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									Lakol Wicohan Un Tawacin Api
            Iciya Pi
(Healing of Thoughts/Emotions
   using the Lakota Culture)

      Hmuya Mani-Richard Two Dogs
    Example of Historical
    Unresolved Grief/Loss
       Wounded Knee 1890

•Intergenerational loss

•Loss of teachings from one
generation to the next

•No time to grieve appropriately
             Copyright Richard and Ethleen Two Dogs
Iyowaniye-Historical Trauma                          Iyowaniye-Historical Trauma
         Ancestors                                   Grandparents & Parents
Eg.Wounded Knee Massacre                             Eg. Boarding Schools

                               transference of

                        Iyowaniye - Personal Trauma
                        Any type of trauma or unresolved Grief
                        Passed to the next Generation
            Ki-Wasicu Aye
The Lakota/Dakota/Nakota people
have endured generations of
oppression, genocide and federal
policies designed for assimilation of
our people into the “mainstream” of
                        Oinajin Topa
                     Lakota Stages of Life
                                      NAGI YATA (spirit world)
                     Return to Spirit World       Pre-Birth +          Interruptions to
                                                                 Natural Life Cycle
                                                                 (e.g. abandonment,
                                                                 trauma at age 3)

           Age 50+                                                 Age 12+

Positive/Enhancement , e.g.
quitting drinking/drugs at
age 30 (e.g. strength based
                                              Age 21+
perspective)                                                                  E. Iron Cloud-Two
                                                                              Dogs, 2004

            AS A PEOPLE
               (Spiritual Cleansing)
• One of the healing ceremonies that is relevant
  to the native youth who are incarcerated is
  the “Wopakinte” or “wiping off” ceremony in
  which the individual goes into the Inipi, after
  the Inipi, an Elder (or older person) wipes the
  individual off with sage. If an Elder is not
  available, the individual can wipe him/herself
  off with sage. This signifies wiping away the
  spiritual residue left by the intergenerational
  trauma that is transferred from our ancestors
  to the youth as well as the youth’s own
  individual historical trauma.
It is a Lakota belief that everything has a spirit,
therefore grief, loss, anger and rage that the
native youth express have a spirit and without a
“wopakinte”, our youth can become burdened
and become vulnerable. This cultural
intervention along with other interventions can
prevent transmission of negativity and can lead
to a renewed sense of strength.
This has resulted in many of our people
becoming disconnected from their
culture as a way of life.
             Apiciya Pi
          (Healing from Trauma)
• When an individual experienced
  trauma, there were cultural
  interventions that were immediately
  applied to prevent the traumatic
  experience from having a long term
  effect on the individual.
Today many of the native youth who are
incarcerated in the penal system have
experienced trauma but have not had the
opportunity to heal through indigeneous
cultural interventions.

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