Journal: What are some
characteristics of the best
WHAT HAPPENED PRIOR TO
A little review…
Who believed that the sun was
the center of the universe and
NOT the earth?
Law of Motion #2
Fnet = m * a
Who discovered that planets move not in a
circle but in an ELLIPSE and that planets
move faster when they are near the sun
and slower when farther away from it?
Who developed a theory of universal gravitation explained
everything from the falling of objects on the earth to the
motions of the planets & of the orbit of the moon around
What was the key word of the
French poet, novelist, landscaper (“philosophe”)
Critical of the government, women, & midgets
Watium et mutable cappenyu mortem: “Give me
some answers or I’ll shoot you dead!”
Known for swallowing a baby watermelon
His neck opened up like a pez dispenser and the
pupils of his eyes were actually jellybeans
Famous for saying
Believed nothing until
he est. grounds to
believe that it is true
What was the
Centered in Paris, France
Confidence in human’s ability to REASON.
– A.K.A. “Age of Reason”
Attacked superstition, religion, easy
acceptance of authority
Everything (politics, nature, families, etc.)
controlled by natural laws
Huge impact on American government,
Scientific Revolution Expands
Into Political Philosophy
Belief: If systematic laws (i.e. gravity,
centripetal force, etc.) governed the
universe, then political, economic, & social
relationships could also be understood
through reasoned analysis.
– What is the name for this?
Natural law: a universal moral law that, like physical laws,
could be understood by applying reason.
Religion during Enlightenment
Europe became more secular.
Enlightenment will strongly challenge established
religions, esp. Christianity.
Many, including a large number of writers of the
Constitution, will become deists: Those who
believed in God & an orderly universe but against
most organized religion
– Explanation you don’t have to write down: Deists
believe that God created the world but is NOT active in
the world. It is like he wound the clock of time and
then left the world to run using the natural laws he
A Few “isms”
Theism: Belief that God exists beyond AND within the
world, a creator & sustainer who sovereignly controls the
world and supernaturally intervenes in it.
Deism: Belief in a creator God who does not intervene in the
destiny of that universe.
Agnosticism: Unsure if God does or does not exist & that
humans have no way of ever knowing.
Atheism: A belief that no gods (including Christian God,
Hindu gods, etc.) or anything supernatural exists.
The U.S. Revolution of 1775-1783 was a successful attempt by 13
British colonies to free themselves of British rule.
1789: The U.S. began w/ George Washington becoming its 1st
***Enlightenment ideas directly impacted the new form of
government the U.S. established. The Enlightenment-inspired gov’t
of the U.S. will later be modeled in many countries throughout the
Specific impacts of the Enlightenment on U.S. gov’t
– Key ideas
• ELECTED president vs. a heredity monarch
• Federal republic
• Popular sovereignty
• Bill of Rights (rights of citizens)—which freedoms?
• Constitution (social contract)
• Separation of powers/Checks and balances
• Some limitations of new gov’t
• Separation of church and state
• 2 ways George Washington’s presidency reflected Enlightenment ideals
What is the
Homework: Read Ch. 5-3, bring book to class