ch 6 rise of islam by 9BM6wzi5


									   Chapter Six
The Rise & Spread of
                   6th Century Arabia
   Bedouin life        Camel dependent nomads dominated Arabia.
                         – Polytheistic
                         – Women had important role
                        Alliances/warfare among tribes/clans
                        Pressures for change came from the Byzantine
                         and Sassanid empires and from the presence
                         of Judaism and Christianity.
                        Muhammad - member of the Banu Hasim clan
   Muhammad             of the Quraysh, was born about 570.
                         – Orphan
                         – became a merchant
                         – resided in Mecca
                         – married a wealthy widow, Khadijah
                         – Encountered monotheistic ideas
                         – dissatisfied w/material gain and went to
                           meditate in the hills
                         – In 610 - received revelations transmitted from
                           God via the angel Gabriel
                         – collected in the Qur’an - basis of Islam
Arabia – time of Muhammad
                      Persecution, Flight, and Victory

Muhammad                – Umayyads felt threatened - Ka’ba god
                        – Invited to Medina - 622
                        – Return to Mecca - 629

                      Arabs and Islam
                      Umma – community of the faithful
                      Universal Elements in Islam - 5 Pillars
                             1. Faith--acceptance of Islam
   Explain the              2. Prayer towards Mecca 5 times daily
    5 pillars of             3. Fasting during Ramadan
    Islam                    4. Payment of zakat (charity tax)
                             5. Hajj—pilgrimage
                      Strict moral code - temperance, humility, justice,
                       generosity, tolerance, obedience, and courage; a
                       ban on alcohol and pork; polygamy - permitted,
                       with four wife limit
                      Slavery was practiced, but Muhammad
                       encouraged the freeing slaves
                      Day of Judgment
                      Sacred books: the Koran; the Hadith - sayings of
                       the Prophet; and the Shari’a - Islamic law
      Islam’s          Monotheism
      Appeal           Legal code - Religion & politics mixed
                        = holy war – or Jihad
   What               Egalitarianism
    accounts for
                       Communal
    popularity of      Built upon Judaism & Christianity –
    Islam?              did not claim that J & C were incorrect
                        – just that Islam was a refinement of
                        those earlier religions
                       No institutionalized church or clergy or
                        elaborate ritual
                       Mosque - place of worship & teaching
                        by scholars
                       no statues or religious images
                       No need to accumulate great wealth
                        like Catholic Church
          Consolidation & Division in the Islamic
   Was the
    caliph a          No procedure for selecting a new leader
    political or      Abu Bakr – early convert; friend of Muhammad;
    religious          divorced 1st wife b/c she would not convert to Islam
                      Chosen as caliph - leader of the Islamic
                      Ridda Wars – rival tribes & prophets defeated
                            restored Islamic unity
                      Motives for Arab Conquest
                            Islamic Conversions & Booty
                      Sassanian (Persian) Empire - easily defeated
                      Byzantium - Arabs quickly seized western Iraq, Syria,
                       Palestine, and Egypt.
                      By the 640s - Arabs - naval supremacy in the eastern
                       Mediterranean; extend into north Africa and southern
Expansion of the Islamic Empire - 7th and 8th Centuries
The              Uthman
                        3rd caliph - murdered
 Problem of
                 Ali
 Succession          Rejected by Umayyads
                     lost the support of his most radical adherents,
                 the Umayyads won the renewed hostilities
                 The Umayyad leader, Mu’awiya, was proclaimed
                  caliph in 660.
What             Ali was assassinated in 661
                  His son, Husayn, was killed at Karbala in 680.
  caused      
                 The dispute left a permanent division within
  the             Islam.
  Sunni          The Shi’a, eventually dividing into many
                  sects, continued to uphold the rights of
- Shi’a           Ali’s descendants to be caliphs
  split?         Sunni – Umayyads
                  Shi’a – Ali’s descendants
                 The Umayyad Empire’s push west
                  – Stopped by Franks at Poitiers, 732
                  – Retain Iberia

 Converts       Mawali, non-Arab converts
 People of
  the Book
                 Dhimmi, people of the book
                  – Jews, Christians
                  – Zoroastrians and Hindus

   Fall of    Umayyad Decline and Fall
                  Abassid revolt

                  750, Umayyads defeated by Abassids
The First Encounter of Muslims & Indian culture -Buddhism

   Commercial relations between India and Mesopotamia began as early as
    3000 BCE and between India and Egypt, through intermediary ports of
   In 255 BCE, the Indian Mauryan emperor, Ashoka (r. 273 - 232 BCE),
    sent Buddhist monks as ambassadors to establish relations with
    Syria, Egypt & Macedonia.
   Communities of Indian traders, both Hindu and Buddhist, settled in some
    of the major sea and river ports of Asia Minor, the Arabian Peninsula and
   Indians of other occupations soon followed.
   The Syrian writer, Zenob, wrote of an Indian community, complete with
    its own religious temples, in modern-day Turkey, and a Greek, Dion
    Chrysostemos (40 – 112 CE), wrote of a similar community in Alexandria,
   With the decline of Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations much
    of the trade between India and the West came through Mecca,
    birthplace of Muhammad (570 - 632 CE)
   Indian communities established themselves in the Arab world – Jats (of
    modern-day Basrah, Iraq) The Prophet’s wife, Aisha, was once treated by
    a Jat physician.
   Muhammad was undeniably familiar with Indian culture.
      The Early Abassid Era
 Sunni rule – less tolerant; rulers more authoritarian
   – repressed Shi’a
   – New capital - Baghdad
 Islamic conversion increased (WHY?) & Mawali accepted
 Urban expansion - growth in wealth and status of
    merchant and landlord classes
     – Muslim merchants moved goods from W. Mediterranean to the
       South China Sea
     – increased artisan handicraft production
     – skilled artisans formed guild-like organizations to negotiate wages
       and working conditions
   Ayan – rural, landowning elite
   Peasants – tenants farmers - had to give most crop to landowner
   Slaves - unskilled laborers & servants to caliphs & high officials
   **Few slaves held powerful positions & gained freedom**
   Most unskilled slaves, many of them Africans, worked under terrible
               Growth of Islamic Learning
                      Under the Abbasids - mosques & palaces built
                      Religious, legal codes, philosophy, sciences and
   Islamic            mathematics records written
    learning          Arab scholars recovered & preserved the
                       works of Greeks & passed them to the
                       Christian world (during Crusades)
                      Introduced Indian (“Arabic”) numbers to
                       Mediterranean world

                      The Turkish people converted to Islam
   1st global        Arabs had created the first global civilization,
    civilization       incorporating many linguistic and ethnic groups
                       into one culture through Islam - one of the great
                       universal religions.
                      In both religion and politics, Muslims
                       adopted much from earlier & contemporary
   Compare women in the Islamic world
    with women in India, China, and the
    Byzantine Empire.
    – Legal rights
    – Marriage Family Life
    – Education/Economic role

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