1. I am going to present a history of the Shroud that attempts to link it back to Jesus.
All that I will present is documented, but some of the parts are missing. Shroud
historians are trying to find these missing pieces.
In the Acts of Thaddeus it describes Thaddeus taking a cloth containing the image
of Christ to Edessa to cure King Abgar. Abgar became a Christian and so did
After Abgar died and as Rome increased its persecution of the Christians, Edessa
became less outwardly Christian as shown in the next viewgraph.
2. These are drawing of actual coins from Edessa. This Edessa coin dated around
180 to 192 AD shows a symbol of the cross. Coins a short time later gradually
remove the cross and replace it with other symbols.
3. It makes sense that under these conditions the Shroud would be hidden away for
safekeeping. This is what happened because in 525 AD it was discovered sealed
up over the main gate to Edessa, as shown in this 17th century Russian icon.
4. In 944 AD the Byzantine army besieged Moslem-occupied Edessa, obtained the
Mandylion and took it to Constantinople where it was shown only to monks and
artists. The paintings only show the facial image. However, some 12th century
documents mention a full-length image on the Mandylion. During the fourth
crusade the Mandylion disappeared in 1204.
5. There are documents that refer to the cloth of Edessa as “Doubled in Four.” If the
Shroud is folded double four times, counting as shown here, one obtains
something that looks like known paintings of the Cloth of Edessa.
6. The Crusader Robert di Clari kept a diary in which he recorded what he saw in
Constantinople in 1203. He says, “There was another of the churches which they
called My Lady St. Mary of Blachernae, where was kept the Shroud in which Our
Lord had been wrapped, which stood up straight every Friday so that the figure of
Our Lord could be plainly seen there.” In 1978 John Jackson had a photograph
taken of the Shroud with grazing incident light so he could see the fold marks on
the Shroud. The fold marks are shown here and marked A through G. Based on
these fold marks, John constructed this apparatus that he proposes was what
Robert di Clari saw. All folds in Johns apparatus match perfectly with those he
observed on the Shroud. John’s apparatus can be lifted up to reveal just the face
or one half of the body. This is further evidence that the Shroud, or Mandylion by
another name, was in Constantinople in 1203 and seen by Robert di Clari.
7. Now we come to a part of missing history. How did the Mandylion get to
Geoffrey de Charny in France in 1349? There are many stories proposed to
answer this and I will quickly present three of them.
The Knights Templar
Was it taken by or given to Knights Templar, who had castles all over France &
Knights said to have “Idol” of Christ
1307 King Phillip IV of France made surprise sweep against Templars and
searched for the Templar Idol. It wasn’t found.
In 1314 the Templars’ Grand Master and the master of Normandy were burned at
The Master of Normandy’s name was Geoffrey de Charnay
Was this Geoffrey de Charnay related to the Geoffrey de Charny who showed up
with the Shroud in 1349?
8. This supports the Knights Templar story
In 1951 a late 12th century painting was found in a Templar ruin in
This looks much like the 10th century painting of the Cloth of Edessa.
9. The Wife of Geoffrey de Charny Story
In 1207 the Mandylion was on the list of relics in Constantinople
From 1228 to 1237 Phillippe de Toucey was Regent in Constantinople.
The first wife of Geoffrey de Charny was Jeanne de Toucey.
Did Geoffrey de Charny get the Shroud via his wife’s family?
10. Empress Mary-Margaret Story
Byzantine Emperor died in attack on Constantinople. His wife was young Mary-
Mary-Margaret married Boniface de Montferrat, who led the Fourth Crusade.
They moved to Thessalonica where Mary founded the Church of the Image of
Edessa, now the Ancient Friday Church. Was it built to house the Mandylion?
Montferrat was killed in 1207 and Mary married Nicholas de Saint-Omer, a son of
one of the two founders of the Knights Templar.
Back to the Knights Templar story again!!
11. Geoffrey de Charny -- Now we return to the documented history of the Shroud.
Some, who think the Shroud is a fake, would say we are starting the history of the
April 10, 1329: Writes letter to Pope Clement VI asking permission to build a
church at Lirey France. He is in possession of the Shroud.
According to the “D’Arcis Memoradum,” written in 1389, the first expositions of
the Shroud are held in 1355. The memorandum claimed the Shroud was
fabricated by a known artist and its exhibit should be stopped. Memorandum
drafts are in existence, but no evidence that it was sent to the Pope.
1356 Geoffrey de Charny killed in battle; Shroud passed to son, Geoffrey II de
1389 Wife and son exhibit Shroud
12. Granddaughter, Margaret de Charny
1457 Geoffrey II de Charny’s daughter, Margaret, who is now at Geneva, is
threatened with excommunication if she doesn’t return the Shroud to Lirey. She
pays compensation and is not excommunicated.
1460 Margaret dies
1464 An accord is drawn up. Duke Louis I of Savoy agrees to pay the Lirey
canons an annual rent in return for ownership of Shroud. The Shroud now
belongs to the Savoys.
December 4, 1532: The chapel at Chambery, France, burns, severely burning the
1578 Savoy family takes Shroud to Turin
1986 Umberto II of Savoy dies, bequeathing the Shroud to John Paul II and his
successors, ending over four centuries of control by the House of Savoy.
13. In 1997 the Shroud was in another fire. Mario Trematore was the fireman who
laboriously broke open the bulletproof glass box in which the Shroud reliquary
was stored. Here he is after rescuing the Shroud and here he is four years later at
a Shroud conference in Dallas, Texas. Mario said his hair turned white very soon
after his harrowing experience.
Here a young lady from Champaign, Illinois is trying to embarrass The Very
Reverend Fred Brinkmann, organizer of the Conference.