Spotlight on Terminology and Language – Willful is voluntary control. You make a choice ESL Pointers or a decision without the undue influence of others. Module 3: Psychology’s Key Issues and Controversies Page 24“Other psychologists disagree and contend that such individuals are the victims of Page 23 “As you consider the many topics and forces beyond their control.” perspectives that make up psychology, ranging from a narrow focus on minute biochemical To contend is to assert or state this point of influences on behavior to a broad focus on social view. behaviors, you might find yourself thinking that the discipline lacks cohesion.” Page 24 “Psychologists who rely on the neuroscience perspective tend to look for Cohesion involves seeing how something sticks universal principles of behavior, such as how the together. The field of psychology has cohesion nervous system operates or the way certain because the five theoretical perspectives, hormones automatically prime us for sexual cognitive, psychodynamic, humanistic, activity.” biological and behavioral, are consistently used to explain and predict behavior. Here the term prime is used to mean to prepare. Our hormones prime us, or prepare us, for many Page 24 “How much of our behavior is due to activities. heredity (or ‘nature’) and how much is due to environment (‘nurture’), and what is the Page 25 “People in Europe and North America interplay between the two forces?” are far more likely to attribute success to unchanging causes, such as intelligence, than are Interplay refers to the way things interact with people in Asia, who are more likely to attribute one another . school performance to temporary, situational factors such as the amount of expended effort.” Page 24 “A psychologists’ take on this issue depends partly on which major perspective she When you do physical or mental work, the or he subscribes to.” amount of time and energy you put into it is what you have expended. Subscribe to means aligning oneself with – supporting a theory or view. Can you identify Page 26 “Subcultural, ethnic, racial, and the psychological theory you subscribe to? socioeconomic differences are increasingly important targets of study by psychologists Page 24 “For example, clinical psychologists (Tucker & Herman, 2002).” adopting a psychodynamic perspective argue that psychological disorders are brought about A subcultural group is a group within a culture, by unconscious factors, whereas psychologists but with ethnic, regional, social or economic employing the cognitive perspective suggest that characteristic patterns or behaviors that serve to psychological disorders largely are the result of distinguish it from that general cultural identity. faulty thinking processes.” Page 26 “For example, the amount of research Faulty thinking is thinking that is flawed or conducted in the United States on groups other inaccurate. than white middle-class college students is woefully small.” Page 24 “How much of our behavior is a matter of free will (choices made freely by an Woefully means sadly or unhappily. The individual), and how much is subject to amount of research done on groups other than determinism, the notion that behavior is largely white middle class college students is woefully, produced by factors beyond people’s willful or unhappily, a very small amount. control?” Page 26 “In sum, only be examining behavior Employ means to use for a purpose. across ethnic, cultural and racial lines can psychologists differentiate principles that are Page 27 “Developed by psychologists who universal from those which are culture-bound.” specialize in learning, memory, cognition, intelligence, and education, critical thinking To be culture-bound, something must be procedures provide the tools to scrutinize familiar with members of the culture, but not assumptions, evaluate assertions, and think with widely know outside it, and dealt with by folk greater precision.” remedies. You scrutinize something by looking it over Page 26 “The major problems of our time – such very carefully. as violence, terrorism, racial and ethnic prejudice, poverty, and environmental and Page 27 “We’ll be considering ways to boost technological disasters – have important critical thinking skills in Becoming an Informed psychological aspects.” Consumer of Psychology sections throughout the book.” Ethnic prejudice refers to beliefs or conceptions people outside of an ethnic group When you raise up, or increase something, you hold about members of that group. boost it. Page 27 “Finally, as the population becomes Page 27 “Keep in mind that there is no free more diverse, issues of diversity – embodied in ride.” the study of racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural factors – will become more important to A free ride is a slang term for getting something psychologists providing services and doing for nothing. research. Page 27 “Be wary of simple, glib responses to Studies of language are called linguistic studies. major difficulties.” Page 27 “From advertisements to television and Glib responses are comments that lack thought radio talk shows to the Internet, we are and are insincere and shallow and should not be subjected to a barrage of information about taken seriously. psychology.” Page 27 “The notion of infallibility is best left When we are subjected to a barrage of to the realm of religion, and you should information we are presented with a large approach psychological information and advice amount of information rapidly and continuously. from a critical and thoughtful perspective.” Page 27“How can we separate accurate A notion is an idea. The notion of infallibility information, which is backed by science and refers to the idea that a person is unable to make objective research, from pseudo-psychology a mistake. based on anecdotes, opinions, and even outright fraud?” A realm is a defined area of study or interest. The realm of religion is the area of interest Pseudo-psychology refers to claims about surrounding people’s personal beliefs, values, behavior that cannot be proven or demonstrated and attitudes concerning a god or gods. by experiments. Page 28 “From a social worker’s perspective: An anecdote is a short personal account of an Imagine that you have a caseload of clients who event. come from diverse cultures, ethnicities, and races.” Page 27 “The best approach is to employ critical thinking techniques.” A caseload of clients is the list of people that are meeting with the social worker, counselor, or psychologist at any given time.
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