30.5-37.3.rtf - USDA Forest Service by fjzhangxiaoquan


									            FSH 6709.12 - SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM HANDBOOK
                             4/87 WO AMENDMENT 1


30.5 - Definitions. All accidents are reportable; some accidents are chargeable.

     1. Chargeable Accident. A chargeable accident is one that is required to be
reported through the Incident Reporting System (IRS) (sec. 43). A chargeable accident
is included in the unit's frequency rates.

    2. Occupational Fatality. Death resulting from a job-related injury or illness.

    3. Traumatic Injury. A job-related wound or other condition of the body caused by
external force, including stress and strain. The injury must be identifiable as to time and
place of occurrence and member or function of the body affected, and be caused by a
specific event or incident or series of events or incidents within a single day or workshift.

    4. Chargeable Traumatic Injury. A traumatic injury that:

           a. Causes disability for work beyond the day or shift when it occurred, or

           b. Appears likely to result in prolonged treatment or in permanent disability
           or serious disfigurement of the head, face, or neck, or

           c. Has resulted, or is likely to result, in a charge for medical or other related

    5. Occupational Illness or Disease. Illnesses or diseases produced by systemic
infections; by continued or repeated stress; by exposure to toxins, poisons, fumes, and
so forth; or by other continued and repeated exposure to conditions of the work
environment. These conditions must occur over a period of time longer than 1 day or 1
work shift.

    6. Chargeable Occupational Illness or Disease. An occupational disease or illness

           a. Causes disability for work beyond the day or shift during which it was
           reported, or

           b. Appears likely to result in prolonged treatment, permanent disability, or
           serious disfigurement of the head, face, or neck, or

           c. Has resulted, or is likely to result, in a charge for medical or other related
    7. Property Damage Accident. An accident that occurs in the course of a Forest
Service activity and results in a combined total of $350 or more damage to Government
or private property.

     8. Chargeable Motor Vehicle Accident. Any occurrence involving the use of a
Government-owned, -leased, or -rented automobile, truck or bus that results in death,
injury, illness, or total combined damage of $350 or more, regardless of whose property
was damaged or who was injured. This definition also applies to private vehicles when
used on official duty. Exceptions are as follows:

           a. Accidents to properly and legally parked, Government-owned, -leased, or
           -rented motor vehicles, and accidents caused by natural events with no
           human intervention, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, are
           reportable as property damage accidents.

           b. Vehicle accidents in which it is clear that the Forest Service is not at fault,
           such as when the other driver is cited for a violation and the Forest Service
           driver is not, are reportable as property damage accidents.

    9. Forest Service Aircraft Accident and Incident. For aircraft accident and incident
definitions, see FSM 5720.


31.1 - Chargeable Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities. Charge to the employee's home
unit per Department of Labor, Office of Workers' Compensation, chargeback

31.2 - Aircraft Accidents. Charge Forest Service aircraft accidents to the benefiting unit.
This unit is responsible from the time the aircraft is ordered to the unit until it is released.

31.3 - Frequency Rates. Frequency rates indicate the rate of occurrence of injuries,
illnesses, and accidents. They are indicators of program effectiveness. They are
computed based on the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) billing
period of 1 July - 30 June. See FSM 6711.

    1. Injury and Illness Frequency Rate

    = Number of chargeable injuries and illnesses x 200,000
         Number of hours worked
    2. Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) Frequency Rate

    = Number of chargeable MVA's x 1,000,000
        Number of miles driven

    3. Fixed-Wing Aircraft Accident Frequency Rate

    = Number of fixed-wing aircraft accidents x 100,000
        Number of fixed-wing hours flown

    4. Rotary-Wing Aircraft Accident Frequency Rate

    = Number of rotary-wing aircraft accidents x 100,000
        Number of rotary-wing hours flown


32.1 - Notification Criteria and Process. Required notifications, based on event severity,
are set forth in exhibits 1-5.
                                             Exhibit 1

                                OCCUPATIONAL INJURY/ILLNESS

                  EVENT                         INITIAL NOTIFICATION REQUIRED

Minor injury or illness.                     Subunit head, through the work supervisor.

Serious injury or illness, including broken Forest Supervisor or Director's
bones, eye injuries, poisoning, burns, or Representative.
chemical contamination.

Severe injury or illness, requiring          Regional, Station, or Area Safety and
hospitalization.                             Health Manager.

Occupational fatality (or likely death) to   Immediate notification of the Chief's Office,
Forest Service employee or enrollee.         through Regional, Station, or Area Safety
                                             and Health Manager. The Chief's Office
                    OR                       shall notify the USDA Safety and Health
                                             Management Division, who shall in turn
One or more private citizens dies (or        notify Department of Labor (DOL) OSHA.
death likely) as result of Forest Service


Five or more employees, enrolles, and/or
private citizens are hospitalized.

Fatality of Job Corps member                 Immediately notify the Department of Labor
                                             Regional Safety and Health Manager, and
                                             the Chief's Office through the Region,
                                             Station, or Area Safety and Health
                                             Manager. The Chief's Office shall notify
                                             USDA, Safety and Health Management
                                             Exhibit 2

                                  MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT

                 EVENT                          INITIAL NOTIFICATION REQUIRED

Total damage of $350 to $1,000 as a           District Ranger, Center Director, or
result of a motor vehicle accident            Research Project Leader.
involving a Government-owned, -leased,
or -rented motor vehicle (includes private
vehicle on official use).

Total damage in excess of $1,000 as a         Regional, Station, or Area Safety and
result of a motor vehicle accident            Health Manager.
involving a Government-owned, -leased,
or -rented motor vehicle (includes private
vehicle on official use).

                                             Exhibit 3

                              ACCIDENTAL PROPERTY DAMAGE

                  EVENT                         INITIAL NOTIFICATION REQUIRED

Damage of $350 to $1,000 to                  District Ranger, Center Director, or
Government property.                         Research Project Leader.

Damage in excess of $1,000 to                Regional, Station, or Area Safety and
Government property.                         Health Manager.

Property damage, excluding forest fires,     Washington Office Personnel Management
of $100,000 of more.                         Staff Safety and Health Group through
                                             Regional Safety and Health Manager.

Aircraft accident or incident with serious   Washington Office, Personnel
potential (see FSM 5720 for definitions).    Management Staff, Safety and Health
                                             Manager, National Aviation Safety Officer
                                             through the Regional Air Officer.
                                                Exhibit 4

                          HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ACCIDENT

                   EVENT                               NOTIFICATION REQUIRED

Release of a reportable quantity of a           Washington Office Personnel and Civil
hazardous substance into the                    Rights Staff, Safety and Health Group,
environment.                                    the Washington Office, Engineering
                                                Staff, and the National Response Center
Fire, breakage, spillage, or suspected          (800) 424-8802.
contamination from a shipment of
radioactive material.

Fire, breakage, spillage, or suspected
contamination from a shipment of
etiological agents.

                                                Exhibit 5


                   EVENT                                 NOTIFICATION REQUIRED

1. Injury or death of person working with       Washington Office Personnel and Civil
pesticides or on any project involving          Rights Staff, Safety and Health Group. Also
pesticides.                                     notify Coast Guard, State and local
                                                governments, or the Environmental
2. Crashes of aircraft carrying pesticides.     Protection Agency as required. See FSH
                                                2109.12 for the required followup written
3. Accidental dumping or spilling of            reports.

4. Adverse effects of pesticide use on
humans, fish, birds, wildlife, farm animals,
trees and crops, homes and other
components of the environment.

The Safety and Health Group will in turn notify the Director, Forest Pest Management and
the Deputy Chief, State and Private Forestry (S&PF). Deputy Chief, S&PF, will keep the
Chief, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection
Aegncy informed on significant incidents.
32.2 - Content of Notification. When Chief's Office notification is required, include the
following information:

    1. Date and time of accident.

    2. Name and age of deceased or seriously injured person.

    3. Working title.

    4. Home address for Forest Service employees only.

    5. Name and address of Forest and District involved.

    6. Location of the injured person.

    7. Location of the accident.

    8. Brief description of the injuries or property damage.

    9. Brief description of how the accident occurred.

    10. Name of next of kin notified, name of person making notification.

    11. Name and address of the next of kin for Forest Service employees only.

    12. Marital status of Forest Service employees only.

    13. Spouse's name for Forest Service employees only.

    14. Number and age of children for Forest Service employees only.

    15. Names and titles of unit's investigating team members.

    16. If hazardous materials or pesticides are involved, include nature of the
involvement, classification, name, and quantity of materials involved, medium into which
substance was released, precautions taken, person(s) to contact for further information,
and names and telephone number of local or State emergency coordinator.


33.02 - Objective. Accident reporting provides:

    1. The documentation necessary to analyze the unit's accident experience.

    2. The basis for initiating corrective action.
    3. A means of monitoring and evaluating managerial success in carrying out the
safety and health program.

33.1 - Types of Reports. Documentation requirements vary depending on the severity
of the accident and implications for potential claims. There are three basic types of
accident reports:

    1. Those required by the Incident Reporting System.

    2. The Forest Service Formal Accident Investigation Report.

    3. Report FS-5700-G, Aviation Accident Investigation Report (FSM 5720).

33.2 - Incident Reporting System. As a minimum, all chargeable accidents shall be
reported through the Incident Reporting System (IRS). See section 30.5 for definitions
of chargeable accidents. Detailed instructions on use of the IRS are contained in
chapter 40.

     1. Coverage. Accidents to all employees and enrollees, except Job Corps
members, are reported through the IRS. See FSM 6732.23 for reporting injuries,
illnesses and fatalities to Job Corpsmembers. Do not include in the IRS injuries to
employees of other agencies working under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service. See
FSM 6732.26 for reporting injuries to other agency personnel.

   2. Reporting Locations. Regions, Stations, and the Area Safety and Health
Managers shall determine the level within their organization for inputting data to the

    3. User's Guide. Provide each unit responsible for inputting accident data with a
current edition of the IRS User's Guide. Additional copies may be obtained from the
Washington Office, Personnel Management Staff, Safety and Health Group.

    4. Timeframes for Entering Data. Enter accident data into the IRS within 12
working days following the accident. Quarterly hours and mileage must be entered by
the close of each quarter. Submit hours for all employee groups including volunteers.
Do not submit hours for Job Corps enrollees.

    5. IRS Reporting Required. Use the forms in exhibit 1 for submitting reports under
the IRS.

   6. Precautionary Form CA-1 and Form CA-2. Do not enter into the IRS form CA-1
and form CA-2 completed only to document a minor injury or exposure and not
submitted to OWCP.
                                      Exhibit 1

TYPE OF ACCIDENT                                  IRS FORM(S) REQUIRED

Occupational Injury                               CA-1* (USDA)

Occupational Illness                              CA-2* (USDA)

Motor Vehicle                                     SF-91A* (USDA)

Motorcycles, all terrain vehicles,                AD-872
snow mobiles, roadgraders, etc.

Government Motor Vehicle                          SF-91A* (USDA)
or Private Vehicle Used for                       CA-1** (USDA)
Government Use

Motor Vehicle--Total damage                       SF-91A*
does not exceed $350, but a                       CA-1**
private citizen is injured.

Property Damage                                   AD-872

Aircraft Accident                                 AD-872

*USDA modified forms including reporting data on back.
**If personal injury involved.
33.3 - Form FS-6700-8, Report of Incident to Other Than Employees. Use form 6700-8
to report accidents occurring on Forest Service property to private citizens, contractors,
cooperators, and permittees. Report only fatalities to the Washington Office. Report
serious injuries and significant private property damage to the Region, Station, or Area
Safety and Health Program Manager.

33.4 - Form FS-2100-D, Pesticide Incident and Accident Report. Initial telephone
notification of a pesticide incident or accident must be followed by a written report. See
FSH 2109.12.

34 - ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS. All accidents, regardless of severity, require some
degree of investigation. Investigations done for a minor injury do not require the same
effort as that for an accident involving hospitalization of several employees. Every
accident shall be investigated to the extent necessary to determine the facts, conditions,
and background factors present to determine appropriate preventative measures.

The unit on which the accident occurs begins the investigation immediately, regardless
of what organizational level ultimately is charged with the investigation responsibility
(sec. 35.2).

34.1 - Chief's Office Investigations. A Chief's Office team may investigate any incident
or accident. Accidents involving multiple employee fatalities shall be investigated by the
Chief's Office. Injury requiring hospitalization of five or more employees or enrollees,
aircraft accidents, aircraft incidents with serious potential, and accidents in which there
may be unusual public concern may be appropriate for a Chief's Office investigation.

34.2 - Region, Station, and Area Investigations. Regional Foresters, Station and Area
Directors shall conduct investigations of serious accidents. This includes single
fatalities, serious injuries or illnesses, major property damage, aircraft accidents, and
incidents with serious potential not investigated by the Chief's Office or a Washington
Office-appointed team (FSM 6704).

34.3 - National Transportation Safety Board Investigations (NTSB). See FSM 6731.4.

34.4 - Multiagency Investigations. Conduct joint investigations of accidents involving
the Forest Service and other Federal or State agencies. The degree of Forest Service
participation shall depend on the circumstances of the accident. Regional, Station, or
Area personnel shall coordinate with the involved Forest Service unit, the appropriate
Washington Office staffs, and the other agency headquarters (FSM 6731.5).


35.1 - Investigation Kit. Each Forest Service unit should maintain an accident
investigation kit. Such kits normally include the following items:

    1. Camera (35mm) and color print film, flash, and extra batteries.
    2. Note paper.

    3. Clip board.

    4. Pencils, pens, felt tip markers.

    5. Blank tags.

    6. Flagging tape.

    7. Small tape recorder, batteries, and extra blank cassettes.

    8. Copies of FSM 6700, FSH 6709.11, and FSH 6709.12.

    9. Accident reporting forms.

    10. Tape measure.

35.2 - Initial Procedures. Regardless of who ultimately completes the investigation, the
unit on which the accident occurs shall initiate the investigation process.

The local unit manager shall immediately:

    1. Notify appropriate officials within the organization (sec. 32.1).

    2. Assign person(s) to begin the accident investigation.

    3. Secure the accident site to preserve evidence to the extent possible.

    4. Photograph the accident scene.

    5. Obtain witness statements.

35.3 - Team Composition. All units should develop and maintain a written investigation
assignment roster which specifies who will investigate various types of accidents.
Standing investigation teams, with alternates, reduce confusion at the time of an
accident and provide for the fast action imperative for good accident investigations.

Minor injury, illness, or property damage accidents normally require only a single
investigator, often the first line supervisor. A line officer or designee should lead
investigations of more serious accidents. See FSM 5720 for air craft accident
investigation team requirements.

35.4 - Role of the Chief Investigator. The Chief Investigator is responsible for
completing the investigation, preparing the report, and transmitting the report to the
review board chairman (FSM 6732.3). Chief Investigators are delegated line authority
to make critical decisions in imminent danger situations (FSM 6730.43).
Chief Investigators shall:

    1. Organize, conduct, and control the investigation.

   2. Select or approve selection of team members with skills and knowledge
appropriate for the type of accident.

    3. Assign tasks to team members. Ensure tasks are completed.

    4. Coordinate with appropriate Region, Station, Forest, or Laboratory.

    5. Ensure that initial investigation has begun.

    6. Secure and control site subject to other agency jurisdiction.

    7. Issue brief with any recommended immediate actions.

    8. Take possession of all relevant Forest Service and contractor documents.

    9. Arrange for team comfort and safety.

    10. Arrange for clerical support, as necessary.

    11. Make all media contacts and statements.

    12. Authorize or request authorization of all expenditures. Keep expense record.

    13. Conduct regular team meetings to exchange information and assess progress.

     14. Release wreckage and documents to appropriate line officer or contracting
officer when investigation is completed.

    15. Ensure a draft of the report is completed before the team disperses.

    16. Present the team's findings at the review board.

35.5 - Accident Brief. The Chief Investigator shall prepare an accident brief within 24
hours after beginning the investigation of a serious accident. The brief is submitted to
the line officer responsible for the investigation. The brief is used to determine if
immediate action to prevent additional accidents is needed prior to development of the
final report and the report review (sec. 37).

35.6 - Notification of Next of Kin. Notify next of kin as soon as the victim is positively
identified. A Forest or Station officer who has been briefed on the facts of the accident
should make the notification. If possible, the person making the notification should
know the victim's family.
35.7 - Legal Advice. Seek the advice of the Office of the General Counsel, through the
Fiscal and Accounting Management Staff, if there is likelihood of a claim for or against
the Government.

35.8 - Autopsies. The Forest Service does not have authority to order an autopsy.
Make requests to local authorities. Normally the local civil authorities shall authorize
payment for this service. In cases where the civil authority is willing to authorize the
autopsy, but is unable or unwilling to pay for this service, the matter of payment shall be
referred to the local fiscal agent for resolution.

35.9 - Post-Investigation. The Chief Investigator should hold the team together until all
material is collected and evaluated and they reach some basic conclusions. A rough
draft or outline of their report must be prepared before team members leave.

require Forest Service accident investigation reports in addition to being reported via the
Incident Reporting System (IRS). These are normally prepared in the following accident

    1. Serious personal injury.

    2. Property damage exceeding $1,000.

     3. Accidents in which private property is damaged or private citizens injured or

    4. Accident in which there existed a high potential for serious consequences.

    5. Accident which may have a high degree of public interest.

    6. Any accident in which the possibility exists for claims either by or against the
Forest Service.

36.1 - Content. These accidents require additional documentation to describe the event
completely. Additional documentation should include the following:

    1. Accident case identification (who, what, where).

    2. Investigators identified--include outside experts used.

    3. When investigation started and how conducted.

    4. Investigation results.

    5. Sequence of events leading to accident.

    6. Findings.
    a. Management factors.

    b. Physical factors.

    7. Supporting documents, exhibits, photographs.

The report shall contain only facts and other supportable information. Do not include
suppositions or conclusions. No recommendations for corrective action are to be
included in the report itself.

36.2 - Letter of Transmittal. Forest Service accident investigation reports shall be sent
via a letter of transmittal from the Chief Investigator to the unit manager who will review
the accident. This letter may contain general comments by the investigation team,
opinions regarding probable cause(s) and causative factors, and recommended
corrective actions.

36.3 - Official Case File. The case folder shall contain the accident brief, analysis,
appendix material, the accident report, and all correspondence relating to the case.

37 - REVIEW AND ANALYSIS. A thorough review of factors involved in an accident
can identify true cause(s) of the accident. This provides managers with information
necessary to prevent similar accidents.

Analysis of a unit's accident history helps managers identify trends. Special emphasis
can then be directed toward those areas of the unit's safety and health program
requiring added attention.

37.1 - Accident Report Review. Intensity of review will vary, depending on the result or
potential result of the accident. As a minimum, the first-and second-line supervisor shall
review and discuss each accident to identify causes. More serious accidents shall be
reviewed by higher organizational levels.

37.2 - Conduct of Formal Accident Review. When required, an accident report review
team shall be formed within 45 days after the accident. The team shall review the
accident report and, based on the facts, determine what the organization should do to
reduce future accidents of this nature. Line, staff, and first-line supervisory performance
must be evaluated. The staff work necessary for assembling and supporting the
accident report review team shall be performed by the appropriate safety and health
manager. The review team should be chaired by the unit manager, or designee, and
shall include, as a minimum, (1) the Chief Investigator who prepared the report, (2) the
safety and health manager, (3) the staff officer in whose function the accident occurred,
(4) a Forest representative in the case of Regional investigations, and (5) a Regional,
Station, or Area representative, in the case of a Chief's Office-investigated accident.
The following are some of the factors that should be appraised:
1. Was the employee's action caused by the lack of knowledge or skill?

   2. Is there documentation describing production expectations, and methods and
materials to be used for the work performed?

    3. Were there previous accidents on the project and was action taken to prevent

    4. Was an adequate hazard analysis made by the work supervisor and crew before
the project was started?

    5. Were equipment, space, materials, funds, and personnel adequate for the job?

    6. Does the local line officer have direct involvement in the accident prevention

   7. What degree of communication, up and down the line, occurred regarding safety
and health problems? Were managers informed of problems on the job?

    8. Were the supervisor's knowledge and skills adequate?

    9. Was inspection and maintenance of equipment adequate?

    10. Was there lack of instructions or were they faulty?

    11. Were there deficiencies in:

    a. Inspecting work and correcting work errors and/or unsafe conditions?

    b. Implementing existing policies and procedures?

    c. Adequacy of required inspections, resulting abatement plans, and corrective

Using the information in the report, the conclusions and suggested recommendations of
the investigating team, the review team shall develop its recommendations and
proposed implementing action for approval. Recommendations are statements of
action which will prevent or mitigate the damage or injury which occurred.
Recommendations should identify responsibilities and timeframes for carrying out the
action. Recommendations must be feasible and consistent with the findings and

The chairperson of the accident report review team will submit to the Forest Supervisor,
Regional Forester, Station Director, Area Director or Chief the accident report,
recommendations of the review team, and suggested implementing letters for signature.
If the Forest Supervisor, Regional Forester, Station Director, Area Director or Chief
does not concur, a meeting will be held with the review team chairperson and others as
necessary to resolve the differences. Copies of the final recommendations and action
plan will be distributed as determined appropriate. The involved safety and health
program manager shall establish a control mechanism to check on periodic progress in
implementing approved action items and shall report such progress to the Forest
Supervisor, Regional Forester, Station Director, Area Director or Chief.

37.3 - Flow Chart for Accident Investigation and Review. Exhibit 1 demonstrates the
steps in an accident investigation and review.

                      EXHIBIT 1 IS A SEPARATE DOCUMENT

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