Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment Pt. I by hdmu096

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									Journal: What are some
characteristics of the best
governments?
    THE
ENLIGHTENM
    ENT
(1650) 1700-1789
BUT FIRST…

WHAT HAPPENED PRIOR TO
THE ENLIGHTENMENT?
A little review…
Who believed that the sun was
 the center of the universe and
 NOT the earth?
Aristotle?

Ptolemy?

Copernicus?
Law of Motion #2




 Fnet = m * a
Who discovered that planets move not in a
circle but in an ELLIPSE and that planets
move faster when they are near the sun
and slower when farther away from it?

 Kepler!
 Who developed a theory of universal gravitation explained
  everything from the falling of objects on the earth to the
  motions of the planets & of the orbit of the moon around
  the earth?
What was the key word of the
Enlightenment????




Reason!
    Twilley Talbert
 1689-1724
 French poet, novelist, landscaper (“philosophe”)
 Critical of the government, women, & midgets
 Watium et mutable cappenyu mortem: “Give me
  some answers or I’ll shoot you dead!”
 Known for swallowing a baby watermelon
 His neck opened up like a pez dispenser and the
  pupils of his eyes were actually jellybeans
Rene Descartes
 Famous for saying

  Cogito,
  ergo sum
 Believed nothing until
  he est. grounds to
  believe that it is true
What was the
ENLIGHTENMENT?
 Centered in Paris, France
 Confidence in human’s ability to REASON.
  – A.K.A. “Age of Reason”
 Attacked superstition, religion, easy
  acceptance of authority
 Everything (politics, nature, families, etc.)
  controlled by natural laws

 Huge impact on American government,
  religion, etc.
   Scientific Revolution Expands
   Into Political Philosophy
    Belief: If systematic laws (i.e. gravity,
     centripetal force, etc.) governed the
     universe, then political, economic, & social
     relationships could also be understood
     through reasoned analysis.
      – What is the name for this?


Natural law: a universal moral law that, like physical laws,
could be understood by applying reason.
Religion during Enlightenment

 Europe became more secular.
 Enlightenment will strongly challenge established
  religions, esp. Christianity.
 Many, including a large number of writers of the
  Constitution, will become deists: Those who
  believed in God & an orderly universe but against
  most organized religion
   – Explanation you don’t have to write down: Deists
     believe that God created the world but is NOT active in
     the world. It is like he wound the clock of time and
     then left the world to run using the natural laws he
     created.
 A Few “isms”
 Theism: Belief that God exists beyond AND within the
  world, a creator & sustainer who sovereignly controls the
  world and supernaturally intervenes in it.
 Deism: Belief in a creator God who does not intervene in the
  destiny of that universe.
 Agnosticism: Unsure if God does or does not exist & that
  humans have no way of ever knowing.
 Atheism: A belief that no gods (including Christian God,
  Hindu gods, etc.) or anything supernatural exists.
                     US REVOLUTION
 The U.S. Revolution of 1775-1783 was a successful attempt by 13
   British colonies to free themselves of British rule.

 1789: The U.S. began w/ George Washington becoming its 1st
   president.

 ***Enlightenment ideas directly impacted the new form of
   government the U.S. established. The Enlightenment-inspired gov’t
   of the U.S. will later be modeled in many countries throughout the
   world.

 Specific impacts of the Enlightenment on U.S. gov’t
   – Key ideas
        •   ELECTED president vs. a heredity monarch
        •   Federal republic
        •   Popular sovereignty
        •   Bill of Rights (rights of citizens)—which freedoms?
        •   Constitution (social contract)
        •   Separation of powers/Checks and balances
        •   Some limitations of new gov’t
        •   Separation of church and state
        •   2 ways George Washington’s presidency reflected Enlightenment ideals
What is the
only U.S.
state named
after a
president?
Homework: Read Ch. 5-3, bring book to class

								
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