AC ONTRASTIVE STUDY

Document Sample
AC ONTRASTIVE STUDY Powered By Docstoc
					        A CONTRASTIVE STUDY
                  OF
  NOUN AND ADJECTIVE DERIVATIONAL
  SUFFIXES IN STANDARD ENGLISH AND
     IRAQI COLLOQUIAL TURKMEN


                   BY

          NOORJAN HUSSEIN JAMAL



                 A THESIS
       SUBMITTED TO THE COUNCIL OF
        THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF TIKRIT IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT
   OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
              MASTER OF ARTS
   IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS




           SUPERVISED BY
             ASSIST. PROF.
DR.Riyadh Khalil Ibrahim al-Temimi


2006 AD                         1427 A.H.
      ‫بسم ا ر مـن ر يم‬
     ‫ِ ِ ِ ِ ال ِح ِ ال ِح ِِ‬

                  ‫وعلمك‬
               ‫ِ ِِ ِ ِِِِ‬
          ‫ما لم تكن تعلم وكان فضل للاه‬
                 ‫عليك عظيما‬
                    ‫ه‬

 ‫صدق للا العظيم‬
   ‫ه‬
‫)سورة النساء االية:‬
                      ‫۱۱۱)‬




                       ‫‪ii‬‬
     TO
MY PARENTS
    AND
 HUSBAND




    iii
       I certify that this thesis was prepared under my supervision at
the University of Tikrit, as a partial requirement for the degree of
Master of Arts in English Language and Linguistics.




                  Signature:

                  Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Riyadh Khalil Ibrahim

                  Date:        /        / 2006




       In view of the available recommendations, I forward this thesis
for debate by the Examining Committee.




                  Signature:

                  Name: Dr. Amra Ibrahim Sultan
                          Chairman of English Department
                  Date:        /        / 2006




                                   iv
                COMMITTEE’S REPORT

      We certify that we have read this thesis as Examining
Committee, examined the student in its content and that, in our
opinion, it is adequate as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in
English Language and Linguistics.




Signature:                              Signature:
Name:Dr. Hasoony Hashim                 Name: Dr. Ali Sulaiman
             Member                                  Member


                                        Signature:

                                        Name: Dr.Nawfal Saeed

                                                     Chairman

                                        Date:


       Approved by the Council of the College of Education.


                         Signature:
                         Name:
                                 Dean of the College of Education:
                         Date:




                                    v
               TABLE OF CONTENTS


          Subject                                          Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                              xi
ABSTRACT                                                     xii
KEY OF ENGLISH PHONEMIC SYMBOLS                              xiv
KEY OF TURKMEN PHONEMIC SYMBOLS                              xvi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                        xix
LIST OF TABLES                                               xx
LIST OF FIGURES                                             xxii


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
    1.1 The Problem of the study                              1
    1.2 The Aim of the study                                  2
    1.3The Hypotheses of the study                            2
    1.4 The Procedures of the study                               3
    1.5 Limits of the Study                                       3


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
    2.1 Historical Review of Morphology in the Three Schools of
       Linguistics                                            4
    2.2 Basic Relevant Notions in Morphology                  8
    2.2.1 Morphology                                          8




                               vi
      Subject                                           Page
      2.2.2 Morphemes                                     8
      2.2.3 Derivation                                    8
      2.2.4 Inflection                                    9
      2.2.5 Affix                                         9
      2.2.6 Root                                          9
      2.2.7 Stem                                          9
      2.2.8 Base                                          9
      2.2.9 Allomorph                                    10
      2.2.10 Agglutinative Language                      10
      2.2.11 Nouns                                       11
      2.2.12 Adjectives                                  11
      2.2.13 Lexcial and Functional Morphemes            11
2.3 English Nouns and Adjectives                         12
      2.3.1 Noun                                         12
             2.3.1.1 Functions of Nouns                  12
             2.3.1.2 Types of Nouns                      15
             2.3.1.3 Plural Forms of Nouns               16
             2.3.1.4 Collective Nouns                    18
             2.3.1.5 Numbers and Measures                18
             2.3.1.6 Traditional Categories of Nouns     19
      2.3.2 Adjective                                    21
      2.3.3 Order of Adjectives in English               25
2.4 Types of Morphemes                                   28
2.5 Distinction between Inflectional and Derivational
   Affixes                                               29
2.6 Types of Words                                       32
2.7 Open Classes Versus Closed Classes                   33
2.8 Compounding                                          34


                            vii
         Subject                                            Page
   2.9 The Structure of Grammatical Words                     35
   2.10 Roots Vs. Stems                                       37
   2.11 Rules of Word-Formation                               37
   2.12 Types of Word-Formation                               41
   2.13 Morphology Vs. Syntax                                 42
   2.14 Morphophonemic Analysis                               43
   2.15 Immediate Constituent Analysis                        44
   2.16 Morphological Typology of English Language            49
       Notes Related to Chapter Two                           51


   CHAPTER THREE: ENGLISH NOUN AND ADJECTIVE-
               FORMING SUFFIXES

   3.1 English Noun-Forming Suffixes                          52
         3.1.1 Suffixes Forming Personal and Concrete
               Non-Personal Nouns                             52
         3.1.2 Suffixes Forming Dimunitives                   55
         3.1.3 Suffixes Forming Abstract and Collective
               Nouns                                          56
   3.2 English Adjective-Forming Suffixes                     58
   3.3 Classes of Derivational Suffixes                       64
      Notes to Chapter Three                                  67
CHAPTER FOUR : IRAQI TURKMEN NOUN AND
ADJECTIVE- FORMING SUFFIXES
   4.1 The Order of Adjectives in Iraqi Turkmen               68
   4.2 Formal Characteristics of Iraqi Turkmen Adjectives     68
   4.3 Morphological Typology of Turkish Language             72
   4.4 Noun and Adjective-Forming Suffixes in Iraqi           72
                               viii
       Colloquial Turkmen
          4.4.1 Noun-Forming Suffixes                       72
          4.4.2 Adjective-Forming Suffixes                  76
    4.5 List of English Words of Turkish Origin             79
        Notes to Chapter Four                               82


CHAPTER FIVE : CONSTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
    5.1 Introduction                                        83
    5.2 Significance of Contrastive Analysis                84
    5.3 Procedures of Analysis                              85
    5.3.1 The Number of Nominal and
    adjectival Derivational Suffixes in English and
    Iraqi Turkmen                                           86
    5.3.2 Classes of Nominal and Adjectival
       Derivational Suffixes in English and Iraqi Turkmen   87
    5.3.3 The Meaning of Nominal and
        adjectival Derivational Suffixes in English and
        Iraqi Turkmen                                       89
          5.3.4 The Process of Multiple-Affixation in
               English and Iraqi Colloquial Turkmen         98
          5.3.5 Degrees of Adjective Comparison in
               both Languages                               99
               Notes to Chapter Five                        101


CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS,
               AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER
               STUDY

    6.1 Conclusion                                          102
    6.2 Recommendations                                     104
    6.3 Suggestions for Further Study                       105
                                 ix
BIBLIOGRAPHY             106
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC       117




                     x
                  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



          I would like to express my deepest thanks and gratitude to my
supervisor Dr. Riyadh Khalil Ibrahim without         whose invaluable
suggestions, cooperation, and untiring guidance, this study would not
have taken its final shape.
          And also I thank Dr. Amra Ibrahim Sultan ( Head of the
English department ) for her cooperation with me in preparing this
thesis.
          My warmest thanks are also extended to Dr. Nawfal Sae’ed
and Mr. Muhammed Badie for their help by supporting me with
invaluable sources regarding the English language.
          Special thanks are due to my teacher Mr. Falah Salah Al-Deen
for his sincere help and for providing me with the references I needed
regarding Turkmen language.
          I should not forget to thank all my teachers and colleagues,
and all those who helped me in one way or another in carrying out this
thesis.
            Finally, I also acknowledge the patience and encouragement
          of my mother and husband while preparing this study.




                                   xi
                             ABSTRACT



        The present study investigates the nominal and adjectival
derivational suffixes of Standard English and Iraqi Colloquial Turkmen
to discover the points of similarity and difference between them.
        The study aims at explaining the nature of the nominal and
adjectival derivational suffixes in both languages, and showing the
points of similarity and difference between these two agglutinative
languages.
        To accomplish these aims, it is hypothezied that the number of
the nominal and adjectival derivational suffixes in English is more
than those in Turkmen, the difference between the two languages’
system is big, and the two languages are similar in their morphological
processes    regarding     word-formulation   as   their   being    among
agglutinative languages.
        In order to achieve the aims of the study, there are several
procedures the study is based on: First, explaining the meaning and
history of word in English, listing all the possible nominal and
adjectival derivational suffixation patterns of the two language, and
explaining those English nominal and adjectival derivational suffixes
which are relevant to their Turkmen counterparts.
        The study ends with many findings such as that the two
languages are of agglutinative nature completely in the domain
         of word-formation and that the number and            classes of
nominal and adjectival suffixes in English language are wider than
those of Iraqi Turkmen.




                                    xii
   KEY TO ENGLISH PHONEMIC SYMBOLS



1. Vowels
     /i:/      as in green
     /i/       as in sit
     /e/       as in desk
     /a/       as in man
     /a:/      as in glass
     /‫/כ‬       as in hot
     /‫/:כ‬      as in ball
     /u/       as in book
     /u:/      as in moon
     /^/       as in son
     /o:/      as in word
     / /       as in after


2. Dipthongs
     /ei/      as in day
     /ou/      as in nose
     /ai/      as in five
     /au/      as in how
     /‫כ‬i/      as in boy
     /i /      as in here
     /e /      as in chair




                             xiii
     /ِِِِ/     as in hour
     /u /       as in poor
     / u/       as in homo


3. Consonants
     /p/        as in pen
     /b/        as in bag
     /t/        as in ten
     /d/        as in desk
     /k/        as in cap
     /g/        as in get
     /m/        as in map
     /n/        as in nose
     /ŋ/        as in sing
     /l/        as in leg
     /f/        as in face
     /v/        as in very
     /θ/        as in thin
     /ð/        as in these
     /s/        as in six
     /z/        as in zero
     /∫/        as in shoe
     /      /   as in pleasure
     /r/        as in right
     /h/        as in hat
     /t∫/       as in church
     /d         as in jump
     /w/        as in we
     /j/        as in yes


                                 xiv
      KEY TO TURKMEN PHONEMIC SYMBOLS



1. The Pure Vowels: (Phonological Classification)
/i/    a short high front unrounded vowel, e.g. /ip/ ‘rope’
/ü/    a short high front rounded vowel, e.g., /jüz/ ‘hundred’ (as in
       German ü in Führer)
/é/    a short higher-mid front unrounded vowel, e.g., /éw/ ‘home’
       (as in English e in ‘get’)
/é:/   a long higher-mid front unrounded vowel, e.g., /é:wi/ ‘his (her)
       home’.
/e/                                                             ُ.
       a short lower-mid front unrounded vowel, e.g., /el/ ‘handِ
/e:/   a long lower-mid front unrounded vowel, /e:ıči/ ‘suitor’
/ö/    a short lower-mid front rounded vowel, e.g., /göz/ ‘eye’ (as in
       the German ö in König, and the French eu in deux.
/ö:/   a long lower-mid front rounded vowel, e.g., /gö:zü/ ‘his (her)
       eye’


/u/    a short high central rounded vowel (a vowel half-way between
       u and ı) e.g., /do:ıu/ ‘full’
/ı/    a short high back unrounded vowel, e.g., /qıļ/ ‘pray (imp.) (a
       vowel similar to I in ‘cousin’).
/o/    a short higher-mid back rounded vowel, e.g., /o/ ‘that’




                                       xv
/o:/    a long higher-mid back rounded vowel, e.g., /do:ļdu/ ‘it
        became full’
/a/     a short low back unrounded vowel, e.g., /axšam/ ‘evening’ (as
        in the Northern English pronunciation of /a/ in ‘man’).
/a: /   a long low back unrounded vowel, e.g., /a:ļdı/ ‘he (she)
        bought’.


2. The Dipthongs
/ĺj/            as in /sijmeġ/, ‘to urinate’
/éw/            as in /éw/ ‘house’
/éj/            as in /šéj/ ‘thing’
/ew/            as in /ewkele/ ‘message (imp.)’
/ej/            as in /qejmeġ/ ‘cream’
/öj/            as in /köj/ ‘village’
/aw/            as in /aw/ ‘hunting’
/aj/            as in /aj/ ‘moon, month’
/oj/            as in /toj/ ‘feast’
/uj/            as in qujju/ ‘a well, a pit’
3. The Consonants
/p/     a voiceless bilabial plosive, e.g., /paj/ ‘share’
/b/     a voiced bilabial plosive, e.g., /bir/ ‘one’
/t/     a voiceless denti-alveolar plosive, e.g., /ét/ ‘meat’
/ţ/     a voiceless denti-alveolar emphatic plosive, e.g., /ţa:wıx/
        ‘hen’
/d/     a voiced denti-alveolar plosive, e.g., /dört/ ‘four’
/ķ/     a voiceless palatal plosive. It is a phoneme half-way the first
        phonemes of the English words ‘kill’ and ‘kiss’, e.g., /ķösķ/
        ‘chest’

                                        xvi
/g/    a voiced platal plosive.      It is a phoneme half-way the first
       phonemes of the English words ‘go’ and ‘game’, e.g., /gōz/
       ‘eye’
/q /    a voiceless uvular plosive, e.g., /qujrux/ ‘tail’
/f/    a voiceless labio-dental fricative, e.g., ‘firļat/ ‘throw (imp.)’
/s/    a voiceless denti-alveolar emphatic fricative, e.g., /semmiz/ ‘fat’
/ş/    a voiceless denti-alveolar emphatic fricative, e.g., /şoļ/ ‘left side’
/z/    a voiced denti-alveolar fricative, e.g., /zehhir/ ‘poison’
/z/    a voiced denti-alveolar emphatic fricative, e.g., /dajza/ ‘aunt’
/š/    a voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, e.g., /aš/ ‘food’
/x/    a voiceless velar fricative, e.g., /xax/ ‘people’
/ġ/    a voiced velar fricative, e.g., /oġĻan/ ‘a boy’
/h/    a voiceless pharyngeal fricative, e.g., /hamam/ ‘a bath’
/9/    a voiced pharyngeal fricative, e.g., /9ed d i/ ‘bitter’
/h/    a glottal fricative, e.g., /bahal/ ‘expensive’
/č/    a voiceless alveolar affricate, e.g., /ča:mzr/ ‘mud’ (as in ‘ch’ in
       English ‘church’
/d/    a voiced alveolar affricate, e.g., /d ejran/ ‘deer’ (as in j in
       English ‘jam’)
/m/    a voiced bilabial nasal, e.g., /mum/ ‘candle’
/n/    a voiced denti-alveolar nasal, e.g., /nene/ ‘mother’
/ı/    a voiced alveolar lateral, e.g., /ıeķķe/ ‘stain’
/ļ/    a voiced alveolar lateral, e.g., /ļaļ/ ‘dumb’
/r/    a voiced alveolar flap, e.g., /burun/ ‘nose’
/w/    a voiced bilabial approximant, e.g., /wér/ ‘give’ (imp.)
/j/    a voiced palatal approximant, e.g., /jaz/ ‘summer’




                                     xvii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONS

   adj.                 Adjective
   affs.                Affixes
   agen. N.             Agentive noun
   E.                   English
   I.C.T.               Iraqi Colloquial Turkmen
   imp.                 Imperative
   n.                   Noun
   Plu.                 Plural
   Sing.                Singular
   SE                   Standard English
   suff.                Suffix
   V.H.                 Vowel Harmony
   Vs.                  Versus
                        change into (replace)
   |       |            phonemic transcription
   [ ]                  phonetic transcription
   { }                  morphemic transcription
       +                plus




                xviii
                       LIST OF TABLES



Table                                                            Page

 1      Syntactic Criteria of Proper Nouns                         15
 2      The Indefinite Plural Numbers and Measures in Count
        and Mass Nouns                                             18
 3      Some English Adjectives with different Meanings in
        Attributive and Predicative Positions                      24
 4      The Order of English Adjectives                            27
 5      Properties of Inflectional and Derivational Affixes in
        Selected English Suffixes                                  30
 6      Distribution of the Constituents at Different Levels       46
 7      Types of Forms Which Can Substitute for Each Other at
        Different Levels of Constituent Structure                  46
 8      Classes of English Derivational Suffixes                   65
 9      Suffixes that Can Form Nouns from Verbs                    65
 10     Suffixes that Can Form Nouns from Adjectives               66
 11     Suffixes that Can Form Nouns from Nouns                    66
 12     Suffixes that Can Form Adjectives from Nouns               67
 13     Suffixes that Can Form Adjectives from Verbs               67
 14     Suffixes that Can Form Adjectives from Adjectives          67




                                    xix
Table                                                           Page

 15     The Order of Adjectives in I.C.T.                         74
 16     Some Iraqi Turkmen Adjectives with Different Meanings
        in Attributive and Predicative Positions                  78
 17     Some Examples of Turkmen Nouns Contain lar and
        –ler in their Bases                                       79
 18     Some Examples of Turkmen Nouns Contain –ler for
        Pluralization                                             79
 19     Distribution of Nominal and Adjectival Suffixes in
        English Language and Iraqi Turkmen                        93
 20     Classes of Derivational Suffixes in English and Iarqi
        Turkmen                                                   96
 21     The Stages on Which the English Verb (establish)
        Undergoes to Form the Noun
        (antidisestablishmentarianism)                           105
 22     The Stages on Which the Turkmen Noun (Yardimčıļıg)
        Undergoes to Form Its Final Shape                        105
 23     Points of Similarity and Difference of the Two
        Languages’ Adjectives                                    106




                                   xx
                      LIST OF FIGURES



Figure                                                     Page

 1       Basic Classification of English Morphemes          29
 2       The Analysis of Two English Long Sentences into
         Immediate Constituents Analysis (sentence 1)        48
 3       The Analysis of Two English Long Sentences into
         Immediate Constituents (sentence 2)                 49
 4       Residence of the Turkomans in the North of Iraq     70




                                  xxi

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:10/5/2012
language:Unknown
pages:21