Document Sample
                      NATIONS                                                                                         HSP
                                                                                                   Distr. General
                      Governing Council                                                            2 April 2005
                      of the United Nations Human
UN-Habitat                                                                                         Original: English
                      Settlements Programme

   Twentieth session
   Nairobi, 4–8 April 2005
   Item 4 of the provisional agenda*
   Activities of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
   (UN-Habitat): progress report of the Executive Director

                   Questions and answers on selected issues raised by the Committee of
                   Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Human Settlements
                   Programme during its preparations for the twentieth session of the
                   Governing Council
                   Note by the secretariat
                          The secretariat is pleased to circulate, in the annex to the present note, a document detailing
                   questions and answers on selected issues raised by the Committee of Permanent Representatives to the
                   United Nations Human Settlements Programme during its preparations for the twentieth session of the
                   Governing Council. The document has been reproduced as submitted, without formal editing.

                   * HSP/GC/20/1.

   K0581070      030405

      For reasons of economy, this document is printed in a limited number. Delegates are kindly requested to bring their copies to
      meetings and not to request additional copies. This document is printed on environment friendly paper.


                                  Table of Contents

1. Q&A on Programme Focus of UN-HABITAT (draft Resolution L.1)…………3

2. Q&A on Foundation Budget of UN-HABITAT (draft Resolution L.1)……….. 6

3. Q&A on Natural and Man-made Disasters   (draft Resolution L.2)………… 17

4. Q&A on Millennium Declaration Goal and the Slum Target …………………. 19
   (draft Resolution L.8)

5. Q&A on Gender and Youth Activities at UN-HABITAT ……………………. 25
   (draft Resolution L.9)

6. Q&A on Commission for Sustainable Development ………………………….. 28
   (draft Resolution L.10)

7. Q&A on Habitat Programme Managers ………………………………………. 30
   (draft Resolution L.12)

List of Annexes

1. Analysis of Impact of Limitation on Budget Reallocation ……………………... 8
2. Status of Contributions to UN-HABITAT, 2004 ………………………………9
3. Top 10 Donors to UN-HABITAT, 2000-2004          ……………………………... 10
4. Tentative Indicative Scale of Contributions     ……………………………... 12
5. Dynamics of Urban Slum Problem, 1800-2050 ……………………………... 22
6. Slum Populations under Current and Modified MDG Target………………….. 23
7. Slum Population of the World, 2000-2020         …………………………….. 24
8. GA Resolutions on Patterns of Conferences…………… (attached independently)
9. List and Outputs of Habitat Programme Managers……………………………... 33


                                       (draft resolution L.1)

Q 1: Is UN-HABITAT well-focused in its activities or is it undertaking too many activities
without prioritizing?

As a United Nations programme, the role of UN-HABITAT is to promote sustainable urbanization
and the reduction of urban poverty. Its mandate derives from the outcome of relevant international
conferences, in particular the Habitat Agenda, the Millennium Declaration, the Declaration on
Cities and other Human Settlements, the Johannesburg WSSD Summit, and from the specific
mandates given to the programme by various GA and GC resolutions.

The agency deals with a multi-sectoral/multi-faceted problems area requiring a multi-pronged
approach if it is to be effective. Prioritization in such a situation requires focusing on a package of
key interventions simultaneously. These areas of focus have been articulated in UN-HABITAT’s
strategic vision. They are: (i) urban governance; (ii) slum upgrading; (iii) urban water and
sanitation; and (iv) disaster management. These involve activities at different levels (global,
regional, national and local). They also involve different functions (normative, operational,
knowledge/capacity-building, monitoring, advocacy, and partnership-building). Different topical
areas such as shelter, land, infrastructure, urban management, environment, are then addressed.
UN-HABITAT’s strength is to combine actions at various levels (e.g., global and national) and to
create synergies between various functions (e.g. normative and operational).

The details of the package of interventions and their relative prioritization are clearly elucidated in
the work programme. Availability of resources finally determines the actual delivery of priorities.
Earmarking of resources by donors remains a constraint in terms of delivering strategic
interventions according to priority, but progress is being made through multi-year framework
funding agreements by a number of key donors.

Despite the above, the agency does not undertake any activity outside the agreed work programme
and does not consider itself completely supply-driven without direction.

Q2:    Does the organizational structure of UN-HABITAT reflect these priorities?

The organizational structure of UN-HABITAT reflects the structure of the Work-Programme which
is organized in four functional sub-programmes. The topical priorities are reflected specifically in
the four expected accomplishments of sub-programme 1 which constitutes the global policy
component of the Work-Programme, implemented by the Global Division on shelter and
sustainable human settlements development. The other sub-programmes address the same topical
areas but from different functional perspectives (research and monitoring in sub-programme 2,
technical cooperation in sub-programme 3, financing human settlements in sub-programme 4).

Q3:    On the first area of focus, urban governance, what are the relations between the
       Global Campaigns and the various programmes and projects?

The Global Campaigns on Secure Tenure and Urban Governance are essentially advocacy
instruments and coordinating frameworks for all activities of UN-HABITAT which address the
management and sustainable development of cities and towns. The Campaigns produce a set of
normative principles which should guide policy makers, city managers and all urban programmes of
UN-HABITAT. These programmes focus generally on important aspects of urban development


such as environmental protection (Sustainable Cities, LA 21), security and safety (Safer Cities),
decentralization and subsidiarity (AGRED-GOLD), rural-urban linkages or municipal finance.
Country projects implemented by UN-HABITAT Regional Offices build capacities on the same
issues, applying the normative principles and tools developed by the Global Campaigns, for
instance, the systematic use of city consultations with all stakeholders. Local authorities are the
most important partners of UN-HABITAT in this area, at both global and local levels.

Q4:     The second area of focus, slum upgrading, overlaps with urban governance and water
        and sanitation. Why does it appear as a separate priority?

In the early 1990s, the shelter activities of UN-HABITAT were devoted to the promotion of
adequate shelter for all through enabling shelter strategies. After the Habitat II conference (1996), a
new strategic vision was adopted for UN-HABITAT to better cope with the realities of rapid
urbanization and urban poverty. The vision is much more concentrated on the needs of the urban
poor, i.e., on ensuring security of tenure and improving the lives of slum-dwellers under an
environment of participatory governance. The Global Campaign on Secure Tenure was launched in
1999 as an advocacy instrument, followed by the adoption of the slum upgrading target of the
Millennium Declaration in September 2000 in response to the “Cities without Slums” Action Plan
designed by UN-HABITAT and the World Bank as the first activity of the Cities Alliance. This
political commitment by heads of State and Governments encouraged UN-HABITAT to adopt slum
upgrading as its top priority and to take the lead in the implementation and monitoring of target 11
of the MDGs, as soon as the Centre was elevated to Programme status in December 2001.

Upgrading slums on a large-scale requires good urban governance, which engenders partnerships
with CBOs and NGOs, to create an enabling environment for pro-poor investments in housing and
infrastructure. The target requires that central and local governments consider the needs of the
urban poor as a specific priority, requiring specific efforts. This is why slum upgrading appears as
a separate and visible priority – associated with the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure – in the
Work-Programme of UN-HABITAT. This is the only priority addressed by the four sub-
programmes (upgrading policies in SP1, monitory target 11 and flagship reports in SP2, upgrading
projects in SP3 and financing slum upgrading in SP4).

Q5: The third area of focus, water and sanitation, is not specific to UN-HABITAT? Does
UN-HABITAT have the mandate to work on this topic?

Yes it does. The mandate of UN-HABITAT on water is well defined in GC resolution 19/6.

Many United Nations agencies are working on water and sanitation and UN-HABITAT is the
recognized agency within the UN system for urban water and sanitation. It is a member of the
Millennium Task Force No. 7 on water and sanitation and contributed to the work of the task force
through its global report on water and sanitation for cities.

At the request of the Administrative Committee for Coordination’s, Sub-committee on water
resources (respectively now renamed Chief Executive Board and UN-Water after WSSD), the
agency coordinated the observance of World Water Day in 1996. The global observance event was
held in Beijing hosted by the People’s Republic of China and organized by the agency. UN-
HABITAT has over 20 years experience working with Member States in the water and sanitation


The mandate and expertise of UN-HABITAT being on cities and other human settlements, it has
developed regional and local programmes on Water for Cities, contributing to the achievement of
target 10 of the MDGs in urban areas. In this framework, UN-HABITAT is the main agency
advising governments on the management of basic water and sanitation infrastructure and services
at city-level, particularly on water demand management, and the development of related
institutional capacities, and value-based water education. It is also launching major initiatives for
water and sanitation in small and medium sized towns in Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

In view of the variety and complementarity of international organizations active in the field of
water and sanitation, UN-HABITAT has established cooperation agreements with several United
Nations programmes (such as UNEP), regional institutions (such as the Asian Development Bank)
and bilateral agencies. It has also set up a Water and Sanitation Trust Fund to promote concrete
actions in developing countries.

Q6: On disaster management, why does UN-HABITAT give more attention to physical
reconstruction than to disaster mitigation?

An elaborate explanation of this issue is given in the Q&A of resolution L2 below.

Q7: UN-HABITAT also deals with cross-cutting issues. How are these issues linked to the
topical priority areas?

Cross-cutting issues refer primarily to the needs, interests and contributions of specific social
groups and partners, such as women and youth, AIDS orphans, the disabled, etc., in the area of
human settlements and housing. To address these issues UN-HABITAT has developed a
mainstreaming approach: a small unit at headquarters strategically located in the Research and
Monitoring Division is responsible for introducing the concerns of the group in question into all
relevant activities of the Programme. In some cases pilot projects complement this approach (e.g.,
women empowerment vis-à-vis gender mainstreaming) in order to generate new tested approaches
to inform better policy formulation, programme design and scaling up.

Monitoring – through statistics, indicators and the documentation of best practices – is not a cross-
cutting issue but a core function of UN-HABITAT, falling under the responsibilities of the
Research and Monitoring Division.           Training and Capacity-Building are also functional
responsibilities, coordinated by a branch within the Global Division. It must be emphasized that the
mandate of UN-HABITAT, as restated in GA res. 56/206 that upgraded it into a programme, is “to
coordinate the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and to act as UN-system wide focal point for
all human settlements activities.” This makes monitoring a key function and priority for the agency.


                                   Q&A: Foundation Budget
                                          (draft resolution L.1)

Q1. What would be the impact of restricting the Executive Director’s authority to re-
    allocate resources between sub-programmes?

The 10 per cent restriction proposed on the basis of the UNEP approach is too restrictive and would
severely curtail the Executive Director’s ability to re-allocate resources at short notice to where they
are most needed to avoid disrupting the smooth implementation of the work programme. An
analysis of the effect of the proposed resolution is shown in Annex 1.

The problem is the low base of core voluntary contributions amounting to about US$27.6 million
per biennium for UN-HABITAT versus UNEP’s US$142 million. In practical terms, in order to
make ends meet, as is often the case at UN-HABITAT, the Executive Director would need to
convene CPR meetings to get approval to move resources across budget lines in line with priorities
in programme implementation. For example, for the Regional Technical and Cooperation Division
(RTCD), a 10% re-allocation is equivalent to US$161,000 or ½ post.

While harmonization with UNEP is desirable, it would be detrimental to adopt a harmonization
policy piecemeal. Therefore, this measure would require that, like UNEP, UN-HABITAT also
adopts a Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions in order to increase its donor base and
improve the level and predictability of its core income. Presently, the agency depends on forecast
income drawn from a handful of donors and most of it remains unpredictable. The ten top donors
account for 94% of the total contributions in 2004. (See Annex II).

Q2. What are the differences between trust funds, earmarked contributions and facilities? Is
    there a proliferation of Trust Funds and the like at UN-HABITAT?

A Trust Fund is a stand-alone fund which can be identified separately in the financial statements of
UN-HABITAT. Contributions can come from one donor or several donors and resources are
normally pooled and separate reporting by individual donors is not normally done. The pooled
funds are utilized for the objectives and purposes of the fund.

Earmarked contributions: These are not normally identified separately in the financial statements
of UN-HABITAT. They tend to emanate from individual donors giving contributions for a specific
activity. Reporting is done by individual donor as per the requirement of the agreement with the

Facility: A facility is a special trust fund, usually of a revolving nature and would normally involve
large sums of money, if funded. Funds would be earmarked for that facility and can be used to pre-
finance certain activities, e.g., pre-feasibility studies, rapid response, seed capital, etc., and there is
an expectation that the facility would be replenished from projects when they materialize or by
donors on a regular basis.

UN-HABITAT has 2 Trust Funds at the end of 2004: the Water and Sanitation Trust Fund, and the
Palestinian Trust Fund. There is also the Slum Upgrading Facility (SUF) and the Recovery

As to whether there is proliferation of trust funds at UN-HABITAT, a comparison with other
agencies, given below, speaks for itself, and might explain the inability of the agency to mobilize
adequate funds to effectively deliver its mandate so far. This is supported by the relatively better


mobilization of resources for the 2 Trust Funds and the Slum Upgrading Facility established by
UN-HABITAT compared to its other fund raising efforts. The establishment of the Recovery
facility, and other key trust funds, such as the regional and technical cooperation trust funds is being
proposed from this positive experience. There is no risk for the agency to have several trust funds.

Comparison with other Agencies:

                 AGENCY                               No. of
                                                    Trust Funds

                 UNDP                                    620
                 UNEP                                    102
                 UNFPA                                    68

The Executive Director has delegated authority from the UN Controller to establish Trust Funds in
situations where they would facilitate mobilization of resources. This authority is exercised with
great caution.

Q3. Why are there so many vacancies at UN-HABITAT yet to be filled? Why has the Deputy
    Executive Director not yet been appointed?

The staffing table in the budget with 144 posts was approved in its entirety by the Governing
Council at its 18th session, in the context of the revitalization of UN-HABITAT. The Executive
Director was requested to mobilize financial resources for its full realization. In order to avoid past
financial difficulties, whereby there was a mismatch between recruited staff and predictable
financial resources to pay their salaries over time, it was decided to take a cautious approach in
filling the established posts. Posts are being filled slowly but surely, in line with increases in
predictable medium and long-term core income. Progress in resource mobilization has been made
(see Annex III) paving the way to fill most of the vacancies during the 2006/2007 biennium. Note
that no new posts have been requested under the Foundation budget.

As regards the appointment of the Deputy Executive Director (DED), this matter is under
consideration by the Secretary-General. He has already instructed the Executive Director to identify
suitable candidates for his consideration. Member states with suitable candidates are invited to
assist in this process. The duties and responsibilities of the DED are narrated in the STB
establishing UN-HABITAT and define the profile of the candidate. As the key administrator of the
Foundation the candidate must have, among other qualities, a strong background in finance and
proven fund-raising abilities and confidence of donors.



                                             BETWEEN SUB-PROGRAMMES
                                                 (in thousands of US$)
                                      UNEP (Environment Fund)                                        UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation)

 Programme                                                                 20% Proportion    Programme                                                            20% Proportion    10% Proportion

 Environment assessment and early warning                         23,950             4,790   Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements development    9,274                 1,855               927
 Policy development and law                                       17,751             3,550   Monitoring the Habitat Agenda                            8,632                 1,726               863
 Policy implementation                                          11,070               2,214   Regional and Technical Cooperation                       1,609                   322               161
 Technology, industry and economics                               25,954             5,191   Financing Human Settlements                              3,651                   730               365
 Regional cooperation and representation                          24,525             4,905
 Environmental conventions                                         8,625             1,725
 Communications and public information                             8,125             1,625
 Total programme of work                                        120,000            24,000    Total programme of work                                 23,165                 4,633            2,317

 Fund programme reserve                                            6,000             1,200

 Support Budget                                                   16,000             3,200   Support Budget                                           4,436                   887               444

 Grand Total                                                    142,000            28,400    Grand Total                                             27,601                 5,520            2,760

          UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation)                       UN-HABITAT (United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation)

 Programme                                                                 40% Proportion    Programme                                                            50% Proportion

 Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements Development             9,274             3,710   Shelter and Sustainable Human Settlements Development    9,274                 4,637
 Monitoring the Habitat Agenda                                     8,632             3,453   Monitoring the Habitat Agenda                            8,632                 4,316
 Regional and Technical Cooperation                                1,609               643   Regional and Technical Cooperation                       1,609                   804
 Financing Human Settlements                                       3,651             1,460   Financing Human Settlements                              3,651                 1,825

 Total programme of work                                         23,165             9,266    Total programme of work                                 23,165              11,583

 Support Budget                                                    4,436             1,774   Support Budget                                           4,436                 2,218
 Grand Total                                                     27,601            11,040    Grand Total                                             27,601              13,801



Status of the Contributions to UN-HABITAT in the year 2004
as at 31 December 2004 (United States Dollars) *

          Country                 General Purpose           Special Purpose         Total Distributions

Algeria                                         10,000                                            10,000
Austria                                         86,075                    12,100                  98,175
Barbados                                         3,000                                              3,000
Belgium                                                                 1,492,110              1,492,110
Botswana                                        15,660                                            15,660
Brazil                                          20,000                                            20,000
Canada                                          62,672                  3,014,176              3,076,848
Chile                                            5,000                                              5,000
China P.R.                                                               129,940                 129,940
Czech Republic                                 116,768                                           116,768
Ethiopia                                        14,771                                            14,771
European Commission                                                      135,907                 135,907
Fiji                                             3,558                                              3,558
Finland                                        537,623                   419,510                 957,133
France                                         158,028                   143,309                 301,337
Germany                                        371,310                   346,488                 717,798
Ghana                                           10,000                                            10,000
Greece                                          30,000                                            30,000
India                                           84,776                                            84,776
Indonesia                                       10,000                                            10,000
Israel                                          10,000                                            10,000
Italy                                          789,715                   768,109               1,557,824
Japan                                          214,000                   449,616                 663,616
Kenya                                           50,000                                            50,000
Netherlands                                  1,490,830                  5,217,171              6,708,001
Norway                                       2,448,350                  1,829,968              4,278,317
Pakistan                                         6,005                                             6,005
Philippines                                        562                                                562
Poland                                          10,000                                            10,000
Republic of South Korea                         10,000                                            10,000
Russian Federation                                                       200,000                 200,000
Rwanda                                                                     5,000                    5,000
Spain                                                                    108,640                 108,640
Sri Lanka                                       15,000                                            15,000
Sultanate of Oman                                                         100,000                100,000
Sweden                                       1,331,735                  2,514,840              3,846,575
Switzerland                                                               304,231                304,231
Tanzania                                         3,588                                              3,588
Thailand                                                                  10,000                  10,000
Trinidad and Tobago                               1000                     1,500                    2,500
Tunisia                                            829                                                829
Uganda                                           1,941                                              1,941
United Kingdom                               1,837,000                  1,052,718              2,889,718
USA                                            745,575                    248,452                994,027

Other Public Donors                                                     3,670,847              3,670,847

Total                                       10,505,370                 22,174,629             32,679,999

% of contributions from
                                                  94%                       77%                     81%
Top Ten Donors

*Excludes all contributions towards Technical Cooperation Activities


      Top Ten Donors of UN-HABITAT 2000-2004
      Total Contributions
      As at 31 December 2004

                2000                              2001                                2002                            2003                          2004

          US$16,487,803                     US$19,743,154                     US$36,058,073                     US$40,713,704                US$85,169,205
      Country             %         Country                 %         Country                 %         Country                 %         Country            %
  1   Netherlands         19   1    United Kingdom          15   1    European Community      18   1    Netherlands             20   1    Japan              11
  2   Sweden              12   2    USA                     8    2    Netherlands             14   2    Japan                   9    2    Netherlands        9
  3   United Kingdom      10   3    Netherlands             8    3    Sweden                  8    3    Norway                  8    3    Sweden             5
  4   Canada              5    4    Sweden                  7    4    Japan                   8    4    Sweden                  6    4    Norway             5
  5   USA                 4    5    Finland                 7    5    United Kingdom          6    5    Canada                  6    5    Community          4
  6   Germany             4    6    Switzerland             6    6    Belgium                 5    6    United Kingdom          4    6    Canada             4
  7   France              3    7    Belgium                 4    7    Norway                  3    7    Italy                   4    7    United Kingdom     3
  8   Italy               3    8    Italy                   4    8    Italy                   2    8    USA                     3    8    USA                2
  9   Finland             2    9    European Community      4    9    Switzerland             1    9    European Community      2    9    Italy              2
 10   Japan               2    10   Norway                  3    10   Germany                 1    10   Finland                 2    10   Belgium            2

 Data based on actual receipts as at 31 December 2004



The attached Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions (VISC) is only tentative and has to be
refined. The following should be noted:

   1. It is based on UNEP’s scale which is a refinement of the UN Assessed Contribution

   2. It is based on a US$82.8 million target which is the Foundation Budget for UN-
      HABITAT for 2006-2007. On an annual basis, the total amounts to US$41.4 million.

   3. It excludes the amounts and percentage for the United States of America, requested by

The introduction of the VISC would have the advantage of broadening the donor base and
increasing the level of annual contributions.



           Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions by Countries to UN-HABITAT’s Foundation in 2006-2007
                                                  (based on UNEP Scales)

                                                                     2006-2007 Proposed
                                        UNEP Voluntary Indicative                              Proposed Annual
     No.                  Country                                   Contributions based on
                                          Scale of Contribution                                 Contributions
                                                                        UNEP VISC

      1     Afghanistan                                   0.00092                        800                     400
      2     Albania                                       0.00185                      1,500                     750
      3     Algeria                                       0.03077                     25,500                12,750
      4     Andorra                                       0.01200                      9,900                 4,950
      5     Angola                                        0.00154                      1,300                     650
      6     Antigua & Barbuda                             0.00185                      1,500                     750
      7     Argentina                                     0.03846                     31,800                15,900
      8     Armenia                                       0.00154                      1,300                     650
      9     Australia                                     1.00000                    828,000               414,000
     10     Austria                                       0.80000                    662,400               331,200
     11     Azerbaijan                                    0.00277                      2,300                 1,150
     12     Bahamas                                       0.00308                      2,600                 1,300
     13     Bahrain                                       0.01538                     12,700                 6,350
     14     Bangladesh                                    0.00385                      3,200                 1,600
      15    Barbados                                      0.00769                      6,400                 3,200
     16     Belarus                                       0.01723                     14,300                 7,150
     17     Belgium                                       1.12769                    933,700               466,850
     18     Belize                                        0.00092                        800                     400
     19     Benin                                         0.00754                      6,200                 3,100
     20     Bhutan                                        0.00200                      1,700                     850
     21     Bolivia                                       0.00308                      2,600                 1,300
     22     Bosnia & Herzegovina                          0.00277                      2,300                 1,150
     23     Botswana                                      0.00923                      7,600                 3,800
     24     Brazil                                        0.50000                    414,000               207,000
     25     Brunei Darussalam                             0.01538                     12,700                 6,350
     26     Bulgaria                                      0.00923                      7,600                 3,800
     27     Burkina Faso                                  0.00185                      1,500                     750
     28     Burundi                                       0.00092                        800                     400
     29     Cambodia                                      0.00154                      1,300                     650
     30     Cameroon                                      0.01077                      8,900                 4,450
     31     Canada                                        2.61538                  2,165,500             1,082,750
      32    Cape Verde                                    0.00092                        800                     400
     33     Central African Rep.                          0.00092                        800                     400
     34     Chad                                          0.00092                        800                     400
     35     Chile                                         0.10000                     82,800                41,400
     36     China                                         0.35385                    293,000               146,500
     37     Colombia                                      0.06000                     49,700                24,850
     38     Comoros                                       0.00092                        800                     400
     39     Congo                                         0.00092                        800                     400


40   Costa Rica                 0.01000      8,300           4,150
41   Cote d'Ivoire              0.00554      4,600           2,300
42   Croatia                    0.02769     22,900          11,450
43   Cuba                       0.00923      7,600           3,800
44   Cyprus                     0.02308     19,100           9,550
45   Czech Rep.                 0.20308    168,200          84,100
46   Dem. People's Rep. Korea   0.00154      1,300             650
47   Democratic Rep. of Congo   0.00154      1,300             650
48   Denmark                    3.16154   2,617,800       1,308,900
49   Djibouti                   0.00092        800             400
50   Dominica                   0.00092        800             400
51   Dominican Rep.             0.00308      2,600           1,300
52   Ecuador                    0.00462      3,800           1,900
53   Egypt                      0.01385     11,500           5,750
54   El Salvador                0.00369      3,100           1,550
55   Equatorial Guinea          0.00092        800             400
56   Eritrea                    0.00092        800             400
57   Estonia                    0.00769      6,400           3,200
58   Ethiopia                   0.00154      1,300             650
59   Fiji                       0.00708      5,900           2,950
60   Finland                    4.73846   3,923,400       1,961,700
61   France                     6.15385   5,095,400       2,547,700
62   Gabon                      0.00308      2,600           1,300
63   Gambia                     0.00154      1,300             650
64   Georgia                    0.00308      2,600           1,300
65   Germany                    9.60000   7,948,800       3,974,400
66   Ghana                      0.00231      1,900             950
67   Greece                     0.34615    286,600         143,300
68   Grenada                    0.00092        800             400
69   Guatemala                  0.00554      4,600           2,300
70   Guinea                     0.00277      2,300           1,150
71   Guinea - Bissau            0.00092        800             400
72   Guyana                     0.00092        800             400
73   Haiti                      0.00154      1,300             650
74   Holy See **                0.00092        800             400
75   Honduras                   0.00154      1,300             650
76   Hungary                    0.10769     89,200          44,600
77   Iceland                    0.03077     25,500          12,750
78   India                      0.15385    127,400          63,700
79   Indonesia                  0.04000     33,100          16,550
80   Iran                       0.09231     76,400          38,200
81   Iraq                       0.00154      1,300             650
82   Ireland                    0.41692    345,200         172,600
83   Israel                     0.10000     82,800          41,400
84   Italy                      4.61538   3,821,500       1,910,750
85   Jamaica                    0.00646      5,300           2,650


     86   Japan              10.33923   8,560,900   4,280,450
     87   Jordan              0.00231      1,900         950
     88   Kazakhstan          0.01538     12,700       6,350
     89   Kenya               0.04615     38,200      19,100
     90   Kiribati            0.00092        800         400
     91   Kuwait              0.30769    254,800     127,400
     92   Kyrgyzstan          0.00092        800         400
     93   Lao                 0.00308      2,600       1,300
     94   Latvia              0.00923      7,600       3,800
     95   Lebanon             0.00738      6,100       3,050
     96   Lesotho             0.01538     12,700       6,350
     97   Liberia             0.00092        800         400
     98   Libya               0.01538     12,700       6,350
     99   Liechtenstein       0.00600      5,000       2,500
 100      Lithuania           0.01108      9,200       4,600
 101      Luxembourg          0.23077    191,100      95,550
 102      Madagascar          0.00723      6,000       3,000
 103      Malawi              0.00092        800         400
 104      Malaysia            0.06923     57,300      28,650
 105      Maldives            0.00231      1,900         950
 106      Mali                0.00154      1,300         650
 107      Malta               0.01385     11,500       5,750
 108      Marshall Islands    0.00092        800         400
 109      Mauritania          0.00092        800         400
 110      Mauritius           0.00738      6,100       3,050
 111      Mexico              0.23077    191,100      95,550
 112      Micronesia          0.00092        800         400
 113      Monaco              0.01846     15,300       7,650
 114      Mongolia            0.00154      1,300         650
 115      Morocco             0.01538     12,700       6,350
 116      Mozambique          0.00092        800         400
 117      Myanmar             0.00277      2,300       1,150
 118      Namibia             0.00231      1,900         950
 119      Nauru               0.00092        800         400
 120      Nepal               0.00277      2,300       1,150
 121      Netherlands         7.20000   5,961,600   2,980,800
 122      New Zealand         0.23846    197,400      98,700
 123      Nicaragua           0.00092        800         400
 124      Niger               0.00092        800         400
 125      Nigeria             0.03077     25,500      12,750
 126      Norway              3.29231   2,726,000   1,363,000
 127      Pakistan            0.01538     12,700       6,350
 128      Palau               0.00092        800         400
 129      Panama              0.01538     12,700       6,350
 130      Papua New Guinea    0.00154      1,300         650
 131      Paraguay            0.00400      3,300       1,650


132   Peru                         0.01538     12,700           6,350
133   Philippines                  0.02308     19,100           9,550
134   Poland                       0.23077    191,100          95,550
135   Portugal                     0.30769    254,800         127,400
136   Qatar                        0.01000      8,300           4,150
137   Republic of Korea            1.38462   1,146,500        573,250
138   Republic of Moldova          0.00185      1,500             750
139   Romania                      0.03077     25,500          12,750
140   Russian Federation           0.92308    764,300         382,150
141   Rwanda                       0.00092        800             400
142   Saint Kitts & Nevis          0.00092        800             400
143   Saint Lucia                  0.00154      1,300             650
144   Saint Vincent & Grenadines   0.00092        800             400
145   Samoa                        0.00092        800             400
146   San Marino                   0.00200      1,700             850
147   Sao Tome & Principe          0.00092        800             400
148   Saudi Arabia                 0.38462    318,500         159,250
149   Senegal                      0.00277      2,300           1,150
150   Serbia and Montenegro        0.01385     11,500           5,750
151   Seychelles                   0.00185      1,500             750
152   Sierra Leone                 0.00385      3,200           1,600
153   Singapore                    0.10000     82,800          41,400
154   Slovakia                     0.03077     25,500          12,750
155   Slovenia                     0.07477     61,900          30,950
156   Solomon Islands              0.00092        800             400
157   Somalia                      0.00092        800             400
158   South Africa                 0.08308     68,800          34,400
159   Spain                        2.10769   1,745,200        872,600
160   Sri Lanka                    0.00769      6,400           3,200
161   Sultanate of Oman            0.01692     14,000           7,000
162   Sudan                        0.00154      1,300             650
163   Suriname                     0.00185      1,500             750
164   Swaziland                    0.00923      7,600           3,800
165   Sweden                       3.84615   3,184,600       1,592,300
166   Switzerland                  3.96923   3,286,500       1,643,250
167   Syria                        0.01538     12,700           6,350
168   Tajikistan                   0.01677     13,900           6,950
169   Thailand                     0.07692     63,700          31,850
170   The FYR Macedonia            0.00369      3,100           1,550
171   Togo                         0.00092        800             400
172   Tonga                        0.00092        800             400
173   Trinidad & Tobago            0.00769      6,400           3,200
174   Tunisia                      0.01000      8,300           4,150
175   Turkey                       0.23077    191,100          95,550
176   Turkmenistan                 0.00154      1,300             650
177   Tuvalu                       0.00092        800             400


 178      Uganda                                                      0.00569              4,700        2,350
 179      Ukraine                                                     0.04154             34,400       17,200
 180      United Arab Emirates                                        0.07692             63,700       31,850
 181      United Kingdom                                            10.46154            8,662,200    4,331,100
 182      United Rep. Tanzania                                        0.00185              1,500          750
 183      Uruguay                                                     0.02000             16,600        8,300
 184      Uzbekistan                                                  0.00692              5,700        2,850
 185      Vanuatu                                                     0.00092                800          400
 186      Venezuela                                                   0.03077             25,500       12,750
 187      Viet Nam                                                    0.00769              6,400        3,200
 188      Yemen                                                       0.00831              6,900        3,450
 189      Zambia                                                      0.00154              1,300          650
 190      Zimbabwe                                                    0.00154              1,300          650

          Total                                                        83.500          69,140,100   34,570,050

 Note: Totals do not include voluntary contribution by the United States of America.


                  Q&A: Natural and human-made disasters assessment and reconstruction
                                       (draft resolution L.2)

Q1.       What is the mandate of UN-HABITAT for humanitarian interventions in human
          settlements in crisis?

         UN-HABITAT is mandated through the Habitat Agenda to take the lead in disaster prevention, mitigation
          and preparedness, and post-disaster rehabilitation capabilities in human settlements (ref: the Habitat
          Agenda, paragraphs 40. (l); 43. (z); 170. – 176. ; 208. (d), (e); 228. (c)). The Habitat Agenda clearly
          outlines the link between human settlements development and vulnerability to disasters.
         Furthermore, GA resolution 59/484 on implementation of the outcome of the United Nations Conference on
          Human Settlements (Habitat II) and strengthening of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
          (UN-HABITAT), adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2004, requests that UN-HABITAT
          continue to support the efforts of countries affected by natural and complex emergencies to develop
          prevention, rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes for the transition from relief to development, as
          well as work closely with other United Nations agencies.

Q2.        What is UN-HABITAT’s role and added value in the humanitarian sector?

          UN-HABITAT has been assisting human settlements in crisis in the following countries: Sudan, Liberia,
           Somalia, Mozambique, Angola, Ghana, Kosovo, Serbia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Haiti, China,
           Central America (Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and
           Dominican Republic), Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Maldives, Thailand, East Timor and Russian Federation.
          UN-HABITAT has been operating in these situations, supporting national governments, local authorities
           and civil society in strengthening their capacity to manage and recover from human-made and natural
           disasters affecting human settlements.
          Understanding the discontinuity within the international aid community between the short term imperative
           of humanitarianism, and longer term reconstruction and development priorities, UN-HABITAT has
           engaged and offered its normative and operational expertise on bridging this divide by linking
           humanitarian response with medium-long term programmes.

Q3.       What are the institutional relationships between UN-HABITAT and other
          humanitarian actors?

         In recognition of its extensive experience in reconstruction activities, in April 2004 UN-HABITAT was
          invited by the Secretary-General to join and bring to the Executive Committee for Humanitarian Affairs
          (ECHA) its perspectives and support to humanitarian and emergency relief agencies within the context of
          shelter and human settlements through shaping strategic and substantive response to states in crisis. This
          imposes certain responsibilities on the Agency in terms of creating capacity for rapid response to
          emergency situations to ensure an operational presence in support of sister agencies delivering humanitarian
         UN-HABITAT continues to facilitate partnerships on disaster reduction and management and supporting
          the establishment of dialogue between UN agencies, the donor community, NGOs and the private sector.
          Memoranda of Understanding were signed with the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster
          Reduction (ISDR) in May 2003, and UNHCR in December 2003, and more recently with the United
          Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), through the secondment of a senior
          Human Settlements Adviser to its Interagency Internal Displacement Division (IDD) at the request of the
          Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs.


Q4.       What are the funding mechanisms for UN-HABITAT’s humanitarian interventions?

         Historically, UN-HABITAT’s early response has been constrained as a result of its reliance solely on
          extra-budgetary contributions, both for post-disaster/conflict recovery interventions and vulnerability
          reduction activities. The key limitation is the lack of a reserve of earmarked funding and, consequently, the
          time taken to secure sufficient resources for substantive responses.
         Recent bilateral funding support for reconstruction projects has been provided by: Australia, Japan, Italy,
          Switzerland, US(AID), Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, Canada, European Commission
          (inc. ECHO), World Bank; and for the recent Tsunami, Japan, China, Mexico, New Zealand, UAE, and
          private donors.
         In support of the role for UN-HABITAT as a credible partner in disaster mitigation and response, it is
          proposed to create a ‘Human Settlements Recovery Facility’ (HSRF) as a trust fund into which dedicated
          resources for rapid response operations can be placed and drawn upon as needed to ensure a credible
          presence in response to natural and man-made disasters.
         The main objective of the Human Settlement Recovery Facility will be to strengthen UN-
          HABITAT’s capacity to respond to natural and complex emergencies, by providing replenishable
          financial resources for functional; pre- and post-emergency interventions, scrutiny and evaluation of
          current and past international emergency aid practice, development of new approaches to relief
          activities, and disaster vulnerability reduction.


 Q & A: Millennium Declaration Goal on improving the lives of slum dwellers
                                       (draft Resolution L.8)

Q1.    What is the MDG goal on slum dwellers?

The goals is stated as “to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of 100 million slum
dwellers, by 2020”.

Q2.    How did this goal become Target 11, of the Millennium Development Goals?

The Millennium Declaration was adopted by Heads of State and Government on 8 September 2000
(resolution 55/2). The Secretary-General of the United Nations was requested by the GA to prepare
a Road Map for the implementation of the Millennium Declaration. The Road Map (A/56/326),
specified and defined 8 goals, 18 Targets and 48 indicators in reference to the goals of the
Millennium Declaration. Goal 7 on environmental sustainability has 3 targets, including 9 –
biodiversity, 10 – Water and Sanitation, 11 – slum upgrading.

Q3.    Was the MDG Road Map endorsed by the General Assembly?

The General Assembly ‘took note’ of the Road Map (in resolution 56/95), and requested the
Secretary-General to prepare an annual report and a comprehensive report every five years, on
progress achieved by the United Nations System and the member states towards implementing the
Millennium Declaration, drawing upon the ‘road map’.

Q4.    Is the target on slums adequate?

Not at all. Presently there are 1 billion slum dwellers which means the target is too modest as it
covers only 10% of the current slum populations. The slum population in Nigeria, Brazil and
Indonesia is close to 100 million. Africa has 160 million, etc. Annex 5 shows urbanization trends
up to 2050 and the projected number of slum dwellers. Slum dwellers are projected to increase to
1.6 billion by 2020 and 2 billion by 2030 and 3 billion by 2050. India and China alone cover more
than 100 million slum dwellers.

Q5.    What does UN-HABITAT, as the focal point for human settlements issues and the
       agency in charge of monitoring and implementing the Target 11, propose to address
       this problem?

UN-HABITAT recommends that the formulation of Target 11 be modified, as follows:
“halve, between 1990 and 2020, the proportion of slum dwellers in the urban population”.

Q6.    What is the proposal of the Millennium Project’s Task Force 8?

Task Force 8’s proposal is also to change the target, into:
“to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, while providing positive alternatives to
 new slum formation”.

Q7.    What are the weaknesses of Task Force 8’s proposal?

           1. It suffers from the lack of benchmarks. The question of ‘how many’ or ‘what
              proportion of new slum dwellers remains unanswered’.
           2. The problem with the first part, 100 million slum dwellers remain unsolved.


            3. The new concepts of ‘positive alternatives’, ‘new slum formation’ are subjective
                   and, therefore, difficult, to define. It is impossible to measure what cannot be

Q8.     Why is it important to restate Target 11 in this form?

Unlike other MDG targets the Slum Target is the only one given as an absolute number and not a
proportion. It means there is no benchmark for the target at regional or country level. When
provided with a proportion (%) governments are able to relate to a global reference and could
choose to adopt it or adjust it to their own country specific targets at higher levels. Country specific
benchmarks are necessary to monitor progress in each member state. As it stands now, the absolute
target of 100 million slum dwellers could well be delivered by one or a few countries while others
lag behind. Annex 6 shows trends in slum population by region in the event of
                    (a) continuing the current trend of no or modest action or
                    (b) adopting a modified and more ambitious target recommended by UN-
                        HABITAT above.

Annex 7 restates slum population trends for the world for clarity.

Q9.     Who can update the target?

The General Assembly at its forthcoming Special Session on the Millennium Development Summit
+5 in September in New York to discuss on Secretary-General’s report A/59/2005. The Governing
Council and the CSD can make recommendations towards this end.

Q10. Are developing countries on track?

Yes, there are many countries that are on track. Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, China, Indonesia,
Thailand and Brazil are among them. The common denominator among these countries is the
favorable national policy environment, which helped in scaling up on city and sub-city level efforts
of the local authorities and the civil society. An example is the pro-favela legislative framework of

Despite such examples of success, a vast majority of countries are lagging behind, as indicated in
the Millennium Project Report. Three quarters of Sub-Saharan Africa’s urban population live in
slums, deprived of access to durable housing, water and sanitation, security of tenure, while
suffering from overcrowding. In South Asia, the rapid increase of the urban and slum population
poses a challenge of great magnitude.

Q11. Is it realistic to adopt a more ambitious target?

Yes, the proposed target to halve the proportion of slum dwellers is realistic, if the existing
dynamism of slum dwellers themselves and the potential of local stakeholders are encouraged by
political commitment from top national leadership. Adopting and implementing national policies on
land and basic services development, and pro-poor housing credit facilities are few among the many
realistic national interventions.

It is also the obligation of the international development community to accept the reality of slums
and not lose more time by assuming that urbanization could be curbed. Whether we like it or not,
very soon we will be living in an urban planet where one-third of the cities would be inhabited by
slum dwellers. If we do not gear our programmes and actions on more ambitious targets, the slums


will not only be a human settlements challenge, but also be compounded by social, economic,
security and political problems.



                   Annex 5 The Urban Slum Challenge



       Annex 6 Trends in Proportion of slum dwellers,
      1990-2020 under current and modified MDG target
                           72 72 71              2020 current target
 70                                              2020 modified target
       38                                                                                              37
 40                                   36   35                       36                                                   34 35 37
                                                32                                                32
                                                                         30                                 28
 30                                                  27
                      19                                  18                                                     18 18
 20              17                                                                                                                 17

       Northern             Sub-             Latin             Eastern             South Asia           South-           Western
        Africa             Saharan          America             Asia                                    eastern           Asia
                            Africa          and the                                                       Asia



                          Annex 7 SLUM POPULATION OF THE WORLD
         Billion people

                                                                                    - 6%

                                                                                    - 50%

                              2000          2005           2010           2015   2020
                                     Urban slum population, estimated
                                     Urban slum population, original target 11
                                     Urban slum population, modified target 11


                                   Q & A on Gender and Youth
                                       (draft resolution L.9)

Q1.    What are the gender mandates of UN-HABITAT and why should gender remain a
       critical area of UN-HABITAT work?

UN-HABITAT mandates for gender equality and the advancement of women in human settlements
development are enshrined in the Habitat Agenda, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action,
the Millennium Declaration; General Assembly resolution A/59/168 of 20 December 2004,
Economic and Social Council agreed conclusions 1997/2 and resolution 2004/4 of 7 July 2004,
Security Council Resolution 13/25 of 2000; and UN-HABITAT specific resolutions adopted by the
Commission on Human Settlements and the Governing Council of UN-HABITAT respectively,
especially 13/13 of 8 May 1991, 14/4 of 5 May 1993, 15/3 of 1 May 1995, 16/16 of 7 May 1997,
17/11 of 14 May 1999, and 19/16 of 9 May 2003.
 Gender inequalities still exist with respect to women’s access to land, property, housing,
inheritance; access to water, sanitation, and infrastructure; and access to credit, employment,
education and health facilities, among others. The Gender Evaluation carried out in 2003
recommended strengthening gender mainstreaming within UN-HABITAT policies and

Q2.     Why do we need to develop specific projects in addition to gender mainstreaming?

UN-HABITAT gender policy has two objectives: (1) gender mainstreaming in all UN-HABITAT
programmes and activities, and (2) promoting women’s empowerment policies and where deemed
necessary designing and field-testing innovative approaches towards that end. It is important to
mainstream gender in all UN-HABITAT activities, particularly through gender analysis to identify
the differential impact of policies, programmes and activities on men and women. It is also critical
that women specific programmes are undertaken as a means of addressing gender inequalities as in
many respects women are more disadvantaged than men.

 The Forward Looking Evaluation of Gender Mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT of June 2003
recommended a need for both gender mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT and the implementation of
specific activities, which can bring about change in the lives and work of women. The project on
empowering urban women entrepreneurs through housing development and land rights in East
Africa which aims at assisting women to acquire real estate has demonstrated this. It is supported
by earmarked resources from donors. The Slum Upgrading Facility has now provided an
opportunity to build on the work initiated by the Gender Mainstreaming unit because this
programme bears the hallmarks of SUF.

It is, therefore, useful for the Gender Mainstreaming Unit, which spearheads the implementation of
a gender policy, the achievement of gender equality and the advancement of women to pursue a
two- pronged approach: (i) to facilitate gender mainstreaming in all activities by providing technical
advice and tools to Divisions, Units and Branches, and (ii) to carry out specific women’s projects
on a pilot basis in support of other Divisions/Branches/Units.
Women specific projects are implemented to illustrate to line branches, units and other partners
what can be done to address the gender imbalances and to promote gender equity in a given area.


Q3.     Why do we need another gender resolution at GC/20 in 2005?

Resolutions at GC sessions provide opportunities for Member States to make new decisions or
declare formal positions on new issues that might have emerged since they last met in their
legislative capacity. They also serve as mechanisms for member states to restate their positions on
previous commitments that, more often than not, might not have been fulfilled and therefore still
require their attention.

Another resolution on gender at GC/20 is therefore very important. Specifically, it will focus on the
outcome of the 49th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women which reviewed the
implementation of the Beijing Plan of Action over the past decade.

It is important that the Governing Council of UN-HABITAT also reaffirms its commitment to
gender equality and the advancement of women in human settlements as governments, the UN
System, NGOs and regional organizations have been called upon to accelerate implementation of
gender equality commitments.

The draft resolution under discussion offers an opportunity for governments and UN-HABITAT to
reaffirm their commitment and provide increased substantive support to gender equality in human
settlements development, bearing in mind that much more remains to be done as indicated during
the review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. Women still lack access to
land, property, inheritance, credit, adequate water and sanitation, transport and infrastructure, and
decision-making at both national and local level.

The draft resolution also responds and reacts to new areas identified during the assessment of
gender mainstreaming in UN-HABITAT’s work, outcomes of the World Urban Forum, the Second
World Conference on Safer Cities for Women, the preliminary finding of the urban sector survey in
Africa, and consultations with the gender focal points of UN-HABITAT.

                                                 Youth and UN-HABITAT

Q1.     Does UN-HABITAt have a mandate on youth activities?

In addition to the Habitat Agenda and the outcomes of the Special Session (Istanbul+5), the mandate for the
implementation of youth related programmes is also derived from various resolutions. These include
Resolution 17/19 of 14 May 1999 for a partnership with youth and Resolution 18/3 of 16 February 2001,
inviting all key players and partners to formalize partnerships with UN-HABITAT with a view to realizing
the goals of the secure tenure and urban governance campaigns.

More recently, UN-HABITAT’s work on youth issues stems from Resolution 19/13 on enhancing the
engagement of youth in the work of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme. This resolution
called on the Executive Director of UN-HABITAT to develop a Global Partnership Initiative on Urban
Youth Development in Africa (GPI) in partnership with other United Nations agencies, and to ensure the
active participation of UN-HABITAT in the Secretary General's initiative on youth employment – especially
within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Declaration goal of improving the lives of at least
100 million slum dwellers by 2020.

Q2. How does UN-HABITAT work with the youth?

UN-HABITAT has a two-pronged approach to the engagement of youth in its activities: Mainstreaming and
integrating youth in all its programmes and promotion of youth participation through consultations on issues
related to UN-HABITAT’s governance. Since UN-HABITAT will not be able to engage directly with all
youth groups globally, the main thrust will be to work through major youth networks that have regional and


national presence. This approach will enable the youth to participate in decision-making and implementation
of activities at national and local levels.

Secondly, in terms of technical cooperation, the Safer Cities Programme of UN-HABITAT engages the
youth in training and income generating activities as a way to discourage them from being sucked into crime
and other anti-social behaviour. The value based water education programme also focuses on the youth as
does the women housing empowerment programme which prioritized young participants.


                      Q&A: Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
                                   (draft resolution L.10)

Q1.      What is the role of CSD? Does CSD adopt binding decisions?

        The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in
         December 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of the UN Conference on Environment and
         Development (UNCED); to monitor and report on the implementation of the Earth Summit
         agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. The CSD is a functional
         commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), with 53 members.
        The Commission reports to the Economic and Social Council and, through it, to the General
         Assembly through the Second Committee. The decisions of CSD are negotiated by members
         and reflect commitments from member states, like all other inter-governmental resolutions.
         Decisions become binding once endorsed by the GA.

Q2.      What are the institutional relations between CSD and our GC, if any?

The CSD was established to oversee agenda 21 in which UN-HABITAT is the designated focal
point it the implementation of Chapter 7 on Sustainable Human Settlements. In Chapter 21 on
Environmentally sound Management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues, the United
Nations Centre for Human Settlements has a role to Promoting environmental sound waste
disposal and treatment, with regard to standard and monitoring. In Chapter 28 on Local
authorities in Support of Agenda 21, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
(Habitat) is recognized in particular with regard to partnerships to be fostered with a view to
mobilizing increased international support for local authority programmes. Habitat is called upon
to strengthen services in collecting information on strategies of local authorities. The link between
CSD and UN-HABITAT can therefore not be overstated.

Q3.      If there is such a clear institutional link why has UN-HABITAT not featured
         prominently at CSD?

The problem in the past was the marginalization of UN-HABITAT in the CSD process, despite its
clear mandate, mainly because of its non programme status, but also as a result of a non-assertive
management style that had prevailed in the organization while it was a centre. The GA, in
recognition of UN-HABITAT’s clear role and responsibility in the CSD process, and to facilitate
the participation of the agency in all future CSD sessions, has now passed a resolution on patterns
of conferences effectively banning a possible conflict of interest of dates between UN-HABITAT’s
GC and CSD sessions. The relevant resolution is attached in Annex 8. See its operative para 4 and
5 on page 2.

Q4.      What are the relations between the three themes to be considered by CSD-13?
        Human settlements provide a concrete context for action. The struggle for achieving the
         WSSD plan of implementation and the MDGs for water and sanitation will have to be
         waged in human settlements – in our cities, towns and villages, where water is consumed
         and wastes are generated.
        At WSSD, UN-HABITAT has introduced the concept of sustainable urbanization. At this
         summit, UN-HABITAT also launched its water and sanitation partnership in Asia.


Q5.    What is the specific mandate of UN-HABITAT with the themes of CSD-13?

      The GA resolution 56/204 specifically lists the role of UN-HABITAT on CSD. It states,
       “Decides that the Programme should strengthen its collaboration with the Commission on
       Sustainable Development and other relevant bodies in the implementation of the Habitat
       Agenda as it relates to sustainable development”.
      On the MDG target 11, UN-HABITAT is mandated to monitor the achievement of this
       target. It has established a monitoring mechanism, which can be adapted to include CSD-13
       outcomes for follow-up and monitoring.
      On Water and Sanitation, General Assembly resolution 57/275 of 20 December 2002
       requested the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) to support
       developing countries in implementing those targets in order to increase access to clean
       water, sanitation and adequate shelter, and to further support the implementation of the
       Water for African Cities Programme, as requested by the New Partnership for Africa’s
      GC 19/6 Resolution of 9 May 2003 on water and sanitation in cities, requested the
       Executive Director to further strengthen and promote the work of UN-HABITAT in the field
       of urban drinking water and sanitation and to enhance cooperation with other United
       Nations and international agencies, and other relevant UN-HABITAT partnerships.
      The work programme of UN-HABITAT, based on the twin goals of Habitat Agenda –
       shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development – incorporates all necessary
       elements to follow-up on the CSD-13 outcomes related to Human settlements and urban
       water and sanitation.

See Annex 8.


                              Q&A: Habitat Programme Managers
                                    (draft resolution L.12)

General information on this resolution

The Habitat Programme Managers (HPMs) are not part of the UN-HABITAT staffing table but an
innovation of the Executive Director to find a cost effective way to establish a network to sustain
and enhance UN-HABITAT’s normative activities in the developing countries, with priority
assigned to LDCs. HPMS are national officers, and supported as far as possible by core funds for
normative activities, and earmarked contributions through global programmes. The Executive
Director establishes HPM posts depending on resource availability. Unless the Governing Council
wishes to formalize their status onto the staffing table, it might not be necessary to adopt this
resolution in its current form. If the GC chooses to adopt the resolution, then it is advisable not to
mention the numbers of HPMs as that would effectively imply formal recognition of this category
of staff members on the staffing table. HPMs have UNDP contracts and are considered under the
rules and regulations guiding UNDP national officers.

As a management initiative, the ED did not have to seek the approval of the GC to make this
innovation, but did inform the CPR and the GC of this initiative, in her statements to those bodies,
during the past two and a half years. The GA welcomed this initiative in its resolution 57/275 of
20 December 2002 and has called upon UN-HABITAT to “continue to work closely with the other
organizations of the United Nations system, integrating UN-HABITAT staff as appropriate into
existing United Nations country offices;” in its GA resolution 59/239 of 22 December 2004.

In approving the core budget, the GC is kept informed of developments in the placement of HPMs
in a number of countries. In principle, the funds allocated are part of the normative activities of UN-
HABITAT. In the absence of HPMs, the same funds would be allocated to normative and campaign
activities in those countries using consultants, which would be more expensive than HPMs not to
mention limited effectiveness due to the consultants’ lack of linkage to the local coordination
systems of the UN and resident donors.

Q1.       Origin of the need for establishing Habitat Programme Managers?

Following the elevation of UNCHS to UN-HABITAT (resolution 56/206) and the need for better
presence and representation at the country level to advocate the relevant Millennium Development
Goals and the Habitat Agenda, and to mainstream the Habitat campaigns on secure tenure and
urban governance, UNDP and UN-HABITAT signed an MOU in October 2002 to establish the
posts of Habitat Programme Managers. This is in line with the overall UN policy on inter-agency
cooperation at country level.

Q2.     How are the countries selected?

Utmost priority is given to LDCs. However, upon request of interested Government and UNDP
Country Offices and given the importance of the UN-HABITAT portfolio and the challenge faced
by the Human Settlements sector, UN-HABITAT may also select other priority developing


Q3.    How are the HPMs selected?

Following discussion with the UNDP Resident Representative/UN Resident Coordinator, the
generic TOR are reviewed and amended to suit the specific needs of the country. A letter is sent to
inform the UN-HABITAT focal point Ministry and the post is advertised in one or more local
newspapers for 2 or 3 weeks before the Recruitment Panel conducts the interview and proposes a
candidate to the Executive Director. A one-year fixed-term contract of National Officer is granted
through UNDP.

Q4.   What are the main focus areas of the HPMs?

The HPMs are generally tasked to conduct the following activities: i) mainstreaming urban
development and housing issues in country level activities of the UN system such as CCA/UNDAF-
and other coordinated activities such as the PRSPs .ii) promoting the global and normative mandate,
programmes and campaigns of UN-HABITAT, and iii) supporting operational activities of UN-
HABITAT at the national and local levels.

Q5.    How are the HPMs funded?

The funding for the HPMs combines allocation from global programmes, earmarked contributions
and general purposes resources. In addition and wherever possible, recipient countries and project
funding can be utilized to cover part of the cost. Based on the MOU signed with UNDP, country
offices hosting HPMs are expected to provide office space and overall administrative support
valued to about 25% of their cost.
Current funding has been mobilized through the General Purpose contribution to the Foundation
(US$780,000), technical cooperation overhead (US$300,000) and global programmes and projects
(balance). The funding for the 45 HPM’s that are expected to be recruited by the end of this
year/early next year at an estimated total yearly cost of US$2.7 million will be covered by the
General purpose contribution to the Foundation (US$1.2 million per year), global programmes and
projects and special purpose contributions from interested Governments. The discussion and
decision on HPM funding should be addressed in resolution L1 rather than L12.

Q6.    How is the sustainability of the HPMs to be ensured?

The programmes and projects generated at country level are expected to contribute to strengthening
the financial base and the quality of work of the HPM. However, it is expected that governments in
a position to do so, including from recipient countries, will continue to provide additional funding
through multi-year contributions to UN-HABITAT.

Q7.    How many HPMs have been recruited and where?

The total number of HPMs is currently 32 (as of 30 March 2005), distributed as follows:

- Sub-Saharan Africa : 20
- Arab States           : 02
- Asia and the Pacific : 05
- Latin America and the Caribbean: 05
As per the current planning, 13 additional HPMs will be recruited during 2005-2006


Q8.     Reporting, Monitoring and Evaluation

The HPMs are UN-HABITAT appointed UNDP national level staff-based in Country Offices and
working for all Branches, Global Programmes and Units. Administratively and politically, they are
working under the UN Resident Coordinator System as members of the UN Country Team. They
report to designated focal points in the Regional Offices of UN-HABITAT and to the Monitoring
and Evaluation Unit in the Office of the Executive Director. This has provided a new mechanism to
ensure coordination of all UN-HABITAT activities (normative and operational) at country level.
To measure the performance, efficiency and effectiveness of HPMs, an evaluation will be carried
out in the second half of 2006. A table showing the current outputs of HPMs is attached in Annex

        ANNEX IX
                        UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT)                                                       APRIL 2005

                                                                   Habitat Programme Managers

Name                 Country         Contract     Contribution to UNDAF-         Support to Normative        Operational Activities                Mobilization of Resources
                                     Period       UNCT                           Activities/Campaigns

Jose Didier Tonato   Benin           01/09/2004   MDG working group.             Urban Sector Review.        Prepare Project documents             Contacts with donors
                                     -            Conference for WHD.                                        (formulation of national housing
                                     30/08/2005                                                              policy, land tenure, CDS etc.)
Basilisa Sanou       Burkina Faso    01/11/2004   Contribution in UNDAF.         Follow up of HQ missions.   Follow up global campaigns action     Contacts with donors (for
                                     -            Inside UNDP.                                               plan                                  resource mobilization and
                                     31/10/2005                                                              Assist in the formulation of Cities   preparation of a database)
                                                                                                             Follow up project implementation
                                                                                                             (RUSPS, WAC,BUS)
Francois Muhirwe     Burundi         01/06/2004   UNDP Annual Report on          Follow up of HQ missions.   Contribute in the formulation         Contacts with UNDP for
                                     -            MDG/Human Settlements                                      mission of UNDP cooperation           finance
                                     31/05/2005   Contact Group, CAP and                                     programme.
                                                  Interagency Section on                                     Prepare TORs for the formulation
                                                  resettlement.                                              of a national housing policy.
                                                  Inside UNDP.                                               Prepare Project Documents.
                                                  Conference for WHD.                                        Follow up project implementation.
Margaret Andoseh     Cameroon        01/01/2004   Contribution in UNDAF.         Follow up of HQ missions.   Facilitate RUSPS, WAC, etc.,          Contact with donors
                                     -            Participation in meeting of    Creation of Cameroonian     activities.
                                     31/12/2004   funding agencies involved in   Urban Forum.
                                                  Information for WHD.
Kanene Mudimubadu    DRC             01/04/2004   UNDP annual report on          Follow up of HQ missions.   RUSPS implemented by HPM.             Contact with donors
                                     -            MDG/Human settlements.                                     Follow up project implementation.
                                     31/03/2005   Expert groups on                                           Prepare project documents.
                                                  reconstruction and                                         Member of an evaluation team on
                                                  rehabilitation of                                          resettlement and rehabilitation for
                                                  infrastructures.                                           UNDP.
                                                  Network with Government
                                                  and UNDP.
                                                  Information for WHD.


Ali El-Faramawy        Egypt        01/09/2004   Heading Urban Planning and    Co-organized OICC/UN-         Supporting the activities in the    Represented UN-HABITAT in
                                    -            Solid Waste Task Forces for   HABITAT technical             Ismailia Upgrading project.         conferences, meetings and
                                    31/08/2005   CCA/UNDAF.                    symposium in Dubai.           Supporting CA evaluation and        seminars in Egypt. Provides
                                                 Leading Joint Programming     Reviewed BP applications      SCP/BUS missions.                   policy support to many key
                                                 on “Slum Upgrading and        from Arab States Region.      Involved in the preparation for     institutions (GOPP).
                                                 LED”.                                                       National Programme to up-scale
                                                                                                             experience in Egypt.
                                                                                                             Coordinating the implementation
                                                                                                             of the Regional Urban Profile
                                                                                                             Study (RUSPS).
                                                                                                             Supporting UNDP in the
                                                                                                             preparation of the MDG report.
Eyob Kahsai            Eritrea      01/11/2004
Tewodros Tigabu        Ethiopia     01/05/2004   UN Country team.              Has developed a “Project      Daily contact with Government
                                    -            Presentation to national      Portfolio” on Habitat         authorities at City Council and
                                    30/04/2005   journalists on UN-HABITAT     projects under                Ministerial levels.
                                                 projects.                     implementation in Ethiopia.   Has been working with the Donor
                                                 MDG need assessment focal                                   Assistance Group in order to
                                                 point.                                                      identify additional projects and
                                                                                                             sources of funds.
Victoria Abankwa       Ghana        01/08/2004
Fole Sherman           Liberia      01/11/2004
Monique Rakotoarison   Madagascar   01/11/2004   Strengthening partnership     Follow up of HQ missions.     Follow up project implementation.   Negotiation with UNDP for
                                    -            with Government and           Contribution to the           Prepare launching of global         finance (2005 activities)
                                    31/10/2005   development partners.         formulation of the national   campaigns.
                                                                               policy on land tenure.        New project identification.
Jaime H. Comiche       Mozambique   01/07/2004
George Kozonguini      Namibia      01/04/2005
Johnson Falade         Nigeria      01/07/2004
Nael Salman            OPT          01/01/2005
Monique Sevumba        Rwanda       01/07/2004   Strengthening partnership     Follow up of HQ missions.     Prepare project documents and       Contact with donors
                                    -            with Government.                                            TORs.
                                    30/06/2005   Conference for WHD.                                         Follow up project implementation.
                                                 Inside UNDP.


Mansour S. Tall   Senegal        01/10/2004   Strengthening partnership       Follow up of HQ missions.     Follow up global campaigns action
                                 -            with Government and             Preparation of substantive    plan.
                                 30/09/2005   development partners.           papers.                       Follow up project implementation
                                              Logistics for ED’s missions                                   (RUSPS, LA21,etc) Assisting the
                                              Information for WHD.                                          formulation of Cities Alliance/Dakar
Joseph Muana      Sierra Leone   01/11/2004
Pinky Vilakazi    South Africa   01/01/2004   Participating in the UNDP       Participated in the           Discussions with members of the
                                 -            Programme Managers forum.       UUDP/GTZ Evaluation           South African Department of
                                 31/12/2004   Participating in the UNDP       workshop.                     Water Affairs and Forestry.
                                              Consultative Workshop with      Coordinated meetings with     Discussions with members of the
                                              three Regional Stakeholders.    the Urban Sector Network,     South African Department of
                                              Represented UN-HABITAT at       a network of NGO’s            Housing regarding Amchud and
                                              the newly established           working in human              the WHD celebrations.
                                              Regional Service Centre in      settlements in urban areas.   Meetings with USAID and the
                                              Johannesburg.                   Participated in the           Belgian Embassy are scheduled to
                                                                              government’s National         take place to discuss bilateral
                                                                              Housing Research Seminar.     support to programmes which will
                                                                                                            be supported by UN-HABITAT.
Phillemon         Tanzania       01/09/2004   UN Country team.                Coordinated activities on     Discussions with members of the
Mutashubirwa                     -            Organized Public events for     the Water for Africa Cities   US Congress on local settlements
                                 31/08/2005   World Habitat Day.              Dar es Salaam Programme.      and their management in
                                              Logistics for EC-UN-HABITAT     Coordinated activities on     Tanzania.
                                              2005 Workshop.                  the Lake Victoria Region      Discussions with Canadians on
                                                                              Water and Sanitation          Sustainable Cities Initiative.
                                                                              Infrastructure                Facilitated in the signing of a MOU
                                                                              Rehabilitation Programme.     with the Government of Tanzania
                                                                              Assisted in the creation of   for Cities without Slums Initiative.
                                                                              an agreement with
                                                                              Tanzania Women Lands
                                                                              Access Trust.
Peter K. Wegulo   Uganda         01/01/2005
Sue le Mesurier   Fiji           01/06/2004   UN Country team.                Assisted in the               Discussions with the NZAID and         Negotiations with the New
                                 -            Supported organizing the        establishment of a steering   NZ Police on regional safer            Zealand Government
                                 31/05/2005   Workshop on Women’s Rights      committee to develop a        communities initiative.
                                              to Adequate Housing and         housing policy for Fiji.      Discussions with the NZ
                                              Land with Special Rapporteur.   Initiate discussions on the   Government and ADB on Cities
                                              Provided support to the Safer   implementation of a GUGC      Alliance/Slum upgrading project
                                              Cities Mission to Vanuatu,      in Fiji.                      for Fiji.
                                              Solomon Islands and PNG.        Obtained approval of Fiji
                                                                              GUGC by Commonwealth
                                                                              Regional Local Government
                                                                              Recruitment of Australian
                                                                              Youth Ambassador for Fiji


Dodo Juiliman        Indonesia     01/01/2005   UN Country team.                  Facilitating the preparation   Coordinate activities with BUILD,     Contact with UNDP and NGOs
                                   -            Supported organizing the          of the Community-based         Co-BUILD and KPEL
                                   31/12/2005   Lake Toba meeting in Medan.       Housing Guidebook of           Intensive involvement in the
                                                Participated in the National      Kimpraswil.                    design of the UNDP/UN-HABITAT
                                                Dialogue on MDGs and              Participating in the ASEAN     BRIDGE project.
                                                preparation of CCA                Association for Planning       Facilitated the comprehensive
                                                Participating in meetings of      and Housing Seminar.           documentation of the Co-BILD and
                                                the Anti-Eviction Advocacy        Facilitating the               KPEL projects.
                                                Group.                            documentation of forced
                                                                                  eviction cases.
Lowie Rosales        Philippines   01/08/2004   UN Country team.                  Continued support to the       Prepared Flash Appeal for             Negotiated an US$800K
                                   -            Supported preparation of          Philippine Urban Forum         emergency shelter and community       partnership with ADB
                                   31/07/2005   Common Country Assessment         (PUF).                         rehabilitation projects for typhoon   governance fund for MDG
                                                (CCA) and UNDAF.                  Established linkages with      affected areas.                       localization.
                                                Appointed as UNCT’s focal         the Campaigns flagships        Prepared and received approval        Designed a US$500K proposal
                                                point on effectively localizing   such as the use of the         for MDG Localization Project from     on Neighbourhood Slum
                                                MDGs.                             Participatory Urban            UNDP for 12 pilot sites.              Upgrading for Cities without
                                                Attended the First Philippine     Development Decision-                                                Slum Initiative of Cities
                                                Development Forum, formerly       Making tool kit at the                                               Alliance.
                                                known as consultative Group       barangay (village) level in
                                                (CG) and represented the          five cities.
                                                whole UN Country Team in          Mainstreaming the PUDM
                                                the Decentralization and          through the Local
                                                Local Governance Working          Government Academy into
                                                Group.                            Capacity-Building support
                                                                                  cities through Urban
                                                                                  Development and
                                                                                  Management Training
Disa Weerapana/      Sri Lanka     01/03/2004   UN Country team.                  Contributed to incorporate     Formulated the new phase project      Served as a member of the
Conrad de Tissera                  -            Enhanced influence of UN-         the norms and principles of    document of the UNDP/UN-              Colombo Mayor’s Advisory
                                   31/05/2005   HABITAT in the policies and       Good Urban Governance in       HABITAT Urban Governance              group.
                                                programmes of the focal           the Key policy documents       Support Project (UGSP) and            Assisted the Ministry of
                                                ministry.                         of the government such as      negotiated increased funding.         Foreign Affairs of Japan to
                                                Facilitated coordination          the National Urban Policy      Served as a member of the             formulate a national
                                                between UNDP and UN-              Framework serving as a         Transition Task Team of               integrated framework for all
                                                HABITAT.                          member of the National         Multilateral Agencies and assisted    UN Agencies to participate in
                                                Participated in the meetings      Task Force responsible for     in the drafting of the Shelter and    accessing resources from the
                                                of the United Nations             its formulation.               Local Government sections of the      Human Security Trust Fund of
                                                Resident Coordinator System       Assisted in the planning of    Transition Strategy for the North     Japan.
                                                and actively contributed to       the World Habitat Day          East.
                                                coordinating frameworks of        National commemoration.
                                                the system.


Fabio Giraldo Isaza   Colombia     01/01/2005   UN Country team.                  Launch of National               Support to implementation of           Negotiations with the
                                   -            ECLAC’s expert group              Campaign with the theme          Cities Alliance project in Cali.       Government and with the
                                   31/12/2005   meetings and in multiple          “Credit for my Habitat”.         Design and support to World Bank       municipality of Bogota.
                                                national conferences.             Urban observatories              funded, UN-HABITAT executed,
                                                Public events for World           promoted with national           project on Micro-finance for
                                                Habitat Day.                      school of public                 housing.
                                                                                  administration (ESAP)            Interagency urban development
                                                                                                                   project support in Pasto and
Ileana Ramirez        Costa Rica   01/05/2004   UN Country team.                  Establishment of Urban                                                  Negotiations with the
                                   -            MINURVI 2004 IN San Jose.         Observatories in EU                                                     Government, EU and the
                                   30/04/2005   Central American Council of       metropolitan development                                                municipality of San Jose
                                                Housing and Human                 project.
                                                Settlements Ministers.            Support for the initiation of
                                                                                  LA21 programme.
                                                                                  Initiate talks on the start of
                                                                                  a Campaign in Costa Rica.
Monica Davila         Ecuador      01/11/2004   UN Country team.                  Assist in preparatory            Assist in the design of a project on   Negotiations with the Central
                                   -                                              activities for regional event    the strengthening of sub-national      Government and the
                                   31/10/2005                                     on local economic                authorities.                           municipality of Quito.
                                                                                  development.                     Assist in the design of a technical
                                                                                  Assist in completion of          cooperation framework.
                                                                                  activities related to the
                                                                                  Support the development
                                                                                  of a LA 21 programme.
Carline Noailles      Haiti        01/02/2005   UN Country team.                  Promotion of Global              Development of a pipeline of
                                   -            Participate in the coordination   Campaigns in Haiti.              projects for funding in the context
                                   31/01/2006   group for the follow up to the                                     of the ICF.
                                                Interim Cooperation
                                                Framework in Haiti.
Cecilia Martinez      Mexico       01/07/2004   UN Country team                   Launch of National               Renewal of Country Programme           Negotiations with the
                                   -            UN Task force in monitoring       Campaign on Participatory        with SEDSOL.                           Governors of Veracruz and
                                   30/06/2005   of MDGs.                          Planning.                        Support to the preparation of          Nuevo Leon.
                                                Accompanied government on         Provided guidelines and          regional conference and regional
                                                missions to Washington and        technical assistance on          follow up project on urban water
                                                Madrid.                           Local Urban Observatories.       supply and sanitation.
                                                Public events for World           Provided support to the
                                                Habitat Day 2004.                 National Best Practices



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