Introduction to infant and young child feeding

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Overview of HIV and infant feeding

After completing this session participants will
  be able to:
• explain the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
• describe factors which influence mother-to-child
  transmission
• outline approaches that can prevent mother-to-child
  transmission through safer infant feeding practices
• state infant feeding recommendations for women who
  are HIV-positive and for women who are HIV-negative or
  do not know their status
                                                   17/2

Defining HIV and AIDS

HIV
• Human immunodeficiency virus is the virus that
  causes AIDS
AIDS
• Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the
  active pathological condition that follows the
  earlier, non-symptomatic state of being
  HIV-positive
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Mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Young children who get HIV are usually
 infected through their mother
• during pregnancy across the placenta
• at the time of labour and birth through blood
  and secretions
• through breastfeeding


This is called mother-to-child transmission
 of HIV or MTCT
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    Estimated risk and timing of
    mother-to-child transmission of HIV
    in the absence of interventions
Timing of MTCT of HIV                                          Transmission Rate
• During pregnancy                                                                       5-10%
• During labour and delivery                                                            10-15%
• During breastfeeding                                                                   5-20%
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________


• Overall without breastfeeding              15-25%
• Overall with breastfeeding to 6 months     20-35%
• Overall with breastfeeding to 18–24 months 30-45%
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100 mothers and babies
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1000 mothers and babies
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100 mothers and babies


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1000 mothers and babies
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100 mothers and babies


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1000 mothers and babies
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1000 mothers and babies
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20 babies
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20 babies
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20 babies
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Factors which affect mother-to-child
transmission of HIV
•   Recent infection with HIV
•   Severity of disease
•   Sexually transmitted infections
•   Obstetric procedures
•   Duration of breastfeeding
•   Exclusive breastfeeding or mixed feeding
•   Condition of the breasts
•   Condition of the baby’s mouth
                                                             17/14

Policy of supporting breastfeeding

“As a general principle, in all populations,
  irrespective of HIV infection rates,
  breastfeeding should continue to be
  protected, promoted and supported.”




     HIV and Infant Feeding: a policy statement, developed
     collaboratively by UNAIDS, WHO and UNICEF, 1997.
                                                   17/15

Infant feeding recommendations
for HIV-positive women
• When replacement feeding is acceptable,
  feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe,
  avoidance of all breastfeeding by HIV-infected
  mothers is recommended
• Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is
  recommended during the first months of life

				
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posted:10/5/2012
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