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Chapter 2 HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-BASIC CHEMISTRY by 9BM6wzi5

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									Chapter 2 HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-BASIC CHEMISTRY
Name________________________
I.Concepts of Matter & Energy
                                   Matter=”stuff” of the universe existing as
                                      ________________________________states on
                                      earth/solid has definite volume and shape;liquid
                                      only definite volume and gas-has neither
                                   Physical change-does not alter basic nature whereas
                                      chemical alters _________________________.
                                   ENERGYonly measured by effects on matter-
                                      __________________________________________
                                   ________________________energy of motion and
                                      potential is _____________________.
                                   Energy forms:
           1. ______________________-stored in chemical bonds-involved in cellular
              respiration
           2. _________________________-comes from movement of charged
              particles-used in nerve impulses
           3. __________________________-Directly involved in moving matter-
              eg.movement of limbs
           4. __________________________-travels in waves;electromagnetic
              spectrum-x-rays,infrared,visible light,radio,UV,gamma
                   Energy is usually converted from one form to another-some of
                      initial energy is lost to environment
II. Composition of Matter
                                   112 _____________-alike in atoms and unique
                                      atomic #/represented on periodic table,organized by
                                      atomic # and short hand representation is
                                      _________________-Look at Chart p.30
                                   Atoms made of positive protons and neutral
                                      ____________in nucleus,surrounded by
                                      _______electrons,in energy levels
                                   Atomic # = # protons
                                   Atomic mass #= # p+n
                                   Atomic mass –average of all isotope masses for an
                                      element

                     ______________________________are atoms that differ in
                      number of neutrons,are identified by mass number,and one
                      medical use is as tracers in medical diagnosis.---see.pp. 8 and 9
                     __________________________________occur whenever atoms
                      combine with or dissociate from other atoms
                     _____________________-2 or more combined chemically;more
                      specifically a compound




                                                                                       1
                      2 bonds we see in living things are __________________,w/a
                       transfer of electrons and ___________________________w/a
                       sharing of electrons
                      Outer -_____________________electrons determine bonding
                       capacity and thus properties
                      _______-charged atom
                      Polar molecules have unequal sharing of electrons ,as seen in
                       water




                          Water bonds to other water atoms by H- bonds-a weak bond
                          These combined H-bonds create a high surface tension
                          3 reaction types
                      A)   synthesis ----2H2 + O2 2H2O
                      B)   __________------H2O 2H2 +O2
                      C)   Exchange---2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 +H2
                           OR HCl + NaOH HOH +NaCl

III. Biochemistry:Chemical Composition of Living Matter
                          __________________ contain carbon ,but not all are
                            involved in living things(inorganic lack C-CO,CO2 and
                            cyanide 3 exemptions-they are inorganic)

INORGANICS_WATER
                                 1. high heat capacity(ie before a temperature change
                                     thus preventing us from sudden body temperature
                                     changes.
                                 2. ___________________________-“universal
                                     solvent”
                     Solute dissolves in a _________________ to make a solution-
                      Thus water able to transport many materials
                                  3. chemical reactivity
                          __________________________reaction---water added to
                             the bond.




                                                                                        2
                               4.____________________________-protective as in
                               CSF or amniotic
                               fluid……………………………………..
                               INORGANIC COMPOUNDS- SALTS
                          Salt contains cation besides H+ and an anion besides OH-
                           …examples:NaCl,KCl,CaI2
                          Easily separate into
                           ions_____________________________________
                          Because ions are charged particles,all salts are
                           ______________________________-able to conduct a
                           current
                          ______________-pH<7 and proton donor
                          ______________-pH> 7 and proton acceptor
                          pH measures H+ concentration
                          Acid +Base=Salt + water –all neutral




                     _____________prevents sharp pH change

FOUR CLASSES of MACROMOLECULES in Living
Things:
    1. Carbohydrates-FIRST SOURCE FOR ENERGY!!!!!inc. sugars,starches/have
        C,H and O in a 1:2:1 ratio
Example: C6H12O6= GLUCOSE
Sugars inc. monosaccharides(Glucose and
fructose,,disaccharides(Sucrose,lactose,maltose) and polysaccharides(starch and
glycogen)….Examples of



                                                                                      3
starches_________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________
    2. Lipids-made of C,H and O---look at lipid table p.47
    ---made up of often fatty acids and glycerol
    ___________________________________-are solid fats with all C-C bonds filled-no



   double or triple bonds….
   ___________________________________-are liquids and they have at least 1 C-C
   double bond




                                   Neutral fats_triglycerides-in fat deposits-
                                    in subcutaneous tissue and around organs-
                                    protect,insulate and major energy source
                     Trans fats----oils solidifies by adding H atoms----
                      considered bad for the cardiovascular system
                     Omega -3 fatty acids(in cold water fish)-help your
                      heart and immune system
                     Phospholipids found in cell membrane




                     ______________________fat soluble-inc. cholesterol
                      and hormones-cholesterol basis of all body steroids
                     ________________________a breakdown product of
                      cholesterol;released by liver into digestive tract-aid in fat
                      digestion and absorption
                     ____________________-cortisol;aldersterone
                     Includes vitamins A(for vision)E(wound
                      healing,fertility,antioxidant),K(for
                      clotting,Prostaglandins-from fatty acid-membranes(used
                      in labor,blood pressure,movement in digestive tract and
                      in inflammation),lipoproteins(transport fatty acids and
                      cholesterol in bloodstream-HDL and LDL-bad
                      cholesterol)

   3. PROTEINS-made up of monomer of amino acids;>50% organic
      matter,contain C,H,O,and N,~ 20 amino acids,polypeptide is another word
      for protein and peptide bonds join amino acids


                                                                                  4
           Fibrous(or structural) Proteins are in most body structures;provide
            strength-eg.collagen in bones,cartilage and tendons…..also
            KERATIN—protein of hair and nails
           Globular proteins-mobile and mostly spherical and DO things---
            FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS----examples:enzymes-regulate
            reactions---H-bonds and van der waals force help them-like
            hemoglogin,keep their shape
           Draw an enzyme –substrate complex and label active site



           Enzymes usually end in –ase(sugars in –ose)
    4. NUCLEIC ACIDS-made of C,H,O,N and PDNA provides heredity and
       RNA takes DNA’s info to make proteins/the monomer is a nucleotide
       consisting of sugar,nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.Label the
       nucleotide for DNA,then RNA:




-


ATP is the energy storage molecule-This is what carbs are broken down
into so we can get usable energy---ATP and ADP continually recycle




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