The Human Population and Urbanization

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					The Human Population and
      Urbanization
         Chapter 6
Section 6-1

HOW MANY PEOPLE CAN THE
EARTH SUPPORT?
  Human population growth continues
     but it is unevenly distributed
• For most of history, the human population grew
  slowly, but has been growing exponentially for
  the past 200 years. Reasons for this increase in
  growth rate include:
  – Humans have expanded into almost all of the planet’s
    climate zones and habitats.
  – The emergence of early and modern agriculture
    allowed us to grow more food for each unit of land
    area farmed.
  – Death rates dropped sharply because of improved
    sanitation and health care.
  Human population growth continues
     but it is unevenly distributed
• The rate of population growth has slowed, but the
  world’s population is still growing at a rate that
  added about 83 million people during 2011.
• Geographically, growth is unevenly distributed.
  – About 1% of the 83 million new arrivals on the planet in
    2011 were added to the world’s more-developed
    countries
  – The other 99% were added to the world’s middle- and
    low-income, less-developed countries. At least 95% of
    the 2.6 billion people likely to be added to the world’s
    population between 2011 and 2050 will end up in the
    least-developed countries.
Annual growth of world
population, 1950-2011
                                              2.5
Average annual global growth rate (percent)


                                              2.0




                                              1.5



                                              1.0




                                              0.5



                                              0.0
                                                    1950   1970   1990          2010   2030    2050
                                                                         Year                 Fig. 6-2, p. 97
  Human population growth continues
     but it is unevenly distributed
• Cultural carrying capacity is the maximum
  number of people who could live in
  reasonable freedom and comfort
  indefinitely, without decreasing the ability of
  the earth to sustain future generations.
Section 6-2

WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE
THE SIZE OF THE HUMAN
POPULATION?
 The human population can grow,
  decline, or remain fairly stable
• Birth rate, or crude birth rate, is the
  number of live births per 1,000 people in a
  population in a given year.
• Death rate, or crude death rate, is the
  number of deaths per 1,000 people in a
  population in a given year.
• Population change of an area = (births +
  immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
Women are having fewer babies but not few
 enough to stabilize the world’s population
• The total fertility rate (TFR) is the average
  number of children born to women in a
  population during their reproductive years.
• Between 1955 and 2011, the average
  global lifetime number of births of live
  babies per woman dropped from 5 to 2.5.
• A TFR of 2.1 will eventually halt the
  world’s population growth.
Total fertility rates for the US
    between 1917-2011
                   4.0
Births per woman




                   3.5
                   3.0
                   2.5
                   2.1
                   2.0
                   1.5                        Baby boom                       Replacement
                   1.0                         (1946–64)                         level
                   0.5
                    0
                         1920   1930   1940   1950    1960      1970   1980   1990   2000     2010
                                                         Year




                                                                                        Fig. 6-3, p. 98
Some major changes took place
 in the US between 1900-2000
   Life expectancy            47 years
                                         77 years
    Married women
working outside the    8%
                                          81%
             home

       High school      15%
         graduates                        83%

  Homes with flush     10%
            toilets                             98%

       Homes with 2%
        electricity                             99%

    People living in   10%
          suburbs              52%
                                             1900
           Hourly
     manufacturing     $3                    2000
         job wage             $15


    Homicides per      1.2
    100,000 people               5.8                  Fig. 6-4, p. 99
Several factors affect birth rates
       and fertility rates
• A particular country’s average birth rate
  and TFR can be affected by:
  – The importance of children as a part of the
    labor force.
  – The cost of raising and educating children.
  – The availability of, or lack of, private and
    public pension systems.
  – Urbanization.
Several factors affect birth rates
       and fertility rates
 – The educational and employment
   opportunities available for women.
 – The average age at marriage.
 – The availability of legal abortions.
 – The availability of reliable birth control
   methods.
 – Religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural
   norms.
Several factors affect death rates
• People started living longer and fewer infants
  died because of increased food supplies and
  distribution, better nutrition, medical advances,
  improved sanitation, life expectancy, married
  women working, and safer water supplies.
• Two useful indicators of the overall health of
  people in a country or region are life expectancy
  and infant mortality rate
  – The average global life expectancy increased from 48
    years in 1955 to 69 years in 2011. Between 1900 and
    2011, the average global life expectancy in the United
    States increased from 47 years to 78 years.
Child laborers in India
Several factors affect death rates
  – Infant mortality is a measure of a society’s quality of
    life because it reflects the general level of nutrition
    and health care. A high infant mortality rate can
    results from insufficient food (undernutrition), poor
    nutrition (malnutrition), and a high incidence of
    infectious disease, which is exacerbated by under- or
    malnutrition.
  – While infant mortality rates in more-developed and
    less-developed countries have declined dramatically
    since 1965, more than 4 million infants die during
    their first year of life.
Several factors affect death rates
  – The U.S. ranks 54th in the world in infant
    mortality rates due to:
     • inadequate health care for poor women during
       pregnancy and for their babies after birth
     • drug addiction among pregnant women
     • a high teenage pregnancy rate
    Migration affects an area’s
         population size
• Migration is the movement of people into
  (immigration) and out of (emigration) specific
  geographic areas.
  – Most people who migrate from one country to another
    are seeking jobs.
  – Religious persecution, ethnic conflicts, political
    oppression, wars, and certain types of environmental
    degradation are also factors.
  – Environmental refugees are people who migrate due
    to environmental degradation such as soil erosion
    and water and food shortages. One UN study
    estimated that a million people are added to this
    category every year.
   CASE STUDY: The United
 States: A Nation of Immigrants
• Since 1820, the United States has admitted
  almost twice as many immigrants and refugees
  as all other countries combined.
• Legal and illegal immigration account for about
  36% of the country’s annual population growth.
• Between 1820 and 1960, most legal immigrants
  to the United States came from Europe. Since
  1960, most have come from Latin America and
  Asia. Hispanics are projected to make up 30% of
  the U.S. population by 2050.
   CASE STUDY: The United
 States: A Nation of Immigrants
• There is controversy over reducing legal
  immigration to the U.S.
  – Proponents of reducing immigration say it would help
    stabilize population size and reduce the country’s
    enormous environmental impact.
  – Those against say it would diminish the role of the
    U.S. as a land of opportunity and take away from
    cultural diversity and innovation. Most immigrants
    and their descendants start new businesses and
    create jobs. Many immigrants take menial and low-
    paying jobs that most other Americans shun.
   CASE STUDY: The United
 States: A Nation of Immigrants
• There were an estimated 11 million illegal
  immigrants in the United States in 2011. There is
  controversy over what to do about illegal
  immigration.
  – Some want to deport all illegal immigrants.
  – Others want to set up programs that allow illegal
    immigrants to remain in the country as long as they
    are working towards citizenship.
Legal immigration to the US,
        1820-2006
                                         2,000

                                         1,800
Number of legal immigrants (thousands)


                                         1,600
                                                                      1907
                                         1,400
                                                                             1914
                                                                             New laws
                                         1,200                               restrict
                                                                             immigration
                                         1,000

                                          800
                                                                             Great
                                                                             Depression
                                          600

                                          400

                                          200

                                             0
                                             1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
                                                                      Year                      Fig. 6-6, p. 101
Section 6-3

How does a population’s age
structure affect its growth or
decline?
   A population’s age structure
   helps us to make projections
• Age structure is the numbers or percentages of
  males and females in young, middle, and older age
  groups in a given population.
• Population age-structure diagrams are made by
  plotting the percentages or numbers of males and
  females in the total population in each of three age
  categories:
  – Prereproductive (0–14): normally too young to have
    children.
  – Reproductive (15–44): normally able to have children.
  – Postreproductive (45+): normally too old to have children.
   A population’s age structure
   helps us to make projections
• Demographic momentum is rapid population growth in
  a country that has a large percentage of people
  younger than 15, and happens when a large number
  of girls enter their prime reproductive years.
• 1.8 billion people will move into their reproductive
  years by 2025.
• Most future human population growth will take place
  in less-developed countries due to their population
  age structure.
• The global population of seniors (age 65 and older) is
  increasing due to declining birth rates and medical
  advances that have extended life spans.
Generalized population age-
   structure diagrams
Less-developed                          More-developed
Countries                               Countries



     Male    Female       Male      Female Male       Female Male            Female




  Expanding Rapidly      Expanding Slowly      Stable            Declining
  Guatemala, Nigeria       United States     Japan, Italy    Germany, Bulgaria
    Saudi Arabia          Australia, China     Greece             Russia
  Prereproductive ages   Reproductive ages   Postreproductive ages 45–85+
  0–14                   15–44




                                                                            Fig. 6-7, p. 102
  CASE STUDY: The American
         baby boom
• Added 79 million people to the U.S. population 1946-1964.
• The large numbers of baby boomers have strongly
  influenced the U.S. economy. First they created a youth
  market and are now creating the late middle age and senior
  markets.
• As the baby boomers turn 65, the number of seniors will
  grow sharply through 2030. This process has been called
  the graying of America.
• As the number of working adults declines in proportion to
  the number of seniors, so will the tax revenues necessary
  for supporting the growing senior population.
 The baby-boom generation in
the US, 1955, 1985, and 2035
Populations made up mostly of
older people can decline rapidly
• Japan has the world’s highest % of elderly people
  and the world’s lowest % of young people.
  – Due to its discouragement of immigration, it may face a
    bleak economic future.
• The average age of China’s population is
  increasing at one of the fastest rates ever
  recorded. This could lead to a declining work
  force, higher wages for workers, limited funds for
  supporting continued economic development, and
  fewer children and grandchildren to care for the
  growing number of elderly people.
   Populations can decline from a
rising death rate: the AIDS tragedy
• Between 1981 and 2010, AIDS killed more than 29
  million people, and it takes about 2 million more
  lives each year (22,000 in the United States).
• AIDS kills many young adults and leaves many
  children orphaned, causing a change in the young-
  adult age structure of a country. This causes a
  sharp drop in average life expectancy, especially in
  several African countries where 15–26% of the adult
  population is infected with HIV.
• AIDS can cause a pandemic loss of productive
  young adult workers and trained personnel.
Rapid population decline can
  cause several problems
           Some Problems with Rapid Population Decline


Can threaten economic growth


Labor shortages


Less government revenues with fewer
workers

Less entrepreneurship and new business
formation

Less likelihood for new technology
development

Increasing public deficits to fund higher
pension and health-care costs

Pensions may be cut and retirement age
increased                                                Fig. 6-9, p. 103
Two projected age structures for
 Botswana’s population in 2020
       100+
      95–99
      90–94
      85–89
      80–84
      75–79
      70–74
      65–69
      60–64
      55–59     Males                            Females
Age




      50–54
      45–49
      40–44
      35–39
      30–34
      25–29
      20–24
      15–19
      10–14
        5–9
        0–4
              120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
                        Population (thousands)
                     With AIDS         Without AIDS        Fig. 6-10, p. 104
Section 6-4

HOW CAN WE SLOW HUMAN
POPULATION GROWTH?
 There are three effective ways
   to slow population growth
• The three most effective ways to slow or
  stop population growth are:
  – Reduce poverty
  – Elevate the status of women
  – Encourage family planning and reproductive
    health care.
The demographic transition
                                     Stage 1                      Stage 2                     Stage 3              Stage 4
                                   Preindustrial                Transitional                 Industrial         Postindustrial
                                   Population        Population grows rapidly because        Population    Population growth
                                   grows very        birth rates are high and death          growth        levels off and then
                                   slowly            rates drop because of improved          slows as      declines as birth rates
                                   because of        food production and health              both birth    equal and then fall
(number per 1,000 per year)




                                   a high birth                                              and death     below death rates
  Birth rate and death rate




                                   rate (to                                                  rates drop
                                   compensate                                                because of
                              80   for high                                                  improved
                              70   infant
                                                                       Total population
                              60   mortality)                                                food
                                   and a high            Birth rate                          production,
                              50   death rate                                                health, and
                              40                                                             education
                              30
                              20                                            Death rate

                              10
                              0
                                      Low         Increasing    Very high       Decreasing     Low            Zero         Negative
                                                                      Growth rate
                                                                       over time



                                                                                                                        Fig. 6-11, p. 105
Promote economic development
• As countries become industrialized and
  economically developed, their populations
  tend to grow more slowly. This
  demographic transition has four phases:
  – Preindustrial
  – Transitional
  – Industrial
  – Postindustrial
Promote economic development
• Less-developed countries may transition to
  slower growth if modern technology can raise
  per capita incomes by bringing economic
  development and family planning.
• Rapid population growth, extreme poverty,
  and increasing environmental degradation in
  some low-income less-developed countries—
  especially in Africa—could leave these
  countries stuck in stage 2 of the demographic
  transition.
  Empowering women can slow
      population growth
• Women tend to have fewer children if they are educated,
  have the ability to control their own fertility, hold a paying
  job outside the home, and live in societies that do not
  suppress their rights.
• Women account for 66% of all hours worked but receive
  only 10% of the world’s income and own just 2% of the
  world’s land.
• Women make up 70% of the world’s poor and 64% of its
  800 million illiterate adults.
• Poor women who cannot read often have an average of
  5–7 children, compared to 2 or fewer children in
  societies where almost all women can read.
Women of a village in Burkina
          Faso
      Promote family planning
• Family planning provides educational and
  clinical services that help couples choose how
  many children to have and when to have them.
• Successes of family planning:
  – Without family planning programs that began in the
    1970s, the world’s population would be about 8.5
    billion instead of the current 7 billion.
  – Family planning has reduced the number of abortions
    performed each year and decreased the numbers of
    mothers and fetuses dying during pregnancy.
     Promote family planning
• Problems that have hindered success in
  some countries:
  – 42% of all pregnancies in less-developed
    countries are unplanned and 26% end with
    abortion.
  – An estimated 201 million couples in less-
    developed countries want to limit their number
    of children, but lack access to family planning
    services.
      CASE STUDY: Slowing
     Population Growth in India
• For over 50 years, India has tried to control its
  population growth with only modest success.
• Two factors help account for larger families in India.
   – Most poor couples believe they need several children to
     work and care for them in old age.
   – The strong cultural preference for male children means
     that some couples keep having children until they
     produce one or more boys.
• The result: even though 9/10 Indian couples have
  access to at least one modern birth control method,
  only 48% actually use one.
 Four of every ten people in India struggle to
live on the equivalent of less than $1.25 /day
Section 6-5

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR URBAN
RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL
PROBLEMS?
 Scientists see three important
          urban trends
• An increasing percentage of the world’s
  people live in urban areas.
• Urban areas grow in two ways—by natural
  increase due to births and by immigration,
  mostly from rural areas.
• Three major trends in urban population
  dynamics have emerged:
  – The proportion of the global population living in
    urban areas increased from 2% in 1850 to 50%
    today, and is projected to be 70% by 2050.
Scientists see three important
         urban trends
– The numbers and sizes of urban areas are
  mushrooming. We now have cities with 10
  million or more people (megacities or
  megalopolises) and will soon have hypercities
  with more than 20 million people. Megacities
  and hypercities are merging into megaregions
  that can stretch across entire countries.
– Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized,
  mostly in less-developed countries. An
  estimated 1 billion people in less-developed
  countries live in urban slums and shantytowns.
Major urban areas throughout
the world – city lights at night
                                           Delhi        Hong Kong Beijing       Shanghai
                              Moscow       18.6 million 15.8 million 22 million 17 million
                              15 million
                                                                                      Tokyo
                       London
Los Angeles                                                                            36 million
                       12.9 million
15.2 million      New York
                  19.7 million      Cairo                                            Osaka
                                    14.5 million                                     17.4 million
   Mexico City                              Karachi                              Seoul
   20.5 million              Lagos          12.2 million                         20.6 million
                             13.4 million
                                                                                Manila
                                                        Kolkata
                            Rio de Janeiro                                      16.3 million
                                                        (Calcutta)
                            12 million                  15.1 million Bangkok
                          São Paulo          Mumbai                  12 million
                          18.9 million       (Bombay)                          Jakarta
                                                              Dhaka
                     Buenos Aires            19.2 million                      18.9 million
                                                              13 million
                     13.1 million




                                                                                   Fig. 6-14, p. 108
 CASE STUDY: Urbanization in
      the United States
• Between 1800-2011, the % of the U.S. population
  living in urban areas increased from 5% to 79%.
  This population shift has occurred in four phases.
  – People migrated from rural areas to large central cities.
  – Many people migrated from large central cities to smaller
    cities and suburbs.
  – Many people migrated from the North and East to the
    South and West.
  – Some people fled cities and moved to developed areas
    outside of suburbs. These exurbs are scattered over
    vast areas that lie beyond suburbs and have no socio-
    economic centers.
 CASE STUDY: Urbanization in
      the United States
• There are upsides to urbanization. Conditions in U.S.
  cities have improved, with better working and housing
  conditions, improved air and water quality, and
  decreased death rates and sickness from infectious
  diseases due to better sanitation, clean public water
  supplies, and medical care.
• Concentrating people in urban areas has helped
  protect the country’s biodiversity by reducing the
  destruction and degradation of wildlife habitat.
• Many cities have aging infrastructures (streets, bridges,
  dams, power lines, schools, waste management, water
  supply pipes, and sewers) with limited funds for repair.
Urban areas in the US with
more than 1 million people
   Urban sprawl in and around Las
     Vegas, NV, 1973 and 2009




1973              2009
  Urban sprawl gobbles up the
          countryside
• Urban sprawl, or the growth of low-density
  development on the edges of cities and
  towns, is eliminating surrounding
  agricultural and wild lands.
• Urban sprawl is the product of affordable
  land, automobiles, relatively cheap
  gasoline, and poor urban planning.
  Urban sprawl gobbles up the
          countryside
• Urban sprawl has caused or contributed to
  a number of environmental problems.
  – People are forced to drive everywhere,
    resulting in more emission of greenhouse
    gases and air pollution.
  – Sprawl has decreased energy efficiency,
    increased traffic congestion, and destroyed
    prime cropland, forests, and wetlands.
  – Sprawl has led to the economic deaths of
    many central cities as people and businesses
    move out.
Urban sprawl
   Urbanization has advantages
• Cities are centers of industry, commerce, transportation,
  innovation, education, technological advances, and jobs.
• Urban residents in many parts of the world tend to live
  longer than do rural residents, and have lower infant
  mortality and fertility rates.
• Cities provide better access to medical care, family
  planning, education, and social services.
• Recycling is more economically feasible.
• Concentrating people in cities helps to preserve biodiversity.
• Central cities can save energy if residents rely more on
  energy efficient mass transportation, walking, and bicycling.
Urbanization has disadvantages
• Most urban areas are unsustainable systems.
  – The typical city depends on large non-urban areas for
    huge inputs of matter and energy resources, while it
    generates large outputs of waste matter and heat.
• Most cities lack vegetation.
  – Destroyed vegetation could have absorbed air pollutants,
    given off oxygen, provided shade, reduced soil erosion,
    provided wildlife habitats, and offered aesthetic pleasure.
• Many cities have water problems.
  – Providing water to cities can deprive rural and wild areas
    of surface water and can deplete underground water
    supplies.
Urbanization has disadvantages
 – Cities in arid areas that depend on water
   withdrawn from rivers and reservoirs behind
   dams will face increasing problems.
 – Cities can have flooding problems for several
   reasons:
   • Being built on floodplains or near low-lying coastlines.
   • Covering land with buildings, asphalt, and concrete
     causes precipitation to run off quickly and overload
     storm drains.
Urbanization has disadvantages
  – Destroying or degraded large areas of wetlands
    that have served as natural sponges to help
    absorb excess storm water.
  – Flooding as sea levels rise because of projected
    climate.
• Cities in arid areas that depend on water
  bodies fed by mountaintop glaciers will face
  water shortages if global warming melts the
  glaciers.
Urban areas are rarely
 sustainable systems
   Inputs         Outputs

      Energy    Solid wastes
        Food    Waste heat
                Air pollutants
       Water
                Water pollutants
Raw materials   Greenhouse gases
                Manufactured
Manufactured    goods
      goods
                Noise
      Money     Wealth
  Information   Ideas




                         Fig. 6-18, p. 110
    Cities tend to concentrate
  pollution and health problems
• Cities produce most of the world’s air
  pollution, water pollution, and solid and
  hazardous wastes.
• High population densities can increase the
  spread of infectious diseases, especially if
  adequate drinking water and sewage
  systems are not available.
    Cities affect local climates
• Cities tend to be warmer, rainier, foggier,
  and cloudier.
• Heat generated by cars, factories,
  furnaces, lights, air conditioners, and heat-
  absorbing dark roofs and streets creates
  an urban heat island surrounded by cooler
  suburban and rural areas.
• The artificial light created by cities affects
  some plant and animal species.
  Life is a desperate struggle for the
urban poor in less-developed countries
• At least 1 billion people live under crowded and
  unsanitary conditions in cities in less-developed
  countries.
• Slums are areas dominated by tenements and
  rooming houses where several people might live
  in a single room.
• Squatter settlements and shantytowns are on
  the outskirts of cities, and usually lack clean
  water supplies, sewers, electricity, and roads,
  and are subject to severe air and water pollution
  and hazardous wastes from nearby factories.
    CASE STUDY: Mexico City
• The world’s second most populous city suffers
  from severe air pollution, high unemployment,
  noise, overcrowding, traffic congestion,
  inadequate public transportation, and a soaring
  crime rate. More than one-third of its residents
  live in slums or squatter settlements that lack
  running water, electricity and sewage facilities.
• Air and water pollution cause an estimated
  100,000 premature deaths per year.
    CASE STUDY: Mexico City
• The severity of air pollution has been reduced by
  banning cars in its central zone, requiring air
  pollution controls on newer cars, phasing out
  leaded gasoline, and encouraging purchase of
  buses, taxis, and delivery truck that produce
  fewer emissions. The city also bought land for
  use as green space and planted more than 25
  million trees to help absorb pollutants.
Section 6-6

HOW DOES TRANSPORTATION
AFFECT URBAN
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS?
Cities can grow outward or upward
• Most people living in compact cities such
  as Hong Kong, China, and Tokyo, Japan,
  get around by walking, biking, or using
  mass transit such as rail or buses.
• In countries such as the United States,
  Canada and Australia, plentiful land and
  networks of highways have produced
  dispersed cities whose residents depend
  on motor vehicles for most travel.
Cities can grow outward or upward
• Largely because of urban sprawl, all
  Americans combined drive about the same
  distance each year as the total distance
  driven by all other drivers in the world, and
  in the process use about 43% of the
  world’s gasoline.
Motor vehicles have advantages
      and disadvantages
• They provide mobility and offer convenient
  and comfortable transportation.
• They can be symbols of power, sex
  appeal, social status, and success.
• Much of the world’s economy is built on
  producing motor vehicles and supplying
  fuel, roads, services, and repairs for them.
• Globally, automobile accidents kill
  approximately 1.2 million people a year
  and injure another 15 million people.
Motor vehicles have advantages
      and disadvantages
• They kill about 50 million wild animals and family
  pets every year.
• Motor vehicles are the world’s largest source of
  outdoor air pollution.
• They are the fastest-growing source of climate-
  changing CO2 emissions.
• At least a third of the world’s urban land and half
  of that in the United States is devoted to roads,
  parking lots, gasoline stations, and other
  automobile-related uses.
• People waste time sitting in traffic congestion.
Reducing automobile use is not
   easy, but it can be done
• A user-pays approach makes drivers pay directly
  for most of the environmental and health costs
  caused by their automobile use.
  – An example of full-cost pricing is a tax on gasoline that
    covers the estimated harmful costs of driving.
  – Gasoline revenues could be used to help finance
    alternatives to cars.
  – Taxing gasoline heavily would be difficult in the U.S. for
    several reasons.
     • Strong opposition from the public, and from transportation-
       related industries.
     • The dispersed nature of most U.S. urban areas.
     • Lack of fast, efficient, reliable, affordable mass transit options.
Reducing automobile use is not
   easy, but it can be done
• Raise parking fees and charge tolls on
  roads, tunnels, and bridges leading into
  cities, especially during peak traffic times.
• Some cities promote car-sharing networks,
  which bill members monthly for the time
  they use a car and the distance they travel,
  and can decrease car ownership.
        Some cities promote
         alternatives to cars
• The following are alternatives to cars,
  each with its own advantages and
  disadvantages:
  – Bicycles
  – Mass-transit rail systems in urban areas
  – Bus systems in urban areas
  – High-speed rail systems between urban areas
    (bullet trains)
Alternatives to cars
Section 6-7

HOW CAN CITIES BECOME
MORE SUSTAINABLE AND
LIVABLE?
 We can make urban areas more environmentally
    sustainable and enjoyable places to live

• Smart growth encourages environmentally
  sustainable development requiring less
  dependence on cars, controls and directs
  sprawl, and reduces wasteful resource use, by
  using zoning laws and other tools to channel
  growth into areas where it can cause less harm.
• New urbanism involves less-developed villages
  within cities, so that people can live within
  walking distance of where the work, shop, and
  go for entertainment
Smart growth tools
 CASE STUDY: The new urban
      village of Vauban
• Vauban is a suburb outside the city of Freiberg,
  Germany that is virtually free of cars.
• Street parking, driveways, and garages are
  generally forbidden in the village. A parking space in
  a city garage costs $40,000.
• Homes are within easy walking distance of trains,
  stores, banks, restaurants, and schools. There are
  numerous bike paths and a car-sharing club. Mass
  transit allows residents to work or shop in the city of
  Freiburg.
• There are no single-family homes, only energy-
  efficient row houses that use passive solar energy.
 CASE STUDY: The new urban
      village of Vauban
• An ecocity emphasizes the following goals:
   – Use solar and other locally available, renewable energy
     resources and design buildings to be heated and cooled as
     much as possible by nature.
   – Build and redesign cities for people, not cars.
   – Reduce the waste of matter and energy.
   – Prevent pollution.
   – Reuse, recycle, and compost 60–85% of all municipal solid
     waste.
   – Protect and encourage biodiversity by preserving undeveloped
     land and protecting and restoring natural systems and wetlands
     in and around cities.
   – Promote urban gardens and farmers markets.
   – Use zoning and other tools to keep urban sprawl at
     environmentally sustainable levels.
 CASE STUDY: The new urban
      village of Vauban
• Current examples of ecocities include
  Curitiba, Brazil; Bogotá, Colombia;
  Waitakere City, New Zealand; Stockholm,
  Sweden; Helsinki, Finland; Leicester,
  England; Neerlands, the Netherlands; and
  in the United States, Portland, Oregon;
  Davis, California; Olympia, Washington;
  and Chattanooga, Tennessee
    CASE STUDY: The ecocity
    concept in Curitiba, Brazil
• A city of 3.2 million people known as the “ecological
  capital” of Brazil.
• Planners in this city in 1969 focused on an inexpensive
  and efficient mass transit system rather than on the car.
• Only high-rise apartment buildings are allowed near
  major bus routes, and each building must devote its
  bottom two floors to stores, reducing the need for
  residents to travel.
• Cars are banned from the downtown area, which has a
  network of pedestrian walkways connected to bus
  stations, parks, and bicycle paths running throughout
  most of the city.
    CASE STUDY: The ecocity
    concept in Curitiba, Brazil
• The city transformed flood-prone areas along its six
  rivers into a series of interconnected parks.
• Curitiba recycles roughly 70% of its paper and 60% of its
  metal, glass, and plastic. Recovered materials are sold
  mostly to the city’s more than 500 major industries,
  which must meet strict pollution standards.
• The poor receive free medical and dental care, child
  care, and job training, and 40 feeding centers are
  available for street children.
• About 95% of Curitiba’s citizens can read and write and
  83% of its adults have at least a high school education.
  All school children study ecology.
    CASE STUDY: The ecocity
    concept in Curitiba, Brazil
• The city transformed flood-prone areas along its six
  rivers into a series of interconnected parks.
• Curitiba recycles roughly 70% of its paper and 60% of its
  metal, glass, and plastic. Recovered materials are sold
  mostly to the city’s more than 500 major industries,
  which must meet strict pollution standards.
• The poor receive free medical and dental care, child
  care, and job training, and 40 feeding centers are
  available for street children.
• About 95% of Curitiba’s citizens can read and write and
  83% of its adults have at least a high school education.
  All school children study ecology.
Bus rapid-transit (BRT) system
      in Curitiba, Brazil
           Three big ideas
• The human population is increasing rapidly
  and may soon bump up against
  environmental limits.
• We can slow human population growth by
  reducing poverty, encouraging family
  planning, and elevating the status of women.
• Most urban areas are unsustainable, but they
  can be made more sustainable and livable
  within your lifetime.

				
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