Morphology was introduced into the study of language to

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                        CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Preliminary
     Linguistics is the field of studying language. Linguists study
language as man’s ability to communicate, as individual expression, as
the common heritage of speech community, as spoken sound, as written
text etc. Such different approaches to language have in fact led to the
development of schools of linguistics and theoretical models each with its
own techniques and methods for observing, classifying and explaining the
facts of human speech .The major branches of linguistics include
phonology, grammar       (morphology and syntax) and lexicology.
Morphology was introduced into the study of language to cover both the
process of inflection and word formation. Word formation covers the
processes whereby new words are created. (Matthews, 1974: 38)
     These processes include derivation, conversion, compounding,
clipping, reduplication, acronymy, coinage, blending, folk-etymology,
back-formation, borrowing and antonomasia. (Robinson, 1994: 569)
     This chapter aims at shedding some light on the English and Arabic
processes of word-formation with an emphasis on the two processes,
back-formation and antonomasia, which are the main concern of the
present study.

2.2 English Processes of Word-Formation
2.2.1 The Term Word-Formation
      The term word-formation involves primary processes or secondary
processes of word-formation. However, word-formation as a general
process is the production of new words with new meanings, enriching the
vocabulary of a language and expanding the fundamental core of the

2.2.2 Primary Processes of Word-Formation in English
     The primary processes of word-formation have been classified into
derivation, conversion and compounding. Derivation forms new words by
adding affixes to the bases whereas conversion is a functional change and
compounding forms new words from two or more stems. Derivation
        Derivation is the process by which a new word is formed from a
base word. The prefix un- for example is added to happy to form
unhappy. Katamba (1994: 62) states that derivations can be classified into
two types: class-maintaining derivations and class changing derivations.
A class-maintaining process of derivation produces lexemes which
belong to the same form class as the base from which they are derived,
while a class-changing process of derivation produces lexemes which
belong to form classes different from those of their bases. For example, if
the suffix –ly is added to the noun king, the adjective kingly will result.
Since a noun has been turned into an adjective, this is a case of class-
changing derivation. But if -dom is added to the same noun king, another
noun, kingdom, results, and this is a case of class-maintaining derivation.

       Derivational suffixes should be distinguished from inflectional
endings in two ways. The first is that derivational suffixes create
derivative words whereas inflectional endings modify the function of a
word marking plurality, possession, a verb form or the comparative /
superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs. The second one is that
inflectional endings do not change the form class of the word whereas the
derivational suffixes usually do. (Ibid.: 64) Conversion
           It is a process whereby a word is derived without any change in
form from one belonging to a different class. This process is called zero
derivation. So conversion means change in the function of the words and
not in form. Katamba (1994:70) states that conversion of verbs into nouns
like cook, the transitive verb, the agent noun cook is derived from it, and
the verb bottle is derived from the noun bottle.
       Some scholars like Lyons (1968: 467) and Bauer (1983: 29)
regard conversion as a branch of derivation. Others regard it as a separate
process of word-formation, because nothing is added and nothing is
deleted. Compounding
           Compounding means "putting two or more words together to
make a new word with a meaning in some way different", if only in being
more specific, from that of its separate elements in, for instance, a
َblackboard is not the same thing as a black َboard. (Pyles, 1964: 289)

      It is characterized by a special stress pattern; that is the first part of
the compound is stressed. This characteristic distinguishes it from a non-
compound word sequence. Thus, deep structure is a compound if the
word deep is stressed but an adjective-noun sequence (noun phrase) if the
word structure is stressed.
        Compounds are classified in various ways. But Bauer (1983)
classifies them according to the form class of the whole compound into:
compound nouns, compound adjectives, compound adverbs, and
compound prepositions.
         The vast majority of compounds in English are nouns. In
general, compound nouns can be subdivided into four types according to
semantic criteria. The first type is called an endocentric compound in
which the meaning of the compound is derived from the meaning of the
grammatical head i.e. the first part of the compound. For example,
armchair is a kind of chair, and beehive is a kind of hive. The second
type is an exocentric compound in which the whole meaning of the
compound is not derived from its constituents. For example, redskin is
not a kind of skin that is red, but an Indian. The third type is called an
oppositional compound in which the meaning is a hyponym of both
constituents. For example, maidservant is a kind of maid and a kind of
servant. The fourth type is called advandva or copulative compound. In
such type, the compound is not a hyponym of either elements, but the
elements name separate entities, which combine to form the entity,
denoted by the compound as in Aloce-Lorrian and Rank-Hovis. (Bauer,
1983: 30-31)

2.2.3 Minor Processes of Word-Formation
      In addition to the major processes of word-formation, there are
minor processes whereby new words are created in English. The
importance of these processes depends on the degree of productivity and
formality attained by the newly formed words.
These processes are the following: - Clipping
        By clipping, we mean cutting off the beginning or the end of a
word or both, leaving a part to stand for the whole. The result is a clipped
word, like Prof. from professor and exam from examination.
(Stageberg, 1965: 147)
       The most common type of clipping is formed by retaining the
initial part of the word as in lab, math, and memo, which stand for
laboratory, mathematics and memorandum respectively.
     Sometimes, clipping results in new free forms in the language and
in the creation of new morphemes like bike (bicycle) and mike
(microphone). (Ibid.)
     Another type is formed by retaining the final part of the word as in
cong and loid, which stand for viet cong and celluloid. Acronymy
        It is the process whereby words are formed from the initial
segments of a succession of words. (Stageberg, 1965: 149)
       An acronym is different from an abbreviation in that the former is
pronounced as a word, whereas the latter as a series of letters. Thus, if
“Value Added Tax” is called (vi ei ti), it is an abbreviation, but if it is
called /vǽt/, it is an acronym. Other examples of acronyms are NATO

(North Atlantic Treaty Organization), UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). (Stageberg, 1965:
149; Bauer, 1983: 237)
        It is the invention of totally new terms. The most typical sources
are invented trade names for one company’s product, which become
general terms (without initial capital letters) for any version of that
product. For example, aspirin, nylon, zipper, Kleenex, teflon, and Xerox.
(Yule, 1996: 64) Back-Formation
        After the introduction of the nouns peddles, beggar, swindler and
editor into the English language, speakers created the verbs peddle, beg,
swindle and edit on the analogy of such forms like tell-teller, reap-
reaper, write-writer. This process is the reverse of our customary method
of word formation whereby we begin with a verb like speak and by
adding the agent morpheme –er to it we form the noun speaker. The
process is called back-formation and it means the formation of a word
from one that looks like its derivative. For example, the verb hedgehop is
from the noun hedgehopper. (Stageberg, 1965:125)
        Many linguists like Robertson, (1954: 202); Potter, (1960: 73-
74); Marchand, (1960: 391-393); Pyles, (1964: 277); Bradley, (1974:
108); Leech, (1974: 224); Bauer, (1983: 32); Fromkin, (1988: 140); Quirk
et al., (1998: 1578) Hundson, (2000: 249) agree that back-formation is the
process whereby new simple words are created from existing words
assumed to be complex. It results from a faulty analysis of complex
words. This is like when people derive a verb from a compound noun like

housekeep from housekeeper. They do so, on the basis of the wrong
assumption that the immediate constituents of this trimorphemic noun are
house and keep to which –er has been added and from which it may
therefore be taken away. But this is not true, as the immediate
constituents are house and keeper. Also from many nouns that end for
instance with –er, -or, -ar, we can derive verbs by dropping these suffixes
on the assumption that what precedes them are verbal stems, so the verb
edit comes from editor though the –or is an integral part of the word.
       Leech (1974: 224) states that there are two senses in which a
lexical entry L2 can be regarded. The first one is the historical sense
whereby the occurrence of L1 leads to the occurrence of L2. The second
sense is the formal one whereby L2 includes L1 according to either its
morphological form or its semantic content. Normally, the direction of
derivation is from the simple entry to the complex one, where the
historical and the formal senses coincide. But in the process of back-
formation the derivation takes place in the opposite direction. For
example the verb peddle is derived from the noun pedlar, by reversing
the rule of derivation of the agent nouns from verbs. Borrowing
         It is one of the most common sources of new words in English.
It means the taking over of words from other languages. The English
language has adopted a large number of loanwords from other languages
throughout its history, like alcohol (Arabic), boss (Dutch), robot (Czech),
tycoon (Japanese), and yogurt (Turkish). (Yule, 1996: 65)
                                                                        12 Blending
        In blending, new words are formed by fusing the first part of one
word with the last part of another. The meaning is also a blend of the two
component words. For example, smog (smoke + fog) is a combination of
the two words, and it means a mixture of smoke and fog.
(Stageberg, 1965: 149) Reduplication
        Reduplication is the process of forming a new word by doubling
a morpheme, usually with a change of vowel or initial consonant as in
tiptop, flip flop. (Crystal, 1997: 90) Antonomasia
        A large number of words in English have come from proper
names, which often tend to retain their form in the language. The process
in which this has happened is Antonomasia.
       This is one of the several ways by which English continues to
grow; it involves adding to its vocabulary many verbs, nouns and
adjectives that were names of people or places.
         Many linguists like: Vallins, (1949: 187); Robertson, (1954:
211-12); Ernst, (1955: 67-69); Pyles, (1964: 285); Smith, (1966: 50) have
stated that the definition of Antonomasia is the process whereby the
forms of some words have been derived from proper names of individuals
or places, such as the word sideburns a transposed form of burnsides,
the name of an American General.

          Pyles (1964: 285) maintains that proper names are used to form a
number of words that can build up a dictionary. Also, this shifting of
words from proper to common is known as commonization, and it
includes person and place names, such as Boycott and Sandwich as
examples of person names, and Babel, Hamburg as examples of place
names. Folk Etymology
           Folk Etymology means “the alteration of a learned or unfamiliar
word by ordinary users of a language. The alteration involves
reinterpretation towards a similar sounding more familiar word or
morpheme so that the term makes more apparent sense to the user.”
(Stageberg, 1965: 151).
            For example, sill is an unfamiliar word in Northern Ireland and
so window sill has been transformed into windy stool. Also the Dutch
words Kool and sla became English cole slaw, with no change in
meaning. To English speakers this word seemed to consist of two parts
both unfamiliar. So the word has changed in popular usage to cold slaw.

2.3 Arabic Processes of Word-Formation
2.3.1 Preliminary
      The Arabic term, which corresponds to the English term
morphology is‘‫.’الصرف‬

      Holes (1995: 81) states that the principle of the Arabic derivational
morphology is that of the 'root and pattern’. The root of most words in the
language is a semantic abstraction of three consonants from which actual
words are derived by the superimposition of templatic patterns.

     ‫ )752 :5691( احلديثي‬states that there are three types of derivation. The

first is ‫ ‘االشتقاق الصغري‬minor derivation’, a process in which there is a set

of lexical forms constructed from the same root constituents that share
the same basic meaning inherent in the root, and are semantically
distinguished according to the meanings carried by patterns on which
they are constructed like ‫ . ضرب, ضارب, مضروب‬The second is ‫االشتقاق الكبري‬

‘major derivation’ ,which is the process whereby consonants or syllables
are transposed in a word such as َ‫ مدَح‬from ‫ .حمَد‬The third one is ‫االشتقاق‬
                                     َ         َ

‫‘األكرب‬super derivation’ ,which is the process whereby consonants and

                                                             ‫ثَب ثلم‬
syllables are substituted in a word such as ‫ الرجس ,الرجز‬and َ ََ,َ ‫.َل‬

     ‫ )64 :6691) أنيس‬states that only‫‘ االشتقاق الصغري‬minor derivation’ is

effective as a method of lexical expansion in Arabic. Thus ‫ االشتقاق الصغري‬is

the main concern of this study, and it is one of the features of the Arabic
Language to obtain variations in shades of meaning to enrich its
   In addition, he states that Arabic is marked by its large number of
triliteral roots, represented by a sequence of three consonants from which
different paradigm forms made of variable words. Arabic roots are not
only triliteral, but also quadriliteral, e.g /‫ /د_ح_ر_ج‬of ‫‘ دحرج‬rolled down’

and quinquiliteral,e.g. /‫ /ع_ص_ف_و_ر‬of the noun ‫.عصفور‬

2.3.2 Distinction between ‫ الفعل‬and ‫املصدر‬

      There has been a dispute among Arab grammarians, especially
between the two famous schools of Arabic, Basrah School and Kufa
School, with respect to considering ‫‘ الفعل‬the verb’ or‫‘ املصدر‬the verbal

noun’ as the root, for word-formation. The School of Kufa regards ‫ الفعل‬as

the root for the form of ‫ الفعل‬consists of two interlocking morphemes:

1- a consonantal, predominantly triliteral root morpheme consisting of
 three radicals in a determined order, e.g./‫ /ق_ت_ل‬bears the primitive

 lexical content of ‫ الفعل‬unrelated to person, time, mood, number or

 gender; and
2- an alternating vocalic morpheme (with certain consonants sometimes)
 which vocalizes the consonantal morphosemanthemes and distinguishes
 ‫ الفعل‬with respect to the grammatical categories of tense and aspect –

 perfect and imperfect. (‫)09-38 :9791 ,الصفار‬

      In the lexicon, all verbs are grouped as paradigms of their
theoretical triliteral roots under which all the nominal and verbal
derivatives of each verb are entered. Whether the verb is basic or derived
depends on the simplicity of the morphological structure of the verb
relative to other members of its derivational paradigms. The form of the
verb, which is not morphologically related to any simpler verb form
existing in the language, is the basic one. (Ibid.: 105-113) Moreover, the
verb, representing dynamic units of meaning with abstract content,
governs the nominal expression(s) assigning to it (them) surface syntactic
function and case form such as ‘actor’ or ‘subject’ in the 'nominative

case' or ‘object’ or ‘complement’ in the ‘accusative’ or the ‘genitive case’
forms. (Ibid.: 140-146)
      The School of Basrah on the other hand regards ‫‘ املصدر‬the verbal

noun’ as the root for word-formation because it is used to stand for the
whole class of derivational nouns. In other words, the deverbal noun is
chosen here to mean that noun which is derived synchronically from an
underlying verb both of which share semantic affinity as far as the lexical
entries are concerned.
      A derived noun then has the general meaning of ‘action’ or ‘state’
(time, place, instrument…etc) indicated by the verb. This would mean
that a verbal noun is a term designating a category of nouns which
express an action or state …etc, inherent in the underlying verb.
      Noun of place and time in another category of ‫ املصدر‬which specifies

                            ‫مم‬                                  ‫َع‬
the name of place such as ْ‫‘ َعْ َل‬workshop’ and. time such as ‫موْ ِد‬

‘Appointment’ where and whence the action expressed by the underlying
verb has taken place.
      Nouns of instrument such as ْ‫‘ مفَْاح‬key’ refers to tools by which the

action inherent in the underlying verb has taken place. And ‫ املصدر‬of office

                                                    ‫طب ع‬
refers to abstract action or nominal state such as ‫‘ َِا َة‬printing’.

      Active participle denotes the doer of the action such as
ْ‫‘كَاتِب‬writer’; and the passive participle refers to the person on whom or

the                                                       ‫َت‬
      thing on which the action has taken place such as ‫‘ مقُْول‬a person

               ‫م ت‬
killed’ and ْ‫‘ َكُْوب‬letter’ or ‘ written’.(‫:2891 ,جورجيس ; 452 :5691 , احلديثي‬


2.3.3 Derivation from the Noun
            Derivation from ‫ االسم‬in Arabic is of specific importance since here

‫‘ الفعل‬the verb’ is derived from ‫‘ االسم‬the noun’ and from ‫‘الفعل‬the verb’

other derivations including ‫‘ املصدر‬the verbal noun’ can be made.

(‫)41 :6591 ,أمني‬

        This view i.e. the derivation from the noun, belongs neither to the
School of Basrah that considers ‫‘ املصدر‬the verbal noun’ as the base of

derivation, nor to the School of Kufa that considers ‫‘الفعل‬the verb’ as the

base of derivation, but to some of modern linguists like‫ )1965( أمني‬and ‫ترزي‬

(1968). So, according to this new view new verbs come from existing
                   ‫ِر‬                     ‫ت َّرع‬
nouns, like from ‫ الذ َاع‬we have the verb َ َ ‫ َذ‬and from these verbs other

derivatives are made.
       There are some linguists who support this type of derivation, like
(‫ )4/882 :سيبويه‬who has a clear opinion concerning the derivation of

quadriliteral verbs from quadriliteral nouns or adjectives. Examples of
           ‫َ ْف ع ب ج د‬                                         ‫َ عم خ جم‬
nouns are ‫ جع َر , َنَْر , َنْ َل‬and examples of adjectives are ُ َ ْ‫ شجْ َ ُ , َل‬and

ُ ‫.سَهَْل‬

        Also ‫613( ابن السراج‬A.H./1973: 36) says that there is a tendency

among the Arabs to derive new verbs from already existing nouns as in
      َ ْ                    ‫َج‬               َ
‫ تَر َّلَتْ املرأة , إسَْتحجَر الطني‬and ‫ إسْتَنْوَق اجلمل‬among countless other examples

. In this, he emphasizes this type of derivation in the Arabic language.

           Similarly, ‫293( ابن جين‬A.H./1990: 2/34) maintains that ‫‘املصدر‬the

verbal noun’ is derivable from ‫‘ ,اجلوهر‬the essence’, like ْ‫ ,الَبت‬which is

derived from ‫ النبات‬and                    ْ
                                      ْ‫ اإلسِْتحجَار‬from ‫ . احلجر‬He states that when we

consider‫' االفعال‬the verbs' along with ‫‘ املصادر‬the verbal nouns’, we find

that there are some verbs that do not have‫ مصدر‬because ‫ املصدر‬existed

before its verb, like ‫ ’النوم‬sleeping’, which existed before the verb َ ‫.َا‬

Furthermore, there are verbs which have more than one                    ‫ مصدر‬like the

     ‫قي‬                                              ‫ق ق ل ى ل يا ل ية‬
verb َ ِ ‫ َل‬which has more than ten ‫مصادر‬which are : ً َ‫ِل َاء, ِل َاءة, ُق ً ,َقًّ َق‬

      ‫ِقي ل‬           ‫ي ل‬
ً‫,ُلقَْاناً ,ِقيانة ,ل ِّاً ,ِقيانا‬

              Then we have ‫ )551-651:7891(احللواين‬who says that we feel that

                                                                       ‫َ ْجر‬
 ‫ الفعل‬existed before its ‫مصدر‬in the derivation; for example, the verb َ َ ‫إسْتح‬

                     َ                             ْ
 is derived from ْ‫ احلجَر‬and after that ‫ إسِْتحجَار املصدر‬appeared.

      ‫276( ابن مالك‬A.H./1967: 198) has a similar opinion, as he states that the

                                                          ‫َ لل‬
quadriliteral ‫ فعل‬is limited to only one measure which is َ َْ‫ , فع‬whether it

be transitive or intransitive and these ‫ افعال‬are derived from quadriliteral

‫ امساء‬according to that measure . In this ‫ ابن مالك‬agrees with ‫ سيبويه‬in

forming quadriliteral ‫ افعال‬from quadriliteral ‫.امساء‬

           ‫547(األندلسي‬A.H./1984:1/87) agrees with ‫ سيبويه‬in this idea and gives

                   ‫َ رب‬           ‫َر‬          ‫ع ْجن‬         ‫ع ْج‬
some examples like َ َ ْ‫ عق‬from ْ‫ العقْ َب‬and َ َ ‫ َر‬from ‫. ال ُر ُون‬

       Moreover, there are some modern linguists who confirm this type
of derivation, notably ‫ أمني‬who in 1937 submitted a research paper in this

field to the Arabic language Academy in Cairo, which was at that time
called the Royal Academy, in which he included all of his opinions on
this subject. ( ‫)543-823 :7391 ,جملة جممع اللغة العربية يف القاهرة‬

        ‫ )41 :6591(أمني‬says that the base of all the derivation is something

other than ‫ ,املصدر‬or ‫ ,الفعل‬and that the verb came before all the derivatives

that can be derived from it . He maintains that ,‫ الفعل‬preceded ‫ ,املصدر‬in

time. As a result, ‫ املصدر‬would be one of the derivatives of ‫ الفعل‬which has

been derived from different types of nouns: common and proper nouns,
numeral nouns, names of sounds and time and abstract nouns and so on.

       He justifies his point of view by saying that it is not possible that
nouns are derived from ‫املصدر‬or ‫ ,الفعل‬because they do not have specific

methods for deriving them, but on the contrary ‫ املصادر‬and ‫ األفعال‬and

other derivatives like        ‫‘اسم الفاعل‬the active participle’ , ‫‘اسم املفعول‬the

passive participle’, ‫‘ اسم املرة‬the one instance noun’, ‫‘اسم املكان‬the noun of

place’ , ‫‘اسم الزمان‬the noun of time’ , ‫‘اسم اآللة‬the noun of instrument’ , ‫صيغة‬

 ‫‘املبالغة‬the noun of intensiveness’, ‫‘اسم النسبة‬the relation’ ,        ‫‘املصغر‬the

diminutive’ , ‫‘اسم التفضيل‬the elative’ are derived from nouns. All of these

can be derived from the noun because there are specific methods and
measures for deriving each of them. (‫)741 :أمني‬

       In addition, he supports his opinion by referring to the tendency of
the Arabs to adopt and Arabicize some foreign nouns and derive ‫مصادر‬and

‫ افعال‬and other forms from them. As it is not possible to derive from these

nouns without Arabicizing them because it is a process which should
occur before the derivation process. One can take this as good evidence
that the Arabs have derived from the nouns.
(‫)841 :أمني‬

       After that he mentions some foreign nouns which had been
Arabicized and then subsequently subjected to derivation, like:
‫’,الفلفل‬pepper’ , which had originally been a Persian word , and then the

     ‫ف ْفل‬                                                      ‫ُف ْف‬      ‫بن‬
verb َ َ ‫ َل‬was derived from it , in addition to the adjectiveْ‫,الُرُْسْ ; م َل َل‬

                               ‫ت ب نس‬                   ‫زد‬
‘burnoose’ from which the verb َ َْ‫ ََر‬was derived ; ْ‫ ال ِنْ ِيق‬from which the

     ‫ت ز دق‬                  ‫ز دق‬
verb َ َ ْ‫ َ َن‬and the noun ‫ َنْ ََة‬were derived. (‫)151-251 :أمني‬

        Another modern linguist         ‫ الصاحل‬agrees with      ‫ أمني‬regarding the

derivation form the noun and says that what is tangible has preceded the
abstract in existence, so that we can say that the base of derivation is the
noun not the verb. (‫ )081:0791 ,الصاحل‬For example: from ‫ ’,الرأس‬head’ the

      ‫َأ ت‬                                               ‫َت‬
verb ‫ رَسَْه‬is derived, and from ‫‘ ,األنف‬nose’ the verb ‫ أنفَْه‬is derived and

                                  ‫أَ ت‬
from ‫',اليافوخ‬fontanel' the verb ‫ َفخَْه‬is derived and so on.

      On his part ‫الزيدي‬supports the opinion that ‫ االسم‬takes precedence

over, ‫ الفعل‬and ‫ املصدر‬as a source of derivation, saying that the first things

to which man is exposed are the sensational and after that come the
perception of the abstract which is a developmental stage that needs a

new type of abstraction. He also maintains that the growth of language
goes from materialization in agreement with it. (‫)003:7891 ,الزيدي‬

          ‫ )35-250891( السامرائي‬has made a deep search for the base of the

derivation and found that ‫ االسم‬is the base of derivation. He says that the

nouns he means are those nouns that are connected with things of a
tangible nature. Also when we look up in the dictionary we find that
nouns have supplied the language with as much derivational material as
the verbs have done. He supported his opinion by referring to the fact that
the term ْ‫’,اجلمَال‬beauty’ and other terms like: ‫ ,التَنَ ُقْ, األَاَة‬that carry the same
              َ                                             ‫و‬

meaning have been derived from ْ‫’,اجلمَل‬the camel’, the well-known

        ‫ عبد احلميد‬is another linguist who states that the Arabs have derived

                                   َ                                           َ
verbs from genuses’ names like ‫ أمْطَرَتْ السمَاء‬from ‫‘ ,املطر‬rain’ , ‫ اغْيَلتِ املرأة‬from

‫ الغَيْل‬and ‫ ,اطْفََلتِ املرأة‬from ‫‘ ,الطِفْل‬baby’. )‫)12-20 :1165,عبد احلميد‬

          It is not only linguists who as individuals support this type of
derivation, but the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo as well. This
academy has issued a resolution permitting and ratifying the derivation,
when necessary, of new verbs from nouns. (‫,جملة جممع اللغة العربية يف القاهرة‬

        From what has been mentioned, we can conclude that derivation
cannot be limited and it is variable. Though derivation from ‫الفعل‬

according to the School of Kufa and derivation from ‫ املصدر‬according to

the School of Basrah, are both deeply established and well-known

opinions in Arabic grammar, the derivation from ‫ االسم‬is a well-known

phenomenon in Arabic too, as it is encountered in every field of life. The
derivatives whose base is a noun cannot be numbered as more and more
of them are being added to the language, and this process has
considerably added to the vocabulary of Arabic to fill the gaps and to
satisfy the need for terms for new situations.

2.3.4 Compounding
      An Arabic construction, which may be described as the nearest to
the English compound, is the one ‫ سيبويه‬calls ‫املركب املزجي‬i.e., “two things

embracing each other and thus forming one name”(Ali, 1967:61)
     The constituent elements of an Arabic compound are generally
written separately. However, there are some compounds, especially those
belonging to ‫ ,املركب املزجي‬which can be written either as two separate

elements as in ,‫ رأس مال‬or as one complete lexical item with both elements

joined together as in ‫.رأمسال‬

    Compounds may be divided into two types, subordinate compound
which has one base like ‫‘شروق الشمس‬sunrise’and coordinate compound,

which has two bases like ‫ ,هرج مرج‬and ‫‘ مثانية و عشرون‬twenty eight’.

2.3.5 Analogy
      It is the process by which many Arabic words are formed. The term
‫ القياس اللغوي‬in Arabic stands for the English term ‘analogy’. It is defined

as the invention of new words via the use of already existing derivational
patterns. (‫)73 :6691 ,أنيس‬

For example the pattern ‫ ف ّيل‬is used to derive new words as            ‫ك‬
                                                                      ‫سِ ّري‬

‘drunkard’ and ‫’ ِ ّيس‬saint’.

2.3.6 Blending
      Modern Arabic grammarians consider ‫ النحت‬in their terminology as

“ a shortened form of two words or a sentence.” (‫)31 :6591 ,أمني‬

So ‫ النحت‬can be defined, as the construction of a new word out of two or

more words, and this new word is different in form and meaning from
that original word. (‫ )78 :0991 ,الضامن‬So the mixed genre between

‫مسرح‬and ‫ رواية‬is ‫مسروية‬

2.3.7 Borrowing
      In Arabic, the process of introducing into a language, elements
from another language by contact and /or imitation is named as ‫التعريب‬

Arabicization. The most common type of borrowing is that of vocabulary
items. It is easy to show that the number of meanings of a word borrowed
from one language to another like English borrowings in Arabic have
fewer meanings in Arabic than in English.
      It is a rule that borrowings have fewer meanings in the new
language than in the old one. This is simply because borrowed words are
mostly less frequently used in the new language than in the old one or
only one sense is employed. Another common type of borrowing is ‘loan
translation’ or ‘calque’ where morphemes are translated in the host
language. Modern standard Arabic is full of examples of this type of
borrowing, for example ‫‘ناطحة السحاب‬sky scraper’. (‫)66-85 :3791 ,السامرائي‬

2.3.8 Acronymy and Abbreviation
      In Arabic, acronymy and abbreviation are not traditionally common
processes of word-formation. However, in the Quran ,punctuation marks
and guides for proper reading include abbreviations such as ,‫ صلي‬i.e. ‫الوصل‬

‫,قلي ; اوىل‬i.e. ‫ , س ; الوقف اوىل‬i.e. ‫,سكت‬etc. The author of ‫ ,القاموس احمليط‬the

well-known lexicographer ‫ ,الفريوز آبادي‬who lived in the 8th century A.H.,

i.e. over six centuries ago used abbreviations in his dictionary, such as ‫ج‬

for ‫ جج ; مجع‬for ‫ د ; مجع اجلمع‬for ‫.بلد‬

      This process has become more common in the last two centuries as
a result of contact with European languages and owning to translation.
Though Arabic is basically a root language, it is noticed that the initial
letters taken from the phrase that constitutes the base of the abbreviation
or acronym do not generally speaking represent the initial letters of the
root of the derivatives e.g., Palestine Liberation Organization /‫/م-ت-ف‬

‫ .منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‬If the initial letters of the constituent roots were to be

taken, the abbreviated form would be / ‫ /ن-ح-ف‬form / ‫ /ن-ظ-م‬and

/ ‫ ./ح-ر-ر‬This is because taking the initial letters from the derivatives

rather than their roots makes the abbreviated form transparent and as such
more predictable. Because, these two processes have never been
productive in Arabic, it follows naturally that they play a marginal role, if
ever, in Arabic word-formation. (Haleem, 1991: 224)

2.3.9 Replacement and Metathesis
       In Arabic, there are three types of derivation. The first is named
 ‫‘ االشتقاق الصغري‬minor derivation’. The second one is ‫‘ االشتقاق الكبري‬major

derivation’, also called     ‫‘ ,القلب‬metathesis’ which is defined as ,the

                                                          ‫جبذ‬       ‫جذب‬
transposition of letters, syllables in a word(1), such as َ ََ from َ َ َ

‘attract’. (‫618 ,اجلرجاين‬A.H./1938: 22)

      The third one is ‫‘ االشتقاق األكرب‬super derivation’, which is also called

,‫‘ اإلبدال‬replacement’. ‫ اإلبدال‬is defined as the substitution of letters,

                                ‫َعق‬        ‫ن هق‬
syllables in a word(1), such as َ َ ‫ ن‬from َ ِ َ ’croaking, hooting’ (Ibid.)

2.3.10 Onomatopeia / Echoism
         In Arabic, there are words that have been formed in imitation of
natural sounds. This word-formation process is called ‫‘ احملاكاة‬echoism’.

                                        ‫ع‬                             ‫ص‬
This is exemplified by words such as ‫‘ ُواء‬the sound of dogs’, and ‫, َليل‬

‘the sound of swords’ and many other examples. (Al-Ubaidi, 2003:67)


(1) A letter here is accompanied by a short vowel,‫ ,حركة‬and that is why it

is in affect a syllable.

2.3.11 Folk Etymology
          In the colloquial Iraqi Arabic, examples of folk etymology can be
found like َ ‫ َت‬from ‘cut off’ and         ‫فص كالص‬from ‘first class’. Folk

etymology, however, is not limited to borrowed words, but also the
original meaning of a native term can be lost sight of, and the word
accordingly alters its form (and often its meaning) to agree with some
imagined etymology, for example: ‫ بالرفاء والبنني‬is converted to ‫.بالرفاه والبنني‬


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