Program Development and Logic Model by S4x3HoR


									Program Development
   & Logic Model
 Designing, developing, and
evaluating non-profit programs
Program Development/Logic Model
When developing a new program, it is especially
 important that an organization address a few key
 points when applying for funds to finance the
 program. The following guidelines cover these
 crucial steps, which include:
        Assessment of community needs
        Program design
        Performance measurement
        Program evaluation

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 Community Needs Assessment
Before designing a program, it is recommended that an
  organization conduct a community needs assessment to
  determine that the program is addressing a need that
  exists in the community. In order to get an accurate
  picture, this assessment should involve people
  representing various aspects of the community. In
  gathering research, the following questions may serve as
  a guideline:
 Who does the problem affect? How many people are
 How is this problem addressed in other locations
  affected by it? What has and has not worked?
 Is this problem already being addressed in this
  community? How?
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 Community Needs Assessment

A new program should not be replicating services
  already provided in the community. If the needs
  assessment determines that the problem is
  already being addressed adequately by other
  organizations in the community, it may be best
  to narrow or broaden the program’s approach to
  address the problem in a unique manner.

Visit other organizations addressing the problem,
  in the community or not, to assess what
  approaches do and do not work, and how
  services can be improved upon.
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                Program Design
Some basic qualities of a good program are that it:

 Describes and gives evidence of a community need that can
  be addressed.
 Identifies a gap in services available in the community which
  address the need.
 Explains why this program is an appropriate strategy to meet
  the need.
 Outlines the activities of program members in addressing the
 Establishes community partnerships in the process of
  addressing the community need.
 Anticipates the positive outcome of the program in the
 Defines the method of measuring results (see the following
  section on Performance Measurement).
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            The Logic Model
A recommended method of program design is to
  use a logic model to plan and evaluate the
  proposed program. A logic model is a depiction
  of the processes and targeted outcomes of the
  program. This should help the organization to
  specify goals, identify what resources are
  needed, identify indicators of progress and
  measurements of success, and communicate
  the program’s potential value.

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              The Logic Model –
The components of a basic logic model include:
 Needs: The community need as identified in the
  Community Needs Assessment.
 Inputs: The resources needed to complete activities.
 Activities: What staff, volunteers, etc. actually do.
 Outputs: A measurement of the actual amount of
  service completed.
 Intermediate Outcomes: Measurable change and
  improvements in the program’s constituents and/or
 End Outcomes: The target changes that the
  organization hopes to achieve in the program’s
  constituents and/or community.

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               Sample Logic Model
   Need         Inputs     Activities      Outputs         Inter-        End
                                                          mediate      Outcomes
Low third-    Staff        20            (x) number      Increased     Increased
grade         Books        volunteers    of children     number of     reading
reading                    will tutor    tutored         books read,   performance,
              Space                                                    improved
performance                children one-                 increased
              Volunteers   on-one in                     reading on    grades
                           reading 3                     own
                           times a week

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         Performance Measurement
The purpose of performance measures is to
 capture the ongoing progress the program
 is making. It should provide a snapshot of
 the impact of the work that the
 organization is doing. This is an especially
 important step in establishing
 accountability to any funder. Identify all of
 the services the organization provides and
 the likely impact these services will have
 on the community.
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         Performance Measurement –
                Tracking Tools
Determine tracking tools for use in measuring the results of
  services offered. These measures should focus on goal
  outputs and outcomes, as identified by the community
  needs assessment and defined by the program’s logic
  model. The measures should be in quantifiable terms
  and clearly defined.
A good guide for determining performance measures is the
  acronym SMART. They should be:
        Specific
        Measurable
        Attainable
        Realistic
        Timely
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             Program Evaluation
The program evaluation should be an analytical study which measures
  the progress and impact the program has made. Evaluations should
  be scheduled and carried out throughout the course of the program.
  This should consist of thorough and objective research conducted
  by an experienced evaluator, starting at the beginning of the
  program year. Resources for finding a program evaluator include
  colleges and universities, research firms, and community
  organizations. The evaluator should collect data relevant to the
  program’s activities and programs and evaluate the organization’s

The organization should be consistently involved in the evaluation
  process and should adjust the programs offered according to
  performance measures and program evaluations in order to best
  serve the community.

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               Final Note
Program development is a complicated
  process, about which this resource offers
  only a brief overview. For more information
  on program development and the logic
  model, please refer to the resources listed
  on the following slide.

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         Additional Resources
 CNCS Program Toolkit:

 Logic Models:

 Logic Model Development Guide:

 Logic Model - University of Idaho:

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