9th iacc workshop ETHIOPIAS NATIONAL ANTI CORRUPTION STRATEGY

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					ETHIOPIA
                            9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                                                  Draft for Discussion
ETHIOPIA’S NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION STRATEGY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                                                                             This strategy may be preferable in the short-term. However, in the
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES TO CONSIDER
                                                                             long run, we should aim at creating local capacity by providing
In order to be effective, the initiation for fighting corruption             sufficient training.
should come from the concerned country, preferably from the
                                                                                All anti-corruption activities should be participatory with the
government. External efforts should aim at creating an indigenous
                                                                             centre of stakeholders’ participation revolving around the in-
initiative not, of course, by force.
                                                                             volvement of the civil society.
    Once such an indigenous initiative is created, support should
                                                                                 However, participation should not be considered as only
be garnered from donor countries and/or organisations for funding
                                                                             formality. In order to achieve real participation, expert work is
projects designed to fight corruption and build capacity.
                                                                             necessary to publicise the background of the issue for discussion.
    Capacity building can be facilitated by experts that advising or         It is only in this respect that stakeholder participation can be
assisting the concerned officials in their fight against corruption.         meaningful.
                                          9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                Prioritizing Problem Areas

      Problem               Who benefits          Who loses        Actions already taken                                Actions to take                                Expected results/by when
                                                                                                   Government               Civil Society               Team

Rule of Law: Lack of capacity of judges with respect to case loads

Lack of skill in             Suspects            The public     Government declared to            Mobilise                  Participation         Design          Before Sep/99
respect to handling          Defendants          The innocent   fight against corruption        resources                 in stakeholder          projects                Project design
cases of corruption                                                                                 Drafting effici-       meetings                 Raise funds
                             Criminals           Government                                                                                                               Recruitment of
                                                                                                  ent procedure &             Undertake             Recruit              consultant
                             Corrupt                                                             evidence law              research on the         consultants        Sept/99 – Nov/00
                                                                                                    Create an effi-        existing system
                                                                                                                                                      Co-ordinate          Drafting the proce-
                                                                                                  cient judicial              Publicising          Government &           dures & evidence will be
                                                                                                  system by re-             the problems &          civil society          completed
                                                                                                  structuring the           solutions               activities
                                                                                                  organisations                                                        Nov/99 – Jan/2000
                                                                                                                              Create                 Approve draft
                                                                                                     Development of        forums for public                               Designing system &
                                                                                                                                                    legislation &
                                                                                                  training packages         participation                                  procedures will be
                                                                                                                                                    send to
                                                                                                  & conduct training                                                       completed
                                                                                                                                                    respective
                                                                                                    Revise existing                                bodies for final   Jan – March/2000
                                                                                                  Penal Code &                                      approval                 Development of
                                                                                                  criminal                                                                 training program will be
                                                                                                  procedures                                                               complete & at least the
                                                                                                                                                                           first training will be
                                                                                                                                                                           completed
Inadequate judicial                                               Justice and legal reform
system and                                                        program launched
procedures
Lack of technological                                             Design to strengthen the
support                                                           capacity of the judiciary
                                           9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                        Prioritizing Problem Areas

      Problem              Who benefits              Who loses             Actions already taken                                    Actions to take                          Expected results/by when
                                                                                                            Government                Civil Society           Team

Inadequate criminal                                                      Design to develop Code of
law in respect to                                                        Conduct
controlling corruption




                                                                                           Civil Service Reform

   Reform Proposal               Anticipated Benefits                   Anticipated Risks or              Anti-Corruption Contribution             Steps Leading to Action      Where the Bank Can
                                                                             Objections                                                                (Gov’t, CS, CG)                Assist
Decentralisation of              Improved efficiency &                In the short term on a          In the short run it will be modest,      Gov’t                         Assist on capacity
basic social services to       responsiveness to changing            limited scale misappropriation     but in the long run it will have great                                 building
reg’l administration           service delivery environment          of quality public administration   contribution
                                 Increased response to              due to low capacity to shoulder
                               political & reg’l pressures for       decentralised
                               more decentralisation
                               services taken closer to
                               local people
                                Increases the sense of
                               ownership and hence
                               honesty
Fiscal decentralisation         Effective & efficient                  In the short term on a         In the short run it will be modes &      Gov’t                         Technical assisatance in
                               mobilisation of resources             limited scale misappropriation     in the long term it will be effective                                  terms of info & training
                                  Effective & need-based            of fund
                               financial decision
                                 Effective utilisation
                                           9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                          Civil Service Reform

     Reform Proposal             Anticipated Benefits                Anticipated Risks or                 Anti-Corruption Contribution     Steps Leading to Action    Where the Bank Can
                                                                          Objections                                                           (Gov’t, CS, CG)              Assist
Autonomous central              Standard system of                If it is participatory there will   Modest                           Gov’t                       Financial support
agency for university          education quality                 not be risk
education syllabus               Effective utilisation of
designing examination          scarce expertise
1.    Privatisation of          Increased efficiency &             Financial pressure on              Modest                           Gov’t                       Capacity building
     hospitals                 quality of service                clients                                                                                             Finance
2.    Making them                Same                             Demoralises staff in em-            Modest                           Gov’t
     properties                                                  ployment elsewhere in the civil
3.    Selling attached           Mobilisation of needed         services pay will be higher in
                                                                                                        Modest                           Gov’t
     properties                resources                         autonomous institutions
4.    Creating an                                                  Triggers corruption
                                                                                                                                         Gov’t & Civil society
     agency for drug             Ensuring public safety                                                Significant
     enforcement
Improving Civil Service          Motivation of staff              Modest                              Modest                           Gov’t
Compensation System              Enhances the honesty of
                               the civil service
                                 Reduce Corruption
5.    Bank salaries with         Motivation of staff              Demoralise other staff              Modest                           Gov’t
     allowances of               Reduce corruption
     central gov’t to be
     raised
6.     Instead of gov’t          Motivation of staff              Creates an opportunity for          Modest                           Gov’t                       Financial support
     residence, en-                                              corruption
     courage employees
     to build their own
     houses
                                        9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                   Civil Service Reform

     Reform Proposal           Anticipated Benefits              Anticipated Risks or          Anti-Corruption Contribution     Steps Leading to Action   Where the Bank Can
                                                                      Objections                                                    (Gov’t, CS, CG)             Assist
7.     Monitisation of         Enhance equal treatment         Diversion of the money for   Modest                          Gov’t
     senior officers’        & standardised                   other purposes
     facilities                Serves as the basis for
                             establishment of fair pay
                                         9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                                                                                           Draft for Discussion
ETHIOPIA’S NATIONAL INTEGRITY STRATEGY
        Actions                      Who                  Resources              When         Time already                                Accomplishment
                                                                                               committed
Corruption Survey                 Gov’t (Ethics        World Bank          Within 60 days   54 days               The counterpart is already assigned
(preparation)                    Sub-Program)          Institute (WBI)                                              The independent organization is selected to do the survey
                                                                                                                    The questionnaire is selected and contextualization is underway
                                                                                                                    Selected pre-testing center
                                                                                                                    Selected languages and sample regions
Organizing Panel                 Walla                Commercial Bank      June 24, 1999    1 day                 Conducted a one-day panel discussion on the issue of fighting
Discussion for                 Information           of Ethiopia                                                 corruption, participated by different level officials, and civil society:
participation of civil         Center                  Ethics Sub-Program                                       -     Media
society against corruption       Civil Society        Christian Relief &                                       -     Chamber of Commerce
                                                     Development Pro-                                            -     trade unions
                                                     gram, Addis Ababa                                           -     women’s associations
                                                       Chamber of                                                  The Ethiopian Television and other media disseminated the Panel
                                                     Commerce                                                      Discussion for 7 days, 30 minutes air time each day
Strengthening Media               Gov’t (Ethics                            Within 90 days   54 days               The resource mobilization is successful
    Resource mobilize           Sub-Program)                                                                       The project will be helped by Canadian Int’l Development Agency
    Recruitment of                                                                                              (CIDA) and British Gov’t
  consultants                                                                                                       Recruitment of consultant is underway
Strengthening                     Gov’t (Ethics        WBI                 Within 90 days   54 days               Resource mobilizing & recruitment of consultant is still underway
Enforcement                      Sub-Program)           Other donors
    Resource mobilize
    Recruitment of
  consultants
Completing Inception              Gov’t (Ethics                             Within 90 days   54 days             Int’l consultant engaged
Development Central              Sub-Program)                                                                     Induction of training is given to the Core Team by the consultant
Body (for discussion)                                                                                             Assessment of present practice by consultant and local staff
                                                                                                                  Development of recommendation on the establishment of the
                                                                                                                 Central Body is underway
                                     9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




        Actions                  Who              Resources             When         Time already                            Accomplishment
                                                                                      committed
Code of Conduct (first        Gov’t (Ethics                        Within 90 days   54 days           Int’l consultant engaged
draft)                       Sub-Program)                                                              Assessment of present practice by consultant and local staff
                                                                                                       Conducted consultation workshop on the principles of Code of
                                                                                                      Conduct with stakeholders
                                                                                                       Development of the draft of Code of Conduct is underway
                                         9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                Ethiopia: Prioritizing Problem Areas
          Problems                         Who benefits?                         Who loses?                Actions already taken                    Actions to take
Lack of capacity/ efficiency of       Suspects                           Claimants                        Justice and legal reform program    Government:
judiciary and implementation          Defendants                         Public                           launched                                 Sustain the reform program
                                                                         The State                                                            Civil Society:
                                                                         Plaintiff                                                                 Participation in the program
                                                                                                                                              Team:
                                                                                                                                                   Work on building capacity of
                                                                                                                                                police, prosecutors and
                                                                                                                                                judiciary and educate public




                                                                   Ethiopia: Identifying Next Steps
            Problems                                           Actions to take                               Resources needed                  Expected Results and
                                                                                                                                                    by when?
                                        Government:                                                        WBI                               Within 60 days
                                        Prepare corruption survey (Ethics sub-program)
Lack of civil society participation     Founders of Society under function:                                Primary founders and TC/2/        September 30, 1999
                                        Register a civil society anti-corruption organization
Weak media                              Government Ethics Sub-Program:                                     WBI an other donors               Within 90 days
                                        Strengthen enforcement through mobilization of resources and
                                        recruitment of consultants
Lack of enforcement                     Government Ethics Sub-Program:                                                                       Within 90 days
                                        Strengthen enforcement through mobilization of resources and
                                        recruitment of consultants
Absence of an open discussion           Government Ethics Sub-Program:                                                                       Within 90 days
forum                                   Completing inception development of central body for discussion
Lack of accountability                  Government Ethics Sub-Program:                                                                       First draft within 90 days
                                        Code of Conduct
                                       9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                    ETHIOPIA: STRATEGY MATRIX
                                Problem                                                                                 Reform
Leadership
   Lack of personal stability because of frequent changes of management   Government and Stakeholders
   Inefficient control mechanism                                             Reduce frequent change of management
                                                                              Capacity building in terms of personal skills
                                                                              Develop Code of Ethics
                                                                              Work together with anti-corruption central body
                                                                              Reward those who are faithful officials in order to encourage them

                                                                           Government, Stakeholders and Civil Society
                                                                              Introduce participatory approach
Civil Society
   They are also corruptors                                               Stakeholders:
   Hesitant in revealing corruption incidents                                 Strengthen Chamber of Commerce, Transistors Association, professional associations, and
   Lack of strong and active organization                                      religious bodies
                                                                               Develop Code of Conduct

                                                                           Stakeholders and Civil Society:
                                                                               These associations will establish Strategic Alliances with media and gov’t and other
                                                                                stakeholders to fight corruption
                                                                               Create public awareness
                                                                               Create alliance to fight corruption
                                         9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                             ETHIOPIA: CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
        (i)    Reform                    Anticipated Benefits                   (ii)      Anticipated Risks               Steps Leading to             Anti-Corruption
           Proposals                                                                                                     Action: Gov’t, Civil           Contribution
                                                                                                                        Society, Core Group
Decentralization of basic social          Improved efficiency and                Duplication of services               Government              Modest
services to reg’l administrations        responsiveness to changing               Misappropriation of public
                                         service delivery equipment              funds
                                          Increased response to                  Deterioration of quality of
                                         political and reg’l pressures for       public admin due to low
                                         more decentralization—                  capacity to shoulder
                                         services taken closer to the            decentralized responsibility
                                         people
                                          Increases in the sense of
                                         ownership and hence honesty
Fiscal Decentralization                   Effective and efficient                    Misappropriation                  Government              Negative
                                         mobilization of resources
                                          Effective and need-based
                                         financial decision
Autonomous central agency for             Standardized system of                   Poor contextualization of                                    Modest
university education, syllabus           education – quality                       higher education
designing examination                     Effective utilization of scarce
                                         expertise
     Privatization of hospitals          Increased efficiency & quality        Financial pressure on clients          Gov’t                   Modest
                                         of service                              Demoralizes staff in employ-
     Making them autonomous              Increased efficiency & quality        ment elsewhere in the civil             Gov’t                   Modest
                                         of service                              service as pay will be higher in
     Selling attached properties         Mobilization of needed                autonomous institutions
                                         resources                               Triggers corruption                    Gov’t                   Modest
      Creating an agency for drug        Ensuring public safety                Depletes public fund              
    enforcement                                                                  particularly if not a priority          Gov’t & Civil Society   Modest
                                       9th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC), 10-15 October, 1999, Durban, South Africa




                                                                        ETHIOPIA: CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
       (i)    Reform                   Anticipated Benefits                (ii)      Anticipated Risks                Steps Leading to          Anti-Corruption
          Proposals                                                                                                  Action: Gov’t, Civil        Contribution
                                                                                                                    Society, Core Group
Improving Civil Service                Motivation of staff                    Pressure on public financial         Gov’t                    Important
Compensation System                    Ensuring honest civil service         resources
                                       Reduce corruption

    Bank salaries with                Motivation of staff                      Demoralize other staff             Gov’t                    Important
     allowances of central gov’t       Reduce corruption
     to be raised
    Instead of gov’t residence        Motivation of staff                      Encouragement of corruption        Gov’t                    Important
     encouraging employees to
     build their own houses            Signal for transparency                  No risk
    Monetization of senior             Serves as the basis for                                                     Government               Important
     officers facilities               establishment of fair play

				
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