Governing Council 2 April 2005
of the United Nations Human
UN-Habitat Original: English
Nairobi, 4–8 April 2005
Item 4 of the provisional agenda*
Activities of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
(UN-Habitat): progress report of the Executive Director
Questions and answers on selected issues raised by the Committee of
Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Human Settlements
Programme during its preparations for the twentieth session of the
Note by the secretariat
The secretariat is pleased to circulate, in the annex to the present note, a document detailing
questions and answers on selected issues raised by the Committee of Permanent Representatives to the
United Nations Human Settlements Programme during its preparations for the twentieth session of the
Governing Council. The document has been reproduced as submitted, without formal editing.
For reasons of economy, this document is printed in a limited number. Delegates are kindly requested to bring their copies to
meetings and not to request additional copies. This document is printed on environment friendly paper.
Table of Contents
1. Q&A on Programme Focus of UN-HABITAT (draft Resolution L.1)…………3
2. Q&A on Foundation Budget of UN-HABITAT (draft Resolution L.1)……….. 6
3. Q&A on Natural and Man-made Disasters (draft Resolution L.2)………… 17
4. Q&A on Millennium Declaration Goal and the Slum Target …………………. 19
(draft Resolution L.8)
5. Q&A on Gender and Youth Activities at UN-HABITAT ……………………. 25
(draft Resolution L.9)
6. Q&A on Commission for Sustainable Development ………………………….. 28
(draft Resolution L.10)
7. Q&A on Habitat Programme Managers ………………………………………. 30
(draft Resolution L.12)
List of Annexes
1. Analysis of Impact of Limitation on Budget Reallocation ……………………... 8
2. Status of Contributions to UN-HABITAT, 2004 ………………………………9
3. Top 10 Donors to UN-HABITAT, 2000-2004 ……………………………... 10
4. Tentative Indicative Scale of Contributions ……………………………... 12
5. Dynamics of Urban Slum Problem, 1800-2050 ……………………………... 22
6. Slum Populations under Current and Modified MDG Target………………….. 23
7. Slum Population of the World, 2000-2020 …………………………….. 24
8. GA Resolutions on Patterns of Conferences…………… (attached independently)
9. List and Outputs of Habitat Programme Managers……………………………... 33
Q&A: PROGRAMME FOCUS OF UN-HABITAT
(draft resolution L.1)
Q 1: Is UN-HABITAT well-focused in its activities or is it undertaking too many activities
As a United Nations programme, the role of UN-HABITAT is to promote sustainable urbanization
and the reduction of urban poverty. Its mandate derives from the outcome of relevant international
conferences, in particular the Habitat Agenda, the Millennium Declaration, the Declaration on
Cities and other Human Settlements, the Johannesburg WSSD Summit, and from the specific
mandates given to the programme by various GA and GC resolutions.
The agency deals with a multi-sectoral/multi-faceted problems area requiring a multi-pronged
approach if it is to be effective. Prioritization in such a situation requires focusing on a package of
key interventions simultaneously. These areas of focus have been articulated in UN-HABITAT’s
strategic vision. They are: (i) urban governance; (ii) slum upgrading; (iii) urban water and
sanitation; and (iv) disaster management. These involve activities at different levels (global,
regional, national and local). They also involve different functions (normative, operational,
knowledge/capacity-building, monitoring, advocacy, and partnership-building). Different topical
areas such as shelter, land, infrastructure, urban management, environment, are then addressed.
UN-HABITAT’s strength is to combine actions at various levels (e.g., global and national) and to
create synergies between various functions (e.g. normative and operational).
The details of the package of interventions and their relative prioritization are clearly elucidated in
the work programme. Availability of resources finally determines the actual delivery of priorities.
Earmarking of resources by donors remains a constraint in terms of delivering strategic
interventions according to priority, but progress is being made through multi-year framework
funding agreements by a number of key donors.
Despite the above, the agency does not undertake any activity outside the agreed work programme
and does not consider itself completely supply-driven without direction.
Q2: Does the organizational structure of UN-HABITAT reflect these priorities?
The organizational structure of UN-HABITAT reflects the structure of the Work-Programme which
is organized in four functional sub-programmes. The topical priorities are reflected specifically in
the four expected accomplishments of sub-programme 1 which constitutes the global policy
component of the Work-Programme, implemented by the Global Division on shelter and
sustainable human settlements development. The other sub-programmes address the same topical
areas but from different functional perspectives (research and monitoring in sub-programme 2,
technical cooperation in sub-programme 3, financing human settlements in sub-programme 4).
Q3: On the first area of focus, urban governance, what are the relations between the
Global Campaigns and the various programmes and projects?
The Global Campaigns on Secure Tenure and Urban Governance are essentially advocacy
instruments and coordinating frameworks for all activities of UN-HABITAT which address the
management and sustainable development of cities and towns. The Campaigns produce a set of
normative principles which should guide policy makers, city managers and all urban programmes of
UN-HABITAT. These programmes focus generally on important aspects of urban development
such as environmental protection (Sustainable Cities, LA 21), security and safety (Safer Cities),
decentralization and subsidiarity (AGRED-GOLD), rural-urban linkages or municipal finance.
Country projects implemented by UN-HABITAT Regional Offices build capacities on the same
issues, applying the normative principles and tools developed by the Global Campaigns, for
instance, the systematic use of city consultations with all stakeholders. Local authorities are the
most important partners of UN-HABITAT in this area, at both global and local levels.
Q4: The second area of focus, slum upgrading, overlaps with urban governance and water
and sanitation. Why does it appear as a separate priority?
In the early 1990s, the shelter activities of UN-HABITAT were devoted to the promotion of
adequate shelter for all through enabling shelter strategies. After the Habitat II conference (1996), a
new strategic vision was adopted for UN-HABITAT to better cope with the realities of rapid
urbanization and urban poverty. The vision is much more concentrated on the needs of the urban
poor, i.e., on ensuring security of tenure and improving the lives of slum-dwellers under an
environment of participatory governance. The Global Campaign on Secure Tenure was launched in
1999 as an advocacy instrument, followed by the adoption of the slum upgrading target of the
Millennium Declaration in September 2000 in response to the “Cities without Slums” Action Plan
designed by UN-HABITAT and the World Bank as the first activity of the Cities Alliance. This
political commitment by heads of State and Governments encouraged UN-HABITAT to adopt slum
upgrading as its top priority and to take the lead in the implementation and monitoring of target 11
of the MDGs, as soon as the Centre was elevated to Programme status in December 2001.
Upgrading slums on a large-scale requires good urban governance, which engenders partnerships
with CBOs and NGOs, to create an enabling environment for pro-poor investments in housing and
infrastructure. The target requires that central and local governments consider the needs of the
urban poor as a specific priority, requiring specific efforts. This is why slum upgrading appears as
a separate and visible priority – associated with the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure – in the
Work-Programme of UN-HABITAT. This is the only priority addressed by the four sub-
programmes (upgrading policies in SP1, monitory target 11 and flagship reports in SP2, upgrading
projects in SP3 and financing slum upgrading in SP4).
Q5: The third area of focus, water and sanitation, is not specific to UN-HABITAT? Does
UN-HABITAT have the mandate to work on this topic?
Yes it does. The mandate of UN-HABITAT on water is well defined in GC resolution 19/6.
Many United Nations agencies are working on water and sanitation and UN-HABITAT is the
recognized agency within the UN system for urban water and sanitation. It is a member of the
Millennium Task Force No. 7 on water and sanitation and contributed to the work of the task force
through its global report on water and sanitation for cities.
At the request of the Administrative Committee for Coordination’s, Sub-committee on water
resources (respectively now renamed Chief Executive Board and UN-Water after WSSD), the
agency coordinated the observance of World Water Day in 1996. The global observance event was
held in Beijing hosted by the People’s Republic of China and organized by the agency. UN-
HABITAT has over 20 years experience working with Member States in the water and sanitation
The mandate and expertise of UN-HABITAT being on cities and other human settlements, it has
developed regional and local programmes on Water for Cities, contributing to the achievement of
target 10 of the MDGs in urban areas. In this framework, UN-HABITAT is the main agency
advising governments on the management of basic water and sanitation infrastructure and services
at city-level, particularly on water demand management, and the development of related
institutional capacities, and value-based water education. It is also launching major initiatives for
water and sanitation in small and medium sized towns in Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
In view of the variety and complementarity of international organizations active in the field of
water and sanitation, UN-HABITAT has established cooperation agreements with several United
Nations programmes (such as UNEP), regional institutions (such as the Asian Development Bank)
and bilateral agencies. It has also set up a Water and Sanitation Trust Fund to promote concrete
actions in developing countries.
Q6: On disaster management, why does UN-HABITAT give more attention to physical
reconstruction than to disaster mitigation?
An elaborate explanation of this issue is given in the Q&A of resolution L2 below.
Q7: UN-HABITAT also deals with cross-cutting issues. How are these issues linked to the
topical priority areas?
Cross-cutting issues refer primarily to the needs, interests and contributions of specific social
groups and partners, such as women and youth, AIDS orphans, the disabled, etc., in the area of
human settlements and housing. To address these issues UN-HABITAT has developed a
mainstreaming approach: a small unit at headquarters strategically located in the Research and
Monitoring Division is responsible for introducing the concerns of the group in question into all
relevant activities of the Programme. In some cases pilot projects complement this approach (e.g.,
women empowerment vis-à-vis gender mainstreaming) in order to generate new tested approaches
to inform better policy formulation, programme design and scaling up.
Monitoring – through statistics, indicators and the documentation of best practices – is not a cross-
cutting issue but a core function of UN-HABITAT, falling under the responsibilities of the
Research and Monitoring Division. Training and Capacity-Building are also functional
responsibilities, coordinated by a branch within the Global Division. It must be emphasized that the
mandate of UN-HABITAT, as restated in GA res. 56/206 that upgraded it into a programme, is “to
coordinate the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and to act as UN-system wide focal point for
all human settlements activities.” This makes monitoring a key function and priority for the agency.
Q&A: Foundation Budget
(draft resolution L.1)
Q1. What would be the impact of restricting the Executive Director’s authority to re-
allocate resources between sub-programmes?
The 10 per cent restriction proposed on the basis of the UNEP approach is too restrictive and would
severely curtail the Executive Director’s ability to re-allocate resources at short notice to where they
are most needed to avoid disrupting the smooth implementation of the work programme. An
analysis of the effect of the proposed resolution is shown in Annex 1.
The problem is the low base of core voluntary contributions amounting to about US$27.6 million
per biennium for UN-HABITAT versus UNEP’s US$142 million. In practical terms, in order to
make ends meet, as is often the case at UN-HABITAT, the Executive Director would need to
convene CPR meetings to get approval to move resources across budget lines in line with priorities
in programme implementation. For example, for the Regional Technical and Cooperation Division
(RTCD), a 10% re-allocation is equivalent to US$161,000 or ½ post.
While harmonization with UNEP is desirable, it would be detrimental to adopt a harmonization
policy piecemeal. Therefore, this measure would require that, like UNEP, UN-HABITAT also
adopts a Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions in order to increase its donor base and
improve the level and predictability of its core income. Presently, the agency depends on forecast
income drawn from a handful of donors and most of it remains unpredictable. The ten top donors
account for 94% of the total contributions in 2004. (See Annex II).
Q2. What are the differences between trust funds, earmarked contributions and facilities? Is
there a proliferation of Trust Funds and the like at UN-HABITAT?
A Trust Fund is a stand-alone fund which can be identified separately in the financial statements of
UN-HABITAT. Contributions can come from one donor or several donors and resources are
normally pooled and separate reporting by individual donors is not normally done. The pooled
funds are utilized for the objectives and purposes of the fund.
Earmarked contributions: These are not normally identified separately in the financial statements
of UN-HABITAT. They tend to emanate from individual donors giving contributions for a specific
activity. Reporting is done by individual donor as per the requirement of the agreement with the
Facility: A facility is a special trust fund, usually of a revolving nature and would normally involve
large sums of money, if funded. Funds would be earmarked for that facility and can be used to pre-
finance certain activities, e.g., pre-feasibility studies, rapid response, seed capital, etc., and there is
an expectation that the facility would be replenished from projects when they materialize or by
donors on a regular basis.
UN-HABITAT has 2 Trust Funds at the end of 2004: the Water and Sanitation Trust Fund, and the
Palestinian Trust Fund. There is also the Slum Upgrading Facility (SUF) and the Recovery
As to whether there is proliferation of trust funds at UN-HABITAT, a comparison with other
agencies, given below, speaks for itself, and might explain the inability of the agency to mobilize
adequate funds to effectively deliver its mandate so far. This is supported by the relatively better
mobilization of resources for the 2 Trust Funds and the Slum Upgrading Facility established by
UN-HABITAT compared to its other fund raising efforts. The establishment of the Recovery
facility, and other key trust funds, such as the regional and technical cooperation trust funds is being
proposed from this positive experience. There is no risk for the agency to have several trust funds.
Comparison with other Agencies:
AGENCY No. of
The Executive Director has delegated authority from the UN Controller to establish Trust Funds in
situations where they would facilitate mobilization of resources. This authority is exercised with
Q3. Why are there so many vacancies at UN-HABITAT yet to be filled? Why has the Deputy
Executive Director not yet been appointed?
The staffing table in the budget with 144 posts was approved in its entirety by the Governing
Council at its 18th session, in the context of the revitalization of UN-HABITAT. The Executive
Director was requested to mobilize financial resources for its full realization. In order to avoid past
financial difficulties, whereby there was a mismatch between recruited staff and predictable
financial resources to pay their salaries over time, it was decided to take a cautious approach in
filling the established posts. Posts are being filled slowly but surely, in line with increases in
predictable medium and long-term core income. Progress in resource mobilization has been made
(see Annex III) paving the way to fill most of the vacancies during the 2006/2007 biennium. Note
that no new posts have been requested under the Foundation budget.
As regards the appointment of the Deputy Executive Director (DED), this matter is under
consideration by the Secretary-General. He has already instructed the Executive Director to identify
suitable candidates for his consideration. Member states with suitable candidates are invited to
assist in this process. The duties and responsibilities of the DED are narrated in the STB
establishing UN-HABITAT and define the profile of the candidate. As the key administrator of the
Foundation the candidate must have, among other qualities, a strong background in finance and
proven fund-raising abilities and confidence of donors.
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF THE PROPOSED RESOLUTION TO LIMIT THE REALLOCATION OF RESOURCES
(in thousands of US$)
UNEP (Environment Fund) UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation)
Programme 20% Proportion Programme 20% Proportion 10% Proportion
Environment assessment and early warning 23,950 4,790 Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements development 9,274 1,855 927
Policy development and law 17,751 3,550 Monitoring the Habitat Agenda 8,632 1,726 863
Policy implementation 11,070 2,214 Regional and Technical Cooperation 1,609 322 161
Technology, industry and economics 25,954 5,191 Financing Human Settlements 3,651 730 365
Regional cooperation and representation 24,525 4,905
Environmental conventions 8,625 1,725
Communications and public information 8,125 1,625
Total programme of work 120,000 24,000 Total programme of work 23,165 4,633 2,317
Fund programme reserve 6,000 1,200
Support Budget 16,000 3,200 Support Budget 4,436 887 444
Grand Total 142,000 28,400 Grand Total 27,601 5,520 2,760
UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation) UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation)
Programme 40% Proportion Programme 50% Proportion
Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements Development 9,274 3,710 Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements Development 9,274 4,637
Monitoring the Habitat Agenda 8,632 3,453 Monitoring the Habitat Agenda 8,632 4,316
Regional and Technical Cooperation 1,609 643 Regional and Technical Cooperation 1,609 804
Financing Human Settlements 3,651 1,460 Financing Human Settlements 3,651 1,825
Total programme of work 23,165 9,266 Total programme of work 23,165 11,583
Support Budget 4,436 1,774 Support Budget 4,436 2,218
Grand Total 27,601 11,040 Grand Total 27,601 13,801
Status of the Contributions to UN-HABITAT in the year 2004
as at 31 December 2004 (United States Dollars) *
Country General Purpose Special Purpose Total Distributions
Algeria 10,000 10,000
Austria 86,075 12,100 98,175
Barbados 3,000 3,000
Belgium 1,492,110 1,492,110
Botswana 15,660 15,660
Brazil 20,000 20,000
Canada 62,672 3,014,176 3,076,848
Chile 5,000 5,000
China P.R. 129,940 129,940
Czech Republic 116,768 116,768
Ethiopia 14,771 14,771
European Commission 135,907 135,907
Fiji 3,558 3,558
Finland 537,623 419,510 957,133
France 158,028 143,309 301,337
Germany 371,310 346,488 717,798
Ghana 10,000 10,000
Greece 30,000 30,000
India 84,776 84,776
Indonesia 10,000 10,000
Israel 10,000 10,000
Italy 789,715 768,109 1,557,824
Japan 214,000 449,616 663,616
Kenya 50,000 50,000
Netherlands 1,490,830 5,217,171 6,708,001
Norway 2,448,350 1,829,968 4,278,317
Pakistan 6,005 6,005
Philippines 562 562
Poland 10,000 10,000
Republic of South Korea 10,000 10,000
Russian Federation 200,000 200,000
Rwanda 5,000 5,000
Spain 108,640 108,640
Sri Lanka 15,000 15,000
Sultanate of Oman 100,000 100,000
Sweden 1,331,735 2,514,840 3,846,575
Switzerland 304,231 304,231
Tanzania 3,588 3,588
Thailand 10,000 10,000
Trinidad and Tobago 1000 1,500 2,500
Tunisia 829 829
Uganda 1,941 1,941
United Kingdom 1,837,000 1,052,718 2,889,718
USA 745,575 248,452 994,027
Other Public Donors 3,670,847 3,670,847
Total 10,505,370 22,174,629 32,679,999
% of contributions from
94% 77% 81%
Top Ten Donors
*Excludes all contributions towards Technical Cooperation Activities
Top Ten Donors of UN-HABITAT 2000-2004
As at 31 December 2004
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
US$16,487,803 US$19,743,154 US$36,058,073 US$40,713,704 US$85,169,205
Country % Country % Country % Country % Country %
1 Netherlands 19 1 United Kingdom 15 1 European Community 18 1 Netherlands 20 1 Japan 11
2 Sweden 12 2 USA 8 2 Netherlands 14 2 Japan 9 2 Netherlands 9
3 United Kingdom 10 3 Netherlands 8 3 Sweden 8 3 Norway 8 3 Sweden 5
4 Canada 5 4 Sweden 7 4 Japan 8 4 Sweden 6 4 Norway 5
5 USA 4 5 Finland 7 5 United Kingdom 6 5 Canada 6 5 Community 4
6 Germany 4 6 Switzerland 6 6 Belgium 5 6 United Kingdom 4 6 Canada 4
7 France 3 7 Belgium 4 7 Norway 3 7 Italy 4 7 United Kingdom 3
8 Italy 3 8 Italy 4 8 Italy 2 8 USA 3 8 USA 2
9 Finland 2 9 European Community 4 9 Switzerland 1 9 European Community 2 9 Italy 2
10 Japan 2 10 Norway 3 10 Germany 1 10 Finland 2 10 Belgium 2
Data based on actual receipts as at 31 December 2004
The attached Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions (VISC) is only tentative and has to be
refined. The following should be noted:
1. It is based on UNEP’s scale which is a refinement of the UN Assessed Contribution
2. It is based on a US$82.8 million target which is the Foundation Budget for UN-
HABITAT for 2006-2007. On an annual basis, the total amounts to US$41.4 million.
3. It excludes the amounts and percentage for the United States of America, requested by
The introduction of the VISC would have the advantage of broadening the donor base and
increasing the level of annual contributions.
Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions by Countries to UN-HABITAT’s Foundation in 2006-2007
(based on UNEP Scales)
UNEP Voluntary Indicative Proposed Annual
No. Country Contributions based on
Scale of Contribution Contributions
1 Afghanistan 0.00092 800 400
2 Albania 0.00185 1,500 750
3 Algeria 0.03077 25,500 12,750
4 Andorra 0.01200 9,900 4,950
5 Angola 0.00154 1,300 650
6 Antigua & Barbuda 0.00185 1,500 750
7 Argentina 0.03846 31,800 15,900
8 Armenia 0.00154 1,300 650
9 Australia 1.00000 828,000 414,000
10 Austria 0.80000 662,400 331,200
11 Azerbaijan 0.00277 2,300 1,150
12 Bahamas 0.00308 2,600 1,300
13 Bahrain 0.01538 12,700 6,350
14 Bangladesh 0.00385 3,200 1,600
15 Barbados 0.00769 6,400 3,200
16 Belarus 0.01723 14,300 7,150
17 Belgium 1.12769 933,700 466,850
18 Belize 0.00092 800 400
19 Benin 0.00754 6,200 3,100
20 Bhutan 0.00200 1,700 850
21 Bolivia 0.00308 2,600 1,300
22 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.00277 2,300 1,150
23 Botswana 0.00923 7,600 3,800
24 Brazil 0.50000 414,000 207,000
25 Brunei Darussalam 0.01538 12,700 6,350
26 Bulgaria 0.00923 7,600 3,800
27 Burkina Faso 0.00185 1,500 750
28 Burundi 0.00092 800 400
29 Cambodia 0.00154 1,300 650
30 Cameroon 0.01077 8,900 4,450
31 Canada 2.61538 2,165,500 1,082,750
32 Cape Verde 0.00092 800 400
33 Central African Rep. 0.00092 800 400
34 Chad 0.00092 800 400
35 Chile 0.10000 82,800 41,400
36 China 0.35385 293,000 146,500
37 Colombia 0.06000 49,700 24,850
38 Comoros 0.00092 800 400
39 Congo 0.00092 800 400
40 Costa Rica 0.01000 8,300 4,150
41 Cote d'Ivoire 0.00554 4,600 2,300
42 Croatia 0.02769 22,900 11,450
43 Cuba 0.00923 7,600 3,800
44 Cyprus 0.02308 19,100 9,550
45 Czech Rep. 0.20308 168,200 84,100
46 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 0.00154 1,300 650
47 Democratic Rep. of Congo 0.00154 1,300 650
48 Denmark 3.16154 2,617,800 1,308,900
49 Djibouti 0.00092 800 400
50 Dominica 0.00092 800 400
51 Dominican Rep. 0.00308 2,600 1,300
52 Ecuador 0.00462 3,800 1,900
53 Egypt 0.01385 11,500 5,750
54 El Salvador 0.00369 3,100 1,550
55 Equatorial Guinea 0.00092 800 400
56 Eritrea 0.00092 800 400
57 Estonia 0.00769 6,400 3,200
58 Ethiopia 0.00154 1,300 650
59 Fiji 0.00708 5,900 2,950
60 Finland 4.73846 3,923,400 1,961,700
61 France 6.15385 5,095,400 2,547,700
62 Gabon 0.00308 2,600 1,300
63 Gambia 0.00154 1,300 650
64 Georgia 0.00308 2,600 1,300
65 Germany 9.60000 7,948,800 3,974,400
66 Ghana 0.00231 1,900 950
67 Greece 0.34615 286,600 143,300
68 Grenada 0.00092 800 400
69 Guatemala 0.00554 4,600 2,300
70 Guinea 0.00277 2,300 1,150
71 Guinea - Bissau 0.00092 800 400
72 Guyana 0.00092 800 400
73 Haiti 0.00154 1,300 650
74 Holy See ** 0.00092 800 400
75 Honduras 0.00154 1,300 650
76 Hungary 0.10769 89,200 44,600
77 Iceland 0.03077 25,500 12,750
78 India 0.15385 127,400 63,700
79 Indonesia 0.04000 33,100 16,550
80 Iran 0.09231 76,400 38,200
81 Iraq 0.00154 1,300 650
82 Ireland 0.41692 345,200 172,600
83 Israel 0.10000 82,800 41,400
84 Italy 4.61538 3,821,500 1,910,750
85 Jamaica 0.00646 5,300 2,650
86 Japan 10.33923 8,560,900 4,280,450
87 Jordan 0.00231 1,900 950
88 Kazakhstan 0.01538 12,700 6,350
89 Kenya 0.04615 38,200 19,100
90 Kiribati 0.00092 800 400
91 Kuwait 0.30769 254,800 127,400
92 Kyrgyzstan 0.00092 800 400
93 Lao 0.00308 2,600 1,300
94 Latvia 0.00923 7,600 3,800
95 Lebanon 0.00738 6,100 3,050
96 Lesotho 0.01538 12,700 6,350
97 Liberia 0.00092 800 400
98 Libya 0.01538 12,700 6,350
99 Liechtenstein 0.00600 5,000 2,500
100 Lithuania 0.01108 9,200 4,600
101 Luxembourg 0.23077 191,100 95,550
102 Madagascar 0.00723 6,000 3,000
103 Malawi 0.00092 800 400
104 Malaysia 0.06923 57,300 28,650
105 Maldives 0.00231 1,900 950
106 Mali 0.00154 1,300 650
107 Malta 0.01385 11,500 5,750
108 Marshall Islands 0.00092 800 400
109 Mauritania 0.00092 800 400
110 Mauritius 0.00738 6,100 3,050
111 Mexico 0.23077 191,100 95,550
112 Micronesia 0.00092 800 400
113 Monaco 0.01846 15,300 7,650
114 Mongolia 0.00154 1,300 650
115 Morocco 0.01538 12,700 6,350
116 Mozambique 0.00092 800 400
117 Myanmar 0.00277 2,300 1,150
118 Namibia 0.00231 1,900 950
119 Nauru 0.00092 800 400
120 Nepal 0.00277 2,300 1,150
121 Netherlands 7.20000 5,961,600 2,980,800
122 New Zealand 0.23846 197,400 98,700
123 Nicaragua 0.00092 800 400
124 Niger 0.00092 800 400
125 Nigeria 0.03077 25,500 12,750
126 Norway 3.29231 2,726,000 1,363,000
127 Pakistan 0.01538 12,700 6,350
128 Palau 0.00092 800 400
129 Panama 0.01538 12,700 6,350
130 Papua New Guinea 0.00154 1,300 650
131 Paraguay 0.00400 3,300 1,650
132 Peru 0.01538 12,700 6,350
133 Philippines 0.02308 19,100 9,550
134 Poland 0.23077 191,100 95,550
135 Portugal 0.30769 254,800 127,400
136 Qatar 0.01000 8,300 4,150
137 Republic of Korea 1.38462 1,146,500 573,250
138 Republic of Moldova 0.00185 1,500 750
139 Romania 0.03077 25,500 12,750
140 Russian Federation 0.92308 764,300 382,150
141 Rwanda 0.00092 800 400
142 Saint Kitts & Nevis 0.00092 800 400
143 Saint Lucia 0.00154 1,300 650
144 Saint Vincent & Grenadines 0.00092 800 400
145 Samoa 0.00092 800 400
146 San Marino 0.00200 1,700 850
147 Sao Tome & Principe 0.00092 800 400
148 Saudi Arabia 0.38462 318,500 159,250
149 Senegal 0.00277 2,300 1,150
150 Serbia and Montenegro 0.01385 11,500 5,750
151 Seychelles 0.00185 1,500 750
152 Sierra Leone 0.00385 3,200 1,600
153 Singapore 0.10000 82,800 41,400
154 Slovakia 0.03077 25,500 12,750
155 Slovenia 0.07477 61,900 30,950
156 Solomon Islands 0.00092 800 400
157 Somalia 0.00092 800 400
158 South Africa 0.08308 68,800 34,400
159 Spain 2.10769 1,745,200 872,600
160 Sri Lanka 0.00769 6,400 3,200
161 Sultanate of Oman 0.01692 14,000 7,000
162 Sudan 0.00154 1,300 650
163 Suriname 0.00185 1,500 750
164 Swaziland 0.00923 7,600 3,800
165 Sweden 3.84615 3,184,600 1,592,300
166 Switzerland 3.96923 3,286,500 1,643,250
167 Syria 0.01538 12,700 6,350
168 Tajikistan 0.01677 13,900 6,950
169 Thailand 0.07692 63,700 31,850
170 The FYR Macedonia 0.00369 3,100 1,550
171 Togo 0.00092 800 400
172 Tonga 0.00092 800 400
173 Trinidad & Tobago 0.00769 6,400 3,200
174 Tunisia 0.01000 8,300 4,150
175 Turkey 0.23077 191,100 95,550
176 Turkmenistan 0.00154 1,300 650
177 Tuvalu 0.00092 800 400
178 Uganda 0.00569 4,700 2,350
179 Ukraine 0.04154 34,400 17,200
180 United Arab Emirates 0.07692 63,700 31,850
181 United Kingdom 10.46154 8,662,200 4,331,100
182 United Rep. Tanzania 0.00185 1,500 750
183 Uruguay 0.02000 16,600 8,300
184 Uzbekistan 0.00692 5,700 2,850
185 Vanuatu 0.00092 800 400
186 Venezuela 0.03077 25,500 12,750
187 Viet Nam 0.00769 6,400 3,200
188 Yemen 0.00831 6,900 3,450
189 Zambia 0.00154 1,300 650
190 Zimbabwe 0.00154 1,300 650
Total 83.500 69,140,100 34,570,050
Note: Totals do not include voluntary contribution by the United States of America.
Q&A: Natural and human-made disasters assessment and reconstruction
(draft resolution L.2)
Q1. What is the mandate of UN-HABITAT for humanitarian interventions in human
settlements in crisis?
UN-HABITAT is mandated through the Habitat Agenda to take the lead in disaster prevention, mitigation
and preparedness, and post-disaster rehabilitation capabilities in human settlements (ref: the Habitat
Agenda, paragraphs 40. (l); 43. (z); 170. – 176. ; 208. (d), (e); 228. (c)). The Habitat Agenda clearly
outlines the link between human settlements development and vulnerability to disasters.
Furthermore, GA resolution 59/484 on implementation of the outcome of the United Nations Conference on
Human Settlements (Habitat II) and strengthening of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
(UN-HABITAT), adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2004, requests that UN-HABITAT
continue to support the efforts of countries affected by natural and complex emergencies to develop
prevention, rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes for the transition from relief to development, as
well as work closely with other United Nations agencies.
Q2. What is UN-HABITAT’s role and added value in the humanitarian sector?
UN-HABITAT has been assisting human settlements in crisis in the following countries: Sudan, Liberia,
Somalia, Mozambique, Angola, Ghana, Kosovo, Serbia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Haiti, China,
Central America (Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and
Dominican Republic), Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Maldives, Thailand, East Timor and Russian Federation.
UN-HABITAT has been operating in these situations, supporting national governments, local authorities
and civil society in strengthening their capacity to manage and recover from human-made and natural
disasters affecting human settlements.
Understanding the discontinuity within the international aid community between the short term imperative
of humanitarianism, and longer term reconstruction and development priorities, UN-HABITAT has
engaged and offered its normative and operational expertise on bridging this divide by linking
humanitarian response with medium-long term programmes.
Q3. What are the institutional relationships between UN-HABITAT and other
In recognition of its extensive experience in reconstruction activities, in April 2004 UN-HABITAT was
invited by the Secretary-General to join and bring to the Executive Committee for Humanitarian Affairs
(ECHA) its perspectives and support to humanitarian and emergency relief agencies within the context of
shelter and human settlements through shaping strategic and substantive response to states in crisis. This
imposes certain responsibilities on the Agency in terms of creating capacity for rapid response to
emergency situations to ensure an operational presence in support of sister agencies delivering humanitarian
UN-HABITAT continues to facilitate partnerships on disaster reduction and management and supporting
the establishment of dialogue between UN agencies, the donor community, NGOs and the private sector.
Memoranda of Understanding were signed with the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster
Reduction (ISDR) in May 2003, and UNHCR in December 2003, and more recently with the United
Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), through the secondment of a senior
Human Settlements Adviser to its Interagency Internal Displacement Division (IDD) at the request of the
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs.
Q4. What are the funding mechanisms for UN-HABITAT’s humanitarian interventions?
Historically, UN-HABITAT’s early response has been constrained as a result of its reliance solely on
extra-budgetary contributions, both for post-disaster/conflict recovery interventions and vulnerability
reduction activities. The key limitation is the lack of a reserve of earmarked funding and, consequently, the
time taken to secure sufficient resources for substantive responses.
Recent bilateral funding support for reconstruction projects has been provided by: Australia, Japan, Italy,
Switzerland, US(AID), Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, Canada, European Commission
(inc. ECHO), World Bank; and for the recent Tsunami, Japan, China, Mexico, New Zealand, UAE, and
In support of the role for UN-HABITAT as a credible partner in disaster mitigation and response, it is
proposed to create a ‘Human Settlements Recovery Facility’ (HSRF) as a trust fund into which dedicated
resources for rapid response operations can be placed and drawn upon as needed to ensure a credible
presence in response to natural and man-made disasters.
The main objective of the Human Settlement Recovery Facility will be to strengthen UN-
HABITAT’s capacity to respond to natural and complex emergencies, by providing replenishable
financial resources for functional; pre- and post-emergency interventions, scrutiny and evaluation of
current and past international emergency aid practice, development of new approaches to relief
activities, and disaster vulnerability reduction.
Q & A: Millennium Declaration Goal on improving the lives of slum dwellers
(draft Resolution L.8)
Q1. What is the MDG goal on slum dwellers?
The goals is stated as “to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of 100 million slum
dwellers, by 2020”.
Q2. How did this goal become Target 11, of the Millennium Development Goals?
The Millennium Declaration was adopted by Heads of State and Government on 8 September 2000
(resolution 55/2). The Secretary-General of the United Nations was requested by the GA to prepare
a Road Map for the implementation of the Millennium Declaration. The Road Map (A/56/326),
specified and defined 8 goals, 18 Targets and 48 indicators in reference to the goals of the
Millennium Declaration. Goal 7 on environmental sustainability has 3 targets, including 9 –
biodiversity, 10 – Water and Sanitation, 11 – slum upgrading.
Q3. Was the MDG Road Map endorsed by the General Assembly?
The General Assembly ‘took note’ of the Road Map (in resolution 56/95), and requested the
Secretary-General to prepare an annual report and a comprehensive report every five years, on
progress achieved by the United Nations System and the member states towards implementing the
Millennium Declaration, drawing upon the ‘road map’.
Q4. Is the target on slums adequate?
Not at all. Presently there are 1 billion slum dwellers which means the target is too modest as it
covers only 10% of the current slum populations. The slum population in Nigeria, Brazil and
Indonesia is close to 100 million. Africa has 160 million, etc. Annex 5 shows urbanization trends
up to 2050 and the projected number of slum dwellers. Slum dwellers are projected to increase to
1.6 billion by 2020 and 2 billion by 2030 and 3 billion by 2050. India and China alone cover more
than 100 million slum dwellers.
Q5. What does UN-HABITAT, as the focal point for human settlements issues and the
agency in charge of monitoring and implementing the Target 11, propose to address
UN-HABITAT recommends that the formulation of Target 11 be modified, as follows:
“halve, between 1990 and 2020, the proportion of slum dwellers in the urban population”.
Q6. What is the proposal of the Millennium Project’s Task Force 8?
Task Force 8’s proposal is also to change the target, into:
“to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, while providing positive alternatives to
new slum formation”.
Q7. What are the weaknesses of Task Force 8’s proposal?
1. It suffers from the lack of benchmarks. The question of ‘how many’ or ‘what
proportion of new slum dwellers remains unanswered’.
2. The problem with the first part, 100 million slum dwellers remain unsolved.
3. The new concepts of ‘positive alternatives’, ‘new slum formation’ are subjective
and, therefore, difficult, to define. It is impossible to measure what cannot be
Q8. Why is it important to restate Target 11 in this form?
Unlike other MDG targets the Slum Target is the only one given as an absolute number and not a
proportion. It means there is no benchmark for the target at regional or country level. When
provided with a proportion (%) governments are able to relate to a global reference and could
choose to adopt it or adjust it to their own country specific targets at higher levels. Country specific
benchmarks are necessary to monitor progress in each member state. As it stands now, the absolute
target of 100 million slum dwellers could well be delivered by one or a few countries while others
lag behind. Annex 6 shows trends in slum population by region in the event of
(a) continuing the current trend of no or modest action or
(b) adopting a modified and more ambitious target recommended by UN-
Annex 7 restates slum population trends for the world for clarity.
Q9. Who can update the target?
The General Assembly at its forthcoming Special Session on the Millennium Development Summit
+5 in September in New York to discuss on Secretary-General’s report A/59/2005. The Governing
Council and the CSD can make recommendations towards this end.
Q10. Are developing countries on track?
Yes, there are many countries that are on track. Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, China, Indonesia,
Thailand and Brazil are among them. The common denominator among these countries is the
favorable national policy environment, which helped in scaling up on city and sub-city level efforts
of the local authorities and the civil society. An example is the pro-favela legislative framework of
Despite such examples of success, a vast majority of countries are lagging behind, as indicated in
the Millennium Project Report. Three quarters of Sub-Saharan Africa’s urban population live in
slums, deprived of access to durable housing, water and sanitation, security of tenure, while
suffering from overcrowding. In South Asia, the rapid increase of the urban and slum population
poses a challenge of great magnitude.
Q11. Is it realistic to adopt a more ambitious target?
Yes, the proposed target to halve the proportion of slum dwellers is realistic, if the existing
dynamism of slum dwellers themselves and the potential of local stakeholders are encouraged by
political commitment from top national leadership. Adopting and implementing national policies on
land and basic services development, and pro-poor housing credit facilities are few among the many
realistic national interventions.
It is also the obligation of the international development community to accept the reality of slums
and not lose more time by assuming that urbanization could be curbed. Whether we like it or not,
very soon we will be living in an urban planet where one-third of the cities would be inhabited by
slum dwellers. If we do not gear our programmes and actions on more ambitious targets, the slums
will not only be a human settlements challenge, but also be compounded by social, economic,
security and political problems.
Annex 5 The Urban Slum Challenge
Annex 6 Trends in Proportion of slum dwellers,
1990-2020 under current and modified MDG target
72 72 71 2020 current target
70 2020 modified target
40 36 35 36 34 35 37
19 18 18 18
20 17 17
Northern Sub- Latin Eastern South Asia South- Western
Africa Saharan America Asia eastern Asia
Africa and the Asia
Annex 7 SLUM POPULATION OF THE WORLD
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Urban slum population, estimated
Urban slum population, original target 11
Urban slum population, modified target 11
Q & A on Gender and Youth
(draft resolution L.9)
Q1. What are the gender mandates of UN-HABITAT and why should gender remain a
critical area of UN-HABITAT work?
UN-HABITAT mandates for gender equality and the advancement of women in human settlements
development are enshrined in the Habitat Agenda, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action,
the Millennium Declaration; General Assembly resolution A/59/168 of 20 December 2004,
Economic and Social Council agreed conclusions 1997/2 and resolution 2004/4 of 7 July 2004,
Security Council Resolution 13/25 of 2000; and UN-HABITAT specific resolutions adopted by the
Commission on Human Settlements and the Governing Council of UN-HABITAT respectively,
especially 13/13 of 8 May 1991, 14/4 of 5 May 1993, 15/3 of 1 May 1995, 16/16 of 7 May 1997,
17/11 of 14 May 1999, and 19/16 of 9 May 2003.
Gender inequalities still exist with respect to women’s access to land, property, housing,
inheritance; access to water, sanitation, and infrastructure; and access to credit, employment,
education and health facilities, among others. The Gender Evaluation carried out in 2003
recommended strengthening gender mainstreaming within UN-HABITAT policies and
Q2. Why do we need to develop specific projects in addition to gender mainstreaming?
UN-HABITAT gender policy has two objectives: (1) gender mainstreaming in all UN-HABITAT
programmes and activities, and (2) promoting women’s empowerment policies and where deemed
necessary designing and field-testing innovative approaches towards that end. It is important to
mainstream gender in all UN-HABITAT activities, particularly through gender analysis to identify
the differential impact of policies, programmes and activities on men and women. It is also critical
that women specific programmes are undertaken as a means of addressing gender inequalities as in
many respects women are more disadvantaged than men.
The Forward Looking Evaluation of Gender Mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT of June 2003
recommended a need for both gender mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT and the implementation of
specific activities, which can bring about change in the lives and work of women. The project on
empowering urban women entrepreneurs through housing development and land rights in East
Africa which aims at assisting women to acquire real estate has demonstrated this. It is supported
by earmarked resources from donors. The Slum Upgrading Facility has now provided an
opportunity to build on the work initiated by the Gender Mainstreaming unit because this
programme bears the hallmarks of SUF.
It is, therefore, useful for the Gender Mainstreaming Unit, which spearheads the implementation of
a gender policy, the achievement of gender equality and the advancement of women to pursue a
two- pronged approach: (i) to facilitate gender mainstreaming in all activities by providing technical
advice and tools to Divisions, Units and Branches, and (ii) to carry out specific women’s projects
on a pilot basis in support of other Divisions/Branches/Units.
Women specific projects are implemented to illustrate to line branches, units and other partners
what can be done to address the gender imbalances and to promote gender equity in a given area.
Q3. Why do we need another gender resolution at GC/20 in 2005?
Resolutions at GC sessions provide opportunities for Member States to make new decisions or
declare formal positions on new issues that might have emerged since they last met in their
legislative capacity. They also serve as mechanisms for member states to restate their positions on
previous commitments that, more often than not, might not have been fulfilled and therefore still
require their attention.
Another resolution on gender at GC/20 is therefore very important. Specifically, it will focus on the
outcome of the 49th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women which reviewed the
implementation of the Beijing Plan of Action over the past decade.
It is important that the Governing Council of UN-HABITAT also reaffirms its commitment to
gender equality and the advancement of women in human settlements as governments, the UN
System, NGOs and regional organizations have been called upon to accelerate implementation of
gender equality commitments.
The draft resolution under discussion offers an opportunity for governments and UN-HABITAT to
reaffirm their commitment and provide increased substantive support to gender equality in human
settlements development, bearing in mind that much more remains to be done as indicated during
the review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. Women still lack access to
land, property, inheritance, credit, adequate water and sanitation, transport and infrastructure, and
decision-making at both national and local level.
The draft resolution also responds and reacts to new areas identified during the assessment of
gender mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT’s work, outcomes of the World Urban Forum, the Second
World Conference on Safer Cities for Women, the preliminary finding of the urban sector survey in
Africa, and consultations with the gender focal points of UN-HABITAT.
Youth and UN-HABITAT
Q1. Does UN-HABITAt have a mandate on youth activities?
In addition to the Habitat Agenda and the outcomes of the Special Session (Istanbul+5), the mandate for the
implementation of youth related programmes is also derived from various resolutions. These include
Resolution 17/19 of 14 May 1999 for a partnership with youth and Resolution 18/3 of 16 February 2001,
inviting all key players and partners to formalize partnerships with UN-HABITAT with a view to realizing
the goals of the secure tenure and urban governance campaigns.
More recently, UN-HABITAT’s work on youth issues stems from Resolution 19/13 on enhancing the
engagement of youth in the work of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme. This resolution
called on the Executive Director of UN-HABITAT to develop a Global Partnership Initiative on Urban
Youth Development in Africa (GPI) in partnership with other United Nations agencies, and to ensure the
active participation of UN-HABITAT in the Secretary General's initiative on youth employment – especially
within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Declaration goal of improving the lives of at least
100 million slum dwellers by 2020.
Q2. How does UN-HABITAT work with the youth?
UN-HABITAT has a two-pronged approach to the engagement of youth in its activities: Mainstreaming and
integrating youth in all its programmes and promotion of youth participation through consultations on issues
related to UN-HABITAT’s governance. Since UN-HABITAT will not be able to engage directly with all
youth groups globally, the main thrust will be to work through major youth networks that have regional and
national presence. This approach will enable the youth to participate in decision-making and implementation
of activities at national and local levels.
Secondly, in terms of technical cooperation, the Safer Cities Programme of UN-HABITAT engages the
youth in training and income generating activities as a way to discourage them from being sucked into crime
and other anti-social behaviour. The value based water education programme also focuses on the youth as
does the women housing empowerment programme which prioritized young participants.
Q&A: Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
(draft resolution L.10)
Q1. What is the role of CSD? Does CSD adopt binding decisions?
The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in
December 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of the UN Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED); to monitor and report on the implementation of the Earth Summit
agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. The CSD is a functional
commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), with 53 members.
The Commission reports to the Economic and Social Council and, through it, to the General
Assembly through the Second Committee. The decisions of CSD are negotiated by members
and reflect commitments from member states, like all other inter-governmental resolutions.
Decisions become binding once endorsed by the GA.
Q2. What are the institutional relations between CSD and our GC, if any?
The CSD was established to oversee agenda 21 in which UN-HABITAT is the designated focal
point it the implementation of Chapter 7 on Sustainable Human Settlements. In Chapter 21 on
Environmentally sound Management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues, the United
Nations Centre for Human Settlements has a role to Promoting environmental sound waste
disposal and treatment, with regard to standard and monitoring. In Chapter 28 on Local
authorities in Support of Agenda 21, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
(Habitat) is recognized in particular with regard to partnerships to be fostered with a view to
mobilizing increased international support for local authority programmes. Habitat is called upon
to strengthen services in collecting information on strategies of local authorities. The link between
CSD and UN-HABITAT can therefore not be overstated.
Q3. If there is such a clear institutional link why has UN-HABITAT not featured
prominently at CSD?
The problem in the past was the marginalization of UN-HABITAT in the CSD process, despite its
clear mandate, mainly because of its non programme status, but also as a result of a non-assertive
management style that had prevailed in the organization while it was a centre. The GA, in
recognition of UN-HABITAT’s clear role and responsibility in the CSD process, and to facilitate
the participation of the agency in all future CSD sessions, has now passed a resolution on patterns
of conferences effectively banning a possible conflict of interest of dates between UN-HABITAT’s
GC and CSD sessions. The relevant resolution is attached in Annex 8. See its operative para 4 and
5 on page 2.
Q4. What are the relations between the three themes to be considered by CSD-13?
Human settlements provide a concrete context for action. The struggle for achieving the
WSSD plan of implementation and the MDGs for water and sanitation will have to be
waged in human settlements – in our cities, towns and villages, where water is consumed
and wastes are generated.
At WSSD, UN-HABITAT has introduced the concept of sustainable urbanization. At this
summit, UN-HABITAT also launched its water and sanitation partnership in Asia.
Q5. What is the specific mandate of UN-HABITAT with the themes of CSD-13?
The GA resolution 56/204 specifically lists the role of UN-HABITAT on CSD. It states,
“Decides that the Programme should strengthen its collaboration with the Commission on
Sustainable Development and other relevant bodies in the implementation of the Habitat
Agenda as it relates to sustainable development”.
On the MDG target 11, UN-HABITAT is mandated to monitor the achievement of this
target. It has established a monitoring mechanism, which can be adapted to include CSD-13
outcomes for follow-up and monitoring.
On Water and Sanitation, General Assembly resolution 57/275 of 20 December 2002
requested the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) to support
developing countries in implementing those targets in order to increase access to clean
water, sanitation and adequate shelter, and to further support the implementation of the
Water for African Cities Programme, as requested by the New Partnership for Africa’s
GC 19/6 Resolution of 9 May 2003 on water and sanitation in cities, requested the
Executive Director to further strengthen and promote the work of UN-HABITAT in the field
of urban drinking water and sanitation and to enhance cooperation with other United
Nations and international agencies, and other relevant UN-HABITAT partnerships.
The work programme of UN-HABITAT, based on the twin goals of Habitat Agenda –
shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development – incorporates all necessary
elements to follow-up on the CSD-13 outcomes related to Human settlements and urban
water and sanitation.
See Annex 8.
Q&A: Habitat Programme Managers
(draft resolution L.12)
General information on this resolution
The Habitat Programme Managers (HPMs) are not part of the UN-HABITAT staffing table but an
innovation of the Executive Director to find a cost effective way to establish a network to sustain
and enhance UN-HABITAT’s normative activities in the developing countries, with priority
assigned to LDCs. HPMS are national officers, and supported as far as possible by core funds for
normative activities, and earmarked contributions through global programmes. The Executive
Director establishes HPM posts depending on resource availability. Unless the Governing Council
wishes to formalize their status onto the staffing table, it might not be necessary to adopt this
resolution in its current form. If the GC chooses to adopt the resolution, then it is advisable not to
mention the numbers of HPMs as that would effectively imply formal recognition of this category
of staff members on the staffing table. HPMs have UNDP contracts and are considered under the
rules and regulations guiding UNDP national officers.
As a management initiative, the ED did not have to seek the approval of the GC to make this
innovation, but did inform the CPR and the GC of this initiative, in her statements to those bodies,
during the past two and a half years. The GA welcomed this initiative in its resolution 57/275 of
20 December 2002 and has called upon UN-HABITAT to “continue to work closely with the other
organizations of the United Nations system, integrating UN-HABITAT staff as appropriate into
existing United Nations country offices;” in its GA resolution 59/239 of 22 December 2004.
In approving the core budget, the GC is kept informed of developments in the placement of HPMs
in a number of countries. In principle, the funds allocated are part of the normative activities of UN-
HABITAT. In the absence of HPMs, the same funds would be allocated to normative and campaign
activities in those countries using consultants, which would be more expensive than HPMs not to
mention limited effectiveness due to the consultants’ lack of linkage to the local coordination
systems of the UN and resident donors.
Q1. Origin of the need for establishing Habitat Programme Managers?
Following the elevation of UNCHS to UN-HABITAT (resolution 56/206) and the need for better
presence and representation at the country level to advocate the relevant Millennium Development
Goals and the Habitat Agenda, and to mainstream the Habitat campaigns on secure tenure and
urban governance, UNDP and UN-HABITAT signed an MOU in October 2002 to establish the
posts of Habitat Programme Managers. This is in line with the overall UN policy on inter-agency
cooperation at country level.
Q2. How are the countries selected?
Utmost priority is given to LDCs. However, upon request of interested Government and UNDP
Country Offices and given the importance of the UN-HABITAT portfolio and the challenge faced
by the Human Settlements sector, UN-HABITAT may also select other priority developing
Q3. How are the HPMs selected?
Following discussion with the UNDP Resident Representative/UN Resident Coordinator, the
generic TOR are reviewed and amended to suit the specific needs of the country. A letter is sent to
inform the UN-HABITAT focal point Ministry and the post is advertised in one or more local
newspapers for 2 or 3 weeks before the Recruitment Panel conducts the interview and proposes a
candidate to the Executive Director. A one-year fixed-term contract of National Officer is granted
Q4. What are the main focus areas of the HPMs?
The HPMs are generally tasked to conduct the following activities: i) mainstreaming urban
development and housing issues in country level activities of the UN system such as CCA/UNDAF-
and other coordinated activities such as the PRSPs .ii) promoting the global and normative mandate,
programmes and campaigns of UN-HABITAT, and iii) supporting operational activities of UN-
HABITAT at the national and local levels.
Q5. How are the HPMs funded?
The funding for the HPMs combines allocation from global programmes, earmarked contributions
and general purposes resources. In addition and wherever possible, recipient countries and project
funding can be utilized to cover part of the cost. Based on the MOU signed with UNDP, country
offices hosting HPMs are expected to provide office space and overall administrative support
valued to about 25% of their cost.
Current funding has been mobilized through the General Purpose contribution to the Foundation
(US$780,000), technical cooperation overhead (US$300,000) and global programmes and projects
(balance). The funding for the 45 HPM’s that are expected to be recruited by the end of this
year/early next year at an estimated total yearly cost of US$2.7 million will be covered by the
General purpose contribution to the Foundation (US$1.2 million per year), global programmes and
projects and special purpose contributions from interested Governments. The discussion and
decision on HPM funding should be addressed in resolution L1 rather than L12.
Q6. How is the sustainability of the HPMs to be ensured?
The programmes and projects generated at country level are expected to contribute to strengthening
the financial base and the quality of work of the HPM. However, it is expected that governments in
a position to do so, including from recipient countries, will continue to provide additional funding
through multi-year contributions to UN-HABITAT.
Q7. How many HPMs have been recruited and where?
The total number of HPMs is currently 32 (as of 30 March 2005), distributed as follows:
- Sub-Saharan Africa : 20
- Arab States : 02
- Asia and the Pacific : 05
- Latin America and the Caribbean: 05
As per the current planning, 13 additional HPMs will be recruited during 2005-2006
Q8. Reporting, Monitoring and Evaluation
The HPMs are UN-HABITAT appointed UNDP national level staff-based in Country Offices and
working for all Branches, Global Programmes and Units. Administratively and politically, they are
working under the UN Resident Coordinator System as members of the UN Country Team. They
report to designated focal points in the Regional Offices of UN-HABITAT and to the Monitoring
and Evaluation Unit in the Office of the Executive Director. This has provided a new mechanism to
ensure coordination of all UN-HABITAT activities (normative and operational) at country level.
To measure the performance, efficiency and effectiveness of HPMs, an evaluation will be carried
out in the second half of 2006. A table showing the current outputs of HPMs is attached in Annex
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) APRIL 2005
Habitat Programme Managers
Name Country Contract Contribution to UNDAF- Support to Normative Operational Activities Mobilization of Resources
Period UNCT Activities/Campaigns
Jose Didier Tonato Benin 01/09/2004 MDG working group. Urban Sector Review. Prepare Project documents Contacts with donors
- Conference for WHD. (formulation of national housing
30/08/2005 policy, land tenure, CDS etc.)
Basilisa Sanou Burkina Faso 01/11/2004 Contribution in UNDAF. Follow up of HQ missions. Follow up global campaigns action Contacts with donors (for
- Inside UNDP. plan resource mobilization and
31/10/2005 Assist in the formulation of Cities preparation of a database)
Follow up project implementation
Francois Muhirwe Burundi 01/06/2004 UNDP Annual Report on Follow up of HQ missions. Contribute in the formulation Contacts with UNDP for
- MDG/Human Settlements mission of UNDP cooperation finance
31/05/2005 Contact Group, CAP and programme.
Interagency Section on Prepare TORs for the formulation
resettlement. of a national housing policy.
Inside UNDP. Prepare Project Documents.
Conference for WHD. Follow up project implementation.
Margaret Andoseh Cameroon 01/01/2004 Contribution in UNDAF. Follow up of HQ missions. Facilitate RUSPS, WAC, etc., Contact with donors
- Participation in meeting of Creation of Cameroonian activities.
31/12/2004 funding agencies involved in Urban Forum.
Information for WHD.
Kanene Mudimubadu DRC 01/04/2004 UNDP annual report on Follow up of HQ missions. RUSPS implemented by HPM. Contact with donors
- MDG/Human settlements. Follow up project implementation.
31/03/2005 Expert groups on Prepare project documents.
reconstruction and Member of an evaluation team on
rehabilitation of resettlement and rehabilitation for
Network with Government
Information for WHD.
Ali El-Faramawy Egypt 01/09/2004 Heading Urban Planning and Co-organized OICC/UN- Supporting the activities in the Represented UN-HABITAT in
- Solid Waste Task Forces for HABITAT technical Ismailia Upgrading project. conferences, meetings and
31/08/2005 CCA/UNDAF. symposium in Dubai. Supporting CA evaluation and seminars in Egypt. Provides
Leading Joint Programming Reviewed BP applications SCP/BUS missions. policy support to many key
on “Slum Upgrading and from Arab States Region. Involved in the preparation for institutions (GOPP).
LED”. National Programme to up-scale
experience in Egypt.
Coordinating the implementation
of the Regional Urban Profile
Supporting UNDP in the
preparation of the MDG report.
Eyob Kahsai Eritrea 01/11/2004
Tewodros Tigabu Ethiopia 01/05/2004 UN Country team. Has developed a “Project Daily contact with Government
- Presentation to national Portfolio” on Habitat authorities at City Council and
30/04/2005 journalists on UN-HABITAT projects under Ministerial levels.
projects. implementation in Ethiopia. Has been working with the Donor
MDG need assessment focal Assistance Group in order to
point. identify additional projects and
sources of funds.
Victoria Abankwa Ghana 01/08/2004
Fole Sherman Liberia 01/11/2004
Monique Rakotoarison Madagascar 01/11/2004 Strengthening partnership Follow up of HQ missions. Follow up project implementation. Negotiation with UNDP for
- with Government and Contribution to the Prepare launching of global finance (2005 activities)
31/10/2005 development partners. formulation of the national campaigns.
policy on land tenure. New project identification.
Jaime H. Comiche Mozambique 01/07/2004
George Kozonguini Namibia 01/04/2005
Johnson Falade Nigeria 01/07/2004
Nael Salman OPT 01/01/2005
Monique Sevumba Rwanda 01/07/2004 Strengthening partnership Follow up of HQ missions. Prepare project documents and Contact with donors
- with Government. TORs.
30/06/2005 Conference for WHD. Follow up project implementation.
Mansour S. Tall Senegal 01/10/2004 Strengthening partnership Follow up of HQ missions. Follow up global campaigns action
- with Government and Preparation of substantive plan.
30/09/2005 development partners. papers. Follow up project implementation
Logistics for ED’s missions (RUSPS, LA21,etc) Assisting the
Information for WHD. formulation of Cities Alliance/Dakar
Joseph Muana Sierra Leone 01/11/2004
Pinky Vilakazi South Africa 01/01/2004 Participating in the UNDP Participated in the Discussions with members of the
- Programme Managers forum. UUDP/GTZ Evaluation South African Department of
31/12/2004 Participating in the UNDP workshop. Water Affairs and Forestry.
Consultative Workshop with Coordinated meetings with Discussions with members of the
three Regional Stakeholders. the Urban Sector Network, South African Department of
Represented UN-HABITAT at a network of NGO’s Housing regarding Amchud and
the newly established working in human the WHD celebrations.
Regional Service Centre in settlements in urban areas. Meetings with USAID and the
Johannesburg. Participated in the Belgian Embassy are scheduled to
government’s National take place to discuss bilateral
Housing Research Seminar. support to programmes which will
be supported by UN-HABITAT.
Phillemon Tanzania 01/09/2004 UN Country team. Coordinated activities on Discussions with members of the
Mutashubirwa - Organized Public events for the Water for Africa Cities US Congress on local settlements
31/08/2005 World Habitat Day. Dar es Salaam Programme. and their management in
Logistics for EC-UN-HABITAT Coordinated activities on Tanzania.
2005 Workshop. the Lake Victoria Region Discussions with Canadians on
Water and Sanitation Sustainable Cities Initiative.
Infrastructure Facilitated in the signing of a MOU
Rehabilitation Programme. with the Government of Tanzania
Assisted in the creation of for Cities without Slums Initiative.
an agreement with
Tanzania Women Lands
Peter K. Wegulo Uganda 01/01/2005
Sue le Mesurier Fiji 01/06/2004 UN Country team. Assisted in the Discussions with the NZAID and Negotiations with the New
- Supported organizing the establishment of a steering NZ Police on regional safer Zealand Government
31/05/2005 Workshop on Women’s Rights committee to develop a communities initiative.
to Adequate Housing and housing policy for Fiji. Discussions with the NZ
Land with Special Rapporteur. Initiate discussions on the Government and ADB on Cities
Provided support to the Safer implementation of a GUGC Alliance/Slum upgrading project
Cities Mission to Vanuatu, in Fiji. for Fiji.
Solomon Islands and PNG. Obtained approval of Fiji
GUGC by Commonwealth
Regional Local Government
Recruitment of Australian
Youth Ambassador for Fiji
Dodo Juiliman Indonesia 01/01/2005 UN Country team. Facilitating the preparation Coordinate activities with BUILD, Contact with UNDP and NGOs
- Supported organizing the of the Community-based Co-BUILD and KPEL
31/12/2005 Lake Toba meeting in Medan. Housing Guidebook of Intensive involvement in the
Participated in the National Kimpraswil. design of the UNDP/UN-HABITAT
Dialogue on MDGs and Participating in the ASEAN BRIDGE project.
preparation of CCA Association for Planning Facilitated the comprehensive
Participating in meetings of and Housing Seminar. documentation of the Co-BILD and
the Anti-Eviction Advocacy Facilitating the KPEL projects.
Group. documentation of forced
Lowie Rosales Philippines 01/08/2004 UN Country team. Continued support to the Prepared Flash Appeal for Negotiated an US$800K
- Supported preparation of Philippine Urban Forum emergency shelter and community partnership with ADB
31/07/2005 Common Country Assessment (PUF). rehabilitation projects for typhoon governance fund for MDG
(CCA) and UNDAF. Established linkages with affected areas. localization.
Appointed as UNCT’s focal the Campaigns flagships Prepared and received approval Designed a US$500K proposal
point on effectively localizing such as the use of the for MDG Localization Project from on Neighbourhood Slum
MDGs. Participatory Urban UNDP for 12 pilot sites. Upgrading for Cities without
Attended the First Philippine Development Decision- Slum Initiative of Cities
Development Forum, formerly Making tool kit at the Alliance.
known as consultative Group barangay (village) level in
(CG) and represented the five cities.
whole UN Country Team in Mainstreaming the PUDM
the Decentralization and through the Local
Local Governance Working Government Academy into
Group. Capacity-Building support
cities through Urban
Disa Weerapana/ Sri Lanka 01/03/2004 UN Country team. Contributed to incorporate Formulated the new phase project Served as a member of the
Conrad de Tissera - Enhanced influence of UN- the norms and principles of document of the UNDP/UN- Colombo Mayor’s Advisory
31/05/2005 HABITAT in the policies and Good Urban Governance in HABITAT Urban Governance group.
programmes of the focal the Key policy documents Support Project (UGSP) and Assisted the Ministry of
ministry. of the government such as negotiated increased funding. Foreign Affairs of Japan to
Facilitated coordination the National Urban Policy Served as a member of the formulate a national
between UNDP and UN- Framework serving as a Transition Task Team of integrated framework for all
HABITAT. member of the National Multilateral Agencies and assisted UN Agencies to participate in
Participated in the meetings Task Force responsible for in the drafting of the Shelter and accessing resources from the
of the United Nations its formulation. Local Government sections of the Human Security Trust Fund of
Resident Coordinator System Assisted in the planning of Transition Strategy for the North Japan.
and actively contributed to the World Habitat Day East.
coordinating frameworks of National commemoration.
Fabio Giraldo Isaza Colombia 01/01/2005 UN Country team. Launch of National Support to implementation of Negotiations with the
- ECLAC’s expert group Campaign with the theme Cities Alliance project in Cali. Government and with the
31/12/2005 meetings and in multiple “Credit for my Habitat”. Design and support to World Bank municipality of Bogota.
national conferences. Urban observatories funded, UN-HABITAT executed,
Public events for World promoted with national project on Micro-finance for
Habitat Day. school of public housing.
administration (ESAP) Interagency urban development
project support in Pasto and
Ileana Ramirez Costa Rica 01/05/2004 UN Country team. Establishment of Urban Negotiations with the
- MINURVI 2004 IN San Jose. Observatories in EU Government, EU and the
30/04/2005 Central American Council of metropolitan development municipality of San Jose
Housing and Human project.
Settlements Ministers. Support for the initiation of
Initiate talks on the start of
a Campaign in Costa Rica.
Monica Davila Ecuador 01/11/2004 UN Country team. Assist in preparatory Assist in the design of a project on Negotiations with the Central
- activities for regional event the strengthening of sub-national Government and the
31/10/2005 on local economic authorities. municipality of Quito.
development. Assist in the design of a technical
Assist in completion of cooperation framework.
activities related to the
Support the development
of a LA 21 programme.
Carline Noailles Haiti 01/02/2005 UN Country team. Promotion of Global Development of a pipeline of
- Participate in the coordination Campaigns in Haiti. projects for funding in the context
31/01/2006 group for the follow up to the of the ICF.
Framework in Haiti.
Cecilia Martinez Mexico 01/07/2004 UN Country team Launch of National Renewal of Country Programme Negotiations with the
- UN Task force in monitoring Campaign on Participatory with SEDSOL. Governors of Veracruz and
30/06/2005 of MDGs. Planning. Support to the preparation of Nuevo Leon.
Accompanied government on Provided guidelines and regional conference and regional
missions to Washington and technical assistance on follow up project on urban water
Madrid. Local Urban Observatories. supply and sanitation.
Public events for World Provided support to the
Habitat Day 2004. National Best Practices