Professional Report by h03yU4


									 Evaluation by   Pat Henry
                 Susan Morgan
                 Sam McCready

 An Evaluation of Street Work
Training in Bukavu, Democratic
       Republic of Congo

 June 2010
Table of Contents.
   Executive Summary

   Section 1. Literature Review

   Section 2. The Training Manuals

   Section 3. Key Issues for Training and Street Work Practice

   Section 4. The Voices of Street Workers and Street Children

   Appendix 1
   References and Bibliography

   Appendix 2

   Appendix 3
   Ethical Considerations

StreetInvest: Evaluation of Street Work

   This evaluation was commissioned by StreetInvest in September 2009 and
   the fieldwork and analysis was completed by March 2010. The evaluation
   team from the Community Youth Work Department at the University of Ulster,
   Northern Ireland gratefully acknowledges the support and guidance provided
   by all the staff at StreetInvest throughout the evaluation process.

   Our gratitude goes to all the street workers who took time to participate in
   focus groups and who gave willingly of their time providing information and
   insight in an open and clear manner. We are extremely grateful to the street
   children in Bukavu who gave us a special insight into their lives through focus

   Finally, we hope the evaluation report does justice to the views of those
   involved in street work and street work training and that street children in DRC
   and throughout Africa and beyond will benefit as a result.

   The Evaluation Team:
      Pat Henry, Susan Morgan & Sam McCready.
Executive Summary

     This is an abridged version of a more substantive report (`Turning on the
     Light` - June 2010) written by the University of Ulster Evaluation Team. This
     version is by way of introducing the evaluation of StreetInvest’s programme in
     Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. The evaluation was carried out from
     November 2009 to June 2010.

     According to the United Nations there are approximately 100 million street
     children across the globe. Writing about the situation in the Democratic
     Republic of Congo Human Rights Watch (2006, p.3) states:

        “Conflict, internal displacement, unemployment, poverty, disease, the
        prohibitive cost of education, and a myriad of other factors have all
        contributed to the growing number of children living and working on the
        streets in the DRC.”

     The Consortium for Street Children (2009) shed light on the scale of the issue
     and the complexity of the problems facing street children worldwide and it is
     against this backdrop that StreetInvest operate and has devised its distinctive
     approach to training of street workers who work with street children
     throughout Africa.

Main Findings
     The training on the whole was found to be high quality, credible and
     professional. The voice of the street workers and street children in DRC fully
     demonstrate this. It has been significant in helping the workers reflect upon

and understand their motives for practice. It has also helped the workers to
identify a purpose and methodology and gain clarity in terms of the benefits
for street children. The training points up the importance of having a relational
presence on the streets with the children and young people. The message to
the children is that we are there FOR you and we want to work WITH you. It is
a distinct strength of the training offered by StreetInvest. As one worker so
aptly expressed it…

       “After the training we found that the child is the only expert on his life
       story and we have to be respectful of the child’s opinion” (Street
       Worker –DRC)

Underpinning the training ethos is a child centred approach and this means
the street workers ‘accepting’ a child’s ‘choice’ to be on the streets. This child
centred approach is intertwined with a rights based approach to street work
practice and is also emerging as a real strength of the training. It has had a
major impact on how the street worker approaches their work and has
impacted on the practice models emerging from Bukavu which could be used
in other parts of DRC and in other countries in Africa. This approach, while
lying outside traditional and more popular protective focused and reactive
approaches (de Benitez 2003) which tend to draw most of main funding,
recognizes the uniqueness of street children. It protects their rights and
promotes their well being through a variety of measures that allows for
genuine participation and decision making:

       “Rather than aiming to reinstate children into mainstream society, a
       rights based approach may seek to change the way society operates
       for children” (de Benitez 2003)

The weight of evidence from the interviews with workers, managers and street
children emphasised and endorsed the training and how it raised the quality of

      street work practice and services for the street children. It has provided a
      platform for the street workers and awakened an appetite in them for further
      training. Their voices and those of the street children are recorded as
      narratives in their own right and read as a strong and positive endorsement of
      the training delivered by StreetInvest.

Key Recommendations

Models of Practice
      In this evaluation there were three emerging and innovative models of
      practice that are worthy of note:
         1. Street mapping and Head Counting; the process of understanding the
               community context and measuring the scope of the work.
         2. Listening points; pre-designated areas where young people can gather
               and gain support.
         3. Peer support/education; a process of young people mentoring other
               young people
      These practice models, the principles underpinning them and the methods of
      engagement were inextricably linked to the training delivered by StreetInvest.
      If the training is to be rolled out to other communities, countries, continents the
      three models referred to should be strongly promoted and integrated into all
      future training.

      The partnership/relationship approach with a local organization (PEDER) has
      an enormous beneficial aspect to the training for two reasons. The first is to
      ensure that the training’s credibility is recognised locally. The second is to
      strive towards the goal of capacity-building, sustainability and continuity of
      practice (by Africa, for Africa). It is recommended that this approach is
      maintained within any country or region where StreetInvest provides future

Code of Practice
      There is a potential conflict between responsible protection and necessary
      risky behaviour and this conflict is not easily resolved. However, developing
      good practice through completing ‘Risk Assessments’ is one way of ensuring
      both worker and agency develop confidence in street work practice and
      process. The evaluators further recommend that StreetInvest draws up a
      Code of Practice which would assist workers in maintaining their own safety
      and the safety of street children.

Advisory Committee
      In order to support the core element of StreetInvest’s training consideration
      should be given to establishing ‘An Advisory Committee for Training’. This
      would enable StreetInvest to draw upon specialist knowledge of training and
      further support its delivery throughout Africa.

Action Research
      There is growing evidence to suggest that evaluation is most effective where
      young people, managers and practitioners feel they have some ownership of
      the criteria and the evaluation process (Crimmens et al 2004), Pawson and
      Tilley (1997) also suggest that evaluation strategies variously described as
      ‘action research’ should include continuous dialogue with programme
      partners, service users, managers, funders and practitioners. StreetInvest
      should include a section in its manual which would inform and train street
      workers in ‘action research’ methodologies. These approaches would
      decrease the risk of data being collected solely for an ‘upwards’ purpose for
      funders and would enhance project development and promote good practice.

Lobbying and Advocacy
      There is a particular challenge that StreetInvest faces around changing the
      views of governments and key funders about how they view street children.
      StreetInvest should strongly consider developing a strategy that sees lobbying

and advocacy as a core strand of their work alongside the training of street
workers. Policy makers and funders who may not currently support the
StreetInvest approach need to have their mindsets challenged and the
evidence presented in this report could act as a catalyst for this challenge.

Literature Review

      The review of literature aims to set street work and street children in context. It
      is broken down into 6 sections
         1. What is a child?
         2. The Street Child
         3. Exploring the causes of what drives children to the street
         4. Responding to the problem
         5. Working `with` rather than `for` street children
         6. Helping Street Children – Working with Cultural Intelligence

What is a child?
      The key material in understanding `what is a child? ` comes from UN
      Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). This defined a child as under
      the age of 18. Key articles from the 54 that outline inalienable rights of
      children within the Convention are 2,3,4,6 & 12. They stress the right to life
      (article 6) and the right of children to say what they think should happen and
      to have their opinions taken into account (article 12)

The Street Child
      According to the United Nations there are approximately 100 million street
      children across the globe. Many of these are hidden and unseen. The
      Consortium for Street Children (2009) highlights the complexity and scale of
      the issue. For example, in Southern and Eastern Africa the majority of street
      children are between 9 and 14 years old and in Brazzaville, Congo, almost
      50% of street children are orphans.

      Ennew (2009) points out that not all childhoods are the same and advises that
      care should be taken on relying “on a model of childhood that is based on
      children in better-off families”. To do so runs the risk of “ignoring the actual

      experiences of street children”. Defining street children is highly problematic.
      Shah (2005) identifies the origin of the term to UNICEF around 1979 which
      led to a consensus around definition in 1985 whereby “any girl or boy who has
      not reached adulthood, for whom the street…more than family, has become
      his or her real home”

      Shah further contributes to an understanding of the term by explaining the
      difference between children on the streets (those who retain contact with
      families but not return every night to sleep at home) and children of the streets
      (lacking parental support and living on the streets)

      Fabio Dallae (in Ennew 2000) the Director of the Undugu project in Nairobi
      points out a “street child is not just a child on any street but a child out of
      place”. Street child is a contentious term and there is no universal agreement
      in the literature of any alternative expression for `street children` that conveys
      the complexity and plight that street children face throughout the world.

      The International Guide on the Methodology of Street Work (2008) noted that
      there “is no universal framework on this matter (of definition)...the challenge is
      to be easily accessible as possible to children who live in precarious
      conditions…street workers are the last link in the chain of educational and
      social assistance when all else has failed”

      This last point is extremely relevant in the context of this evaluation.

Exploring the causes of what drives children to the street
      De Benitez (2003), Onyango et al (1991), Human Rights Watch DRC (2006),
      Subbarao (2001), Bensmann (2003) and Panter-Brick (2002) contribute to a
      better understanding of the motivating or causal factors for street children to
      be on the streets.

     It is suggested that street children are a phenomenon of modernisation,
     urbanisation and globalisation (Onyango 1991) and that “conflict, internal
     displacement, unemployment, poverty, disease, prohibitive cost of
     education...” (Human Rights Watch) contribute to children being on the street
     in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

     It is highlighted throughout the literature of street children in Africa that
     endemic warfare and HIV/AIDS are significant casual factors. Bennsmann
     (2003) stresses the magnitude of the conflict problem in DRC - “Some
     1,130,000 people from the region are refugees”. The picture emerges in DRC
     of countless children being orphaned or abandoned and Subbarao (2001)
     notes that of “34 million people living in the world with AIDS, 24.5 million are

     It is the staggering number of children orphaned due to AIDS that has
     particular bearing on the issue of street children.

Responding to the problem
     De Benitez (2003) refers to three approaches to work with homeless street
     children – reactive, protective and rights based.

     In explaining each approach, de Benitez rests the argument towards the
     rights based approach as being the one that “recognises the uniqueness of
     street children” and that protects their rights and promotes their well-being
     through a variety of measures that allows for their genuine participation. This
     approach is not about making children leave the streets but in making more
     choices available to them and assisting them make their own decisions:
     “Rather than aiming to re-instate children into mainstream society, a rights-
     based approach may seek to change the way society operates for children”
     (de Benitez 2003)

Working `with` rather than `for` street children
      The International Guide in Methodology of Street Work (2008), Shah (2005),
      Ennew ((2003) Rogers (1996) and Jeffs and Smith (1999) offer creative
      thinking and approaches to working with street children. The importance of
      “trust based relationships” with young people and how working with street
      children to “build self esteem and develop key skills” contributes to enabling
      their participation in social life (International Guide on Street Work 2008)

      Ennew (2003), Shah (2005) argue that if the potential of these children is to
      be realised it will require their genuine participation and therefore it is essential
      that street children are heard, understood and valued. It is imperative they are
      empowered to have a voice of influence and change. There is further
      evidence to support de Benitez`s argument for a rights-based approach to
      work with street children.

      Working with rather than for children (Ennew 2003, Shah 2005) denoted the
      importance of relational presence. Establishing trusting relationships with
      street children will take time and patience and it is understandable that street
      children may be suspicious and distrusting of adults.

      Ennew (2000) describes a simple formula to working with street children:

          a. “listen and make sure you are really hearing
          b. Look, observe, record, reflect on what you see
          c. Learn about them and about yourself”

      A strong message is that of the importance relationships plays in work with
      street children and how this must not be underestimated. Rogers (1996)
      reminds us of the person-centred approach and the importance of
      unconditional positive regard, demonstrating empathy and being real and
      genuine when working with street children.

      In work with street children the place is the street; it is about making contact
      with children in their place, in their own environment and according to their
      timescale. The purpose of the work is to increase the range of choices
      available to them and helping them make their own decisions. The literature
      returns continually to remind us of the importance of the intentionality of
      relational presence that, if coupled with creativity and participation, can lead to
      effective and lasting positive change in the lives of street children.

      “The street worker follows the ways of those he wishes to meet, evolving in
      the same surroundings and trying to fit in and play a role there. In sharing
      spaces and times, street work rests on a gradual and non-intrusive inclusion
      process” (International Guide on Methodology of Street Work 2008)

Helping Street Children – Working with Cultural Intelligence
      Root (2008), Ver Beek (2002) and Livermore (2006) are key writers within this
      section. Root (2008) highlights the importance of “seeing, hearing and sharing
      existence with others” Ver Beek emphasises the focus on learning and
      understanding “culture, language, history, needs, accomplishments and
      ideas” for those who work with street children.

      Cultural intelligence and its importance in the approach to the work are
      highlighted by Livermore (2006) as “a way of measuring our ability to interact
      effectively when we cross cultures”. The outcome of culturally intelligent
      behaviour will lead to more effective intercultural interaction that will be
      characterised by good personal adjustment and good interpersonal
      relationships with culturally different others (Root 2008, Ver Beek 2002and
      Livermore 2006).

      The street children phenomenon is a multi faceted problem. The literature
      review attempts to offer a better understanding of the problem, explore the

causes and considers the responses both in terms of the work itself and how
street workers can be more mindful of their motivation and mindset, and to be
more effective of their relationships with street children.

The Training Manuals
     This section of the evaluation focuses on the Training Manuals with specific
     reference to the aims of the `Introduction to Street Work` which is the basis of
     all street work training delivered by StreetInvest.

     StreetInvest’s training portfolio for Bukavu included the following three
            a) An Introduction to Street Work
            b) Training the Trainers
            c) Working with street children-a group work approach
     The training was preceded by a ‘Situational Analysis’ (SA) and a ‘Training
     Needs Analysis’ (TNA) to enable the lead trainers to adapt the content of the
     course to suit the environment and the street workers’ training needs in
     Bukavu. The inclusion of a SA and TNA is good practice and it should be an
     essential part of every training programme as it helps ensure the bespoking of
     training according to local needs.

The Training Approach

     The Training Manual outlines the training approach through three broad aims:
        -   The course aims to encourage the development of knowledge, skills
            and attitudes in street work.
        -   The aim is to provide the opportunity to unlock the process of self-
            awareness, and the learning and personal and professional
            development of street workers.
        -   The central theme of the training is that the role of the street worker in
            the life of a street child and the significance of relationships (acts) as a
            basis for change and improvement of the circumstances of street
                                                           (Training Manual 2009)

      These three aims place an emphasis on ‘experiential learning’ and also take
      cognisance of the critical role of the street worker in his/her interventions with
      street children. The aims are then further sub-divided into nine micro aims and
      learning outcomes:

             1. Understand the context and rationale for doing street work.
             2. Understand street children, the street and the street worker’s role.
             3. Understand how attitudes and values affect best practice in street
             4. Understand the process of street work using a 4 stage model of
                 street work.
             5. Understand techniques for street mapping.
             6. Complete a risk assessment.
             7. Incorporate improved interpersonal skills into their relationship
                 building with street children.
             8. Demonstrate increased confidence in their role as street workers
                 individually and as a team.
             9. Describe how to take their learning forward and devise an ‘Action

Understand the context and rationale for doing street work
      The manual clearly outlines the need for course participants to contextualise
      and rationalise their work through the United Nations Convention on the
      Rights of the Child:
             Article 19-The right to protection from violence.
             Article 24-The right to health and health services
             Article 27-The right to adequate standard of living.
             Article 28-The right to education.
             Article 32-The right to protection from economic exploitation.
             Article 34-The right to protection from sexual exploitation.

      The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is a universally recognised
      document and the Training Manual outlines the six main articles which pertain
      to street children. However, a ‘Rights Based Approach’ is not solely about
      knowledge of the entitlements of young people. These six articles could and
      should be translated into an underpinning baseline for work with street
      children. A ‘Rights Based Approach’ needs to build on the national policy and
      bring the rights of the child to a local and individual level. This would mean
      that street children are not mere recipients and consumers of services but
      would become empowered to act on their own interests alongside the street
      worker. StreetInvest might wish to consider making a ‘Rights Based
      Approach’ more explicit and central to their training approach and highlight
      articles 6 and 12 from UN Convention on Rights of the Child.

Understand the street children, the street and the street worker’s role.
      The Training Manual identifies the link between:
          a) The street child.
          b) The street worker.
          c) The street.

      The role of the street worker in the lives of street children is emphasised by
      ‘being present’, being young person-centred and moving at the pace of the
      child and not imposing an agenda. The causal factors e.g. poverty, family
      breakdown, war etc are also explored and discussed. These factors are
      clearly acknowledged by the street workers:
          “Street Children have problems, they have mobility, and they are not easy
          to approach. Its only when they find somebody they know…who can help
          them, they will start to come to you. This requires confidence, sacrifice and
          capacity” (Trainer and Street Worker –DRC- Speaking about their
          “It is not easy to identify street children in this environment of poverty”
          (Trainer and Street Worker-DRC-Speaking about their practice)

      Much of the data collated for this evaluation identifies the potential for many of
      the street children to experience or likely to experience significant harm:
         “Before I was brought here we were in a group and others used to beat us
         because we don’t have anywhere to spend our nights. If the centre was
         not here I would be back on the streets” (Street Child –DRC)

         “It is a dangerous place… every night soldiers come and bother us.”
         (Street Child – DRC- speaking about living on the street)
      All the contextual factors outlined above are the very ones that the UN
      Convention stipulates from which street children should be protected. The
      Training Manual is comprehensive in its methods of raising awareness of the
      need for robust Child Protection policies and procedures but again an
      opportunity exists to train street workers in Child Protection from a ‘Rights-
      Focused’ perspective.

Understand how attitudes and values affect best practice in street work
      The Training Manual defines a value as ‘a moral standard and something that
      is prized and of importance’ and participants are encouraged to explore the
      origins of their values. It also promotes the idea that encounters with street
      children are not ‘value free’ and that one’s values will influence their work with
      street children. Banks (2007) notes that a useful starting point for looking at
      values of youth work is the list published in the guidelines for the
      endorsement of qualifying training (NYA 1997c). These guidelines relate to
      the training of Community Youth Work practitioners in the UK and the list is as
             (i) Respect for basic human rights- e.g. justice, freedom;
             (ii) Respect for the individual and rights to self-determination;
             (iii) Respect for different cultures and religions in society;
             (iv) A commitment to empowerment and participatory democracy;
             (v) Collaborative working relationships and collective action; and

             (vi) An acknowledgement that all relationships and activities with young
                 people and adults are based on their consent.

      To take this a step further all agencies that become involved in future training
      should adopt these values in a ‘Rights Charter’.

Understand the process of street work using a four stage model of street
      StreetInvest has designed a 4-stage model which is sequential, unambiguous
      and clear and incorporates the need for effective interpersonal, organizational
      and management skills:
             Stage 1 (Thinking about it), Stage 2 (Deciding to do street work),
             Stage 3 (Doing it) and Stage 4 (Follow up)

      Contemporary literature on street work within the UK (Youth Support and
      Development Service 2006) offers additional sophisticated and
      comprehensive components of street work practice through a similar model
      and it clearly identifies the need for street work to be planned and targeted
             Stage 1-Reconnaissance to include: Mapping and Community
             Profiling, needs analysis and agreeing realistic objectives.
             Stage 2-Contact to include: Agreeing a Code of Practice, Do’s and
             Don’ts Checklist, Skills Audit and in-depth exploration of ‘self’.
             Stage 3-Intervention to include: Skills and Guidelines in working in
             unstructured settings, Risk assessments, Health and Safety, Managing
             boundaries, Challenging inequalities and Reflection in action.
             Stage 4-Development to include: Monitoring, Reviewing, Evaluation,
             Critical Analysis, Report writing and Action Research.

      The above model sets targets and enables priorities, aims and objectives to
      be adjusted through a process of reflection and evaluation, established

      through observation and recordings. StreetInvest may wish to consider
      integrating some of these additional components into their existing model
      which would offer a more comprehensive approach to street work practice.

Understand techniques for ‘street mapping’
      The techniques used by StreetInvest to train street workers in ‘street mapping’
      and the subsequent Head Counting in 2008 are strong indicators of creative,
      innovative and effective training. The 360 degrees approach embodies all the
      key characteristics of the street from the street child’s perspective:
             ‘If street workers only walk in a straight line, as most do, you will never
             learn the dynamics of the street and above all you will never discover
             how a street child views his/her street’.
             StreetInvest Training Manual.

      As a direct result of this training exercise, an extensive ‘head counting’
      exercise was carried out over a 3 week period (Oct 18th-Nov 5th 2008) in
      three municipalities in Bukavu i.e. Bagira, Ibanda and Kadutu. The
      sophisticated, yet logical, methodology was designed by Patrick Shanahan
      (President of StreetInvest) and was piloted in Accra, Ghana. Street Child
      Africa funded and supported this initiative in Bukavu.

      The head counting project identified 2612 children living and/or working on the
      streets of Bukavu. At that time 407 children lived in complete breakdown of
      family ties and 2205 were living on and off the streets with some ties with
                                           (PEDER Head Counting Report-Jan 2009)

Complete a Risk Assessment
      Participants are introduced to the idea of ‘working with risk’ in a street work
      context and each participant must complete a risk assessment exercise.

      Participants are also encouraged to acquaint themselves with the idea of
      carrying a ‘survival kit’ for street workers which would include an ID card,
      appropriate clothing and footwear, first aid supplies and a notebook and pen. .
      The Training Manual is of a very high standard in this regard and it covers all
      the necessary steps in completing a ‘Risk Assessment’.

      There is a potential conflict between responsible protection and necessary
      risky behaviour and this conflict is not easily resolved. However, developing
      good practice through completing ‘Risk Assessments’ is one way of ensuring
      both worker and agency develop confidence in street work practice and
      process. The evaluators further recommend that StreetInvest draws up a
      Code of Practice which would assist workers in maintaining their own safety
      and the safety of street children.

Incorporate improved interpersonal skills into their relationship building with
street children.
      Positive interventions through solution-focused work and creating different
      scenarios are also major components of the interpersonal skills training. The
      training manual emphasises the building of relationships with street children
      and StreetInvest is to be commended for placing such importance on this
      aspect of the work. To build on these materials it is recommend that three
      theoretical perspectives should also be included in the manual. These three
      theories are:
             a) The ten skills of active listening (Nelson-Jones 2009)
             b) The development of self and self-awareness (Burnard 2009)
             c) The Person-Centered Approach (Rogers 1996)
      In particular, the Person-Centered Approach which was coined by Carl
      Rogers in the middle of the 20th century has a central role to play in work with
      street children. It sits comfortably alongside the key youth work principles of
      participation, inclusion, democracy and social justice. It is a challenging and
      radical approach and arguably it is most appropriate in retaining the distinctive

      nature of street work where power lies with the street child in the relationship
      with the street worker.

Demonstrate increased confidence in their role as street workers individually
and as a team.
      The street worker training experience is internally measured via two written
      evaluations. This process focuses on how much has been learned,
      helpfulness of the training, attitudinal change, skills acquisition and benefits to
      the street children as a result of the training. A ‘level of confidence’ scale is
      used to determine increased confidence levels of participants: The process of
      evaluating the impact of street work programmes is also emphasised through
      seeking the views of street children. It is recommended, therefore, that
      StreetInvest should include a section in its manual which would inform and
      train street workers in ‘action research’ methodologies. An ‘action research’
      methodology would promote continuous dialogue between street children,
      practitioners, managers, funders and programme partners and would also
      ensure that data is not collected solely for an ‘upwards’ purpose for funders
      but also to promote good practice and enhance project development.

Describe how to take their learning forward and devise an ‘Action Plan’.
      This final aim and anticipated learning outcome is one of great importance.
      Setting objectives, project development and sustainability should be central to
      any possible future strategic planning. However, the design of an ‘Action Plan’
      which is reviewed (in-house) after three months requires closer monitoring,
      greater accountability and longer term vision for the sustainability of street
      work projects. A central component of the training strategy is ‘the training of
      African street workers by Africans, for Africans’. This final aim should take
      significant cognisance of how to ‘take their learning forward’ and assist in a
      phased approach to local control of training. The goals of capacity-building,
      sustainability and continuity of practice must be maintained in any future
      training delivered by StreetInvest.

 Key Issues for Training and Street Work Practice
      StreetInvest`s training was found to be of a high quality, credible and
      professional. The voice of the street workers and street children in DRC fully
      demonstrated this.

Relationship with Programme d’Ecadrenent des enfants des Rues (PEDER)
      There was an emphasis placed by StreetInvest on the importance of building
      an allegiance with a local agency that has the respect of the local community.
      In the case of DRC, PEDER was the partnership agency. The relationship
      between StreetInvest and PEDER ensured that StreetInvest, as an
      International Agency, was respectful of and reflected the unique historical,
      cultural, political and environmental situation in the DRC. This
      partnership/relationship approach with a local organization has been an
      enormously beneficial aspect to the training for two reasons. Firstly ensuring
      that the training’s credibility is recognised locally and secondly ensuring that
      SteetInvest`s goal of capacity-building, sustainability and continuity of practice
      (by Africa, for Africa) remains central.

Child-Centred Street Work
      The ‘child centred approach’ intertwined with the ‘rights based approach’ to
      street work practice has been emerging as a real strength of Street Invests
      training. Through the training the street workers developed their confidence,
      knowledge, skills and values relating to child centered practice. The child
      centred approach is embedded in training and practice ranging from
      recognising the rights of the street child to valuing the contribution they can
      make. This is complemented by an advocacy approach whereby street
      workers challenge the negative view of street children in the local and wider
      community. It has had a major impact on how the street workers approach
      their work and has impacted on the practice models emerging from Bukavu.

      These models could potentially transfer to other parts of DRC and other
      countries in Africa.

Models of Practice
      The training allowed the street workers to reflect on and develop their practice
      methodology. There were three notable emerging and innovative models of

      Street Mapping & Head Counting
      Through the training the participants learnt the purpose and techniques of
      ‘street mapping’ and head counting i.e. to establish the numbers of street
      children in a geographical context, to understand their behaviours in that
      context and consequently, to plan effective interventions. This practice was
      found to be both informative for the workers and lead agency as well as other
      interested parties. It could also be useful in the longer term for monitoring the
      movement and trends of street children.

      Listening Points
      The street workers often referred to the importance of befriending the child
      and ‘building a relationship’ which enabled the child to have trust and
      confidence in the worker. In order to do this effectively and without threat to
      the children, the workers used’ listening points’. These listening points were
      positioned in areas where it is known that street children might gather. The
      street worker would then locate him/herself there at a particular time and use
      creative methods to attract the attention of the street children, enabling them
      to begin the process of forming relationships. Through this process of building
      trust the workers find that they can then often move to a more structured
      intervention. However the real crux of the success for the listening points was
      that the street children could go and avail of support that was very much in
      their territory and on their terms

      Peer Support
      A strong theme that emerged from both workers and street children was a
      system whereby the children supported each other and acted as a referral for
      other children to make contact with the street workers. There were also
      children who, supported by the street workers, became a reference point for
      other children who arrived on the streets. The ‘relationship’ between the street
      workers and the street children was found to be directly related to how this
      approach worked. This model of peer support is embryonic and has naturally
      evolved however it was considered by both workers and street children to be
      empowering and effective.

Motivation of the street workers
      Lalor, et al. 2003 note that street children are vulnerable, with few advocates,
      no political strength and generally regarded, at best, as nuisances to be
      tolerated and at worst as ‘little more than vermin’. As such, many of their
      encounters with adults have been negative, even abusive, and result in a
      distrust of adults who engage with them. Therefore the motivation and
      approach of the street worker is of considerable importance in establishing a
      relationship with the children. The street workers interviewed perceived their
      practice as professional with a purpose, a methodology and intended
      outcomes. StreetInvest training had impacted positively on their motivation,
      giving them increased confidence in their practice helping them feel ‘more
      recognised’ credible and validated.

Capacity building and Sustainability
      The street workers had little confidence in the infrastructure of the government
      of DRC and expressed their frustration at the dearth of resources directed
      towards family intervention, education and child welfare. They also highlighted
      problems of continuity and sustainability related to the contribution of

      international charities. The training approach adopted by StreetInvest is
      underpinned by a belief in the commitment and capacity of individual street
      workers and street children. The ‘train the trainer’ model developed by Street
      Invest goes a long way towards ensuring the sustainability and continuity of
      street work practice and was praised highly by the local workers in the DRC.
      Working to develop local capacity can be the first building block towards a
      sustainable programme of work with children on the streets.

Training the trainers
      The street workers and the trainers interviewed have a sophisticated
      understanding of the street and street work practice. This is evidence of the
      quality of the training. The trained trainers saw themselves in a specific role
      which involved supporting the street worker; monitoring the street work
      practice; assessing needs of street children; deciding on appropriate
      interventions and follow up. Overall the trainers spoke highly of the training
      they received and how it had equipped them for training others. So much so
      that those in receipt of the ‘training the trainer’ course were keen to seek
      opportunities to go and train street workers in other parts of DRC and beyond.

Practice Concerns and the Need for Effective Evaluation
      There are many approaches to street work practice e.g. reunification;
      education; bringing children to refuges and acknowledging children’s rights to
      choose the streets. However the problem is that the range of alternative
      approaches to street work with street children has caused the street workers
      confusion and ambiguity in practice. This can be exacerbated through the
      demands made by sponsors and funding agencies who may be interested in
      more ‘hard outcomes’ such as statistics regarding how many young people
      have been ‘rescued’ from the streets. The problem with this approach of
      needing quantifiable measurable outputs and success stories can lead to a
      shift in approach to the work towards the desire to ‘rescue’ children from the

      streets. This may be done with little or no consultation with the children
      themselves and therefore become a disempowering practice. Street children
      are not a homogenous group and a range of interventions and evaluation
      frameworks are necessary to meet the needs of all street children.

Future training
      Nearly all of the street workers interviewed had ideas for how they would like
      to see their training developed. Training ideas, to name a few, included;
      prevention-working with families; family intervention and mediation; training in
      advocacy; training specific to the need of young women on the streets .e.g.
      sexual exploitation; training on child protection issues and legislation about
      child protection. They also wanted to see an increase in the amount of those
      trained as trainers and street workers themselves. They placed significant
      emphasis on the sense of association that the training had offered, the place
      to share their own practice ideas and the opportunity to reflect upon practice
      with others. The workers in Bukavu would benefit from an infrastructure that
      would support their continuous development both in training; support and

 The Voices of Street Workers and Street Children
      In order to provide the reader with some insights into world of street children
      and street workers we include a selected number of quotations that came out
      interviews during our evaluation

Street Workers
         “We learnt that each child who refuses to leave the street, this is a child
         that should be cared for on the street” (Street Worker –DRC)

         “The first barrier to our practice is our government’s failure to take
         responsibilities” (Street Worker –DRC)

         “After the training we found that the child is the only expert on his life story
         and we have to be respectful of the child’s opinion” (Street Worker –DRC)

         “ we used to just go to the street, collect the children and bring them to our
         centres then begin family mediation….but through the training we spent a
         whole session on understanding the street child” ” (Trainer and Street
         Worker –DRC)

Street Children
         “I was spending my nights in the Markets, we had teams… some of us
         would sleep upstairs and others down… every 7 O’clock we saw a group
         of (street workers)….these people were getting interested in our lives little
         by little” (Street Child –DRC)

         “What is special is that they (the street workers) call to us, they get us to
         meet them, they tell us , look, we’re your friends, this is not how you
         should be looking at your life” (Street Child –DRC)

“There is something good here that they do… they usually take their time
to talk to us… sometimes they show us the risks of roaming in the streets
to make use of our time and learn woodwork etc…”(Street Child –DRC)

“I decided to grow up… I took responsibility for what would happen to
me… I thank the staff… not only do they do good things for me but to
children who are in similar situations to mine” (Street Child –DRC)

“What I like especially is that they search themselves… they go to
different corners where they know they can find the children…I like that
they locate the children in places where they can be found” (Street Child –

“I told him “don’t bother me” but he kept bugging me… and later he
brought me to the street workers” (Street Child –DRC)

“My dream is to change my current situation, to be a father with a good
wife and educate my children in the right way so they can be respected
and respectful… I wish to become a normal man” (Street Child –DRC)

Appendix 1: References
Bensmann, V. (2003) The response to HIV/AIDS in Conflict situations a research
study into Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern-DRC: Save the Children UK

Consortium for Street Children (2009) Louder Together – Realising Rights: Stop
Violence Against Street Children

De Benitez, T. S. “Reactive, Protective, and Rights-Based Approaches in Work with
Homeless Street Youth.” Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring 2003

Ennew, J., (2000) Street and Working Children – A guide to planning. Save The
Children: London

Ennew, J. “Difficult Circumstances: Some Reflections on ‘Street Children’ in Africa.”
Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring 2003.

Human Rights Watch (2006) What Future? Street Children in the Democratic
Republic of Congo VOL. 18 NO. 2(A)

International Network of Social Street Workers (2008) International Guide on
Methodology of Street Work: Dynamo International

Jeffs, T. and Smith, M.K., (1999) Informal Education. Conversation, Democracy
and Learning. Ticknall: Education Now.

Livermore, D., (2006) Serving with Eyes Wide Open – Doing Short-Term Mission
with Cultural Intelligence. Baker Books: Grand Rapids.

Onyango, P M; Orwa, K., Ayako, A, A., Ojwang, J.B., Kariuki, P. W, (1991)
Research on Street Children in Kenya A Report on a study on street children in
Kenya Available from:

Panter-Brick, C., (2002). "Street Children, Human Rights, and Public Health: A
Critique and Future Directions." Annual Review Anthropology 2002 31: 147-171.

Rogers, C. (1996) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Miffen.

Root, A., (2008) The Youth Ministry Mission Trip as Global Tourism: Are we OK with
this? Dialog: A Journal of Theology, 47 (4), pp.314-319.

Subbarao, k., Mattimore, A., Plangemann, K., (2001) Social Protection of Africa's
Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children: Human Development Sector Africa Region
The World Bank

Shah, S., Graidage, G., Valencia, J., (2005) Youth on the Streets: The Importance
of Social Interactions on psychosocial well-being in an African context.

Ver Beek, K., (2002) International Service Learning – A Call to Caution in Gunst
Heffner, G., and Beversluis, Lantham, C., eds., 2002 Commitment and Connection:
Service-Learning and Christian Higher Education, MD: Univ. of America, Ch. 5.

Youth Support and Development Service (2006) The Four Stages of Streetwork.
National Youth Agency

References to Web Pages
UNAIDS Available from:

Appendix 2: Methodology
The qualitative research consisted of in-depth analysis of interviews carried out by
the evaluation team in Bukavu, London and by telephone to Germany. Specifically,
the evaluators carried out the following fieldwork:
      Desk-top research
      One to one interviews with StreetInvest staff, trustees and President
      Interview with representatives of Street Child Africa
      Telephone interview with representative of Misereor
      Interview in Bukavu with managers of PEDER (Tomas, Sr. Francesca and
      Focus group in Bukavua with two groups of street children with the help of a
      Focus group in Bukavu with two sets of street workers who had been through
      the Introduction to Street Work programme with help of translator
      One Focus Group in Bukavu with some people who had been through the
      Training the Trainers programme with help of translator
The recordings from the interviews were all transcribed and general and unique
themes were identified and contextualised. In addition to this primary data a
literature review was carried out to provide a backdrop to work with street children
and access to Consortium of Street Children data base facilitated this process.
The Training Manuals were rigorously reviewed and end of course evaluation
reports from the training were also examined, along with written reports on the
training by PEDER and StreetInvest staff. StreetInvest’s Articles of Association and
Memorandum of Understanding were also presented as an aid to the evaluation.
The evaluators are confident that the methods used were rigorous and ethical.

Appendix 3: Ethical Considerations
The Evaluation Team considered the ethical dilemmas of carrying out qualitative
evaluation with street work practitioners and street children and they wanted to
conduct themselves professionally, characterised by transparency, genuineness
and being objective in their task. Connolly (2003) identifies three key ethical
principles that researchers/evaluators should aim to:
  1. Conduct their professional work with integrity.
  2. Respect the rights and dignity of those involved.
  3. Ensure (as far as possible) the physical, social, and psychological well-being
      of research participants.
                                                           (Connolly 2003:7)
For this evaluation a number of ethical principles were adhered to:
  a) The Evaluation Team encouraged the participation of all key stakeholders by
      stressing the importance and potential value of the evaluation.
  b) Informed consent of all participants (including street children) was sought well
      in advance of focus group interviews.
  c) Interviews schedules were forwarded to PEDER and evaluation participants,
      both for translation and clarification of purpose.
  d) The evaluator in Bukavu respected the privacy of the participants by making it
      clear to them that they were free to decide what information they wished to
      share and that they should feel no pressure or obligation to discuss anything
      that they didn’t wish to.
  e) Additional consent for the use of digital audio recording was also gained from
      participants and the evaluator explained what he intended to do with the
  f) At the beginning of each focus group interview the evaluator clarified the
      purpose of the evaluation and explained that to ensure anonymity the final
      report would not attribute comments to any named individual.

The Evaluation Team believe that this evaluation report is objective and presents an
accurate picture through all the collated data and analysis. They also believe that it
allows StreetInvest and other key parties to make sound and informed judgements
about the issues that need to be tackled in all future training of street workers and in
direct work with street children.


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