Village Health Workers to:
   • Identify and visit households with pregnancies
   • Provide STI risk assessment and counselling
   • Encourage ANC attendance and birth planning
   • Educate households on danger signs
   • Refer for emergencies
   • Provide post-partum support and family planning advice

Participants were presented with various figures of outputs showing what the programme had
been able to achieve. When evaluated in 2001, the following outcomes were observed:

   •   Increased knowledge of danger signs and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention
   •   Increased use of services e.g. women using modern methods of contraception from 11% to
   •   Increased hospital management of complications from 4% to 14% in 2001
   •   NO decrease in home deliveries (apparently because of cost barriers).

From 2001, the programme worked to improving quality of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric
Care (in 4 hospitals) which led to a decline in the case fatality rate by 2005. The programme also
introduced VCT and PMTCT services in 4 hospitals and 3 health centres.

During 2006/2007, a sustainability assessment of the project was conducted which realised that
Village Health Workers (VHW):
    • Majority of them were still active since 1998, unpaid, and working largely for satisfaction
       of being useful in the community
    • Of VHWs trained under the CARE and UNICEF CSPD projects, 92% were active at the
       local health clinic – weighing children, providing health education to pregnant women and
       mothers with small children
    • VHWs were appreciated by village leaders and by the DMOs – who value the information
       they provide – but there is no LGA strategy for routine new training/ expansion or re-

As for the community emergency transport system, 12 out of 52 villages had a system in place in
one form or another, ranging from the use of tricycles, canoes or some funds. About 47% of the
direct beneficiaries of the transport systems were pregnant women.        Moreover,       these
systems were able to function without external support for 6 years. As a result of this
“innovation”, the cost of transport to health facilities (in TZS) decreased from between 10,000
and 80,000 to 1,000 and 20,000.

CARE has been planning and acting in concert with the LGAs using:

   •   Existing Swahili information and advocacy materials

   •   Existing Tanzanian examples of best practices

Existing Tanzanian planning and governance systems – O&OD and Council Comprehensive

Health Plans (CCHPs).

Using the lessons learnt from the Misungwi project, CARE started in 2006/2007 to advocate for
commitment and change among the stakeholders including the central government and the LGAs.
Among the demands, CARE argues that:

   1. Government should allocate 15% of the national budget to health in line with targets set in
   2. Government should expand emergency obstetric care (caesarean section) currently
      available only to 1 in 7 of the women who need it.
   3. Government should ensure all women deliver with a skilled attendant as currently only
      one in four women get assistance to deliver their babies.
   4. Government should ensure free services for all pregnant women and girls as currently
      poor women pay formal and informal costs for health services that are supposed to be free

During the discussions it was pointed out that the programme had resulted in women and girls
becoming more aware of their rights and starting to challenge the status quo. Participants were
also informed that the issue of family planning (reproductive health) was increasingly coming up
as a big issue in the meetings of microfinance groups.

                                    6 – 7 SEPTEMBER 2007
                            AT SEA CLIFF HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM

                                                        E-Mail address
S/No.   Name               Institution                                             Telephone No.
1.      Suleiman Lolila    National Muslim Council of          075-289100
2.      Finike             GNRC                       0754-
        Gogomoka                                                                   448729
3.      Agatha Masanja     YWCA                                                    0784-611529
4.      Shamim Daudi       WCRP/Tanzania               713-518002
5.      Mildrid            FOKUS                   +47 23010312
6.      Tabitha Siwale     WAT-Human Settlements                                   0754 –580 420
7.      Berit Aasen        Norwegian Inst. For Urban
                           & Regional Research                                     +47 959 715 25
8.      Fredrick Glad-     Norw. Church AID                     +255 787 770 811
9.      Vigdis Halvorsen   Norad                             +47 22240375
10.     Stella             KIWOHEDE              22861111
11.     Finner Evarest     CSWD – Mafia       

12.     Cheusi Rajab       VSWD – Mafia       

13.     Raziah             TAMWA – Dar es Salaam            2115278, 0756-
        Mwawanga                                                                   606041
14.     Allan Nswilla      Hakikazi Catalyst            Answilla-
                                                                                   0754- 268012
15.     Aginatha Rutazaa KWIECO                    0754-677002
16.     Agnete Strøm       Kvinne Fronten     

17.     Anne Røthing       Kvinne Fronten     

18.   Dafrosa Itemba     KIWAKKUKI                   0754 624631
19.   Triphone N.        Dogo Dogo Centre                  21711575
20.   Augustina Mosha    NCA-Tanzania                    0713-410020
21.   Mary Sange         Mara Savings & Credit Prg.    Women.microfinance@gmail        0784-625896
22.   Evena Massae       TAMH                              0754-578593
23.   Anna Mhina         TAMH                              0754-260505
24.   Eva Biswaro        TAMH                              0756-401704
25.   Gervas Manjori     Plan International            Gervas-manjori@plan-            0754-832773
26.   Jennifer Chiwute   IAC-Tanzania, Dodoma                0754-599876
27.   Jo’une Sammi       Freelance Cartoonist             0787-568631,
28.   Konstanse Raen     United Bible Societier    254 020381953
29.   Altemius           YOSEFO                          0754376122
30.   Gunvor W.          Norad                                   +47 22242030
31.   Amani Lukumay      Kamamma Integrated Dev.        255 272508518/
                         Initiative (KIDI)                                             0754348625
32.   Mary Kabati        TAHEA –MWANRA             0754 443226
33.   Jesca S. Mkuchu    Tanzania Emmenical                0713-326291/
                         Dialogue Group(TEDG)                                          255 2112918
34.   Loitare Losaru     Organisation for Community
                         Development (OCODE)                                           0755 935577
35.   Christopher        Tanzania Ecumenical
      Bamanyisa          Dialogue Group(TEDG)                                          0754 522244/
36.   Getrude Mugizi     Policy Forum           2772611
37.   Dr. Elid
      Wandwalo           LHL-Temeke TB Project                                         0713-642714
38.   Columba

      Mapembe           DIAC Dodoma                    0754083321
39.   Mkumbwa
      Khmed Cmdr        ZAPDD Zanzibar                                                  0777415973

40.   June Cathrine     JURK                              +47 93431980
41.   Perpetua Rusage   EMIMA                            0754-371241
42.   HAMAD Juma        ZALGWU                            0777-414831
43.   Emmanuel Noel     Ujammaa – CRT                      0713-053431
44.   Pendo Paul        Media Solution-Journalist              0756506382
45.   Elizabeth Minde   KWIECO                       0754-4444200
46.   Agnes Urassa      KIWAKKUKI                     0754-393427
47.   Fr. Taurine
      Muchunguzi        RUDDO                                                           0784-407152
48.   Omari Basiri      LGA                                 0784-595745
49.   Mary Musirika     Right to Play                0784-118737
50.   Didier Abdallah   Right to Play          

51.   Loe Rose Mbise    Box 2086, Dsm                 0784-282702
52.   Amandus
      Chitopela         DONET                                                           0755 433598
53.   Allan Nswilla     HAKIKAZ CATALYS                  Answilla-                      0754-268012
54.   Severine Kahitwa PMO-RALG                

55.   Wilbert
      Munchunguzi       Plan International                                              0755 864451
56.   Juma Salim ali    ZAPDD –Zanzibar                    0777429428
57.   Ruth K. Shija     TCRS                             0754-309288
58.   Valerian Kidole   Kisarawe                           0713-261096
59.   Godwin            Moyo Mmoja Trust                     0754-025081
60.   Liss Schanke      KS                     

61.       Loitare Losaru    OCODE                             0755-935577
62.       Agatha Damas      TEC – Dsm                       0784-797601
63.       Siri Lange        CMI                 

64.       Edson Ernest      Ilula Orphan Program              0784-337763
65.       Cesilia L.        SIAC – Singida                                                0754-409590
66.       Theresia          SIAC-Singida                                                  0755-313113
67.       Priscilla M.      Stromme Foundation     256 772701823
68.       Kjell Bj. Orset   NBBL                                     +4797065169
69.       Tore Lange        NBBL                                     +4747249876
70.       Rutagweleza       Stromme Foundation               0784-770775
71.       Wenceslaus        The Business Week                                             0713-326569
72.       Mr. Salema        MKURABITA
73.       Dr. Senorina      Independent Consultant
74.       Jon Lomøy         Royal Norwegian Embassy
75.       Bodil Maal        Royal Nor. Embassy
76.       Amina J. Lwasye   Royal. Nor. Embassy
77.       Pius N. Wanzala   Royal Norw. Embassy
78.       Japhet Makongo    Facilitator
79.       Chiku Alli        Women’s Front
80.       Svein Olsen       Norwegian Peoples Aid
81.       Aggripne A.       Independent Consultant        Aggripne.mosha@gmail.c          0784257373
82.       Grauthan          Strømme Foundation  ø        +4799293644



sept 6         1. DAY

               Facilitator : Mr. Japhet Makongo

Session 1                    Improving partnerships between Norwegian
                                            and Tanzanian NGOs

               Welcome by Ambassador Jon Lomøy, The Norwegian Embassy

               Introduction – The Norwegian Embassy

               Presentation of findings from the review of Norwegian CSOs partnerships with
               organisation in Tanzania (feb.07)
               - Consultant Dr. Senorina Wendoh ( Kenya/UK) (confirmed)

               - Ms. Gertrude Mugizi, NGO Policy Forum (discussant) confirmed

               - Ms. Agnete Strøm (Women’s Front) Norway (discussant) confirmed

10.30          Coffee Break w/bites

10.45          Break into groups

12.15          Plenary –presentations from group work

13.00          Lunch

Session 2        Women’s access to land

14.00          Mr. Salema from Mkurabita ( The formalisation programme) - confirmed
               Programme advisor Mark Waite, NPA - The gender perspective in the
14. 30         formalisation of land in Handeni (discussant) confirmed
               Ms. Tabita Siwale, Women’s Advancement Trust – formalisation of land in
14.50          Dar es Salaam (confimed)

               Discussion in plenum
15.10 -16.00

DAY 2           Facilitator Allan A. Nswilla

Session 3       The role of NGOs within local government
08.00           Introduction by acting. Dir   of      Local Government Division in PMO-RALG ,
                Severine Kahitwa

                - Dafrosa Itemba (Women Against Aids in Kilimanjaro (KIWAKUKKI )                 -
                cooperation with LGAs? (discussant) confirmed

                - TAMWA-Ms. Razia Mwawanga- The NGO-coalition against FGM – cooperation
                with LGAs? – (discussant) - confirmed

                Mr. Valerian Kidole, act. District Planner, Kisarawe District Council and Mr. Omar
                M.Basiri, Dodoma District Council, Dept. Community Development - Cooperation
                between LGAs and NGOs – seen from the LGA’s perspective. (confirmed)

09.30           Coffee break w/ bites

09.45           Break into Groups

11.15           Plenary – presentations from groups

12.30           Lunch

Session 4       MDG 4 (reduce child mortality) and MDG 5 (improve
                maternal health)

13.30           The challenge on MDG 4 and MDG 5 in Tanzania
                Dr. Dorcas Robinson
14.00           -Dr. Siri Lange (CMI), Coordination and cooperation in LGAs on maternal health
14.20            Dr. Dorcas Robinson , Care /Tanzania - Work on MDG 4 – 5 in Misungwi district
14.40           Plenum discussion

16.00           Closing of seminar by the Norwegian Embassy

                Møvenpick Hotel -

The editorial committee
The functions of the documentation and editorial committee

       Mr.Pius Wanzala (The Norwegian Embassy) confirmed .
       Liss Schanke (KS)

Specific functions;

The committee will work as a team and in close collaboration with the facilitators, presenters and
organizers of the workshop to ensure that:

All key issues presented and discussed in each session are creatively documented in a brief summary

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