Control and opposition by 49NUm54y

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									Control and opposition

            Part two
Political and youth opposition
         Aims of the lesson
By the end of the lesson you will
• Understand why the Nazis faced little
  political opposition and how they dealt with
  it
• Describe the main features of anti-Nazi
  youth movements and to evaluate their
  effectiveness and the reasons for their
  failure
          Political opposition
• When Hitler came to power
  the opposition was divided
• One party state – all other
  parties banned
• State governments
  abolished and replaced by
  a Nazi Gaulieter
• Concentration camps for
  those who opposed Nazis
    Communists and Socialists
• Communists and SPD
  forced underground –
  leaders put in prison
• Others fled abroad –
  communists to Moscow,
  socialists to Paris
• Most activists gave up the
  chase and decided to wait
  for the Nazi government to
  fall
      Conservative opposition
• Many conservatives
  accepted Nazi rule as a
  better alternative to the
  communists
• Most conservatives went
  along with Nazi policies
• Only when the war started to
  go wrong in 1943 did they
  start to turn against Hitler
           Youth opposition
• Nazis targeted young people
  – had to join HJ or BDM
• Curriculum was tightly
  controlled at school
• Teenage years a natural
  time to rebel against
  authority
• Many young people tried to
  take on the Nazis and all
  failed
      Hitler Youth and the war
• War in 1939 caused
  problems in the Hitler Youth
  – leaders sent to war
• Teenagers put in charge –
  caused problems
• Many refused to obey
  orders from their peers
• This type of opposition was
  common towards then end
  of the war
                Swing Youth
• Nazis banned jazz music and
  controlled what young people
  could do and wear
• Many middle class youths
  rebelled against this and
  started to play jazz music and
  wear banned clothes
• Nazis clamped down on them
  – sent to concentration camps
• Sent out a powerful message
          Edelweiss Pirates
• Groups of youths who beat
  up Hitler Youth members and
  sheltered army deserters
• Killed the head of the
  Gestapo in Cologne
• A small group but caused
  havoc
• Most of its members had
  been hung by the end of the
  war
       White Rose Movement
• Based at Munich Uni
• Led by Hans and Sophie
  Scholl
• Distributed leaflets
  publicising atrocities
  committed in Poland and
  Russia
• 1943 the Scholls and the
  other leaders were caught
  and executed

								
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