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									  DEVELOPING A LITERATURE FOR YOUNG AFRICANS

  Maria Lúcia Pimentel de Sampaio Góes


Confrontation: Brazil, Portugal and Africa. Comprenant la lecture comme operation
pair laquelle on fait apparaître du sens dans le texte, ayant le lecteur en tant que
co-producteur ou co-auteur du texte, vu que c’est lui qui concretise et que prend
possession de ce sens. Lecture en tant que developpement de la perception de sens
travaille par la reflexion c’est notre proposition dans notre confrontation, ou le
Regar est l’espace d’ envenement. Nous avon choisi du Bresil, le livre O Tucunaré,
de Luiz Gouvea de Paula, Histórias em Ponto de Contar sur dessins d’Amadeo de
Souza Cardoso en partenaire avec Antonio Torrado et M. Alberta Meneres, “História
do Reino Pintalgo”, du Portugal, et de l’Afrique. O país de mil Cores de Octaviano
Correia.

We shall briefly reflect on Children’s Literature texts from Portuguese language
texts. In order to proceed to the reading of this intertextuality, we consider a
methodological procedure, which we call “ intertextually, we consider a
methodological procedure, which we call “intertextual perceptive reading”. Such a
procedure can be synthesized as INTEGRATION SENSTION AND ASSOCIATION
PERCEPTIONS: PRODUCING MEANING from our sensitivity, from the activation
of our human equipment (in alert), the five senses and intelligence interacting. It’s
not necessary, although praiseworthy and precious, total control of extra-literacy
codes, such as History of Art, Painting Techniques, Photography, what means
visual, sonorous and other arts. Practice will be great partner of this procedure.

II – INTRODUCTION–BRIEF REFLECTION ON ART OBJECT BOOK READING

The NEW OBJECT would be the book of Children’s Literature in prose or poetry,
which concentrates languages from complex nature. Such books constitute a rich
subject when compared to picture and written language books, or even when
compared to those in which illustrations are considered only ornamental and
referential functions. Carlos Reis says:
      “The reading concept can be faced under different theoretical perspectives
      and dealt with under different methodological aspects, from reading sociology
      to communication theory, through psycholinguistic, text theory and reception
      aesthetics.”


We will deal with reading in general terms (without any loss to the plurality
mentioned above) understanding the reading concept as “operation by which it is
possible to achieve meanings on the texts, having the reader as either a text co-
producer or text co-author, as it is him/her who makes it real and possesses these
meanings.” Citing Cohen:
      “Semio-narrative factors that restrict narratives, and the psychological and
      social-cultural circumstances that usually involve reading of narrative fiction.
      (...), The connection of the literary texts with basic human acts, language
      sources and our humanity are established.”

That’s why, Reading is giving yourself to the text, exploring one’s own feelings,
looking into their own reactions through the relation the texts present. Fiction texts
(artistic and literary) do that in a playful way, making learning possible, something
that the real world situations do not. On the contrary, they block, cause trauma,
subvert. Learning, from the reader-text relation starts with the sensorial aspects
(seeing and hearing), with the emotional aspects (identifying oneself, dis/agreeing,
rejecting, enjoying), with the rational aspects (thinking, analyzing, co-relating,
interpreting, criticizing). Antonio José Saraiva states that:
       “Art comes from reality, detaches itself from it and reappears in reality. Only
       the subjective existence of emotion can prove the objective existence of the
       piece of art”.
Fischer adds,
       “Art is necessary to make man able to get to know and change the world. And
       also, it is equally necessary due to the magic that belongs to it.”

Therefore, our purpose on this confrontation is a reading as a sense perception
development dealing with reflection, in which Looking is the space for Happenings.
The reception assumes the reader repertoire and his/her reflexive performance on
the related New Object.
    This results in Metalanguage or Metalinguistic reading. Many of the meanings
of the texts depend on their reading production for their development/clearance.
Reflecting on books (meaning the object) according to the traditional children’s
literature, attached to pedagogy, had the passive child reader as a purpose.
Children’s stories were seen as a process able to carry information of any order.
Today, one knows that Art, Literature and children’s books go through
modifications introduced by other technologies, from comic language to electronic
means. The text, real object, with verbal, visual and graphotypographic language
surpass the Traditional Physical Pack. This NEW OBJECT has to do with the
human equipment senses: smell, sound, sight, touch, taste, via word, via image, via
text, via texture, via game.
Today, we see the meanings of reading, of which history is the so called social-
economic-religious-artistic context, etc. Texts live in INTERTEXTUALITY. We
should read the room, reality, the Palestinian-Jewish conflict, the earth conflict,
texts elements I am going to link to others, intertextualize… one text on the other
weavening themselves, creating a kind of fabric. As readers, we should establish a
hierarchy, which without any kind of prejudice, will be able to lead to the
intertextuality reading, i.e. the text as language organization.
The teacher, who is the guide of this discovery adventure, needs to make the child
active, communicative and participative.
   IMAGINATION = IMAGE + ACTION

This means image that recognizes, knowing again. If in the Verbal Reading the
logical connection of the sentence structure is followed, the Non-Verbal Reading,
according to Lucrécia D’Alessio Ferrara, requires “view/reading, a kind of tactile,
multisensitive and synesthesic look.”
       To end this necessary introduction for the apprehension of the following
reading, we consider that many educators, for being impregnated by deviated
reading of Learning Psychology, which describes the thought structure development
stages, start to consider the child as a child being brought up dependent on the
“adult’s wisdom” and establish with or against the child a dominant and
authoritarian relation. According to Pallo and Oliveira:
       If on one hand the child lacks the complete abstractive capacity that enables
       them to complex analytical-conceptual nets, on the other hand they have a
       wide instinctive, pre-logical, inclusive, integral and instantaneous mind,
       which works by resemblances, correspondences between forms, discovering
       similarities between elements the rational logic has conditioned to separate
       and exclude them. Correspondences, synesthesy. All meanings are included.

Children’s literature considers the child as an entire being, so their content are not
built from pieces of work that do not respect them as intelligent, analytical and
active readers.

  III – READINGS IN CONFRONTATION – BRAZIL

In the attempting reading of “the discovery of the senses”, one tries to uncover the
dialectic of languages, concentrating on what is disfused. The book O Tucunaré (The
Tucunaré – a Brazilian fish) by Luiz Gôuvea de Paula, illustrated by Ciça Fittipaldi,
is a paraphrased rescue, rescue of form and simple form, in which the narrator rule
was established.
       The chosen dominant element, which has to rearticulate the other ones in its
structural reconstruction, is what represents the contrast in terms of discursive
narrative. Two base categories organize the text regarding the content plan: O
Tucunaré vs Piabinha. The text is paraphrasical, because it follows the fable
paradigm that uses the similarities of which theme is a confrontation between the
strong against the weak. In this point of similarities, one can recall the prototype
(base text or intertext) of this kind of fable, having as an example the known fable
“The Lamb and Wolf”.
Diagramming, expressive pictures in lines, forms and colors in complex games
compose this ageless semionarrative text reading that can be read by small kids,
who will do that from their repertoire, though stimulated by the Art Object,
allowing the fact, beings, object recognition and the discovery of the new, coming
from the specific articulations of this uniqueness. The semionarrative is formed by
visual segments and developed in a semantic and linear way, one before X one after,
in a tensional increasing game up to its climax. The reader, involved by this artistic
language concentration, is led to reflect, to recognize (what requires introspection),
and so to take his own conclusions.
   The two axies of the Subject are in a contradiction relation.
S                   S

Tucunaré            Piabinha

Large fish           small fish

Large mouth small mouth
Male              female

The S (Tucunaré ) is the axies of the complex and it involves S1 e S2.
PN = F (S1 > (S2 U Ov)

The narrative program, level of narrative structures is organized from the point of
view of actancial subjects. In this text, there are Subject Tucunaré and Subject
Piabinha. One does not deny or states contents, but one refers to competence, to
performance: the ability to transform, by the action of the subject, the states of
liberty and/or oppression. Topics are developed and become concrete by the usage of
images:
1- topic referring to imposition, the arrogant presence and dominating attitude of
Tucunaré .
2- topic referring to fragility which is identified by feminine characteristics, by
delicate physical aspects.
3- topic referring to falsity (all the deceiving situation created by Tucunaré ).
4- topic referring to possession (the strong ones swallow the weak ones).


Giving continuity to the initial reading, the structure “Tucunaré bocona gulosa” (T.
p. 3), “Tucunaré gluttonous mouth”, is written in pink and the other parts of the
text are written in light green (which is detached from the rest by using a deeper
green in an iconic spot which sends us to having thoughts of a river). There is also
the opposition of colors which make meaning more impressive both in the reading
referring to the graphotypographic language as well as in the relationship axis. To
me, it must not be read only at an expressional level (which must certainly be done
at due time), but to a content level in this narrative program in which elusion is not
only suggested but explicited. The young reader, on the pre-reader, beginner reader
or reader in process of any age cannot be mistaken. Tucunaré has deceived Piabinha
with his conversation. He has added wit and intelligence to his strength. In the
beginning there are hints of everything that will follow in the story. Verbal
language reiterates some facts; Piabinha bears fragility in her name, due to the
metonymic diminutive of it and to the opposition masculine versus feminine which
indicates that both strengths are not the same and this refers not only to the
question regarding different species, but also, and first of all, to the fact that there
is a big male fish and a little female fish.
       This illustration causes impact with the image of the male fish (Tucunaré)
with his mouth wide open and his head and big parts of his body out of the water,
having only his tail, of big dimensions, inside it (T – 4-5). The impression of big
strength increases due to what is hidden. Under an iconic dimension, there is the
intention of a clear outline referring to the Confrontation of Strength versus
Weakness, Power versus Fragility.
Following the idea of the elusion, one will find the verbal structure “he cried, kicked
about and let out his ‘Ouch’, due to a terrible toothache!” (T – p. 5-6). The graphic
representation which is a two page representation makes Tucunaré look bigger and
this contrasts with the tiny Piabinha which occupies a very reduced space. There is
the repeated usage of the diminutive construction: “piabinha, bobinha, inocente”
(Little piaba, little fool, naive) (T – p.6-7) (she was sure she could help) which
means “I will take care of you”.
The image goes marching through the scenery-route which is followed by the naive
one. Full moon transmits serenity and clarity which are more than enough to make
her see where she was going; the symmetric river; these positive factors are used by
her against herself; if, on the one hand, they denote the transparency of her actions,
that is, her trust, credulity and ingenuity, on the other hand make the performance
of her manipulator easier. By turning the page (T – p. 8-9), there is the impact
produced in a perfect combination between verbal and non-verbal language: a
strong tone of red, which later becomes darker, of a GIANT ARROW. The
conventional sign of direction, iconic representation, a very intelligent
invention/finding of the illustrator, is the perfect synthesis of Piabinha’s
irremediable way. Verbal language, on a second plan, allows a beginner reader to
discover image by reading the quatrain (two centimeters high, bold letters):

       “ Se fez de dentista           “ She turned into a dentist
         foi logo entrando            and started entering
       na boca enorme                the enormous mouth
       repleta de escuro”             full of darkness”.

There is the piabinha and the black stripe which indicates the meeting line of the
closed jaw that would swallow her; this moves to the discursive level.
The “Giant Arrow” introduces excessive tension under two aspectual points of view:
subject of action, subject of state.
       For Piabinha, the breaking of the contract is immediate, “The gate was
closed” (the image of the teeth, the dental arches), as well as the state, a “Trust
crisis” which configures or is figurativized by the metaphor “the gate was closed”
(verbal language) and the aquatic image that is half cut (T – p. 11) by the horizontal
black line and the silhouette of a headless piabinha who is clearly being swallowed,
devoured. By whom/ (T – p. 10. The verbal language is in bold, letters which are
absolutely enlarged: “O TUCUNARÉ FECHOU O PORTÃO” (TUCUNARÉ HAS
CLOSED THE GATE). The meaning of malevolence is the same as the sender
Tucunaré.
The text uses the semantic resource known as anchorage (content level) which is
iconized by non-verbal language (and not only to the expressional level) by the
whole presence in the text, for example, the icon-river.
        The enunciator Tucunaré has built a judging device by crying with his “Ouch,
ouch” and stating he had a terrible toothache. The receiver (Piabinha) has listened
to the crying and interpreted it as something urgent to be taken care of. The “Ouch,
ouch” puts the actor (I – Tucunaré) as a sufferer, a victim of great pain, bringing,
implicitly, the disjunction in another temporality (a little more time), not a victim
but a killer (a devourer). Her action? She turned herself into a dentist! The sender
has created some effects of truth (though in the being-resembling category) in the
message sent. Tucunaré, as a sender, has been able to use the effect of
dissimulation.
   Yet, one must reflect upon the judging modalization referring to the
interpretative doing, focusing on manipulation, involving the being and the
resembling aspects. The two judging modalities:
   being X resembling
   not resembling X not being

Tucunaré looks like a friend to Piaba and he gets her to do something,
therefore this ability to get others to do things, this do-do is of a
cognitive order and it also takes to the execution of something of a
pragmatic order (get in his mouth) and

“THE GATE WAS CLOSED” and Piabinha
“HAS BEEN TURNED INTO A MEAL”

One registers the term clutch (a return to enunciation) put in the interior of
discourse as a mark that creates effect and meaning. Direct speech is not used any
more, but the third person singular instead of the first one. Subjectivity has moved
away from speakers (Tucunaré and Piaba), he closed the gate, she was turned into
a meal. As in the Fable, The Lamb and the Wolf, strength is the winner. While the
Wolf does not manipulate, only tries to use good arguments, he is defeated by the
lamb. Then, he (the Wolf) reveals himself completely. Tucunaré is dissimulate, “he
does not look like a killer, but the is the killer”. Metaphors and Metonyms as speech
images in the interaction of codes. Therefore, Piaba in the stomach of Tucunaré
represents the metaphor of devouring of powerful people when they use a
misleading argumentation in order to get their meals and satisfy their insatiable
hunger. The innocent and naïve follow the giant arrow, as cattle going to the
slaughterhouse. The verbal and non-verbal images are like isotopy connections;
connections are made by polyssemy.
       By analyzing the content plan, there comes the moment of reflection about
the expression plan. When one deals with a text with aesthetic function as it
happens to the book O Tucunaré, author and co-author recreates life by the usage of
words in verbal language and by image in graphic or plastic arts, by using space in
the diagramming, by using photographs in the respective arts and by the use of
sound in arts related to auditive structures (music, movies):

[1] Par ailleurs, les historiens des arts (art du charpentier comme de l’ architecte)
nous rappelleront que le teme pictura, aux temps modernes, avait une extension
bien plus grande que l’ usage du terme au XXe. siècle. Ils savent que le domaine de
la peinture a été considérablement plus étendu dans son emploi classique, c’est-à-
dire avant la formation de l’ expression funeste beaux-arts (d’ailleurs toutà fait
périmée dans le vocabulaire technique de l’ esthétique contemporaine)”;

IV – PORTUGAL

“História em Ponto de Contar” (Ready-to be Told Stories) – PORTUGAL, by António
Torrado and Maria Alberta Menerés, about drawings by Amadeo de Sousa-Cardoso
(1887-1918). The ardent painter has associated experiences with color to traditional
motifs of his homeland. The painter took part in the revolution of plastic arts from
the beginning of the century which has given birth to movements like futurism,
cubism and abstractionism. Verbal language arose from a dialogue between
intertexts, paintings and the readings inspired by them. The painter’s technique,
china-ink drawing, comes from suggestions guided by medieval tapestry. Authors
start their works from these implicit suggestions contained in the drawings making
them communicable to young receivers by the fantasy of narrative. Amongst the
various stories the one chose to this comparative reading was “História do Reino
Pintalgado” (History of the Spotted Kingdom).
       This story is about a time when the whole world was even. But when the
subject is painting, there are a few sprinkles left. After that, one has started to
consider that having a few spots was a sign of nobility. The world created to isolate
differences had ruined and the kingdom was divided between the ones who had
spots and the ones who also wanted to have them. There were prohibitions: no
foreigners here, contagion must be avoided!
However, there were people who would cheat these rules:
       “What no one knew or imagined was that the king and the queen, disguised
       and not obeying their own orders, liked to escape the siege of the walls they
       had built themselves, and they like to ride all through the night sprinkling
       the dense bush with frightened rabbits.”
It was like this that one spot here, one spot there, everything ended up colored with:
“points and tiny, spots and tiny spots, stains and tiny stains!… so much different
from the even world in the beginning of this story.”

In the text above, the dominating structural element of the narrative is contrast,
the opposition that puts men apart, getting the ones that do not possess privileges
rid of the powers of the strong ones. This lato sensu a generating reason for
lineages, classes, authoritative hierarchies, oppressions, everything that man has
invented and invents not to respect the limits of the other, whomever he is, seen as
a different being. Event though there are arguments that differences exist due to
race, religion, habits, ideas, parties, nationalities, etc, many of the ones who talk
about equality were responsible by brutal and loathsome kinds of discrimination
and they still are. There is no difference between the vanguard manicheism and the
false moralists; the ideological vigilance, wherever it comes from, creates
fanaticisms which are not martyrized in the fires of Inquisition, but in the
devastation of passions.
The narrative referring to the Spotted Kingdom is metaphorical, and there is the
birth of the non-industrial work of language in a beautiful counterpoint with the
drawings of Amadeo Sousa-Cardoso which produce sensitive, ethic and aesthetic
resoundings in fluent and critical readers.

V – AFRICA “O País das Mil Cores” (The Country of a Thousand Colors) by
Octaviano Correia

In this story, there is a country where men were colorless. The CONTRAST remains
as structural dominant. The verbal code starts numbering nature, plants and
animal components, i.e. earth, water and air components, where even the weather
was colorful, but men. “Nobody realizes that and they were all happy”.
   Contrast: no one x everyone.
The visual + codegraphitypographic codes are complex, offering different ways of
readings.
The initial double-page present the predominance of the White color. The first page
is all white and the whiteness of the second one is interrupted by some letters and a
colorful circle (which means a progressing metaphorical icon: Planet,
Earth/Country)
The signified is used in this kind of letter (small and capital) in a special
disposition. The result is concrete poetry in a semantic game with sonorous, visual
and verbal images.
The sequence brings rupture to the previous harmony which gives place to an
inversion: men became colored and nature, culture and values have lost color and
happiness.
Visual language establishes color absence in the representation of men and scenery
as levels of sadness and privation. The agents of rupture are: the bosses of war and
death that devour the colors of birds, dawn and others, making the color tones of
men darker. Justice, happiness and peace have been swallowed.
The visual code, in impressive images which connote transparency, require a reader
with a sensitive and perceptive look.
The absence of images and colors is replaced by the gradual increase of colored
images till its superposition that ends it, which is the first part of the narrative. We
have, again, the special configuration where the white color assumes total
importance. Firstly, it iconisizes the transformation of the Country of a Thousand
Colors into the Transparent Country. After that the opposition white versus red
that appears in “the little red spot”… an adversative full of intentionality, “but
RED” (Capital and bold letters which emphasize the code of color red).
The narrative advances always making use of special disposition, letter type,
diagram for the meaning of it, what requires an attentive and perceptive look. A
reader, who is not used to this language concentration, will understand the least of
this text, missing it as an open and dense work.
The fight-opposition between the dominated ones and the Bosses of the war and
death invert the situation. The Bosses told them to clean the stain off:

“They have rubbed the red stain
They have scratched the red stain
They have grasped the red stain
They have shot the red stain dead”

The verbal structure synthesize all man-against-man oppressions by this repeated
parallelism constituted of clear lexical, syntactic and semantic isomorphism , but in
sublime metaphorical code.
The adversative advances the final segment and the narrative climax, followed by
temporal mark “but the following morning”.
The organization concentrates on the “little stain” growing up day after day (and on
each of the representation in images) prevailing the visual code.
The colorless men lift a red baby and its fingers touch the big red stain. The
meaning of this metaphor is:
    RED / BLOOD / CHILDBIRTH / NATIVITY / LIFE
The gradual increase swallows everything and everybody, up to the point it gets the
whole center of the coupled page: only the word RED is in its axle, written in bold.
On the left hand side, there is a man, a woman and a child embraced, showing a
sense of union and love.
The next image shows a human chain. The falling chains in the visual sense; and
the verbal sense they say men have learned to be red, and they were ready to die for
it.
The thunders of the cannons were silenced and the Bosses’ voices never hear again.
And the graphotypographic resources shouting:
    “NO BOSSES”
The uncommon use of the invariable indefinite makes a definite exclusion of any
boss authenticity.
  AND O PAÍS DAS MIL CORES WAS NAMED AS WORLD.
  The signal reading is the following:
  GREEN = hope, Nature icon
  PINK ROSE = (moon and yellow) = Angola and Man freedom icon
  BLACK FAMILY = FIGHT SYMBOL oppression fight
  SYMBOL of NO BOSS

Metonimically, the fight of the Black against the White Invader é used as a
metaphor to represent the fight of oppressed vs oppressor and it is used as a
allegory for the freedom of the Man, and so of the World.
Summing up, the Art Object book of Children’s literature in the Portuguese
language, by its meta-language and intertextuality, enunciates verbal and non-
verbal signs in “discursive over systematization that inter-act”, according to
Benjamin Abdala Junior, confirming his suggestion in Literature-History and
Politics.
        “The social-political adhesions from the participant writer cannot renounce
        from creativity. For a more dialectic praxis, he obtains more open articulatory
        models that, in an inverted movement from the piece of art to life, can allow
        him a deeper insertion in his own social life.”
We do hope that by this reading we have demonstrated that children’s literature is
one of harmonic tones of “collective group of the Engaged Portuguese Literature and
it is also one of the factors that makes us consider the existence of a literary
macrossystem in Portuguese according to Benjamin Abdala Junior´s proposal.

VI – CONFRONTATION SYNTHESIS
The Brazilian text O Tucunaré can be an enjoyable reading for any sensitive person
who is, usually, a child, for having a playful dimension. The text goes from the
Tucunaré “pretending” level, who cheats naïve Piabinha, in order to captivate and
devour her.
The oppositional pair: strong versus weak.
The poetic Portuguese text Estória do Reino Pintagaldo reveals, in a deeper
way, the opposition between equality x difference. The metaphors makes
“human depth” emerge: greed, superiority desire, the will to be beyond and
above the others, after all, the countless reasons that generate lineages,
rejections, hatred and wars…
The symbolic Angolan text O País das Mil Cores (The Country of a Thousand
Colors) presents the changes of an ideal world to a cruel-mortal one. The Bosses of
War and Death who triumph till the appearance of a Symbol, the “Little Red Spot”.
The text enlarges itself till it gets configurated as an Allegory. The Red Spot will
install the desire for fighting, for a rebellion, the desire of non-submission, the
anxiety of saying No, the will to be free.
In the spatial context of the Angolan text, meanings point to the fight for freedom
which is assumed by political factions. I think, however, that the author was able to
go from the particular to the universal, reaching it, due to the fact that the Colorless
Men were able to hold a Red Baby with its little fingers touching the already
Enormous Red Spot which followed the route:

  RED/BLOOD/DELIVERY/BIRTH/LIFE.

The greatest human aspiration, a Free Life, requires No Bosses.
One can conclude the following:

Oppositional Pair           Brazilian text = strong X weak

Strong X Weak              Playful metaphorical

                          Portuguese text = superior X
inferior
   Poetic metaphorical symbolic
   Angolan text = the Bosses of
Power X victims
   Allegoric metaphorical
   VII- BIBLIOGRAPHY
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16-TORRADO, A. et MENÈRES, M.A. Histórias em ponto de contar. Lisboa,
Editorial Comunicação, 1994,
   xxx




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