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Chapter Four Consumer Behavior

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					                    Consumer
                     Behavior
Consumer Behavior

     Chapter Four




     Chapter Four
Chapter Four: Consumer Behavior
                      Objectives
   Identify elements of a consumer behavior model.
   Address the five stages of the consumer decision-
    making process.
   Describe consumer decision making in terms of
    extensive, limited, or routine problem solving.
   Describe psychological influences that impact
    consumer behavior.
   Describe the social influences that impact
    consumer behavior.
A Consumer Behavior Model
• Social influences
   - Culture and subculture
   - Social class
   - Role and status
   - Reference groups
   - Family and household     Consumer
• Psychological influences    Behavior
   - Motivation
   - Perception
   - Beliefs
   - Personality
   - Lifestyle

• Situational influences
The Consumer Decision-Making Process

                             Stages
                                                      Post-Purchase
                                                        Processes


                                           Purchase


                             Alternative
                             Evaluation

               Information
                  Search

  Problem
 Recognition
The Consumer Decision-Making Process (cont.)

 Problem          Information   Alternative              Post-Purchase
                                              Purchase
Recognition         Search      Evaluation                Processes




   Problem recognition (creates need)
       Difference between actual and desired state
       “Cues”*


   Information search (creates alternatives)
        Internal information search
        External information search
       “Evoked Set”*
    The Consumer Decision-Making Process (cont.)
         Problem           Information   Alternative                   Post-Purchase
                                                         Purchase
        Recognition            Search    Evaluation                     Processes




   Alternative Evaluation (creates preferences)
     Price                                This step can be skipped if purchase
     Ease of use                                       is habitual.
     Performance                             Consumers then rely on memory
                                                   of past purchases.
     Style


e.g., Fishbein Model*
        A = ∑ (biei) …
            Where A is attitude,
            b is belief, and
            e is evaluative criterion
The Consumer Decision-Making Process (cont.)
     Problem       Information      Alternative                 Post-Purchase
    Recognition                     Evaluation
                                                  Purchase
                     Search                                      Processes




    Purchase (creates possession)
          Decision vs. Behavior
     Purchase Intention                                 Actual Purchase

                  Intervening factors (“second thoughts”)
                   Too expensive
                   Impulses
                   False information


          Decision Rule*
The Consumer Decision-Making Process (cont.)

 Problem       Information   Alternative              Post-Purchase
                                           Purchase
Recognition      Search      Evaluation                Processes




 Post-Purchase Processes (creates evaluation)
     Cognitive Consistency/Dissonance*
          e.g. Buyer’s Remorse
          Reduction Strategies/Tactics
     Expectations influence level of satisfaction
     Quality refers to overall product quality, reliability
    and the extent to which it meets consumers’ needs.
Extended, Limited, and Routine
 Consumer Decision Making
A Consumer Behavior Model
• Social influences
   - Culture and subculture
   - Social class
   - Role and status
   - Reference groups
   - Family and household
                              Consumer
• Psychological influences
                              Behavior
   - Motivation
   - Perception
   - Beliefs
   - Personality
   - Lifestyle

• Situational influences
Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior

 Motivation (and Involvement*)
                                              Involvement/Lucky Charms

  Unsatisfied need               Drive or motive
      or want                      = stimulus

      Hunger                     Go to Restaurant




                                       Reduce need
         Action, purchase good
                                         or want
               Eat Food
                                        Not Hungry
                          Perception
                         Marketers Influence Perceptions

 Perception: The manner in which we collect,
     organize, and interpret information
   Selective perception:
     - Individuals pay attention to different stimuli, perceiving
     them selectively.
   Selective distortion:
     - Consumers adapt information to fit their own existing
     knowledge or beliefs (cognitive assonance).
   Selective retention:
     - Consumers only retain information about a good or service
     that supports personal knowledge or beliefs (reduce
     dissonance).
Learning




   Cues                        Response: an attempt to
               Drive           satisfy an individual drive
  Stimuli

            You see Jordan
Example:                       You too,         You buy
            drinking Sprite.     want            Sprite.
                                Sprite.
    Attitudes
    Values*
      and
     Beliefs

   Attitudes: Relatively enduring and consistent feelings (affective
    responses) about a good or service
   Beliefs: Associations between a product and attributes of that product
       Fast food and smoking cause heart attacks.
       Intel processors only exist in quality computers.
    Marketers are trying to create positive attitudes about their products and
    create beliefs that their products have desirable attributes.
       Personality and Lifestyles
                    Personality and Buying


   Personality: An individual’s unique
    psychological characteristics leading to
    specific response tendencies over time
   Lifestyles: An individual’s style of living as
    expressed through activities, interests, and
    opinions
   Psychographics: Classification of consumers
    according to lifestyles and personality
Social Influences on Consumer Behavior
   Culture: “a society’s personality”
      A continuously changing totality of learned and shared meanings, rituals, norms, and
        traditions among the members of an organization or society
   Values
      Enduring beliefs about a specific mode of conduct or desirable end-state that guides the
        selection or evaluation of behavior

    Cultures are set apart by values, e.g. . . .
    • Western Cultures stress success, achievement, and competitiveness.
    • Eastern Cultures emphasize collective welfare.


                                          Values


                  Terminal                                     Instrumental
        Social Class, Role, and Status
      Influences on Consumer Behavior
   Social Classes: Share similar values, attitudes, interests,
    and opinions. Can be determined by a combination of
    occupation, education, income, wealth, and values.
   Role: Behavior based on the activities people are expected to perform
    according to individuals around them
      Role of women in the United States

      Role of women in Islamic countries

      Man in a marriage relationship

      Partners in a gay or lesbian relationship

   Status: The esteem that society bestows upon a particular role
        Soccer mom
        Company president
        Judge
        Car salesperson
     Family and Household Influences on
             Consumer Behavior
   Influence on consumers purchasing behavior
   Decision makers and influencers of decisions:
      Husband
      Wife
      Children
      Cleaning personnel
      Guests
      Roommates


    Parents and grandparents (decision
    makers) respond to children’s influence
    in deciding which toys to purchase.
Reference Groups and Opinion Leaders
    Reference groups*: Any group that positively or
     negatively affects a person’s values, attitudes or
     behavior
        Associate reference groups:
          -   Groups an individual belongs to—the individual
              adopts certain behavior patterns of these groups.
        Dissociative reference groups:
          -   Groups people do not want to associate with
        Aspirational reference groups:
          -   Groups an individual aspires to join or associate with


    Opinion Leaders*: A reference group member who
     provides information about a specific sphere that
     interests reference group participants.
        Situational Influences on
          Consumer Behavior*
   Occasion
   Time
   Importance
   Available Funds
   Marketing Mix
   Etc.

				
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