Spotlight on Terminology and Language � ESL Pointers - Download as DOC by lz4SlQ1g

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									Spotlight on Terminology and Language –             Willful is voluntary control. You make a choice
ESL Pointers                                        or a decision without the undue influence of
                                                    others.
Module 3: Psychology’s Key Issues and
Controversies                                       Page 24“Other psychologists disagree and
                                                    contend that such individuals are the victims of
Page 23 “As you consider the many topics and        forces beyond their control.”
perspectives that make up psychology, ranging
from a narrow focus on minute biochemical           To contend is to assert or state this point of
influences on behavior to a broad focus on social   view.
behaviors, you might find yourself thinking that
the discipline lacks cohesion.”                     Page 24 “Psychologists who rely on the
                                                    neuroscience perspective tend to look for
Cohesion involves seeing how something sticks       universal principles of behavior, such as how the
together. The field of psychology has cohesion      nervous system operates or the way certain
because the five theoretical perspectives,          hormones automatically prime us for sexual
cognitive, psychodynamic, humanistic,               activity.”
biological and behavioral, are consistently used
to explain and predict behavior.                    Here the term prime is used to mean to prepare.
                                                    Our hormones prime us, or prepare us, for many
Page 24 “How much of our behavior is due to         activities.
heredity (or ‘nature’) and how much is due to
environment (‘nurture’), and what is the            Page 25 “People in Europe and North America
interplay between the two forces?”                  are far more likely to attribute success to
                                                    unchanging causes, such as intelligence, than are
Interplay refers to the way things interact with    people in Asia, who are more likely to attribute
one another .                                       school performance to temporary, situational
                                                    factors such as the amount of expended effort.”
Page 24 “A psychologists’ take on this issue
depends partly on which major perspective she       When you do physical or mental work, the
or he subscribes to.”                               amount of time and energy you put into it is
                                                    what you have expended.
Subscribe to means aligning oneself with –
supporting a theory or view. Can you identify       Page 26 “Subcultural, ethnic, racial, and
the psychological theory you subscribe to?          socioeconomic differences are increasingly
                                                    important targets of study by psychologists
Page 24 “For example, clinical psychologists        (Tucker & Herman, 2002).”
adopting a psychodynamic perspective argue
that psychological disorders are brought about      A subcultural group is a group within a culture,
by unconscious factors, whereas psychologists       but with ethnic, regional, social or economic
employing the cognitive perspective suggest that    characteristic patterns or behaviors that serve to
psychological disorders largely are the result of   distinguish it from that general cultural identity.
faulty thinking processes.”
                                                    Page 26 “For example, the amount of research
Faulty thinking is thinking that is flawed or       conducted in the United States on groups other
inaccurate.                                         than white middle-class college students is
                                                    woefully small.”
Page 24 “How much of our behavior is a matter
of free will (choices made freely by an             Woefully means sadly or unhappily. The
individual), and how much is subject to             amount of research done on groups other than
determinism, the notion that behavior is largely    white middle class college students is woefully,
produced by factors beyond people’s willful         or unhappily, a very small amount.
control?”
Page 26 “In sum, only be examining behavior          Employ means to use for a purpose.
across ethnic, cultural and racial lines can
psychologists differentiate principles that are      Page 27 “Developed by psychologists who
universal from those which are culture-bound.”       specialize in learning, memory, cognition,
                                                     intelligence, and education, critical thinking
To be culture-bound, something must be               procedures provide the tools to scrutinize
familiar with members of the culture, but not        assumptions, evaluate assertions, and think with
widely know outside it, and dealt with by folk       greater precision.”
remedies.
                                                     You scrutinize something by looking it over
Page 26 “The major problems of our time – such       very carefully.
as violence, terrorism, racial and ethnic
prejudice, poverty, and environmental and            Page 27 “We’ll be considering ways to boost
technological disasters – have important             critical thinking skills in Becoming an Informed
psychological aspects.”                              Consumer of Psychology sections throughout the
                                                     book.”
Ethnic prejudice refers to beliefs or
conceptions people outside of an ethnic group        When you raise up, or increase something, you
hold about members of that group.                    boost it.

Page 27 “Finally, as the population becomes          Page 27 “Keep in mind that there is no free
more diverse, issues of diversity – embodied in      ride.”
the study of racial, ethnic, linguistic, and
cultural factors – will become more important to     A free ride is a slang term for getting something
psychologists providing services and doing           for nothing.
research.
                                                     Page 27 “Be wary of simple, glib responses to
Studies of language are called linguistic studies.   major difficulties.”

Page 27 “From advertisements to television and       Glib responses are comments that lack thought
radio talk shows to the Internet, we are             and are insincere and shallow and should not be
subjected to a barrage of information about          taken seriously.
psychology.”
                                                     Page 27 “The notion of infallibility is best left
When we are subjected to a barrage of                to the realm of religion, and you should
information we are presented with a large            approach psychological information and advice
amount of information rapidly and continuously.      from a critical and thoughtful perspective.”

Page 27“How can we separate accurate                 A notion is an idea. The notion of infallibility
information, which is backed by science and          refers to the idea that a person is unable to make
objective research, from pseudo-psychology           a mistake.
based on anecdotes, opinions, and even outright
fraud?”                                              A realm is a defined area of study or interest.
                                                     The realm of religion is the area of interest
Pseudo-psychology refers to claims about             surrounding people’s personal beliefs, values,
behavior that cannot be proven or demonstrated       and attitudes concerning a god or gods.
by experiments.
                                                     Page 28 “From a social worker’s perspective:
An anecdote is a short personal account of an        Imagine that you have a caseload of clients who
event.                                               come from diverse cultures, ethnicities, and
                                                     races.”
Page 27 “The best approach is to employ critical
thinking techniques.”
A caseload of clients is the list of people that
are meeting with the social worker, counselor, or
psychologist at any given time.

								
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