Ling 390 - Intro to Linguistics - Winter 2005 Class 1 - Monday by b6owQ81Z

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									                                       Syntax

                               Questions? Comments?
Midterms back
Chapter 5 Exx: 2, 3, 4, 9, 11 (Give surface and deep structure for 11
– no trees) due 11/8
Problem Set 4 due 11/13

Goals for syntax chapter
 Not responsible for Section 4 (Verb raising) or how to do passive
sentences
 You should know how to do the following:
     identify the lexical/syntactic category of word
     construct phrases and simple sentences and sentences with embedded
    sentences (draw trees for these structures)
     apply different movement operations to derive surface structure
    forms from deep structure
    Determine how a sentence is structurally ambiguous (from Ch 6 – 3.2)
Syntax
 Slide 1                                      Syntax



                                    Syntax
     The part of the grammar that combines words into sentences
     The study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence
    formation.
    The goal of syntax is to come up with universal principles (Universal
    Grammar) that describes all languages phrase formation procedures
    Syntax is responsible for the hierarchical structure of phrases and their
    creation
    The goal of syntactic theory is to be boring and repetitive (i.e. systematic and
    universal)
    Think of syntax as a template for sentence formation that can operate for all
    sentences for all languages
Syntax
 Slide 2                                   Syntax

                                   Syntax
     Syntactic Categories
     Lexical categories: Noun (N), Verb (V), Adjective (A), Preposition (P) and
    Adverb (Adv)
     Nonlexical Categories: Determiner (Det); Auxiliary Verb (Aux) - Modal and
    Nonmodal; Conjunction (Con); Degree word (Deg)
     Table 5.1, p. 157 (on next slide)
     Harder to define nonlexical words (the or so compared to hill or book)
     Some words can belong to more than one category - examples? like/fond
Syntax
 Slide 3        Syntax

           Syntax
Syntax
 Slide 4                                 Syntax

                                   Syntax
  Lexical:                             Nonlexical:
  words that have semantic content     words that have grammatical function
  words that can be inflected          words that do not have morphology
  an open class to which new           words that resist change
  members can be added                  a closed class to which new members
  includes nouns, verbs, adjectives,   are not added
  adverbs and prepositions              includes determiners, auxiliary verbs,
                                        degree words, qualifiers, pronouns,
                                        conjunctions, complementizers, and
                                        particles
Syntax
 Slide 5                                    Syntax

                                   Syntax
    How to determine syntactic category – MEANING TEST
    Noun = person, place or thing (Jeff, classroom, book)
    Verb = action, sensation, state of being (run, loves, sees, be)
    Adjective = describes a noun (green, ugly)
    Adverb = describes a verb (quickly, slowly)
    Preposition = describes physical location (to, for, from, on, in)
Syntax
 Slide 6                                    Syntax

                                  Syntax
  How to determine syntactic category – INFLECTION TEST
  Only certain inflectional suffixes attach to certain lexical categories
  There are some words that belong to these syntactic categories that do not
  take these suffixes (*funner, *intelligenter)

      Category        Inflectional Affix     Examples
      N (Noun)        plural -s              books, chairs, doctors
                      possessive -’s         John’s, (the) man’s

      V (Verb)        past tense -ed         arrived, melted, hopped
                      progressive -ing       arriving, melting, hopping
                      3rd person sing. -s    arrives, melts, hops

      A (Adjective)   comparative -er        taller, faster, smarter
                      superlative -est       tallest, fastest, smartest
Syntax
 Slide 7                                Syntax

                                Syntax
    How to determine syntactic category – DISTRIBUTION - SPECIFIERS
    Determiner = specifies a noun (the, a, these, that)
    Adverbs = specifies a verb (always, often, never)
    Degree = specifies an adjective or preposition (very, quite, really)
    So you can tell a N if it can occur after a Det
    A V can occur with an Aux verb
    An Adjective with a degree word

    Look at Exercise 2
Syntax
 Slide 8                                        Syntax


                                       Syntax
     Phrase Structure - units of words, but not sentences = phrases
     Each phrase consists of the head, a specifier and a complement
     The way the book groups phrases is called X' (X bar) where X stands for
    whatever category you’re dealing with (Noun, Verb, Adjectives, Prepositions)
                                      XP

                    (Specifier)            X'

                                  X        (Complement)
                             head
Syntax
 Slide 9                                 Syntax


                                 Syntax
  Noun phrases (NP)
  presidents - contains only the head noun
  the presidents - contains a specifier and head noun
  presidents of the USA - contains the head N and a complement
  prepositional phrase
  the presidents of the USA - contains a specifier, head N, complement PP
  The complement PP of the USA contains the head P of and a complement
  NP. The NP the USA contains the specifier and head N
Syntax
 Slide 10                                 Syntax


                                  Syntax
     Phrase Structure
     Specifiers can occur before the head (in English) and are optional (they
    attach at the Phrase level)

                  NP

                       N'

            Det        N

            the   presidents
Syntax
 Slide 11                                Syntax


                                 Syntax
     Phrase Structure
     Complements can occur after the head (in English) and are optional
    (they attach to the Bar level)
Syntax
 Slide 12                                Syntax


                                 Syntax
  Verb Phrases (VP)
  sings - contains only the head verb
  often sings - contains a specifier and head verb
  sings a ballad - contains the head V and a complement NP
  often sings a ballad - contains a specifier, head V, complement NP
  The complement NP a ballad contains the head N ballad and specifier a.
Syntax
 Slide 13                                 Syntax


                                 Syntax
  Adjective Phrases (AP)
  happy - contains only the head adjective (A)
  very happy - contains a specifier and head A
  happy with the results - contains the head A and a complement PP
  very happy with the results - contains a specifier, head A, complement PP
  The complement PP with the results contains the head P and complement
  NP the results. The NP contains specifier and head N.
Syntax
 Slide 14                                 Syntax


                                 Syntax
  Prepositional Phrases (PP)
  in - contains only the head preposition (P)
  almost in - contains a specifier and head P
  in the car - contains the head P and a complement NP
  almost in the car - contains a specifier, head P, complement NP
  The complement NP the car contains the head N and specifier.
Syntax
 Slide 15                               Syntax


                                Syntax
  Phrase structure rules
  The preceding examples show that any given phrase can be composed of a
  mandatory head and optional complement and optional specifier. This is
  written as:
  XP  (Spec) X (Comp)
  The optional components are written in ( )s.
  From previous examples we have the following:
        NP  (Det) N (PP)                 AP  (Deg) A (PP)
        VP  (Adv) V (NP)                 PP  (Deg) P (NP)
  Can you think of any other possibilities?
Syntax
 Slide 16                              Syntax


                                Syntax
     Phrase Structure
     The heads of a phrase are mandatory

                NP

                 N'

                 N

                dog
Syntax
 Slide 17                                 Syntax


                                  Syntax
     Phrase Structure
     Specifiers can occur before the head (in English) and are optional

                  NP

                       N'

            Det        N

            the        dog
Syntax
 Slide 18                                   Syntax


                                  Syntax
     Phrase Structure
     Complements can occur after the head (in English) and are optional

                  NP

                       N'                        s are only used when it is not necessary
                                             to show the internal structure of that phrase.
                                             Assume that it is NOT OK to use s.
            Det        N         PP

            the        dog   in the house
Syntax
 Slide 19                                   Syntax


                                  Syntax
     Phrase Structure Rules
     XP  (specifier) X (complement)

                  NP

                       N'

            Det        N         PP

            the        dog   in the house
Syntax
 Slide 20                             Syntax


                                 Syntax
     Phrase Structure Rules
     AP  Deg A

                    AP

                         A'

            Deg          A

            quite        happy
Syntax
 Slide 21                           Syntax


                               Syntax
     Phrase Structure Rules
     VP  Adv V

                  VP

                       V'

            Adv        V

            always     eats
Syntax
 Slide 22                           Syntax


                               Syntax
     Phrase Structure Rules
     PP  P NP                                   PP

                                                  P'

                                             P         NP

                                             on
                                                  Det       N'
                                                   the      N
                                                         couch
Syntax
 Slide 23                             Syntax


            VP                 Syntax
                         VP  Deg V PP; PP  P NP
                 V'                                       PP

   Adv           V         MERGE                          P'

   always        eats                                P         NP

                                                     on
                                                          Det       N'
                                                           the      N
                                                                 couch
Syntax
 Slide 24                                   Syntax


            VP                         Syntax
                               VP  Deg V PP; PP  P NP
                 V'

   Adv           V           PP

   always        eats        P'

                        P         NP

                        on
                             Det       N'
                              the      N
                                    couch
 Syntax
Practice 25                                  Syntax


                               Syntax Practice
 For each of the following phrases, determine the head of the phrase, any
 specifiers, and any complements.
                         Head      Specifier Complement

 the rat                 rat       the
 in the barn             in                   the barn
 very small              small     very
 awfully cute            cute      awfully
 swept the floor         swept                the floor
 the poem about love     poem      the        about love
 Syntax
Practice 26                                    Syntax


                                  Syntax Practice
             Draw phrase structure trees for the following: Click here for answers
     1.       the rat
     2.       men
     3.       in the barn
                                                           XP
     4.       really mean
                                             (Specifier)         X'
     5.       ran
     6.       ran into the shed                          X       (Complement)
                                                       head
     7.       rather boring
     8.       hate those pancakes
     9.       the denial of the accusation

     Exercises 3 and 4
Syntax
 Slide 27                                      Syntax

                                  Simple sentences
The sentence or IP is the highest level in the sentence structure. Inflected Phrase
These elements are mandatory for an English Sentence.
         IP  NP (subject ) I' (inflection)

         I'  I VP (predicate)
         I  + or - Past and/or a Modal
Lines will never intersect
NP to the left
VP to the right
Syntax
 Slide 28                           Syntax
                             Syntax
         Steps in drawing trees. (in appendix of chapter)
  • Step 1 - assign each word to the appropriate category.
Syntax
 Slide 29                             Syntax
                             Syntax
                     Steps in drawing trees.
  • Step 2 – working from right to left (for English), write the
    appropriate phrasal structure. Specifiers go directly to XP level.
Syntax
 Slide 30                                  Syntax
                               Syntax
                       Steps in drawing trees.
  • Step 3 – There is no complement for the NP that man so move on to the
     previous VP. The NP is a complement for the VP so attach the NP to V'
Syntax
 Slide 31                           Syntax
                           Syntax
                   Steps in drawing trees.
  • Step 4 – The VP is not a complement of the NP. Draw the final
    NP.
Syntax
 Slide 32                            Syntax
                            Syntax
                    Steps in drawing trees.
  • Step 5 – Connect the predicate VP and the subject NP as the
    complement and specifier (respectively) of IP
Syntax
 Slide 33                                   Syntax
                                   Sentences (IP)
    Each IP consists of an NP as specifier and the head (which is Inflection)
    with VP as a complement: The students hated the book
                                  IP

                                              I'

                      NP                           VP

                           N'                       V'

                                                           NP
                                                                N'
                                    I
               Det         N       +Pst       V      Det        N

               The    students             hated the textbook
Syntax
 Slide 34                                   Syntax
                                   Sentences (IP)
    Each IP consists of an NP as specifier and the head (which is Inflection)
    with VP as a complement: The students will hate the book
                                  IP

                                              I'

                      NP                           VP

                           N'                       V'

                                                           NP
                                                                N'
                                     I
               Det         N       - Pst      V      Det        N

               The    students will        hate     the textbook
Syntax
 Slide 35                                  Syntax
                                Sentences (IP)
    Each IP consists of an NP as specifier and the head (which is Inflection)
    with VP as a complement: The housewives kept the secrets
                                 IP

                                             I'

                      NP                           VP

                           N'                      V'

                                                           NP
                                                                N'
                                   I
               Det         N      +Pst       V      Det          N

               The housewives               kept     the        secrets
Syntax
 Slide 36                                  Syntax
                                Sentences (IP)
    Each IP consists of an NP as specifier and the head (which is Inflection)
    with VP as a complement: The housewives can keep the secrets
                                 IP

                                             I'

                      NP                           VP

                           N'                      V'

                                                          NP
                                                               N'
                                    I
               Det         N      - Pst      V      Det        N

               The housewives can           keep    the    secrets
 Syntax
Practice 37                                     Syntax

                                 “Simple” sentences
Practice drawing trees for the following sentences
•     Dogs should always go for a walk.
•     !Those monsters were hiding under the bed.
•     Abner concealed the document.
•     Marge usually watches the sunset.
•     !The children are playing with a dinosaur.



! Difficult – we will discuss (hint: these structures have verbs that take a
       complement VP)
 Syntax
Practice 38   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 39   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 40   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 41   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 42   Syntax
Syntax
 Slide 43                                    Syntax



Complement Clauses (embedded sentences)
Think about this sentence
    I wonder if she will take the test.
How do we incorporate the second sentence: she will take the test?
This second sentence (called a complement clause or CP) is serving as the
   complement of the V wonder
Like all other syntactic structures, CPs consist of: CP  C ' and C '  C IP
Words such as that, whether and if are known as complementizers (C).
The specifier position is open for Move operations (discussed later)
Matrix clauses are the largest clause that contain the CP(s)
                           [I wonder [if she will take the test.]]
Syntax
 Slide 44      Syntax



            Example of a complement clause
 Syntax
Practice 45                                        Syntax

                                                    Practice (No Triangles!)
                                                    Nancy believes that aliens exist.

                                                    Sailors know that the ship could sink.

                                                    !The tourists hope that whales
                                                      will be swimming near the boat.
                                                        (!very difficult!)




  Exercise 9 (No Triangles!)
  a) The reporter said that an accident injured the woman.
  b) The fishermen think that the company polluted the bay.
  c) Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur.
 Syntax
Practice 46   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 47   Syntax
 Syntax
Practice 48   Syntax
Syntax
 Slide 49     Syntax

               A Bit Theoretically Bizarre
            If we want to keep the structures the same
                for the theory (templates), then it is
                posited that all IPs are actually CPs
                with or without a C (like we have I
                whether or not it actually gets filled
                with a surface form).
Syntax
 Slide 50                                   Syntax



            Complement Clauses (embedded sentences)
Identify the CP (Complement Phrase) in the following matrix sentences. Put
   brackets [ ] around the CP.


                                                       hard].
   1.) The teacher hopes [that the students will study hard .
                          that

                                                     clean].
   2.) The janitor wondered [if the floor would stay clean .
                             if

                        that                   clean].
    3.) The floor knew [that it would not stay clean .
Syntax
 Slide 51                                   Syntax


                         Structural Ambiguity
    We have been presenting different phrase structure trees to show the
      hierarchy and relationship of the different phrases in a sentence. What
      happens when the difference in the relationship of these phrases also
      causes a difference in the meaning/interpretation of a sentence?

    When there are two or more interpretations of one sentence with the exact
      same words in the exact same order, we call this structural ambiguity
      (discussed in your text in Chapter 6, section 3.2).
Syntax
 Slide 52                                    Syntax

                         Structural Ambiguity

   For example: Sam ate the cake in the kitchen. (See handout for answers)
      What are the 2 meanings? What is the relationship between the phrases
      in the sentence (what modifies what?)

            Interpretation 1: Sam ate the cake that was in the kitchen.
  Relationship of phrases in the sentence: The PP in the kitchen modifies the N cake

             Interpretation 2: Sam was eating the cake in the kitchen.
  Relationship of phrases in the sentence: The PP in the kitchen modifies the V ate
Syntax
 Slide 53                 Syntax

            Structural Ambiguity

                   Interpretation 1: Sam ate the cake that was
                                     in the kitchen.
                   Relationship of phrases in the sentence: The
                      PP in the kitchen modifies the N cake




                   Interpretation 2: Sam was eating the cake in
                                      the kitchen.
                   Relationship of phrases in the sentence: The PP
                      in the kitchen modifies the V ate
Syntax
 Slide 54                                    Syntax


                        Structural Ambiguity
   Brings us to more complicated Phrase
      structure trees.


   See examples to right for non-modal aux
      verbs that take VP complement
Syntax
 Slide 55                                   Syntax


                        Structural Ambiguity
   Brings us to more complicated Phrase structure trees.
   See page 164 for a verb with 2 complements.
Syntax
 Slide 56                                           Syntax
                            Subcategorization
    Fancy term for what complements any XP can or must take
Verbs that can take a complement are transitive (eat, read, look) She read a book
Verbs that do not are intransitive (sleep, lie, laugh) He slept
See Table 5.5, p. 163 for what complements certain verbs can take
Syntax
 Slide 57                               Syntax


                              Questions?
     Following our rules for sentence structure how do we
       account for questions?
             Is the man intelligent?
             Can you come to dinner?
         In the first example, there is no NP to the left of the IP
           and in the second, the modal is before the subject.
     To explain this we will use the theory of:
             Deep Structure.
Syntax
 Slide 58                            Syntax



                         Deep Structure
    Accounting for sentences such as questions and passives with
      a new set of rules would be messy.
    Transformational grammar accounts for the differences with
      transformations (move). All sentences in deep structure
      (before the move) will follow our previous phrasal rules.

    {Parallel with Underlying Representation and rules to derive
      surface representation in Phonology}

    How do we know deep structure exists?
Syntax
 Slide 59                              Syntax

                Arguments for Deep Structure
       What will you say?
   In this sentence What is functioning as the object of the
      sentence.
   This can be demonstrated by trying to add an object after the
      verb.
       * What will you say goodbye.
   In this sentence, the verb requires an object, so omitting it in
      the non-question form does not work
       * You will say
Syntax
 Slide 60                             Syntax


                Arguments for Deep Structure

    Deep structure for this sentence is
       You will say what?
    To arrive at deep structure
            Merge -> Deep Structure
            Deep Structure -> Move
            Surface structure
    Surface structure trees must show traces of unit’s original
      position.
Syntax
 Slide 61                  Syntax


            D-Structure and S-Structure
Syntax
 Slide 62                                         Syntax

                                      Movement

                                  2 types of movement:
  Inversion (yes/no question)
    That guy should eat an apple  Should that guy t eat an apple?


  Wh- Movement + Inversion
  the students should read what for class  What should the students t read t for class?
Syntax
 Slide 63                      Syntax


            Movement - Inversion
                          CP

                              C'


                  C                       IP
                  +Q

                                                      I'

                              NP                           VP


                                     N'                     V'
                                                I
                        Det          N         -pst         V

                       that        student should          study
Syntax
 Slide 64                      Syntax


            Movement - Inversion
                          CP

                              C'


                  C                          IP
                  +Q

                                                         I'

                              NP                              VP


                                     N'                        V'
                  I                                I
                 -pst   Det          N            -pst         V

                should that        student         t          study
Syntax
 Slide 65                                 Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Do insertion
                                 CP

                                     C'


                         C                          IP
                         +Q

                                                                I'

                                     NP                              VP


                                            N'                        V'
                                                          I
                               Det          N            +pst         V

                              that        student        did         study
                                                                     studied
Syntax
 Slide 66                                  Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Do insertion
                                 CP

                                    C'


                         C                           IP
                         +Q

                                                                 I'

                                      NP                              VP


                                             N'                        V'
                          I                                I
                         +pst   Det          N            +pst         V

                         did that          student          t         study
Syntax
 Slide 67                                   Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Wh- movement
                      CP

                                       C'


                           C                       IP
                           +Q

                                                               I'

                                       NP                           VP


                                              N'                    V'
                                                         I
                                 Det                                     NP
                                              N         -pst    V
                                                                          N'
                                that        student should study
                                                                          N

                                                                         syntax
Syntax
 Slide 68                                     Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Wh- movement
                      CP

                                         C'


                             C                          IP
                             +Q

                                                                    I'

                                         NP                              VP


                                                N'                          V'
                             I                                I
                            -pst   Det          N            -pst    V           NP

                           should that        student         t     study         N'

                                                                                  N

                                                                                 syntax
Syntax
 Slide 69                                     Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Wh- movement
                      CP

                                         C'


                             C                          IP
                             +Q

                                                                    I'

                                         NP                              VP


                                                N'                          V'
                             I                                I
                                   Det                                           NP
                            -pst
                                                N            -pst    V
                                                                                  N'
                           should that        student         t     study
                                                                                  N

                                                                                 what
Syntax
 Slide 70                                       Syntax

            Movement - Inversion and Wh- movement
                        CP


                 NP                        C'


                               C                          IP
                               +Q

                                                                      I'

                                           NP                              VP

                  N'                              N'                          V'
                               I                                I
                                     Det                                           NP
                  N           -pst
                                                  N            -pst    V
                                                                                   N'
                 what        should that        student         t     study
                                                                                   N

                                                                                    t
Syntax
 Slide 71                                       Syntax


      Practice Identifying D-Structure & S-Structure
    In order to get the deep structure from the surface structure, follow these steps:
            YOU SEE:            YOU THINK:                        YOU DO:

     A modal auxiliary verb   Inversion has taken    Put the modal aux back into its deep
     ahead of the subject.    place.                 structure position in I.

     A wh word or phrase.     Wh Movement had       Examine each verb in the sentence.
                              taken place.          Determine if a verb is missing either
                                                    subject or an object, and put the wh
                                                    word or phrase into that position.

                                                    Examine each preposition in the
                                                    sentence. Determine if a preposition
                                                    is missing an object. Put the wh word
                                                    or phrase into that position.
 Syntax
Practice 72                                    Syntax
                              Deep structure  Surface structure
     Can a dog bark?               a dog can bark  can a dog t bark

     Will the students be bored?
                       the students will be bored  will the students t be bored

     Will the trip be enjoyable?
                       the trip will be enjoyable  will the trip t be enjoyable

     Who can see the shore?
                     who can see the shore  who can t t see the shore




     Exercise 11

								
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